Beglinger, Leigh J; Duff, Kevin; Allison, Jessica; Theriault, Danielle; O'Rourke, Justin J F; Leserman, Anne; Paulsen, Jane S
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive, motor, and psychiatric deterioration over time. Although there is currently no cure for HD, there has been a surge of clinical trials available to patients with HD over the past 5 years. However, cognitive measures have generally been lacking from these trials. A brief, repeatable neuropsychological battery is needed to assess cognitive endpoints. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may be useful for assessing change in interventional studies or for clinical monitoring. A total of 38 patients with HD were assessed using the RBANS, other cognitive tests, and the standardized HD battery (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, UHDRS) at two clinic visits approximately 16 months apart. The RBANS Attention Index, as well as individual subtest scores on Coding, Digit Span, List Recognition, Figure Copy, and Figure Recall all declined significantly over this interval. Performance on the UHDRS cognitive tests (Symbol Digit Modalities; Stroop Color, and Stroop Word) also declined, as did functional capacity. Results suggest that cognitive changes were detected both on established cognitive tasks used in HD research and on the RBANS in patients with measurable functional decline. The RBANS provided additional information about other cognitive domains affected (e.g., memory) and may be a useful measure for tracking longitudinal change.
Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks
Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.
Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.
This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...
Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K
is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...
Siegler, Robert S.
Discusses the problems of using chronometric analysis, a common cognitive psychological method, for educational assessment. Suggests that cognitive assessment has not reached the precision needed to analyze individual differences. (FMW)
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute, based in Houston and funded by NASA, began funding research for Harvard University researchers to design Palm software to help astronauts monitor and assess their cognitive functioning. The MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery (MRAB) was licensed by the Criteria Corporation in Los Angeles and adapted for Web-based employment testing. The test battery assesses nine different cognitive functions and can gauge the effect of stress-related deficits, such as fatigue, on various tasks. The MRAB can be used not only for pre-employment testing but also for repeat administrations to measure day-to-day job readiness in professions where alertness is critical.
Young, John; Meagher, David; MacLullich, Alasdair J
peer-reviewed Cognitive assessment involves examination of higher cortical functions, particularly memory, attention, orientation, language, executive function (planning activities), and praxis (sequencing of activities). This article will focus on cognitive assessment of older people (those aged over about 65 years) in the context of possible dementia, delirium, and depression. These are common and serious clinical syndromes affecting older people, and accurate cognit...
Stålnacke, Johanna; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys; Norberg, Hanna; Norman, Mikael; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Forssberg, Hans
To investigate whether repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids have long-term effects on cognitive and psychological functioning. In a prospective cohort study, 58 adolescents and young adults (36 males) who had been exposed to 2-9 weekly courses of betamethasone in utero were assessed with neuropsychological tests and behavior self-reports. Unexposed subjects (n = 44, 25 males) matched for age, sex, and gestational age at birth served as a comparison group. In addition, individuals exposed in utero to a single course (n = 25, 14 males) were included for dose-response analysis. Group differences were investigated using multilevel linear modeling. Mean scores obtained in 2 measures of attention and speed were significantly lower in subjects exposed to 2 or more antenatal corticosteroids courses (Symbol Search, P = .009; Digit Span Forward, P = .02), but these were not dose-dependent. Exposure to repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids was not associated with general deficits in higher cognitive functions, self-reported attention, adaptability, or overall psychological function. Although this study indicates that repeat exposure to antenatal corticosteroids may have an impact on aspects of executive functioning, it does not provide support for the prevailing concern that such fetal exposure will have a major adverse impact on cognitive functions and psychological health later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Yeung, Stephen T; Ager, Rahasson R; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Baglietto-Vargas, David; LaFerla, Frank M
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive decline. Previous studies have identified the benefits of cognitive enrichment on reducing disease pathology. Additionally, epidemiological and clinical data suggest that repeated exercise, and cognitive and social enrichment, can improve and/or delay the cognitive deficiencies associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, 3xTg-AD mice were exposed to a rigorous training routine beginning at 3 months of age, which consisted of repeated training in the Morris water maze spatial recognition task every 3 months, ending at 18 months of age. At the conclusion of the final Morris water maze training session, animals subsequently underwent testing in another hippocampus-dependent spatial task, the Barnes maze task, and on the more cortical-dependent novel object recognition memory task. Our data show that periodic cognitive enrichment throughout aging, via multiple learning episodes in the Morris water maze task, can improve the memory performance of aged 3xTg-AD mice in a separate spatial recognition task, and in a preference memory task, when compared to naïve aged matched 3xTg-AD mice. Furthermore, we observed that the cognitive enrichment properties of Morris water maze exposer, was detectable in repeatedly trained animals as early as 6 months of age. These findings suggest early repeated cognitive enrichment can mitigate the diverse cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Owen, Adrian M; Doyon, Julien
A computerized version of the Tower of London task was used to investigate cognitive skill learning. Thirty-six healthy volunteers were assigned to either a random condition (nonrecurring problems), or to a sequence condition in which, unbeknownst to the subjects, a repeating sequence of three problems was presented. Indices of execution, planning, and total time, as well as number of moves performed, were used to measure behavioural change. Subjects' performance improved in both conditions across blocks of practice. A distinct learning effect related to the repeating sequence was also observed. This suggests that a specific skill that reflects procedural learning of the strategies, rules, and procedures pertaining to repeating problems can develop over and above a more general skill at solving cognitive planning problems with practice.
Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Coyle, David; Lawrence, Natalia; Munafo, Marcus
The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition. However, such an approach must balance task validity with the introduction of entertaining gamelike elements. This study aims to investigate the effects of gamelike features on participant attrition using a between-subjects, longitudinal Web-based testing study. We used three variants of a common cognitive task, the Stop Signal Task (SST), with a single gamelike feature in each: one variant where points were rewarded for performing optimally; another where the task was given a graphical theme; and a third variant, which was a standard SST and served as a control condition. Participants completed four compulsory test sessions over 4 consecutive days before entering a 6-day voluntary testing period where they faced a daily decision to either drop out or continue taking part. Participants were paid for each session they completed. A total of 482 participants signed up to take part in the study, with 265 completing the requisite four consecutive test sessions. No evidence of an effect of gamification on attrition was observed. A log-rank test showed no evidence of a difference in dropout rates between task variants (χ 2 2 =3.0, P=.22), and a one-way analysis of variance of the mean number of sessions completed per participant in each variant also showed no evidence of a difference (F 2,262 =1.534, P=.21, partial η 2 =0.012). Our findings raise doubts about the ability of gamification to reduce attrition from longitudinal cognitive testing studies
Leslie D. McIntosh
Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproducibility of research is essential to rigorous science, yet significant concerns of the reliability and verifiability of biomedical research have been recently highlighted. Ongoing efforts across several domains of science and policy are working to clarify the fundamental characteristics of reproducibility and to enhance the transparency and accessibility of research. Methods The aim of the proceeding work is to develop an assessment tool operationalizing key concepts of research transparency in the biomedical domain, specifically for secondary biomedical data research using electronic health record data. The tool (RepeAT was developed through a multi-phase process that involved coding and extracting recommendations and practices for improving reproducibility from publications and reports across the biomedical and statistical sciences, field testing the instrument, and refining variables. Results RepeAT includes 119 unique variables grouped into five categories (research design and aim, database and data collection methods, data mining and data cleaning, data analysis, data sharing and documentation. Preliminary results in manually processing 40 scientific manuscripts indicate components of the proposed framework with strong inter-rater reliability, as well as directions for further research and refinement of RepeAT. Conclusions The use of RepeAT may allow the biomedical community to have a better understanding of the current practices of research transparency and accessibility among principal investigators. Common adoption of RepeAT may improve reporting of research practices and the availability of research outputs. Additionally, use of RepeAT will facilitate comparisons of research transparency and accessibility across domains and institutions.
Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U
, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...... poorly due, in particular, to low specificity. Future work will focus on objective risk factors, those indicated here and others, in order to establish an up-to-date background for assessment and management....
Suraweera, Chathurie; Anandakumar, D; Dahanayake, D; Subendran, M; Perera, U T; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni
Only the Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale have been validated in a Sri Lankan population for the assessment of cognitive functions. Both tests are deficient in the number of domains assessed. Therefore validation of Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is important as it assesses most of the cognitive domains. To culturally adapt RBANS and investigate the validity and reliability of culturally adapted RBANS (RBANS-S). Fifty four participants with major neurocognitive disorder and 60 normal controls aged >50 were administered with RBANS-S at the Cognitive Assessment Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Colombo and National Hospital of Sri Lanka. The participants were selected after a detailed clinical assessment according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – 5 criteria. Data were analysed using SPSS data package. The mean age of the sample was 69.5 years. RBANS-S total scale correlated highly with MMSE total score, (Pearson correlational coefficient = 0.793 p=0.01). Criterion validity was assessed using receiver operating curve characteristic analysis and the area under the curve was 0.937. RBANS-S showed strong concurrent validity us indicated by its significant correlations with the MMSE. All of the RBANS-S subtests demonstrated significant correlations with the MMSE subsets. The sensitivity and specificity for RBANS-S was 89% and 85% respectively at a totals score of 80.5. The RBANS-S yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.929. Culturally adapted RBANS-S is a valid and reliable instrument which can be used in assessment of cognitive functions.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons, associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in about 14% of incident cases. We assessed the frequency of the recently identified C9orf72 repeat expansion in familial and apparently sporadic cases of ALS and characterised the cognitive and clinical phenotype of patients with this expansion.
Pleskac, Timothy J; Wershbale, Avishai
Beyond simply a decision process, repeated risky decisions also require a number of cognitive processes including learning, search and exploration, and attention. In this article, we examine how multiple response pathways develop over repeated risky decisions. Using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a case study, we show that 2 different response pathways emerge over the course of the task. The assessment pathway is a slower, more controlled pathway where participants deliberate over taking a risk. The 2nd pathway is a faster, more automatic process where no deliberation occurs. Results imply the slower assessment pathway is taken as choice conflict increases and that the faster automatic response is a learned response. Based on these results, we modify an existing formal cognitive model of decision making during the BART to account for these dual response pathways. The slower more deliberative response process is modeled with a sequential sampling process where evidence is accumulated to a threshold, while the other response is given automatically. We show that adolescents with conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms not only evaluate risks differently during the BART but also differ in the rate at which they develop the more automatic response. More broadly, our results suggest cognitive models of judgment decision making need to transition from treating observed decisions as the result of a single response pathway to the result of multiple response pathways that change and develop over time.
MacAulay, Rebecca K; Wagner, Mark T; Szeles, Dana; Milano, Nicholas J
Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints. Sixty-one patients with a mean age of 68 years underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical interview, and gait speed (simple- and dual-task conditions) assessments. Thirty-four of the 61 patients met criteria for MCI. Repeated measure analyses of covariance revealed that greater age and MCI both significantly associated with slower gait speed, pscognitive dual task within a clinically representative population. Cognitive load dual-task gait assessment may provide a cost efficient and sensitive measure to detect older adults at high risk of a dementia disorder. (JINS, 2017, 23, 493-501).
Loeber, Sabine; Duka, Theodora; Welzel Márquez, Helga; Nakovics, Helmut; Heinz, Andreas; Mann, Karl; Flor, Herta
Several authors suggest that withdrawal from alcohol could cause neurotoxic lesions in the frontal lobe and thereby affect cognitive function. In line with this, previous studies have demonstrated greater cognitive impairment of alcohol-dependent patients with two or more previous detoxifications (Hi-detox) compared with patients with less than two detoxifications (Lo-detox). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated withdrawal from alcohol affects recovery of cognitive function and is related to relapse. Forty-eight alcohol-dependent patients (Hi-detox: n = 31, Lo-detox: n = 17) and 36 healthy controls underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test-battery. Patients were tested after completion of detoxification (T1) and 3 (T2, n = 35) and 6 (T3, n = 28) months after discharge. Healthy controls were tested at T1 (n = 36) and T2 (n = 16). Drinking behaviour was assessed at all times. Patients performed significantly worse than controls at T1 as well as T2 with regard to attention/executive function. Recovery of attention/executive function was observed within the second 3 months after discharge, but the Hi-detox group performed worse than the Lo-detox group. No association with relapse was observed. This study provides first evidence, that repeated withdrawal from alcohol might be associated with reduced brain plasticity as indicated by a delay of recovery from impairment of attention/executive function. However, little evidence was found for a direct influence of cognitive impairment on treatment success.
Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K
Although selective activation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M 4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M 4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M 4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M 4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M 4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic
The evaluation of cognitive functions can be performed using two approaches: a quantitative one, based on screening tools; a qualitative one, based on the examination of specific cognitive functions. The quantitative approach offers a pragmatic process: to screen rapidly for a cognitive dysfunction that may require assistance or treatments. We will present three screening tools and their diagnostic value: the clock test, the Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. They help select patients who require a more detailed examination to precisely diagnose their cognitive dysfunction. We propose a way to perform a detailed cognitive examination at the bedside, including the examination of alertness, attention, memory, language, frontal functions, praxis and hemi-neglect. This simple examination indicates the location of the cerebral lesion and sometimes suggests the underlying disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Full Text Available Cognitive radio can significantly improve the spectrum efficiency, and spectrum handoff is considered as an important functionality to guarantee the quality of service (QoS of primary users (PUs and the continuity of data transmission of secondary users (SUs. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework based on a preemptive repeat identical (PRI M/G/1 queuing network model to characterize spectrum handoff behaviors with general service time distribution of both primary and secondary connections, multiple interruptions and transmission delay resulting from the appearance of primary connections. Then, we derive the close-expression of the extended data delivery and the system sojourn time in both staying and changing scenarios. In addition, based on analysis of spectrum handoff behaviors resulting from multiple interruptions caused by the appearance of the primary connections, we investigate the traffic-adaptive policy, by which the considered SU will optimally adjust its handoff spectrum policy. Moreover, we investigate the admissible region and provide the reference for designing the admission control rule for the arriving secondary connection requests. Finally, simulation results verify that our proposed analytical framework is reasonable and can provide the reference for executing the optimal spectrum handoff strategy and designing the admission control rule for the SU in cognitive radio networks.
Full Text Available This study proposes an innovative methodology, named Repeat Appraised Price Model (RAV, useful for determining the price index numbers for real estate markets and the corresponding index numbers of hedonic prices of main real estate characteristics in the case of a lack of data. The methodological approach proposed in this paper aims to appraise the time series of price index numbers. It integrates the principles of the method of repeat sales with the peculiarities of the Hedonic Price Method, overcoming the problem of an almost total absence of repeat sales for the same property in a given time range; on the other hand, the technique aims to overcome the limitation of the repeat sales technique concerning the inability to take into account the characteristics of individual properties.
Full Text Available Studies on first responders who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events report low levels of PTSD symptoms and diagnosis. However, neuroimaging and behavioral studies show that traumatic exposure is associated with brain and cognitive dysfunctions. Taking together it may suggest that traumatic exposure have a price, which is not sufficiently defined by the standard PTSD measures. In a recent study we revealed that similar to individuals with PTSD, non-PTSD highly exposed firefighters display a selective impairment in hippocampal related functions. In the current study we aimed to test whether different first responders display a similar impairment. We concentrated on unique populations of active duty firefighters and criminal scene-investigators (CSI police, who are frequently exposed to similar levels and types of traumatic events, and compared them to civilian matched-controls with no history of trauma-exposure. We used a hippocampal dependent cue-context reversal paradigm, which separately evaluates reversal of negative and positive outcomes of cue and context related information. We predicted and found that all participants were equally able to acquire and retain stimulus-outcome associations. However, there were significant differences in reversal learning between the groups. Performance among firefighters replicated our prior findings; they struggled to learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome. CSI police on the other hand showed a selective impairment in reversing the outcome of a negative cue. Hence after learning that a specific cue is associated with a negative outcome, they could not learn that later it is associated with a positive outcome. Performance in both groups did not correlate with levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression or behavioral inhibition symptoms. The results provide further evidence of the hidden price of traumatic exposure, suggesting that this price may differ as a
Cognitive impairment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised with the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery
Full Text Available Background: Approximately 55% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD show cognitive impairment as evaluated using the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery (BRBN, but this frequency appears to be higher than the frequency of specific brain lesions in NMOSD. Objective: We studied whether cognitive impairment could be observed in NMOSD patients with no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Methods: We evaluated cognitive function in 12 NMOSD and 14 MS patients using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, and the BRBN. We judged as cognitively impaired patients whose scores were below the average by 2 standard deviations or greater in 2 or more cognitive domains. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 5 MS patients (35.7% and in the only NMOSD patient (8.3% with symptomatic brain lesions, but not in the other NMOSD patients who had no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Meanwhile, 5 NMOSD (41.7% and 4 MS (28.6% patients who had normal cognition according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R were assessed as cognitively impaired by the BRBN (which is not standardized for age. Conclusions: Cognitive function in NMOSD patients with no or mild non-specific brain lesions was preserved according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R. Keywords: Neuromyelitis Optica, Cognitive impairment, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery, Multiple sclerosis
Márcia L.F. Chaves
Full Text Available Abstract A review of the evidence on cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment for the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD is presented with revision and broadening of the recommendations on the use of tests and batteries in Brazil for the diagnosis of dementia due to AD. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO database was carried out by a panel of experts. Studies on the validation and/or adaptation of tests, scales and batteries for the Brazilian population were analyzed and classified according to level of evidence. There were sufficient data to recommend the IQCODE, DAFS-R, DAD, ADL-Q and Bayer scale for the evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living, and the Katz scale for the assessment of basic activities of daily living. For the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and the CAMDEX were found to be useful, as was the Cornell scale for depression in dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination has clinical utility as a screening test, as do the multifunctional batteries (CAMCOG-R, ADAS-COG, CERAD and MDRS for brief evaluations of several cognitive domains. There was sufficient evidence to recommend the CDR scale for clinical and severity assessment of dementia. Tests for Brazilian Portuguese are recommended by cognitive domain based on available data.
Henderson, Victor W
Modern interests in cognitive assessment began with Franz Gall's early 19th century theory of mental organology and Paul Broca's reports in the 1860s on patients with focal brain injury and aphemia. These workers spurred interest in assessing delimited mental abilities in relation to discrete cerebral areas. With roots in experimental and educational psychology, the intelligence testing movement added assessment tools that could be applied to neurological patients. Early- to mid-20th-century landmarks were Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's intelligence scale, Howard Knox's nonverbal performance tests, and the intelligence quotient conceived by Lewis Terman and refined by David Wechsler. Also developed during this era were Henry Head's Serial Tests for aphasic patients and Kurt Goldstein's tests for brain-injured patients with impairments in "abstract attitude" and concept formation. Other investigators have contributed procedures for the evaluation of language functions, memory, visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills, praxis, and executive functions. A further milestone was the development of short standardized cognitive instruments for dementia assessment. Within a neurological arena, the historical emphasis has been on a flexible, process-driven approach to the service of neurological diagnosis and syndrome identification. Advances in clinical psychology, neurology, and the cognate clinical neurosciences continue to enrich assessment options.
Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.
Haberman, Shelby; Yao, Lili
Admission decisions frequently rely on multiple assessments. As a consequence, it is important to explore rational approaches to combine the information from different educational tests. For example, U.S. graduate schools usually receive both TOEFL iBT® scores and GRE® General scores of foreign applicants for admission; however, little guidance…
Bralet, M C; Navarre, M; Eskenazi, A M; Lucas-Ross, M; Falissard, B
SCHIZOPHRENIA: It is therefore of great interest to create an available and easily used battery of validated tests. This would enable one to measure the different cognitive deficits and to repeat the tests, and assess evolution through longitudinal follow up of the patients. The BACS is a new instrument developed by Keefe et al. in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences at the University of Duke Medical Centre. It evaluates the cognitive dimensions specifically altered in schizophrenia and correlated with the evolution of the disease. This test is simple to use, requiring only paper, pencils and a stopwatch. It can be administered by different carers. The duration of the test session is approximately 35min. This battery of tests was validated on a sample of 150 patients compared with a sample of 50 controls, matched for age, parent education and ethnic groups. This aim of this study is to create a French adaptation of the BACS (translation and back translation approved by the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences at the University of Duke Medical Centre) and then to test its easiness of administration and its sensitivity, performing correlation analysis between the French Version of the BACS (version A) and a standard battery. Its adaptation and validation in French would at first be useful for the French-speaking areas and then would add some new data for the pertinence of using the BACS. 35 French stabilized schizophrenic patients were recruited from the inpatient and outpatient facilities at the Clermont-de-L'Oise Mental Health Hospital (Picardie area, France) in Dr Boitard's Psychiatric Department (FJ 5.) Patients were required to meet DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective illness. The patients were tested on two separate days by two independent clinicians with less than two weeks between the two assessments. During the first test session, subjects received the French A version of the BACS and during the second session, they were
Nijsse, Britta; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; van Mierlo, Maria L; Post, Marcel W M; de Kort, Paul L M; van Heugten, Caroline M
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is nowadays recommended for the screening of poststroke cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the temporal evolution of MoCA-assessed cognition after stroke. The objective of this study was to examine the temporal
Nijsse, Britta; Visser-Meily, Johanna M.A.; van Mierlo, Maria L.; Post, Marcel W. M.; de Kort, Paul. L. M.; van Heugten, Caroline M.
Background and Purpose-The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is nowadays recommended for the screening of poststroke cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the temporal evolution of MoCA-assessed cognition after stroke. The objective of this study was to examine the temporal pattern
Ventura, Joseph; Reise, Steven P; Keefe, Richard S E; Baade, Lyle E; Gold, James M; Green, Michael F; Kern, Robert S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Seidman, Larry J; Bilder, Robert M
Practical, reliable "real world" measures of cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176) were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS). We used classical test theory methods and item response theory to derive the 10-item Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) from the SCoRS and CGI-CogS ("parent instruments"). Sources of information for CAI ratings included the patient and an informant. Validity analyses examined the relationship between the CAI and objective measures of cognitive functioning, intermediate measures of cognition, and functional outcome. The rater's score from the newly derived CAI (10 items) correlate highly (r=.87) with those from the combined set of the SCoRS and CGI-CogS (41 items). Both the patient (r=.82) and the informant (r=.95) data were highly correlated with the rater's score. The CAI was modestly correlated with objectively measured neurocognition (r=-.32), functional capacity (r=-.44), and functional outcome (r=-.32), which was comparable to the parent instruments. The CAI allows for expert judgment in evaluating a patient's cognitive functioning and was modestly correlated with neurocognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcome. The CAI is a brief, repeatable, and potentially valuable tool for rating cognition in schizophrenia patients who are participating in clinical trials. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yancar Demir, Esra; Özcan, Tuba
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as 'a cognitive decline greater than that expected for an individual's age and education level but that does not interfere notably with activities of daily life'. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening test for MCI. We investigated the performance of the Turkish version of the MoCA in detecting MCI among elderly persons in a rural area, the majority of whom have a low level of education. We evaluated 50 consecutive men referred from an outpatient clinic. Educational level was divided into three categories: group 1, less than primary (5 years). We evaluated the effect of education on MoCA scores and compared subjects' test performance among the different categories of education level. A total of 50 male patients with MCI (mean age: 70.74 ± 7.87) met the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in the total scores based on education or in the subscores for visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, abstraction and delayed recall. Language was the only domain that showed significant differences between the groups. In post-hoc analysis, differences were found between groups 1 and 3 and between groups 1 and 2. Group 1 had significantly lower scores for language. The repeat subscore for language was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. In fluency, there were significant differences between groups 2 and 3 and between group 1 and 3. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the applicability of the Turkish version of MoCA in populations with little education. Our results emphasize the need to adapt the language sections of this test, so it can be easily used in populations with low education levels. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
This paper explores a method to support instructors in assessing cognitive skills in their course, designed to enable aggregation of data across an institution. A rubric authoring tool, "BASICS" (Building Assessment Scaffolds for Intellectual Cognitive Skills) was built as part of the Queen's University Learning Outcomes Assessment (LOA)…
Perinetti, Giuseppe; Caprioglio, Alberto; Contardo, Luca
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and repeatability of the visual assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. Ten operators underwent training sessions in visual assessment of CVM staging. Subsequently, they were asked to stage 72 cases equally divided into the six stages. Such assessment was repeated twice in two sessions (T1 and T2) 4 weeks apart. A reference standard for each case was created according to a cephalometric analysis of both the concavities and shapes of the cervical vertebrae. The overall agreement with the reference standard was about 68% for both sessions and 76.9% for intrarater repeatability. The overall kappa coefficients with the reference standard were up to 0.86 for both sessions, and 0.88 for intrarater repeatability. Overall, disagreements one stage and twp stage apart were 23.5% (T1) and 5.1% (T2), respectively. Sensitivity ranged from 53.3% for CS5 (T1) to 99.9% for CS1 (T2), positive predictive values ranged from 52.4% for CS5 (T2) to 94.3% for CS6 (T1), and accuracy ranged from 83.6% for CS4 (T2) to 94.9% for CS1 (T1). Visual assessment of the CVM stages is accurate and repeatable to a satisfactory level. About one in three cases remain misclassified; disagreement is generally limited to one stage and is mostly seen in stages 4 and 5.
Calvert, Patricia; Palmer, Christine
This article provides a background to the development of cognitive therapy and cognitive therapeutic skills with a specific focus on the treatment of a depressive episode. It discusses the utility of cognitive therapeutic strategies to the model of crisis theory and initial crisis assessment currently used by the Community Assessment & Treatment Team of Waitemata District Health Board on the North Shore of Auckland, New Zealand. A brief background to cognitive therapy is provided, followed by a comprehensive example of the use of the Socratic questioning method in guiding collaborative assessment and treatment of suicidality by nurses during the initial crisis assessment.
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is an advanced and useful technology in the distraction from pain. The efficacy of VR for reducing pain is well established. Yet, the literature analyzing the unique attributes of VR which impact pain reduction is scarce. The present study evaluated the effect of two VR environments on experimental pain levels. Both VR environments are games used with an EyeToy application which is part of the video capture VR family. The VR environments were analyzed by expert occupational therapists using a method of activity analysis, allowing for a thorough evaluation of the VR activity performance requirements. The VR environments were found to differ in the cognitive load (CL demands they apply upon subjects. Sixty-two healthy students underwent psychophysical thermal pain tests, followed by exposure to tonic heat stimulation under one of three conditions: Low CL (LCL VR, high CL (HCL VR, and control. In addition, following participation in VR, the subjects completed a self-feedback inventory evaluating their experience in VR. The results showed significantly greater pain reduction during both VR conditions compared to the control condition (p = 0.001. Hierarchical regression revealed cognitive components which were evaluated in the self-feedback inventory to be predictive factors for pain reduction only during the high cognitive load (HCL VR environment (20.2%. CL involved in VR may predict the extent of pain decrease, a finding that should be considered in future clinical and laboratory research.
Cognitive impairment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised with the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery.
Fujimori, Juichi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Baba, Toru; Meguro, Yuko; Ogawa, Ryo; Fujihara, Kazuo
Approximately 55% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) show cognitive impairment as evaluated using the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery (BRBN), but this frequency appears to be higher than the frequency of specific brain lesions in NMOSD. We studied whether cognitive impairment could be observed in NMOSD patients with no or minor non-specific brain lesions. We evaluated cognitive function in 12 NMOSD and 14 MS patients using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and the BRBN. We judged as cognitively impaired patients whose scores were below the average by 2 standard deviations or greater in 2 or more cognitive domains. Cognitive impairment was observed in 5 MS patients (35.7%) and in the only NMOSD patient (8.3%) with symptomatic brain lesions, but not in the other NMOSD patients who had no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Meanwhile, 5 NMOSD (41.7%) and 4 MS (28.6%) patients who had normal cognition according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R were assessed as cognitively impaired by the BRBN (which is not standardized for age). Cognitive function in NMOSD patients with no or mild non-specific brain lesions was preserved according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R.
Renae L Smith-Ray
Full Text Available Background: Emerging literature suggests that mobility and cognition are linked. Epidemiological data support a negative association between cognition and falls among cognitively intact older adults. A small number of intervention studies found that regimented cognitive training (CT improves mobility among this population, suggesting that CT may be an under-explored approach toward reducing falls. To date, no studies have examined the impact of CT on balance among those who are cognitively impaired. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing a CT program among cognitively impaired older adults and examine whether there are potential improvements in balance following CT.Method: A single group repeated measures design was used to identify change in balance, depressive symptoms, and global cognition. A mixed method approach was employed to evaluate the feasibility of a CT intervention among a cohort of cognitively impaired older adults. CT was delivered in a group 2 days/week over 10 weeks using an online brain exercise program, Posit Science Brain HQ (20 hours. All participants completed a one-on-one data collection interview at baseline and post-program. Results: Participants (N=20 were on average 80.5 years old and had mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Following the 10-week cognitive training intervention, mean scores on 4 of the 5 balance measures improved among CT participants. Although none of the balance improvements reached significance, these findings are promising given the small sample size. Depressive symptoms significantly improved between baseline and 10 weeks (p=0.021. Mean global cognition also improved across the study period, but neither of these improvements were statistically significant. Based on participant responses, the CT program was feasible for this population.Conclusion: This study provides support for the feasibility of implementing a CT program among cognitively-impaired older adults
Kane, Robert; Seaton, Kimberly; Sipes, Walter
This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) has been used to provide ISS flight surgeons with an objective clinical tool to monitor the astronauts cognitive status during long-duration space flight and allow immediate feedback to the astronaut. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline.
Newman, J P
We describe a new brief neurocognitive assessment instrument, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, which is built around the shell of the Mini-Mental State Examination but which assesses a wider range of cognitive functions specific to various dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. A Hebrew-language adaptation of the instrument is also provided.
Students often perceive cognitive psychology as an abstract and difficult subject with little intrinsic interest. When student feedback identified problems with the traditional essay assessment in a cognitive psychology module, action research led to the development of a forensic scenario-based assessment which successfully increased student…
Ghosh, Arpita; Rieder Bennett, Sara; Martin, Juanita K.
The purpose of this initial, exploratory study was to examine the utility of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) as a repeated measure tool at one university counseling center. This study investigated whether clients engaged in individual counseling changed in symptomology while in treatment and when (e.g.,…
Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Sulc, Zdenek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Stepankova, Hana
Cognitive tests are used repeatedly to assess the treatment response or progression of cognitive disorders. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a valid screening test for mild cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to establish 90% reliable change indices (RCI) for the MoCA together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in cognitively healthy older adults. We analyzed 197 cognitively healthy and functional independent volunteers aged 60-94 years, who met strict inclusion criteria for four consecutive years. The RCI methods by Chelune and Hsu were used. For 1, 2, and 3 years, the 90% RCI for MoCA using Chelune's formula were -4 ≤, ≥4; -4 ≤, ≥4 and -5 ≤, ≥4 points, respectively, and -3 ≤, ≥3 for the MMSE each year. Ninety percent RCI for MoCA using Hsu's formula ranged from -6 to 0, respectively, and +3 to +8 dependent on the baseline MoCA. Our study demonstrated RCI for the MoCA and MMSE in a 3-year time period that can be used for the estimation of cognitive decline or improvement in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kurhila, Jaakko; Laine, Tei
Describes AHMED (Adaptive and Assistive Hypermedia in Education), a computer learning environment which supports the evaluation of disabled children's cognitive skills in addition to supporting openness in learning materials and adaptivity in learning events. Discusses cognitive modeling and compares it to previous intelligent tutoring systems.…
Conclusion: The KICA test has been seen to be a reliable and valid tool to assess cognitive impairment in the aged people of Iran. The KICA test can be used as a cognitive assessment test for distinguishing patients with dementia, especially illiterate ones from other healthy people in Iran.
Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco
The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Downs, Matthew E; Buch, Amanda; Sierra, Carlos; Karakatsani, Maria Eleni; Teichert, Tobias; Chen, Shangshang; Konofagou, Elisa E; Ferrera, Vincent P
Focused Ultrasound (FUS) coupled with intravenous administration of microbubbles (MB) is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reliably open (increase the permeability of) the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple in vivo models including non-human primates (NHP). This procedure has shown promise for clinical and basic science applications, yet the safety and potential neurological effects of long term application in NHP requires further investigation under parameters shown to be efficacious in that species (500 kHz, 200-400 kPa, 4-5 μm MB, 2 minute sonication). In this study, we repeatedly opened the BBB in the caudate and putamen regions of the basal ganglia of 4 NHP using FUS with systemically-administered MB over 4-20 months. We assessed the safety of the FUS with MB procedure using MRI to detect edema or hemorrhaging in the brain. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI sequences showed a 98% success rate for openings in the targeted regions. T2-weighted and SWI sequences indicated a lack edema in the majority of the cases. We investigated potential neurological effects of the FUS with MB procedure through quantitative cognitive testing of' visual, cognitive, motivational, and motor function using a random dot motion task with reward magnitude bias presented on a touchpanel display. Reaction times during the task significantly increased on the day of the FUS with MB procedure. This increase returned to baseline within 4-5 days after the procedure. Visual motion discrimination thresholds were unaffected. Our results indicate FUS with MB can be a safe method for repeated opening of the BBB at the basal ganglia in NHP for up to 20 months without any long-term negative physiological or neurological effects with the parameters used.
Full Text Available Background: Comprehensive geriatric assessment including cognitive assessment results in better outcomes and quality of life through facilitating access to support and further care. The National Audit of Dementia Care revealed too few patients were being assessed for cognition and therefore failing to receive adequate care. Methods: This was a retrospective clinical audit in a district general hospital with systematic sampling of the clinical records of 50 inpatients on an elderly care ward. A descriptive analysis of the results was performed. Results: Despite guidance that cognitive assessment should be performed on admission, this was only documented in 22% of the medical notes. However, this rate improved to 56% by discharge. The most commonly used tool was the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT 10. Assessment completion was independent of gender or social support, but only patients aged over 75 years were assessed. Of those, 75% had some level of cognitive impairment and 36.8% received a new or suspected diagnosis of dementia. Discussion: Cognitive assessment rates continue to be low. Our findings support the need for increased education regarding the importance and benefits of assessment as well as how to complete and document the assessment correctly. Conclusion: Cognitive assessment rates need to be further improved to promote better outcomes for patients with dementia.
Teresa Costa Castanho; Liliana Amorim; Pedro Silva Moreira; José Mariz; Joana Almeida Palha; Nuno Sousa; Nadine Correia Santos
Background: The use of communication technologies is an emerging trend in healthcare and research. Despite efficient, reliable and accurate neuropsychological batteries to evaluate cognitive performance in-person, more diverse and less expensive and time consuming solutions are needed. Here we conducted a pilot study to determine the applicability of a videoconference (VC, Skype (R)) approach to assess cognitive function in older adults, using The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modi...
Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.
We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as ca...
Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A
OBJECTIVES: Cognition is a new treatment target to aid functional recovery and enhance quality of life for patients with bipolar disorder. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Targeting Cognition Task Force aimed to develop consensus-based clinical recommendations on whether, when...... in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment, and (III) evaluate the impact of medication and comorbidity, refer patients for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation when clinically indicated, and encourage patients to build cognitive reserve. Regarding question (IV), there is limited evidence for current...
Bernardo T. Lopes
Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of dynamic corneal response parameters measured by the Corvis ST (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany. Methods. One eye randomly selected from 32 healthy volunteers was examined by the Corvis ST. Three different devices were used in an alternated random order for taking three measurements at each device in each subject. Standard intraocular pressure (IOP, the biomechanical-compensated IOP (bIOP, and DCR parameters were evaluated. The within-subject standard deviation (ζw and coefficient of variation (CV were assessed. Results. Regarding pressure indices, the ζw was below 1 mmHg for repeatability (0.98 for IOP and 0.89 for bIOP and the CV was 6.6% for IOP and 6.1% for bIOP. For reproducibility, the ζw was around 1 mmHg (1.12 for IOP and 1.05 for bIOP and the CV was 7.6% for IOP and 7.1% for bIOP. Most of DCR indices presented CV for repeatability below 4%. For reproducibility, the CV of most of the indices were below 6%. The deformation amplitude (DA ratio in 1 mm and integrated radius were below 4% (1.2% and 3.8%, resp.. Conclusions. The Corvis ST showed good precision (repeatability and reproducibility for IOP measurements and for DCR in healthy eyes.
Keith E. Stanovich
Full Text Available In modern cognitive science, rationality and intelligence are measured using different tasks and operations. Furthermore, in several contemporary dual process theories of cognition, rationality is a more encompassing construct than intelligence. Researchers need to continue to develop measures of rational thought without regard to empirical correlations with intelligence. The measurement of individual differences in rationality should not be subsumed by the intelligence concept.
5.\tHow successful has gamification been in cognitive testing and training thus far? Method: Using several online databases, we searched the titles, abstracts and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*. Searches included articles published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Non-peer reviewed studies such as abstracts or conference posters were excluded. Furthermore, due to the specific focus on cognitive assessment and training we excluded several other common uses of gamification including: gamification for education purposes, advertising purposes, disease management, health promotion, physical activity promotion, exposure therapy or rehabilitation. We also excluded studies that were merely used virtual reality or a 3D environment without involving any game mechanics: engagement had to be the primary reason for using a game-like design. Results: Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and frequency of use by designers. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Gamified assessments were typically validated successfully; however the efficacy of game-like cognitive training is more difficult to interpret due to several poor quality studies. High heterogeneity of study designs and small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both training and testing. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that gamified cognitive training is motivating for users, though not necessarily an effective intervention. Nevertheless, gamification can provide a way to develop
Cheng, Yan; Wu, Wenyuan; Wang, Jiaqi; Feng, Wei; Li, Chunbo
Introduction The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a widely used screening instrument in neuropsychological assessment and is a brief, individually administered measure. The present study aims to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the RBANS in community-dwelling elderly. Material and methods All subjects come from the community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai, China. They completed a questionnaire concerning demographic information, the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Chinese version of the RBANS. To test for internal consistency, Cronbach's α was calculated for all six RBANS indices. Correlations between each of the RBANS and MMSE subtests were conducted to measure the concurrent validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the construct validity. Results The final sample of participants included 236 community-dwelling elderly. The mean total score on the RBANS was 86.02 (±14.19). The RBANS total score showed strong internal consistency (r = 0.806), and the coefficient α value for each of the RBANS scales ranged from 0.142 to 0.727. The total RBANS score was highly correlated with that of the MMSE (r = 0.594, pvalidity in a community-dwelling elderly sample. It may be a useful screening instrument for conducting cognitive assessments in community-dwelling elderly. PMID:22291831
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is one of major disorders after brain injury. With the rapid development of rehabilitation medicine in China, more and more attention was focused on it. The methods of assessment and rehabilitation therapy of cognitive impairment are more widely used in clinic. Based on traditional methods of assessment and rehabilitation therapy, driven by the development of computer, Internet and Internet of Things, more and more new methods emerged. This article intends to review the commonly used assessment and rehabilitation therapy of cognitive impairment and their progress. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.002
Lahera, G.; Boada, L.; Pousa, E.; Mirapeix, I.; Morón-Nozaleda, G.; Marinas, L.; Gisbert, L.; Pamiàs, M.; Parellada, M.
We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in…
Hoijtink, Herbert; Béland, Sébastien; Vermeulen, Jorine A.
There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric
Hoitink, Herbert; Beland, Sebastien; Vermeulen, Jorine
There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric
Background: Mini‑mental state exam (MMSE) was used several times but no study has examined cognition on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we compared MMSE with MoCA in patients with DR and searched for an association between the severity of DR ...
Zhang, Tao; Lin, Chung-Chih; Yu, Tsang-Chu; Sun, Jing; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen
The aim of this study is to design and develop a fun cube (FC) based brain gym (BG) cognitive function assessment system using the wireless sensor network and multimedia technologies. The system comprised (1) interaction devices, FCs and a workstation used as interactive tools for collecting and transferring data to the server, (2) a BG information management system responsible for managing the cognitive games and storing test results, and (3) a feedback system used for conducting the analysis of cognitive functions to assist caregivers in screening high risk groups with mild cognitive impairment. Three kinds of experiments were performed to evaluate the developed FC-based BG cognitive function assessment system. The experimental results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient between the system's evaluation outcomes and the traditional Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores was 0.83. The average Technology Acceptance Model 2 score was close to six for 31 elderly subjects. Most subjects considered that the brain games are interesting and the FC human-machine interface is easy to learn and operate. The control group and the cognitive impairment group had statistically significant difference with respect to the accuracy of and the time taken for the brain cognitive function assessment games, including Animal Naming, Color Search, Trail Making Test, Change Blindness, and Forward / Backward Digit Span. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lieberman, Harris R
Studying the effects of dehydration on cognitive function presents a variety of unique and difficult challenges to investigators. These challenges, which are addressed in this article, can be divided into three general categories: 1) choosing an appropriate method of generating a consistent level of dehydration; 2) determining and effectively employing appropriate and sensitive measures of cognitive state; and 3) adequately controlling the many confounding factors that interfere with assessment of cognitive function. The design and conduct of studies on the effects of dehydration on cognitive function should carefully consider various methodological issues, and investigators should carefully weigh the benefits and disadvantages of particular methods and procedures. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.
Eiber, R; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Urdapilleta, I
Cognitions are of crucial importance in the -aetiology and the maintenance of eating disorders. Dysfunctional cognitions in eating disorders are related to body image, self-esteem and feeding. The aim of this paper is to review the actual knowledge in this area. First, we will display -cognitive models in eating disorders. Cognitive factors in -eating disorders are logical errors, cognitive slippage and conceptual complexity. Eating disorder patients seem to have a deficient cognitive development. Some cognitive models stipulate that eating disorder patients may develop organised cognitive structures schemas concerning the issues of weight and its implications for the self. These schemas can account for the persistence and for the understanding the "choice of the eating disorder symptomatology. Cognitive pheno-mena of interest are self-schema, weight-related schema and weight-related self-schema. The maintenance model of ano-rexia nervosa argued that, initially there is an extreme need to control eating which is supported by low self-esteem. The maintenance of the disorder is reinforced by three mechanisms: dietary restriction enhances the sense of being in control; aspects of starvation encourage further dietary restriction; concerns about shape and weight encourage restriction. The development and maintenance of bulimic symptomatology are explained by placing a high value on attaining an idealised weight and body shape accompanied by inaccurate beliefs. The cognitive model of specific family of origin experiences puts forward the development of -maladaptative expectancies for eating and thinness. Second, we discuss distortions in information processing. a) In feeding laboratories, bulimics show a wide range of caloric intake and a disruption of circadian feeding patterns. In overeating bulimics, large meals occurred mainly during afternoon and evening with high fat and carbohydrate intake, but the majority of meals were of normal size and frequency. Responsivity
Talarska, Dorota; Steinborn, Barbara; Michalak, Michał
Cognitive functioning and behaviour of chronically ill children are affected by many factors, including anxiety due to hospitalization, persistent symptoms of sickness and adverse side effects of medications. The aim of this work was to seek out parents' opinion concerning cognitive functioning and behaviour of children with epilepsy. The study comprised 156 children with epilepsy aged 7-18 and treated in the Department of Developmental Neurology at Karol Marcinkowski Poznan University of Medical Sciences and in an outpatient clinic. The research tool used was the questionnaire Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) completed by parents. Assessment of cognitive functioning and behaviour was based on the analysis of the areas V (cognitive processes) and VII (behaviour). Parents assessed children's functioning in the areas of cognitive processes and behaviour at a similar level - 55 points. In the area of cognitive processes, concentration while performing some tasks and reading was assessed as the worst. A significant difference in caregivers' assessment was found according to age, frequency of seizures and duration of disease. In the area analysing the child's behaviour, parents indicated getting angry easily and not being upset by other people's opinions. The display of aggression towards others got the lowest number of comments. The children's functioning was assessed by parents as rather poor in both analysed areas. Parents of children treated with polytherapy noticed more difficulties in cognitive functioning and behaviour than parents of children treated with one medication.
Teresa Costa Castanho
Interpretation: Findings indicate for the range of settings where videoconference approaches can be used, and for their applicability and acceptability, providing an alternative to current cognitive assessment methods. Continued validation studies and adaptation of neuropsychological instruments is warranted.
Panzer, Matthew B; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Rafaels, Karin A; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce P
The widespread use of explosives by modern insurgents and terrorists has increased the potential frequency of blast exposure in soldiers and civilians. This growing threat highlights the importance of understanding and evaluating blast injury risk and the increase of injury risk from exposure to repeated blast effects. Data from more than 3,250 large animal experiments were collected from studies focusing on the effects of blast exposure. The current study uses 2,349 experiments from the data collection for analysis of the primary blast injury and survival risk for both long- and short-duration blasts, including the effects from repeated exposures. A piecewise linear logistic regression was performed on the data to develop survival and injury risk assessment curves. New injury risk assessment curves uniting long- and short-duration blasts were developed for incident and reflected pressure measures and were used to evaluate the risk of injury based on blast over pressure, positive-phase duration, and the number of repeated exposures. The risk assessments were derived for three levels of injury severity: nonauditory, pulmonary, and fatality. The analysis showed a marked initial decrease in injury tolerance with each subsequent blast exposure. This effect decreases with increasing number of blast exposures. The new injury risk functions showed good agreement with the existing experimental data and provided a simplified model for primary blast injury risk. This model can be used to predict blast injury or fatality risk for single exposure and repeated exposure cases and has application in modern combat scenarios or in setting occupational health limits. .Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Yuan-yuan TAO; Rong SUN; Lu-ping SONG
Cognitive impairment is one of major disorders after brain injury. With the rapid development of rehabilitation medicine in China, more and more attention was focused on it. The methods of assessment and rehabilitation therapy of cognitive impairment are more widely used in clinic. Based on traditional methods of assessment and rehabilitation therapy, driven by the development of computer, Internet and Internet of Things, more and more new methods emerged. This article intends to revie...
assessing behavioral and cognitive markers of risk for suicide among U.S. Army National Guard personnel. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Policy...effective ways to prevent injury and death from suicide • No reliable method for predicting suicide risk in military personnel • Behavioral (e.g...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0632 TITLE: Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian
Full Text Available Dementia is the supreme worldwide burden for welfare and the health care system in the 21st century. The early identification and control of the modifiable risk factors of dementia are important. Global-cognitive health (GCH metrics, encompassing controllable cardiovascular health (CVH and non-CVH risk factors of dementia, is a newly developed approach to assess the risk of cognitive impairment. The components of ideal GCH metrics includes better education, non-obesity, normal blood pressure, no smoking, no depression, ideal physical activity, good social integration, normal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and normal hearing. This study focuses on the association between ideal GCH metrics and the cognitive function in young adults by investigating the Third Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III database, which has not been reported previously. A total of 1243 participants aged 17 to 39 years were recruited in this study. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by the simple reaction time test (SRTT, symbol-digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Participants with significantly higher scores of GCH metrics had better cognitive performance (p for trend <0.01 in three cognitive tests. Moreover, better education, ideal physical activity, good social integration and normal glycated hemoglobin were the optimistic components of ideal GCH metrics associated with better cognitive performance after adjusting for covariates (p < 0.05 in three cognitive tests. These findings emphasize the importance of a preventive strategy for modifiable dementia risk factors to enhance cognitive functioning during adulthood.
Lumsden, Jim; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lawrence, Natalia S; Coyle, David; Munafò, Marcus R
Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating, and repetitive, which often leads to participant disengagement. This, in turn, may negatively impact data quality and/or reduce intervention effects. However, gamification may provide a possible solution. If game design features can be incorporated into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then data quality, intervention effects, and participant engagement may be improved. This systematic review aims to explore and evaluate the ways in which gamification has already been used for cognitive training and assessment purposes. We hope to answer 3 questions: (1) Why have researchers opted to use gamification? (2) What domains has gamification been applied in? (3) How successful has gamification been in cognitive research thus far? We systematically searched several Web-based databases, searching the titles, abstracts, and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games) AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*). Searches included papers published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a range of disorders and cognitive domains. We identified 7 reasons for researchers opting to gamify their cognitive training and testing. We found that working memory and general executive functions were common targets for both gamified assessment and training. Gamified tests were typically validated successfully, although mixed-domain measurement was a problem. Gamified training appears to be highly engaging and does boost participant motivation, but mixed effects of gamification on task performance were reported. Heterogeneous study designs and typically small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both gamified training and testing. Nevertheless, careful application of gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and
The arrival of modern brain imaging technologies has provided new opportunities for examining the biological essence of human intelligence as well as the relationship between brain size and cognition. Thanks to these advances, we can now state that the relationship between brain size and intelligence has never been well understood. This view is supported by findings showing that cognition is correlated more with brain tissues than sheer brain size. The complexity of cellular and molecular organization of neural connections actually determines the computational capacity of the brain. In this review article, we determine that while genotypes are responsible for defining the theoretical limits of intelligence, what is primarily responsible for determining whether those limits are reached or exceeded is experience (environmental influence). Therefore, we contend that the gene-environment interplay defines the intelligent quotient of an individual.
S S Jayasinghe
Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.
Kean J. Hsu
Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the cognitive state of elderly people under ambulatory care and investigating the connection between such cognitive state and sociodemographic variables, health conditions, number of and adhesion to medicine. Methods: transversal, exploratory, and descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, realized with 107 elderly people under ambulatory care in a university hospital in southern Brazil, in november, 2013. The following variables were used: gender, age, civil status, income, schooling, occupation, preexisting noncommunicable diseases, number and type of prescribed medications, adhesion, mini-mental state examination score, and cognitive status. Data was analyzed through inferential and descriptive statistics. Results: the prevalence of cognitive deficit was of 42.1% and had a statistically significant connection to schooling, income, civil status, hypertension, and cardiopathy. Conclusion: nurses can intervene to avoid the increase of cognitive deficit through an assessment of the elderly person, directed to facilitative strategies to soften this deficit.
Payne, Velma L; Crowley, Rebecca S; Crowley, Rebecca
We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors.
Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.
We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors. PMID:18999140
Kundan Lal Verma
Full Text Available The cognitive signal processing is one of the important interdisciplinary field came from areas of life sciences, psychology, psychiatry, engi-neering, mathematics, physics, statistics and many other fields of research. Neurophysiologic tests are utilized to assess and treat brain injury, dementia, neurological conditions, and useful to investigate psychological and psychiatric disorders. This paper presents an ongoing research work on development of EEG interface device based on the principles of cognitive assessments and instrumentation. The method proposed engineering and science of cogni-tive signal processing in case of brain computer in-terface based neurophysiologic tests. The future scope of this study is to build a low cost EEG device for various clinical and pre-clinical applications with specific emphasis to measure the effect of cognitive action on human brain.
Ma, Lin; Çetin, Emre; Green, Kathy E
This study investigated the validation of comprehensive cognitive attributes of an eighth-grade mathematics test using the least squares distance method and compared performance on attributes by gender and region. A sample of 5,000 students was randomly selected from the data of the 2005 Turkish national mathematics assessment of eighth-grade students. Twenty-five math items were assessed for presence or absence of 20 cognitive attributes (content, cognitive processes, and skill). Four attributes were found to be misspecified or nonpredictive. However, results demonstrated the validity of cognitive attributes in terms of the revised set of 17 attributes. The girls had similar performance on the attributes as the boys. The students from the two eastern regions significantly underperformed on the most attributes.
Sebastian T Koenig
Full Text Available In recent years user-centered design, participatory design and agile development have seen much popularity in the field of software development. More specifically, applying these methods to user groups with cognitive and motor disabilities has been the topic of numerous publications. However, neuropsychological assessment and training require special consideration to include therapists and brain-injured patients into the development cycle. Application goals, development tools and communication between all stakeholders are interdependent and outlined in a framework that promotes elements of agile development. The framework is introduced by example of a virtual reality cognitive assessment for patients with traumatic brain injuries. The assessment has seen a total of 20 iterations over the course of nine months including changes in task content, task difficulty, user interaction and data collection. The framework and development of the cognitive assessment are discussed.
Older drivers are often presented as a traffic safety problem . Age-related medical conditions such as dementias and stroke impair cognitive functions that are crucial for safe driving Uncertainty remains regarding the most appropriate clinical methods to assess driving fitness in these patient groups. Furthermore, preclinical dementia and cognitive impairment may affect driving performance and lead to an increased crash risk. The first general aim of the thesis was to inve...
Rick Yiu-Cho Kwan; Claudia Kam-Yuk Lai
TBCA has emerged to solve the limitations of administering cognitive assessments face-to-face. The recent development of telephones and knowledge advances in the area of cognitive impairment may affect the development of TBCA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how smartphones can be used to enhance the applicability of TBCA, which has previously been administered by conventional telephone. This paper will first review, describe and critique the existing TBCA instruments. It will then di...
Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.
The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…
Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…
Sutradhar, Rinku; Atzema, Clare; Seow, Hsien; Earle, Craig; Porter, Joan; Barbera, Lisa
Although prior studies show the importance of self-reported symptom scores as predictors of cancer survival, most are based on scores recorded at a single point in time. To show that information on repeated assessments of symptom severity improves predictions for risk of death and to use updated symptom information for determining whether worsening of symptom scores is associated with a higher hazard of death. This was a province-based longitudinal study of adult outpatients who had a cancer diagnosis and had assessments of symptom severity. We implemented a time-to-death Cox model with a time-varying covariate for each symptom to account for changing symptom scores over time. This model was compared with that using only a time-fixed (baseline) covariate for each symptom. The regression coefficients of each model were derived based on a randomly selected 60% of patients, and then, the predictive performance of each model was assessed via concordance probabilities when applied to the remaining 40% of patients. This study had 66,112 patients diagnosed with cancer and more than 310,000 assessments of symptoms. The use of repeated assessments of symptom scores improved predictions for risk of death compared with using only baseline symptom scores. Increased pain and fatigue and reduced appetite were the strongest predictors for death. If available, researchers should consider including changing information on symptom scores, as opposed to only baseline information on symptom scores, when examining hazard of death among patients with cancer. Worsening of pain, fatigue, and appetite may be a flag for impending death. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zadikoff, Cindy; Fox, Susan H.; Tang-Wai, David F.; Thomsen, Teri; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Wadia, Pettarusup; Miyasaki, Janis; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Lang, Anthony E.; Marras, Connie
Dementia is an important and increasingly recognized problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) often fails to detect early cognitive decline. The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a brief tool developed to detect mild cognitive impairment that assesses a
Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S
One of the most sought-after goals in experimental quantum communication is the implementation of a quantum repeater. The performance of quantum repeaters can be assessed by comparing the attained rate with the quantum and private capacity of direct transmission, assisted by unlimited classical two-way communication. However, these quantities are hard to compute, motivating the search for upper bounds. Takeoka, Guha and Wilde found the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel to be an upper bound on both these capacities. In general it is still hard to find the exact value of the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel, but clever sub-optimal squashing channels allow one to upper bound this quantity, and thus also the corresponding capacities. Here, we exploit this idea to obtain bounds for any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. This bound allows one to benchmark the implementation of quantum repeaters for a large class of channels used to model communication across fibers. In particular, our bound is applicable to the realistic scenario when there is a restriction on the mean photon number on the input. Furthermore, we show that the squashed entanglement of a channel is convex in the set of channels, and we use a connection between the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel and its entanglement assisted classical capacity. Building on this connection, we obtain the exact squashed entanglement and two-way assisted capacities of the d -dimensional erasure channel and bounds on the amplitude-damping channel and all qubit Pauli channels. In particular, our bound improves on the previous best known squashed entanglement upper bound of the depolarizing channel. (paper)
Kwan, Rick Yiu-Cho; Lai, Claudia Kam-Yuk
TBCA has emerged to solve the limitations of administering cognitive assessments face-to-face. The recent development of telephones and knowledge advances in the area of cognitive impairment may affect the development of TBCA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how smartphones can be used to enhance the applicability of TBCA, which has previously been administered by conventional telephone. This paper will first review, describe and critique the existing TBCA instruments. It will then discuss the recent developments in tele-technology, the popularity of tele-technology among the elderly, potential benefits and challenges in using smartphones for cognitive assessment, and possible future developments in this technology. In the systematic review, eighteen TBCA instruments were identified. They were found to be valid in differentiating between people with and without dementia. TBCA was previously found to be launched on a conventional telephone platform. The advances in understanding of cognitive impairment may demand that telephones be equipped with more advanced features. Recently, the development and penetration of smartphones among the elderly has been rapid. This may allow the smartphone to enhance its TBCA applicability by overcoming the limitations of the conventional telephone, rendering the TBCA more efficient in addressing the increasing demand and complexity of cognitive assessments in the future. However, more research and technology developments are needed before smartphones can become a valid platform for TBCA.
Rick Yiu-Cho Kwan
Full Text Available TBCA has emerged to solve the limitations of administering cognitive assessments face-to-face. The recent development of telephones and knowledge advances in the area of cognitive impairment may affect the development of TBCA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how smartphones can be used to enhance the applicability of TBCA, which has previously been administered by conventional telephone. This paper will first review, describe and critique the existing TBCA instruments. It will then discuss the recent developments in tele-technology, the popularity of tele-technology among the elderly, potential benefits and challenges in using smartphones for cognitive assessment, and possible future developments in this technology. In the systematic review, eighteen TBCA instruments were identified. They were found to be valid in differentiating between people with and without dementia. TBCA was previously found to be launched on a conventional telephone platform. The advances in understanding of cognitive impairment may demand that telephones be equipped with more advanced features. Recently, the development and penetration of smartphones among the elderly has been rapid. This may allow the smartphone to enhance its TBCA applicability by overcoming the limitations of the conventional telephone, rendering the TBCA more efficient in addressing the increasing demand and complexity of cognitive assessments in the future. However, more research and technology developments are needed before smartphones can become a valid platform for TBCA.
Roland R Regoes
Full Text Available Trials in macaque models play an essential role in the evaluation of biomedical interventions that aim to prevent HIV infection, such as vaccines, microbicides, and systemic chemoprophylaxis. These trials are usually conducted with very high virus challenge doses that result in infection with certainty. However, these high challenge doses do not realistically reflect the low probability of HIV transmission in humans, and thus may rule out preventive interventions that could protect against "real life" exposures. The belief that experiments involving realistically low challenge doses require large numbers of animals has so far prevented the development of alternatives to using high challenge doses.Using statistical power analysis, we investigate how many animals would be needed to conduct preclinical trials using low virus challenge doses. We show that experimental designs in which animals are repeatedly challenged with low doses do not require unfeasibly large numbers of animals to assess vaccine or microbicide success.Preclinical trials using repeated low-dose challenges represent a promising alternative approach to identify potential preventive interventions.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 10 × (6 × 5 m multi-directional repeated sprint ability test (RSM in elite young team handball (TH players. Participants were members of the Iranian national team (n = 20, age 16.4 ± 0.7 years, weight 82.5 ± 5.5 kg, height 184.8 ± 4.6 cm, body fat 15.4 ± 4.3%. The validity of RSM was tested against a 10 × (15 + 15 m repeated sprint ability test (RSA, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1, squat jump (SJ and countermovement jump (CMJ. To test the reliability of RSM, the participants repeated the testing sessions of RSM and RSA 1 week later. Both RSA and RSM tests showed good to excellent reliability of the total time (TT, best time (BT, and weakest time (WT. The results of the correlation analysis showed significant inverse correlations between maximum aerobic capacity and TT in RSA (r = −0.57, p ≤ 0.05 and RSM (r = −0.76, p ≤ 0.01. There was also a significant inverse correlation between maximum aerobic capacity with fatigue index (FI in RSA test (r = −0.64, p ≤ 0.01 and in RSM test (r = −0.53, p ≤ 0.05. BT, WT, and TT of RSA was largely-to-very largely correlated with BT (r = 0.58, p ≤ 0.01, WT (r = 0.62, p ≤ 0.01, and TT (r = 0.65, p ≤ 0.01 of RSM. BT in RSM was also correlated with FI in RSM (r = 0.88, p ≤ 0.01. In conclusion, based on the findings of the current study, the recently developed RSM test is a valid and reliable test and should be utilized for assessment of repeated sprint ability in handball players.
Daneshfar, Amin; Gahreman, Daniel E.; Koozehchian, Majid S.; Amani Shalamzari, Sadegh; Hassanzadeh Sablouei, Mozhgan; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.
The aim of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 10 × (6 × 5 m) multi-directional repeated sprint ability test (RSM) in elite young team handball (TH) players. Participants were members of the Iranian national team (n = 20, age 16.4 ± 0.7 years, weight 82.5 ± 5.5 kg, height 184.8 ± 4.6 cm, body fat 15.4 ± 4.3%). The validity of RSM was tested against a 10 × (15 + 15 m) repeated sprint ability test (RSA), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ). To test the reliability of RSM, the participants repeated the testing sessions of RSM and RSA 1 week later. Both RSA and RSM tests showed good to excellent reliability of the total time (TT), best time (BT), and weakest time (WT). The results of the correlation analysis showed significant inverse correlations between maximum aerobic capacity and TT in RSA (r = −0.57, p ≤ 0.05) and RSM (r = −0.76, p ≤ 0.01). There was also a significant inverse correlation between maximum aerobic capacity with fatigue index (FI) in RSA test (r = −0.64, p ≤ 0.01) and in RSM test (r = −0.53, p ≤ 0.05). BT, WT, and TT of RSA was largely-to-very largely correlated with BT (r = 0.58, p ≤ 0.01), WT (r = 0.62, p ≤ 0.01), and TT (r = 0.65, p ≤ 0.01) of RSM. BT in RSM was also correlated with FI in RSM (r = 0.88, p ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, based on the findings of the current study, the recently developed RSM test is a valid and reliable test and should be utilized for assessment of repeated sprint ability in handball players. PMID:29670536
Campbell, Peter; Redmond, Tony; Agarwal, Rishi; Marshall, Lewis R; Evans, Bruce J W
To assess the repeatability of gonioscopy, van Herick method and anterior segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) and determine the agreement between these techniques within a community optometry setting. Gonioscopy, van Herick method and AS-OCT imaging were performed by an optometrist on two occasions, 1 month apart, on 80 subjects aged over 40 years recruited from community optometry practices. Anterior segment images were captured with a spectral domain OCT (Topcon 3D OCT-2000; wavelength 840 nm) set to the Anterior Segment (AS) mode. Eyes were graded as open or occludable for each method. AS-OCT images from both visits were graded by a second optometrist masked to the gonioscopy and van Herick method results, and the visit on which the images were acquired. Cohen's kappa (κ) was used to describe the intra-observer repeatability. Likelihood ratios, sensitivity and specificity of van Herick method and AS-OCT were calculated, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. Measurements were obtained from 80 eyes of 80 subjects. In four cases, AS-OCT images were un-gradable due to difficulty in locating the scleral spur. The repeatability of gonioscopy was fair κ = 0.29, while that of the van Herick method (κ = 0.54) and AS-OCT (κ = 0.47) were somewhat better. The van Herick method showed good sensitivity (visit 1: 75%, visit 2: 69%) and high specificity (visit 1: 88%, visit 2: 96%). The sensitivity of AS-OCT was fair (visit 1: 46%, visit 2: 25%), but specificity was high (visit 1: 87%. visit 2: 89%). Intra-observer repeatability was better for van Herick method and for AS-OCT than for gonioscopy, despite the latter being considered the gold standard method. The van Herick method appeared to be more sensitive than AS-OCT when identifying eyes at risk of angle closure. A standalone anterior segment OCT with a longer wavelength laser could afford better visualisation of the angle, and might therefore be expected to enable the examiner to make more
Alem, Nabih; Hiltz, Ernest; Breaux-Sims, Arlene; Bumgardner, Bradley
.... The research culminated with the development of a new HHA method for repeated jolt that is tailored for TGVs but is valid for most vehicles where the seated occupant is exposed to repeated (multiple) low-level shocks (jolt...
Emrani, Sheina; Libon, David J; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Jefferson, Angela L; Gifford, Katherine A; Hohman, Timothy J; Nation, Daniel A; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy; Bangen, Katherine J; Bondi, Mark W; Brickman, Adam M; Manly, Jennifer; Swenson, Rodney; Au, Rhoda
Working memory (WM) is often assessed with serial order tests such as repeating digits backward. In prior dementia research using the Backward Digit Span Test (BDT), only aggregate test performance was examined. The current research tallied primacy/recency effects, out-of-sequence transposition errors, perseverations, and omissions to assess WM deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory clinic patients (n = 66) were classified into three groups: single domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), combined mixed domain/dysexecutive MCI (mixed/dys MCI), and non-MCI where patients did not meet criteria for MCI. Serial order/WM ability was assessed by asking participants to repeat 7 trials of five digits backwards. Serial order position accuracy, transposition errors, perseverations, and omission errors were tallied. A 3 (group)×5 (serial position) repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant group×trial interaction. Follow-up analyses found attenuation of the recency effect for mixed/dys MCI patients. Mixed/dys MCI patients scored lower than non-MCI patients for serial position 3 (p Mixed/dys MCI patients also produced more transposition errors than both groups (p order parameters obtained from the BDT may provide a useful operational definition as well as additional diagnostic information regarding working memory deficits in MCI.
Law, Mary Kate; Furr, R Michael; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Mneimne, Malek; Jaquett, Caroline; Fleeson, William
Assessing suicidality is common in mental health practice and is fundamental to suicide research. Although necessary, there is significant concern that such assessments have unintended harmful consequences. Using a longitudinal randomized control design, the authors evaluated whether repeated and frequent assessments of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors negatively affected individuals, including those at-risk for suicide-related outcomes. Adults (N = 282), including many diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), were recruited through psychiatric outpatient clinics and from the community at large, and were randomly assigned to assessment groups. A control assessment group responded to questions regarding negative psychological experiences several times each day during a 2-week main observation phase. During the same observation period, an intensive suicide assessment group responded to the same questions, along with questions regarding suicidal behavior and ideation. Negative psychological outcomes were measured during the main observation phase (for BPD symptoms unrelated to suicide and for BPD-relevant emotions) and/or at the end of each week during the main observation phase and monthly for 6 months thereafter (for all outcomes, including suicidal ideation and behavior). Results revealed little evidence that intensive suicide assessment triggered negative outcomes, including suicidal ideation or behavior, even among people with BPD. A handful of effects did reach or approach significance, though these were temporary and nonrobust. However, given the seriousness of some outcomes, the authors recommend that researchers or clinicians who implement experience sampling methods including suicide-related items carefully consider the benefits of asking about suicide and to inform participants about possible risks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations. This paper discusses two new approaches to evaluate IT project success: Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (E-FCM & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCM.The limitations of FCM like non consideration for non-linear, conditional, time delay weights and indeterminate relations are targeted using E-FCM and NCM in this paper.
Petrusic, Igor; Pavlovski, Vera; Savkovic, Zorica; Vucinic, Dragana; Filipovic, Branislav; Jancic, Jasna
The aim of this study was to assess the role of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test (ACE-R) in the evaluation of cognitive status in migraineurs interictally. A total of 44 adolescent patients and 44 healthy controls, matched by age and gender, have undergone ACE-R testing. Migraineurs were additionally questioned about migraine aura features and presence of higher cortical dysfunctions (HCD) during an aura. According to the questionnaire results, patients were subsequently divided into HCD and Non-HCD group. ACE-R scores of migraine patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls (93.68 ± 3.64 vs 96.91 ± 2.49; t = 4.852, p cognitive examination score, although Non-HCD subgroup achieved better score (93.13 ± 3.91 vs 94.29 ± 3.30; t = 1.053, p = 0.298). Findings have shown that migraineurs get lower ACE-R test scores, with a tendency to have a poorer outcome in more complex aura. Also, our study has revealed that the ACE-R test is an easily administered test for brief assessment of cognitive status in migraineurs. Future perspectives could be further evaluation of ACE-R test in larger sample size and the impact of migraine with aura on cognitive function in adolescents.
Drew, M. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Humphries, S. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Thorogood, K. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Barnett, N. [BlueScope Steel, P.O. Box 1854, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)
The condition of carbon steel boiler headers that have been in service for over 25 years has been assessed periodically by NDT, dimensional measurements, replication and accelerated creep testing. Historical temperature records were limited, so estimates of effective header temperatures were made from replicas. These estimates were compared with header stub thermocouple readings. At about 280,000 service hours, samples were chain-drilled from the headers for accelerated creep testing. These test results indicated that the headers had satisfactory remaining life. Nine years after the original samples were taken, additional samples were removed from one header at 337,000 service hours. The creep rupture properties measured from the repeated tests were almost identical to the initial results. A mild degree of random, nodular graphite was found in the samples and its effect on creep properties is discussed.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated method of fuzzy theory basis for individualized concept structure analysis. In order to insight the misconception of learning basic mathematics and progress teaching. This method integrates Fuzzy Logic Model of Perception (FLMP and Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM. The combined algorithm could analyze individualized concepts structure based on the comparisons with concept structure of expert. In this paper, some well-known knowledge structure assessment methods will be discussed. For item connection, Bart et al ordering theory and Takeya’s item relational structure provided ordering coefficient to construct item relationships and hierarchies. For concepts or skills connection, Warfield’s ISM and Lin et al Concept Advanced Interpretive Structural Modelling (CAISM provided to construct graphic relationship among elements and display the individualized concept hierarchy structure by numeric and picture. Samples contain 427 which come from Min-Hwei Junior College. Subjects were analyzed by CAISM. It shows the traditional assessment is not the only criteria; it must be combined with other assessment tools. The result shows that CAISM gives meaningful learning and lacks of learners.
Dziobek, Isabel; Fleck, Stefan; Kalbe, Elke; Rogers, Kimberley; Hassenstab, Jason; Brand, Matthias; Kessler, Josef; Woike, Jan K.; Wolf, Oliver T.; Convit, Antonio
In the present study we introduce a sensitive video-based test for the evaluation of subtle mindreading difficulties: the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). This new mindreading tool involves watching a short film and answering questions referring to the actors' mental states. A group of adults with Asperger syndrome (n = 19) and…
Kirschner, Paul A.; Park, Babette; Malone, Sarah; Jarodzka, Halszka
Much is known about assessment in all its forms and the corpus of theory and knowledge is growing daily. In a similar vein, the use of multimedia for learning also has a sound basis in research and theory, such as the Cognitive Load Theory (CLT; Sweller, Van Merriënboer, & Paas, 1998), human
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…
Brambring, M.; Troster, H.
This study evaluated the Bielefeld Developmental Test for Blind Infants and Preschoolers by comparing cognitive performance of blind and sighted children (ages three and four). Results indicated that even this test (with "blind-neutral" items) did not permit a fair comparative assessment, though it did prove suitable for within-group…
Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn
The goal of this work is to develop intelligent systems to monitor the wellbeing of individuals in their home environments. This paper introduces a machine learning-based method to automatically predict activity quality in smart homes and automatically assess cognitive health based on activity quality. This paper describes an automated framework to extract set of features from smart home sensors data that reflects the activity performance or ability of an individual to complete an activity which can be input to machine learning algorithms. Output from learning algorithms including principal component analysis, support vector machine, and logistic regression algorithms are used to quantify activity quality for a complex set of smart home activities and predict cognitive health of participants. Smart home activity data was gathered from volunteer participants (n=263) who performed a complex set of activities in our smart home testbed. We compare our automated activity quality prediction and cognitive health prediction with direct observation scores and health assessment obtained from neuropsychologists. With all samples included, we obtained statistically significant correlation (r=0.54) between direct observation scores and predicted activity quality. Similarly, using a support vector machine classifier, we obtained reasonable classification accuracy (area under the ROC curve=0.80, g-mean=0.73) in classifying participants into two different cognitive classes, dementia and cognitive healthy. The results suggest that it is possible to automatically quantify the task quality of smart home activities and perform limited assessment of the cognitive health of individual if smart home activities are properly chosen and learning algorithms are appropriately trained.
Wesnes, Keith A.
The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.
Carmelo Ibáñez Aguirre
Full Text Available The cognitive paradigm of the past few decades opens several new possibilities for psychological evaluation. The objective of this essay is to emphasize the possibilities related to the quality of self-evaluation, specifically professional self-assessment, meaning a critical analysis of one’s own evaluation process. In this essay, metacognition activities and strategies are examined, as are the ways in which these activities and strategies relate to metacognition and cognitive skills. The intent of this theoretical essay is to offer answers to the clinical evaluator’s professional experience. The results indicate that the clinical professional must consider strategies to improve metacognition and cognitive skills through reflection, self-analysis and self-criticism to improve the quality and efficiency of their work.
Dingwall, Kylie; Cairney, Sheree
The aim of this paper was to investigate the importance and challenges involved in conducting serial cognitive assessments among healthy Indigenous adolescents. Cognitive assessments were conducted at fortnightly intervals for 2 months and again at 6 and 12 months among a group of Indigenous students from a boarding school in the Northern Territory. These students were to be the healthy control group in a long-term study of substance abuse. Recruitment and attrition rates were reviewed and related challenges for assessing participants were identified. From the recruited sample (n=49), 18% reported heavy or frequent use of alcohol, cannabis or petrol. Males were more likely to have used these substances compared to females. Attrition increased as the follow-up interval increased with 49 recruits reducing to 32 in the first 2 months and only 15 and 13 of the initial group remaining for the 6 and 12 month follow-ups respectively. Main challenges included (i) appropriateness of tests and assessment processes, (ii) high rates of substance abuse and other illness in the control group and (iii) high attrition rates. The importance of assessing cognition appropriately is highlighted by a lack of information regarding mental health issues in Indigenous populations.
We sampled 92 wetlands from four different basins in the United States to quantify observer repeatability in rapid wetland condition assessment using the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol (DERAP). In the Inland Bays basin of Delaware, 58 wetland sites were sampled by multiple ob...
Seaton, Kimberly; Kane, R. L.; Sipes, Walter
The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer-based, self-administered battery of five cognitive assessment tests developed for medical operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. WinSCAT is a medical requirement for U.S. long-duration astronauts and has been implemented with U.S. astronauts from one NASA/Mir mission (NASA-7 mission) and all expeditions to date on the International Space Station (ISS). Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success. WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. Additionally, WinSCAT Version 2.0.28 has increased difficulty of items in Mathematics, increased number of items in Match-to-Sample, incorporates a moving rather than a fixed baseline, and implements stricter interpretation rules. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. WinSCAT tests are routinely taken monthly during an ISS mission. Performance data from these ISS missions do not indicate significant cognitive decrements due to microgravity/space flight alone but have shown decrements. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight.. Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests.
Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L
The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention.
Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J.; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M.; León-Frade, Irene; Aldea-Poyo, Patricia; Alonso-Rodríguez, Marina; Pedrero-Aguilar, Jara; Morales-Alonso, Sara
Background The LOTCA (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment) battery is a cognitive screening test which is widely used in occupational health. However, no work has been found that explores its use in addiction treatment. Objectives of Study To explore the convergent validity of LOTCA with neuropsychological tests that assess related cerebral functional areas. Methods The LOTCA, along with a battery of neuropsychological tests, was administered to a sample of 48 subjects who start a treatment by substance or gambling addictions. Findings A correlational pattern was observed of a considerable magnitude between the effects of the LOTCA scales and those of some neuropsychological tests, but not with others. There is barely any convergence in measures with memory and executive function tests. Relevance to Clinical Practice There is a lack of research applying test of occupational assessment to populations of patients treated by addictive behaviors. The LOTCA seems to be a reliable and valid test for preliminary screening of function in certain cognitive areas, easy, and quick to use (around 30 minutes). However, it must be supplemented with other tests for a full and ecological assessment of patients. Limitations An incident, small-size sample. Recommendations for Further Research New studies are needed to explore the applicability, diagnostic validity, and whole psychometric quality of the test in addiction-related treatment. PMID:29097963
Full Text Available Background. The LOTCA (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment battery is a cognitive screening test which is widely used in occupational health. However, no work has been found that explores its use in addiction treatment. Objectives of Study. To explore the convergent validity of LOTCA with neuropsychological tests that assess related cerebral functional areas. Methods. The LOTCA, along with a battery of neuropsychological tests, was administered to a sample of 48 subjects who start a treatment by substance or gambling addictions. Findings. A correlational pattern was observed of a considerable magnitude between the effects of the LOTCA scales and those of some neuropsychological tests, but not with others. There is barely any convergence in measures with memory and executive function tests. Relevance to Clinical Practice. There is a lack of research applying test of occupational assessment to populations of patients treated by addictive behaviors. The LOTCA seems to be a reliable and valid test for preliminary screening of function in certain cognitive areas, easy, and quick to use (around 30 minutes. However, it must be supplemented with other tests for a full and ecological assessment of patients. Limitations. An incident, small-size sample. Recommendations for Further Research. New studies are needed to explore the applicability, diagnostic validity, and whole psychometric quality of the test in addiction-related treatment.
Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian
picture of the long-term effect of repeated treatments. Image analysis was most useful for assessing the effect of repeated treatments when weed cover was relatively low (below 40%) and when plots contained relatively much withered plant material. However, when weed cover is close to 100%, dry weight......, and therefore it may influence the long-term effect of repeated treatments. Visual assessment of weed cover or image analysis do not affect the remaining parts of the weed plants after treatment, but the methods may have other disadvantages. In order to evaluate and compare three methods we measured changes...... in vegetation cover of perennial ryegrass after flaming by (1) a simple image analysis programme counting green pixels, (2) visual assessment of images and (3) by taking biomass samples. Plants were flame treated with eight different dosages (0, 20, 30, 35, 45, 60, 90 and 180 kg propane ha-1) and with various...
Hannan, Mary; Steffen, Alana; Quinn, Lauretta; Collins, Eileen G; Phillips, Shane A; Bronas, Ulf G
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common chronic condition in older adults that is associated with cognitive decline. However, the exact prevalence of cognitive impairment in older adults with CKD is unclear likely due to the variety of methods utilized to assess cognitive function. The purpose of this integrative review is to determine how cognitive function is most frequently assessed in older adult patients with CKD. Five electronic databases were searched to explore relevant literature related to cognitive function assessment in older adult patients with CKD. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were created to focus the search to the assessment of cognitive function with standardized cognitive tests in older adults with CKD, not on renal replacement therapy. Through the search methods, 36 articles were found that fulfilled the purpose of the review. There were 36 different types of cognitive tests utilized in the included articles, with each study utilizing between one and 12 tests. The most commonly utilized cognitive test was the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), followed by tests of digit symbol substitution and verbal fluency. The most commonly assessed aspect of cognitive function was global cognition. The assessment of cognitive function in older adults with CKD with standardized tests is completed in various ways. Unfortunately, the common methods of assessment of cognitive function may not be fully examining the domains of impairment commonly found in older adults with CKD. Further research is needed to identify the ideal cognitive test to best assess older adults with CKD for cognitive impairment.
Cumming, T B; Churilov, L; Linden, T; Bernhardt, J
To determine the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as screening tools for cognitive impairment after stroke. Cognitive assessments were administered over 2 sessions (1 week apart) at 3 months post-stroke. Scores on the MoCA and MMSE were evaluated against a diagnosis of cognitive impairment derived from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (the criterion standard). Sixty patients participated in the study [mean age 72.1 years (SD = 13.9), mean education 10.5 years (SD = 3.9), median acute NIHSS score 5 (IQR 3-7)]. The MoCA yielded lower scores (median = 21, IQR = 17-24; mean = 20.0, SD = 5.4) than the MMSE (median = 26, IQR = 22-27; mean = 24.2, SD = 4.5). MMSE data were more skewed towards ceiling than MoCA data (skewness = -1.09 vs -0.73). Area under the receiver operator curve was higher for MoCA than for MMSE (0.87 vs 0.84), although this difference was not significant (χ(2) = 0.48, P = 0.49). At their optimal cut-offs, the MoCA had better sensitivity than the MMSE (0.92 vs 0.82) but poorer specificity (0.67 vs 0.76). The MoCA is a valid screening tool for post-stroke cognitive impairment; it is more sensitive but less specific than the MMSE. Contrary to the prevailing view, the MMSE also exhibited acceptable validity in this setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Koenig, Sebastian T.; Krch, Denise; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Lengenfelder, Jean; Nikelshpur, Olga; Lange, Belinda; DeLuca, John; Rizzo, Albert A.
In recent years user-centered design, participatory design and agile development have seen much popularity in the field of software development. More specifically, applying these methods to user groups with cognitive and motor disabilities has been the topic of numerous publications. However, neuropsychological assessment and training require special consideration to include therapists and brain-injured patients into the development cycle. Application goals, development tools and comm...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.
Hannaman, G.W.; Spurgin, A.J.; Lukic, Y.
This paper summarizes the status of a research project sponsored by EPRI as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) technology improvement program and conducted by NUS Corporation to develop a model of Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR). The model was synthesized from features identified in a review of existing models. The model development was based on the hypothesis that the key factors affecting crew response times are separable. The inputs to the model consist of key parameters the values of which can be determined by PRA analysts for each accident situation being assessed. The output is a set of curves which represent the probability of control room crew non-response as a function of time for different conditions affecting their performance. The non-response probability is then a contributor to the overall non-success of operating crews to achieve a functional objective identified in the PRA study. Simulator data and some small scale tests were utilized to illustrate the calibration of interim HCR model coefficients for different types of cognitive processing since the data were sparse. The model can potentially help PRA analysts make human reliability assessments more explicit. The model incorporates concepts from psychological models of human cognitive behavior, information from current collections of human reliability data sources and crew response time data from simulator training exercises
Cognitive impairment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised with the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery
Fujimori, Juichi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Baba, Toru; Meguro, Yuko; Ogawa, Ryo; Fujihara, Kazuo
Background: Approximately 55% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) show cognitive impairment as evaluated using the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery (BRBN), but this frequency appears to be higher than the frequency of specific brain lesions in NMOSD. Objective: We studied whether cognitive impairment could be observed in NMOSD patients with no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Methods: We evaluated cognitive function in 12 NMOSD and 14 MS patients...
Strunk, Daniel R.; Hollars, Shannon N.; Adler, Abby D.; Goldstein, Lizabeth A.; Braun, Justin D.
In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients’ skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions. PMID:25408560
Hershaw Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Medical Psychology Graduate Program Uniformed Services University of the Health ...system while completing a task. The amount of mental effort and cognitive resources required to complete a task depends on cognitive load. Thus, the...load and require greater mental effort for people with mild TBI. PUPILLOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE LOAD Differences in cognitive load in
Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna
Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.
Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna
Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.
Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions
Fidopiastis, Cali Michael
Virtual environment (VE) design for cognitive rehabilitation necessitates a new methodology to ensure the validity of the resulting rehabilitation assessment. We propose that benchmarking the VE system technology utilizing a user-centered approach should precede the VE construction. Further, user performance baselines should be measured throughout testing as a control for adaptive effects that may confound the metrics chosen to evaluate the rehabilitation treatment. To support these claims we present data obtained from two modules of a user-centered head-mounted display (HMD) assessment battery, specifically resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity. Resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity assessments provide information about the image quality achieved by an HMD based upon its unique system parameters. When applying a user-centered approach, we were able to quantify limitations in the VE system components (e.g., low microdisplay resolution) and separately point to user characteristics (e.g., changes in dark focus) that may introduce error in the evaluation of VE based rehabilitation protocols. Based on these results, we provide guidelines for calibrating and benchmarking HMDs. In addition, we discuss potential extensions of the assessment to address higher level usability issues. We intend to test the proposed framework within the Human Experience Modeler (HEM), a testbed created at the University of Central Florida to evaluate technologies that may enhance cognitive rehabilitation effectiveness. Preliminary results of a feasibility pilot study conducted with a memory impaired participant showed that the HEM provides the control and repeatability needed to conduct such technology comparisons. Further, the HEM affords the opportunity to integrate new brain imaging technologies (i.e., functional Near Infrared Imaging) to evaluate brain plasticity associated with VE based cognitive rehabilitation.
Ravdin, Lisa D; Barr, William B; Jordan, Barry; Lathan, William E; Relkin, Norman R
To prospectively examine recovery of cognitive function within one month following subconcussive sports related head trauma. A prospective study of New York State licensed professional boxers who underwent testing of cognitive functioning before and after (within days, one week, and one month) a professional bout. Male professional athletes recruited from the New York State Athletic Commission and local boxing gyms. Twenty-six licensed professional boxers were enrolled in the protocol. Data is presented on the 18 participants who completed testing on at least three of the four time points. Serial neuropsychological assessment before and after the athletes engaged in competition. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning, including new learning and memory, information processing speed, and mental flexibility. A series of repeated measures MANOVAS revealed significant within subject differences across testing on complex information processing and verbal fluency. Post hoc analyses indicated significant differences between time 1 (baseline) and time 4 (one month post), with scores one month following the bout indicating significantly improved performance. Memory scores did not change significantly across testing; however, prior boxing exposure measured by total number of professional bouts was associated with poorer memory performance. Cognitive testing one month following participation in a professional boxing bout yielded scores suggestive of recovery to a level above the baseline. We conclude that baseline assessment taken during periods of intense training are likely confounded by other pre-bout conditions (i.e., sparring, rapid weight loss, pre-bout anxiety) and do not represent true baseline abilities. Instability of performance associated with mild head injury may complicate the interpretation of post-injury assessments. Practice effects may also confound the interpretation of serial assessments, leading to underestimation of the effects of sports
Venermo, M; Settembre, N; Albäck, A; Vikatmaa, P; Aho, P-S; Lepäntalo, M; Inoue, Y; Terasaki, H
Ankle brachial index (ABI), toe pressures (TP), and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO 2 ) are traditionally used in the assessment of critical limb ischemia (CLI). Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging can be used to evaluate local circulation in the foot and to evaluate the severity of ischemia. This prospective study analyzed the suitability of a fluorescence imaging system (photodynamic eye [PDE]) in CLI. Forty-one patients with CLI were included. Of the patients, 66% had diabetes and there was an ischemic tissue lesion in 70% of the limbs. ABI, toe pressures, TcPO 2 and ICG-fluorescence imaging (ICG-FI) were measured in each leg. To study the repeatability of the ICG-FI, each patient underwent the study twice. After the procedure, foot circulation was measured using a time-intensity curve, where T1/2 (the time needed to achieve half of the maximum fluorescence intensity) and PDE10 (increase of the intensity during the first 10 s) were determined. A time-intensity curve was plotted using the same areas as for the TcPO 2 probes (n=123). The mean ABI was 0.43, TP 21 mmHg, TcPO 2 23 mmHg, T1/2 38 s, and PDE10 19 AU. Time-intensity curves were repeatable. In a Bland-Altman scatter plot, the 95% limits of agreement of PDE10 was 9.9 AU and the corresponding value of T1/2 was 14 s. Correlation between ABI and TP was significant (R=.73, p<.001), and it was weaker in diabetic patients (R=.47, p=.048) compared with non-diabetic patients (R=.89, p=.002). Correlations between ABI and TcPO 2 and TP and TcPO 2 were weak (R=.37, p=.05 and R=.43, p=.037, respectively). Correlation between TcPO 2 and PDE10 was strong in diabetic patients (R=.70, p=.003). According to this pilot study, ICG-FI with PDE can be used in the assessment of blood supply in the ischemic foot. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bingham, Richard; Kineses, Wilhelm E
.... Initially, the Augmented Cognition program has focused on cognitive overload situations. Looking towards a complete solution for Augmented Cognition, another situation required the understanding of the concept of task underload...
Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V
Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...
George Kwok Chu Wong
Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH, and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients.We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2-4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score <-1.65 (below the fifth percentile. Cognitive impairment was defined as two or more cognitive domain deficits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193.Both the MoCA and the MMSE were successful in differentiating between patients with and without cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment at both assessment periods. At 1 year post-ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009.Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases.
Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised
Emmanuelle Sobreira; Márcio A. Pena-Pereira; Alan L. Eckeli; Manoel A. Sobreira-Neto; Marcos H. N. Chagas; Maria P. Foss; Brenna Cholerton; Cyrus P. Zabetian; Ignacio F. Mata; Vitor Tumas
ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and dementia (PDD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing cognitive performance test batteries consist of synthetic tasks that, while they may probe isolated cognitive functions, provide an incomplete and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing cognitive performance test batteries consist of synthetic tasks that, while they may probe isolated cognitive functions, provide an incomplete and...
Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada  and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore . Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA  point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder
Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan and Unit of Molecular Imaging, Division of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy)
Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada  and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore . Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA  point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder.
To provide estimates and confidence intervals for the performance (detection and false-positive rates) of screening for Down\\'s syndrome using repeated measures of biochemical markers from first and second trimester maternal serum samples taken from the same woman.
Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ered, Arielle; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Nuechterlein, Keith H
Progress has been made in developing interview-based measures for the assessment of cognitive functioning, such as the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), as co-primary measures that compliment objective neurocognitive assessments and daily functioning. However, a few questions remain, including whether the relationships with objective cognitive measures and daily functioning are high enough to justify the CAI as an co-primary measure and whether patient-only assessments are valid. Participants were first-episode schizophrenia patients (n=60) and demographically-similar healthy controls (n=35), chronic schizophrenia patients (n=38) and demographically similar healthy controls (n=19). Participants were assessed at baseline with an interview-based measure of cognitive functioning (CAI), a test of objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and role functioning at baseline, and in the first episode patients again 6 months later (n=28). CAI ratings were correlated with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia patients at similar magnitudes as in chronic patients. Comparisons of first-episode and chronic patients with healthy controls indicated that the CAI sensitively detected deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship of CAI Patient-Only ratings with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and daily functioning were comparable to CAI Rater scores that included informant information. These results confirm in an independent sample the relationship of the CAI ratings with objectively measured cognition, functional capacity, and role functioning. Comparison of schizophrenia patients with healthy controls further validates the CAI as an co-primary measure of cognitive deficits. Also, CAI change scores were strongly related to objective cognitive change indicating sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela
Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…
Agarwal, D K; Upadhyay, S K; Agarwal, K N
Cognitive development of 1336 children (6-8 yr) was studied in relation to their nutritional status. Seven Piagetian tasks covering the mental process of a concrete operational period were given to each child to assess the cognitive development. Weschler intelligence scale for Indian Children was used to assess the IQ of each child. The percentage of malnourished children in stage I of development (preoperational) was significantly higher as that of wellnourished children. A higher percentage of children in the latter group was in stage III of development (concrete operation). In boys performance on all the tasks was influenced by undernutrition except for class inclusion. In girls this was true only for conservation of liquid, substance and ordinal relation. The results of the regression analysis showed that nutrition was the only factor weakly associated with the poor performance of the children in various tasks. Further, the effect of nutrition was more pronounced in conservation tasks indicating poor verbal reasoning and comprehension in malnourished children. Information was also collected regarding the parental education and occupation, socio-economic status, caste, economic sufficiency, psychosocial stimulation and home environment. However, these environmental factors did not influence the development of rural children. This might be due to the fact that the population in the present study did not vary much with regard to these variables.
Nogueira, Joana; Freitas, Sandra; Duro, Diana; Tábuas-Pereira, Miguel; Guerreiro, Manuela; Almeida, Jorge; Santana, Isabel
The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale is a brief battery developed to assess cognitive functioning in Alzheimer's disease that encompasses the core characteristics of cognitive decline (e.g. memory, language, praxis, constructive ability and orientation). The early detection, as well as the monitoring of cognitive decline along disease progression, is extremely important in clinical care and interventional research. The main goals of the present study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale, and to establish normative values for the Portuguese population. The Portuguese version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale was administered to 223 cognitively healthy participants according to a standard assessment protocol consisting of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Adults and Older Adults Functional Assessment Inventory. Normal performance on the assessment protocol was the inclusion criteria for the study. The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale revealed good psychometric properties when used in the Portuguese population. Age was the main predictor of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale total score (R2 = 0.123), whereas the influence of education level was lower (R2 = 0.027). These two variables explained 14.4% of the variance on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale scores and were used to stratify the normative values for the Portuguese population presented here. On the total sample, the average total score in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale was 6 points. The normative data were determined according to age and educational level as these were the sociodemographic variables that significantly contributed to the prediction of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale
Full Text Available Mercury is widely distributed throughout the environment. In many contaminated soils other contaminants are present along with mercury; of these, arsenic is one of the most frequently found metals. In the presence of mixed contamination of this kind, remediation technologies must overcome many difficulties due to the different chemical characteristics of the various contaminants. In this study, repeated assisted phytoextraction cycles with Brassica juncea, were conducted on a laboratory scale to evaluate the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from a multi-contaminated industrial soil. The possibility of using only one additive, ammonium thiosulphate, to remove mercury and arsenic from co-contaminated soil simultaneously was also investigated. The thiosulfate addition greatly promoted the plant uptake of both contaminants, with an efficiency comparable to that of phosphate specifically used to mobilize specifically arsenic. Repeated additions of mobilizing agents increased metal availability in soil, promoted plant uptake and consequently increased the removal of contaminants in the studied soil. Repeated treatments with thiosulfate increased the concentration of mercury and arsenic in the Brassica juncea aerial part, but due to toxic effects of mercury that reduce biomass production, the total accumulation of both metals in plants tended to decrease at each subsequent re-growth.The use of a single additive to remove both contaminants simultaneously offers several new advantages to phytoextraction technology in terms of reducing cost and time.
Wall, Kylie Janine; Cumming, Toby Borland; Koenig, Sebastian Thomas; Pelecanos, Anita Maria; Copland, David Andrew
We developed and explored the feasibility and user acceptance of the Cognitive Assessment for Aphasia App: a non-immersive virtual reality cognitive assessment for stroke survivors, designed to be inclusive of individuals with aphasia. Participants were assessed on a battery of pen-and-paper cognitive tests and the Cognitive Assessment for Aphasia App. Feasibility was explored by quantifying missing data for test completion, determining user acceptance for the app by measuring participants' preferred testing method, enjoyment and perceived task difficulty and time-taken to complete the test. Sixty-four stroke participants (35 with aphasia, 29 without aphasia) and 32 controls were recruited. Only one participant with aphasia was unable to complete all the Cognitive Assessment for Aphasia App tasks, whereas 13 participants were unable to complete all pen-and-paper tasks. Only 14% of participants preferred the pen-and-paper tests, and preference did not significantly differ between groups. Ninety-five per cent of participants were neutral or enjoyed the app and 4% perceived it to be very difficult. Higher age was negatively associated with user acceptance measures. The study shows preliminary evidence for the Cognitive Assessment for Aphasia App to be a feasible cognitive assessment for stroke survivors with and without aphasia. The app is currently being validated in stroke. Implications for rehabilitation The Cognitive Assessment for Aphasia App is a feasible tool for assessing post-stroke cognition in acute, inpatient rehabilitation and community settings. In research trials examining cognition, individuals with aphasia are often excluded. The Cognitive Assessment for Aphasia App permits the inclusion of these individuals, enhancing generalizability. The Cognitive Assessment for Aphasia App provides an alternative method to assess cognition that is quicker and preferred over standard neuropsychological tests.
Takase, Bonpei; Hosaka, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Katsuhiro
The precise measurement of changes in left ventricular volume is important to elucidate the mechanisms of neurally mediated syncope. This study was conducted to determine whether or not a brand-new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (C-VEST system) can be clinically used to easily and precisely measure left ventricular volume and function in tilt testing. To assess the repeatability of the C-VEST system, 12 healthy volunteers (mean age 24±4 years old) underwent 20 minute head-up tilt testing and we measured the temporal changes in left ventricular volume and ejection fraction twice a day (first and second studies). To investigate the changes in the C-VEST measurements and the detector position in the first and second studies, tilt testing was performed with an 80-degree passive tilt, which is the same as the standard procedure used in diagnosing neurally mediated syncope. The coefficient of repeatability for both the C-VEST and detector position was well within the clinical range (coefficient of repeatability in left ventricular volume ranged from 1.7 to 2.8; coefficient of repeatability in the detector position ranged from 2.3 to 3.1). Precise evaluation of the left ventricular volume can be achieved by an ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system in tilt testing. (author)
Validation of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status and Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment Against Detailed Cognitive Testing and Clinical Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment After Stroke.
Zietemann, Vera; Kopczak, Anna; Müller, Claudia; Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Dichgans, Martin
Assessment of cognitive status poststroke is recommended by guidelines but follow-up can often not be done in person. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) and the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (T-MoCA) are considered useful screening instruments. Yet, evidence to define optimal cut-offs for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) after stroke is limited. We studied 105 patients enrolled in the prospective DEDEMAS study (Determinants of Dementia After Stroke; NCT01334749). Follow-up visits at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months included comprehensive neuropsychological testing and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, both of which served as reference standards. The original TICS and T-MoCA were obtained in 2 separate telephone interviews each separated from the personal visits by 1 week (1 before and 1 after the visit) with the order of interviews (TICS versus T-MoCA) alternating between subjects. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves was determined. Ninety-six patients completed both the face-to-face visits and the 2 interviews. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves ranged between 0.76 and 0.83 for TICS and between 0.73 and 0.94 for T-MoCA depending on MCI definition. For multidomain MCI defined by multiple-tests definition derived from comprehensive neuropsychological testing optimal sensitivities and specificities were achieved at cut-offs <36 (TICS) and <18 (T-MoCA). Validity was lower using single-test definition, and cut-offs were higher compared with multiple-test definitions. Using Clinical Dementia Rating as the reference, optimal cut-offs for MCI were <36 (TICS) and approximately 19 (T-MoCA). Both the TICS and T-MoCA are valid screening tools poststroke, particularly for multidomain MCI using multiple-test definition. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Leśniak, Marcin; Polanowska, Katarzyna; Seniów, Joanna; Członkowska, Anna
To determine whether cumulative anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could enhance rehabilitation of memory and attention in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inpatient and outpatient neurorehabilitation unit. Twenty-three adult patients, 4- to 92- months post severe TBI. Participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups. The experimental group received A-tDCS (10 minutes; 1 mA; in the DLPFC), followed by rehabilitative cognitive training, daily for 15 days. Controls received A-tDCS for 25 seconds (sham condition) with the same rehabilitation. Battery of memory and attention tests, which included visual and auditory modalities. Participants were tested twice before beginning rehabilitation (to control for spontaneous recovery), after rehabilitation completion, and 4 months later. Tests scores in both groups were similar at 3 weeks before and immediately before treatment. After treatment, the experimental group exhibited larger effect sizes in 6 of 8 cognitive outcome measures, but they were not significantly different from controls. At follow-up, differences remained insignificant. In contrast to previous studies, our study did not provide sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of repeated A-tDCS for enhancing rehabilitation of memory and attention in patients after severe TBI.
This study tested the use of a developmentally supportive care (DSC) training program in the form of videotaped and personalized instruction to increase nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behavioral signals and offering supportive care. The study used a two-group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental repeated measures design. The participants were 25 NICU nurses, 13 in the intervention group, and 12 in the control group. An instrument developed for the purpose of the study was a video test that measured the effectiveness of the DSC training. The video test questionnaires were administered to the participants twice with an interval of four weeks. ANCOVA controlling the baseline scores was used for data analysis. In general, the results support the hypothesis that nurses' cognitive abilities were enhanced after the DSC training. The increase in nurses' cognitive abilities is the prerequisite for behavioral change, based on the assumptions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986). As nurses' cognitive abilities increased, it would be possible that nurse behaviors in taking care of these preterm infants might change. Therefore, the author recommends that in order to improve NICU care quality and the outcomes of preterm infants, the concepts of developmentally supportive care be incorporated into NICU caregiving practice by educating nurses.
Okahashi, Sayaka; Seki, Keiko; Nagano, Akinori; Luo, Zhiwei; Kojima, Maki; Futaki, Toshiko
Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients' ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age.
Ridley, Nicole; Batchelor, Jennifer; Draper, Brian; Demirkol, Apo; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Withall, Adrienne
Despite the considerable prevalence of cognitive impairment in substance-using populations, there has been little investigation of the utility of cognitive screening measures within this context. In the present study the accuracy of three cognitive screening measures in this population was examined-the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A sample of 30 treatment-seeking substance users and 20 healthy individuals living in the community were administered the screening measures and a neuropsychological battery (NPB). Agreement of classification of cognitive impairment by the screening measures and NPB was examined. Results indicated that the ACE-R and MoCA had good discriminative ability in detection of cognitive impairment, with areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of .85 (95% confidence interval, CI [.75. .94] and .84 (95% CI [.71, .93]) respectively. The MMSE had fair discriminative ability (.78, 95% CI [.65, .93]). The optimal cut-score for the ACE-R was 93 (impairment = score of 92 or less), at which it correctly classified 89% of individuals as cognitively impaired or intact, while the optimal cut-score for the MoCA was cognitive impairment in the context of substance use.
Jahangiri, Arman; Wagner, Jeffrey; Han, Sung Won; Zygourakis, Corinna C; Han, Seunggu J; Tran, Mai T; Miller, Liane M; Tom, Maxwell W; Kunwar, Sandeep; Blevins, Lewis S; Aghi, Manish K
OBJECT.: While transsphenoidal surgery is associated with low morbidity, the degree to which morbidity increases after reoperation remains unclear. The authors determined the morbidity associated with repeat versus initial transsphenoidal surgery after 1015 consecutive operations. The authors conducted a 5-year retrospective review of the first 916 patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery at their institution after a pituitary center of expertise was established, and they analyzed morbidities. The authors analyzed 907 initial and 108 repeat transsphenoidal surgeries performed in 916 patients (9 initial surgeries performed outside the authors' center were excluded). The most common diagnoses were endocrine inactive (30%) or active (36%) adenomas, Rathke's cleft cysts (10%), and craniopharyngioma (3%). Morbidity of initial surgery versus reoperation included diabetes insipidus ([DI] 16% vs 26%; p = 0.03), postoperative hyponatremia (20% vs 16%; p = 0.3), new postoperative hypopituitarism (5% vs 8%; p = 0.3), CSF leak requiring repair (1% vs 4%; p = 0.04), meningitis (0.4% vs 3%; p = 0.02), and length of stay ([LOS] 2.8 vs 4.5 days; p = 0.006). Of intraoperative parameters and postoperative morbidities, 1) some (use of lumbar drain and new postoperative hypopituitarism) did not increase with second or subsequent reoperations (p = 0.3-0.9); 2) some (DI and meningitis) increased upon second surgery (p = 0.02-0.04) but did not continue to increase for subsequent reoperations (p = 0.3-0.9); 3) some (LOS) increased upon second surgery and increased again for subsequent reoperations (p surgery (p = 0.3) but went on to increase upon subsequent reoperations (p = 0.001-0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that operation number, but not sex, age, pathology, radiation therapy, or lesion size, increased the risk of CSF leak, meningitis, and increased LOS. Separate analysis of initial versus repeat transsphenoidal surgery on the 2 most common benign pituitary lesions
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies on genome assembly from short-read sequencing data reported the limitation of this technology to reconstruct the entire genome even at very high depth coverage. We investigated the limitation from the perspective of information theory to evaluate the effect of repeats on short-read genome assembly using idealized (error-free reads at different lengths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We define a metric H(k to be the entropy of sequencing reads at a read length k and use the relative loss of entropy ΔH(k to measure the impact of repeats for the reconstruction of whole-genome from sequences of length k. In our experiments, we found that entropy loss correlates well with de-novo assembly coverage of a genome, and a score of ΔH(k>1% indicates a severe loss in genome reconstruction fidelity. The minimal read lengths to achieve ΔH(k<1% are different for various organisms and are independent of the genome size. For example, in order to meet the threshold of ΔH(k<1%, a read length of 60 bp is needed for the sequencing of human genome (3.2 10(9 bp and 320 bp for the sequencing of fruit fly (1.8×10(8 bp. We also calculated the ΔH(k scores for 2725 prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids at several read lengths. Our results indicate that the levels of repeats in different genomes are diverse and the entropy of sequencing reads provides a measurement for the repeat structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed entropy-based measurement, which can be calculated in seconds to minutes in most cases, provides a rapid quantitative evaluation on the limitation of idealized short-read genome sequencing. Moreover, the calculation can be parallelized to scale up to large euakryotic genomes. This approach may be useful to tune the sequencing parameters to achieve better genome assemblies when a closely related genome is already available.
Crutcher, Emeline; Ali, May; Harrison, John; Sovago, Judit; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Schaaf, Christian P.
15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome causes a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including intellectual disability and autism. We aimed to determine if any or all of three cognitive testing systems (the KiTAP, CogState, and Stanford-Binet) are suitable for assessment of cognitive function in affected individuals. These three tests were administered to ten…
Cognitive distractions have been shown to affect drivers adversely and are a leading cause of : accidents. Research indicates that drivers alter how they allocate their visual attention while engaging in : secondary cognitive tasks. To evaluate the p...
Alverzo, J P; Galski, T
Orientation is a critical determinant of a patient's neurological status and an indicator of change in condition during hospitalization. The ways rehabilitation nurses assess orientation and the manner in which findings are interpreted and reported can have significant implications for the care of neurologically compromised patients. This study used a questionnaire to examine how 52 nurses appraised and reported the results of orientation evaluations. Analyses produced descriptive statistics and correlational measures for determining nurses' tendencies and consistency in evaluating orientation. Most respondents, regardless of their education and experience, used a clinical interview, rather than psychometric tests, as a basis for forming opinions about orientation. Although most evaluations included assessments in terms of person, time, place, and circumstance, no consistent pattern emerged regarding questioning or in the ways results were reported. Findings revealed a significant lack of consensus in terms of assessing and reporting orientation results, which could reflect insufficient awareness about the importance of maintaining consistency in evaluations, the relevance of using standardized evaluations and comparing measures over time, and the necessity of agreeing on how to report cognitive disturbances.
Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised.
Sobreira, Emmanuelle; Pena-Pereira, Márcio A; Eckeli, Alan L; Sobreira-Neto, Manoel A; Chagas, Marcos H N; Foss, Maria P; Cholerton, Brenna; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Mata, Ignacio F; Tumas, Vitor
The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and dementia (PDD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests. There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others. Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.
Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised
Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI and dementia (PDD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD.Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests.Results There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others.Conclusion Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.
The article provides a discussion concerning a tool used for road pavement condition assessment based on signals of linear accelerations recorded with high sampling frequency for typical vehicles traversing the road network under real-life road traffic conditions. Specific relationships have been established for the sake of road pavement condition assessment, including identification of road sections of poor technical condition. The data thus acquired have been verified with regard to repeatability of estimated road pavement assessment indices. The data make it possible to describe the road network status against an area in which users of the system being developed move. What proves to be crucial in the assessment process is the scope of the data set based on multiple transfers within the road network.
Herlihy, Jane; Scragg, Peter; Turner, Stuart
Objective To investigate the consistency of autobiographical memory of people seeking asylum, in light of the assumption that discrepancies in asylum seekers' accounts of persecution mean that they are fabricating their stories. Design Repeated interviews. Setting England, 1999 and 2000. Participants Community sample of 27 Kosovan and 12 Bosnian refugees. Main outcome measures Discrepancies in repeated descriptions of one traumatic and one non-traumatic event, including specific details, rated as central or peripheral to the event. Self report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Discrepancies between an individual's accounts were common. For participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress, the number of discrepancies increased with length of time between interviews. More discrepancies occurred in details peripheral to the account than in details that were central to the account. Conclusion The assumption that inconsistency of recall means that accounts have poor credibility is questionable. Discrepancies are likely to occur in repeated interviews. For refugees showing symptoms of high levels of post-traumatic stress, the length of the application process may also affect the number of discrepancies. Recall of details rated by the interviewee as peripheral to the account is more likely to be inconsistent than recall of details that are central to the account. Thus, such inconsistencies should not be relied on as indicating a lack of credibility. What is already known on this topicDiscrepancies between accounts of an event are often used to judge the credibility of asylum seekersWhat this study addsDiscrepancies arise between two accounts of the same event even when there is no reason for fabricationRefugees with high levels of post-traumatic stress are more likely to give inconsistent accounts if they have a long time to wait between interviewsInterviewees are more likely to be inconsistent in details that they rate as peripheral
Flannery, Todd W.; Nichols, Elizabeth M.; Cheston, Sally B.; Marter, Kimberley J.; Naqvi, Shahid A.; Markham, Kristen M.; Ali, Imran; Mohiuddin, Majid M.
Purpose: To determine whether the lumpectomy cavity (LPC) decreases in volume during whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) and what factors influence the decrease. Patients and Methods: Forty-three women with 44 breast lesions were prospectively enrolled. Eligible patients underwent lumpectomy followed by a CT simulation (CT1) within 60 days of surgery. Patients were treated to the entire breast to a dose of 45-50.4 Gy. After 21-23 treatments, a second planning CT simulation (CT2) was done. The LPC was contoured on CT2, and the volumes (LCV) were compared between CT1 and CT2. Results: The median LCV on CT1 and CT2 was 38.2 cm 3 and 21.7 cm 3 , respectively. The median percent change and volume decrease between CT1 and CT2 was -32.0% and 11.2 cm 3 , respectively (n = 44). The LCV decreased in 38 of 44 patients (86%). There was a significant correlation between initial LCV and decrease in volume (p = 0.001) and initial LCV and percent decrease in volume (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between time from surgery to CT1, to start of RT, or to CT2 and change in volume. Conclusions: Patients who undergo lumpectomy almost always have a decrease in their LCV during whole-breast RT. There was a correlation between the initial LCV and decrease in volume on repeat CT simulation. Evaluating patients for this change can potentially lead to decreased doses of radiation to the remaining breast and other critical structures when delivering a small-field boost. Repeat CT simulation should be considered in patients with larger cavities or cavities near critical structures.
Full Text Available Older adults' perception of their own risk of fall has never been included into screening tools. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of questions on subjects' self-perception of their own risk of fall.This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish community-dwelling older adults, who were followed-up for a one year period. At a baseline visit, subjects were asked about their recent history of falls (question 1: "Have you fallen in the last 6 months?", as well as on their perception of their own risk of fall by using two questions (question 2: "Do you think you may fall in the next few months?" possible answers: yes/no; question 3: "What is the probability that you fall in the next few months?" possible answers: low/intermediate/high. The follow-up consisted of quarterly telephone calls, where the number of falls occurred in that period was recorded.A short questionnaire built with questions 1 and 3 showed 70% sensitivity (95% CI: 56%-84%, 72% specificity (95% CI: 68%-76% and 0.74 area under the ROC curve (95% CI: 0.66-0.82 for prediction of repeated falls in the subsequent year.The estimation of one's own risk of fall has predictive validity for the occurrence of repeated falls in older adults. A short questionnaire including a question on perception of one's own risk of fall and a question on the recent history of falls had good predictive validity.
Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Gálvez-Barrón, César; Narvaiza, Leire; Miñarro, Antonio; Ruiz, Jorge; Valldosera, Esther; Gonzalo, Natalia; Ng, Thalia; Sanguino, María Jesús; Yuste, Antonio
Older adults' perception of their own risk of fall has never been included into screening tools. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of questions on subjects' self-perception of their own risk of fall. This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish community-dwelling older adults, who were followed-up for a one year period. At a baseline visit, subjects were asked about their recent history of falls (question 1: "Have you fallen in the last 6 months?"), as well as on their perception of their own risk of fall by using two questions (question 2: "Do you think you may fall in the next few months?" possible answers: yes/no; question 3: "What is the probability that you fall in the next few months?" possible answers: low/intermediate/high). The follow-up consisted of quarterly telephone calls, where the number of falls occurred in that period was recorded. A short questionnaire built with questions 1 and 3 showed 70% sensitivity (95% CI: 56%-84%), 72% specificity (95% CI: 68%-76%) and 0.74 area under the ROC curve (95% CI: 0.66-0.82) for prediction of repeated falls in the subsequent year. The estimation of one's own risk of fall has predictive validity for the occurrence of repeated falls in older adults. A short questionnaire including a question on perception of one's own risk of fall and a question on the recent history of falls had good predictive validity.
Full Text Available According to the EU Directive 2010/63, the severity of a procedure has to be classified as mild, moderate or severe. General anesthesia is thought to be mild, but the Directive does not differentiate between single and repeated anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the impact of repeated administration of isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on the well-being of adult C57BL/6JRj mice, in comparison to single administrations and to untreated animals, when applied six times for 45 min at an interval of 3-4 days. For the animals anesthetized, excitations, phases of anesthesia, and vital parameters were monitored. Well-being after anesthesia was assessed using a behavioral test battery including luxury behavior like burrowing and nest building behavior, the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS, the free exploratory paradigm for anxiety-related behavior, home cage activity and the rotarod test for activity, as well as food intake and body weight. Additionally, hair corticosterone and fecal corticosterone metabolites were measured. Our results show that nest building behavior, home cage activity, body weight, and corticosterone concentrations were not influenced by anesthesia, whereas changes in burrowing behavior, the MGS, food intake, and the free exploratory behavior indicated that the well-being of the mice was more affected by repeated than single isoflurane anesthesia. This effect depended on the sex of the animals, with female mice being more susceptible than male mice. However, repeated isoflurane anesthesia caused only short-term mild distress and impairment of well-being, mainly in the immediate postanesthetic period. Well-being stabilized at 8 days after the last anesthesia, at the latest. Therefore, we conclude that when using our anesthesia protocol, the severity of both single and repeated isoflurane anesthesia in C57BL/6JRj mice can be classified as mild. However, within the mild severity category, repeated isoflurane
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for Hearing Impaired Individuals (RBANS-H) before and after Cochlear Implantation: A Protocol for a Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study.
Claes, Annes J; Mertens, Griet; Gilles, Annick; Hofkens-Van den Brandt, Anouk; Fransen, Erik; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Van de Heyning, Paul
Background: Currently, an independent relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults is suggested by large prospective studies. In general, cochlear implants improve hearing and the quality of life in severely to profoundly hearing impaired older persons. However, little is known about the effects of cochlear implantation on the cognitive evolution in this population. Aim of the study: The primary goal of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study is to explore the cognitive profile of severely to profoundly postlingually hearing impaired subjects before and after cochlear implantation. In addition, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between the cognitive function, audiometric performances, quality of life, and self-reliance in these patients. Methods: Twenty-five patients aged 55 or older, scheduled for cochlear implantation, will be enrolled in the study. They will be examined prior to implantation, at 6 and 12 months after implantation and annually thereafter. The test battery consists of (1) a cognitive examination, using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status adapted for Hearing impaired persons (RBANS-H), (2) an audiological examination, including unaided and aided pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry in quiet and speech audiometry in noise, (3) the administration of four questionnaires evaluating quality of life and subjective hearing benefit and (4) a semi-structured interview about the self-reliance of the participant. Discussion: Up until now only one study has been conducted on this topic, focusing on the short-term effects of cochlear implantation on cognition in older adults. The present study is the first study to apply a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment adapted for severely to profoundly hearing impaired subjects in order to investigate the cognitive capabilities before and after cochlear implantation. Trial registration: The present protocol is
Krishnan, Syam; Justus, Sunitha; Meluveettil, Radhamani; Menon, Ramshekhar N; Sarma, Sankara P; Kishore, Asha
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is a brief and easy screening tool for accurately testing cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. We tested its validity for use in non-English (Malayalam) speaking patients with Parkinson's disease. We developed a Malayalam (a south-Indian language) version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment and applied to 70 patients with Parkinson's disease and 60 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Metric properties were assessed, and the scores were compared with the performance in validated Malayalam versions of Mini Mental Status Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Malayalam showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability and its scores correlated with Mini Mental Status Examination (patients: R = 0.70; P speaking Parkinson's disease patients for early screening and potential future interventions for cognitive dysfunction.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurem...
Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.
Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076
Alamidi, Daniel F; Smailagic, Amir; Bidar, Abdel W; Parker, Nicole S; Olsson, Marita; Hockings, Paul D; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M; Olsson, Lars E
Lung T 1 is a potential translational biomarker of lung disease. The precision and repeatability of variable flip angle (VFA) T 1 mapping using modern 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging of the whole lung needs to be established before it can be used to assess response to disease and therapy. To evaluate the feasibility of regional lung T 1 quantification with VFA 3D-UTE and to investigate long- and short-term T 1 repeatability in the lungs of naive mice. Prospective preclinical animal study. Eight naive mice and phantoms. 3D free-breathing radial UTE (8 μs) at 4.7T. VFA 3D-UTE T 1 calculations were validated against T 1 values measured with inversion recovery (IR) in phantoms. Lung T 1 and proton density (S 0 ) measurements of whole lung and muscle were repeated five times over 1 month in free-breathing naive mice. Two consecutive T 1 measurements were performed during one of the imaging sessions. Agreement in T 1 between VFA 3D-UTE and IR in phantoms was assessed using Bland-Altman and Pearson 's correlation analysis. The T 1 repeatability in mice was evaluated using coefficient of variation (CV), repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and paired t-test. Good T 1 agreement between the VFA 3D-UTE and IR methods was found in phantoms. T 1 in lung and muscle showed a 5% and 3% CV (1255 ± 63 msec and 1432 ± 42 msec, respectively, mean ± SD) with no changes in T 1 or S 0 over a month. Consecutive measurements resulted in an increase of 2% in both lung T 1 and S 0 . VFA 3D-UTE shows promise as a reliable T 1 mapping method that enables full lung coverage, high signal-to-noise ratio (∼25), and spatial resolution (300 μm) in freely breathing animals. The precision of the VFA 3D-UTE method will enable better design and powering of studies. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
George, Michaela F; Holingue, Calliope B; Briggs, Farren B S; Shao, Xiaorong; Bellesis, Kalliope H; Whitmer, Rachel A; Schaefer, Catherine; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Barcellos, Lisa F
Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and affects employment and quality of life. Large studies are needed to identify risk factors for cognitive decline. Currently, a MS-validated remote assessment for cognitive function does not exist. Studies to determine feasibility of large remote cognitive function investigations in MS have not been published. To determine whether MS patients would participate in remote cognitive studies. We utilized the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M), a previously validated phone assessment for cognitive function in healthy elderly populations to detect mild cognitive impairment. We identified factors that influenced participation rates. We investigated the relationship between MS risk factors and TICS-M score in cases, and score differences between cases and control individuals. The TICS-M was administered to MS cases and controls. Linear and logistic regression models were utilized. 11.5% of eligible study participants did not participate in cognitive testing. MS cases, females and individuals with lower educational status were more likely to refuse (pTICS-M score among cases (pTICS-M score was significantly lower in cases compared to controls (p=0.007). Our results demonstrate convincingly that a remotely administered cognitive assessment is quite feasible for conducting large epidemiologic studies in MS, and lay the much needed foundation for future work that will utilize MS-validated cognitive measures.
Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.
Bondar, Luiza; Velema, Laura; Mens, Jan Willem; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa; Zwijnenburg, Ellen
In cervical cancer patients the nodal clinical target volume (CTV, defined using the major pelvic blood vessels and enlarged lymph nodes) is assumed to move synchronously with the bony anatomy. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by investigating the motion of the major pelvic blood vessels and enlarged lymph nodes visible in CT scans. For 13 patients treated in prone position, four variable bladder-filling CT scans per patient, acquired at planning and after 40 Gy, were selected from an available dataset of 9-10 CT scans. The bladder, rectum, and the nodal-vessels structure containing the iliac vessels and all visible enlarged nodes were delineated in each selected CT scan. Two online patient setup correction protocols were simulated. The first corrected bony anatomy translations and the second corrected translations and rotations. The efficacy of each correction was calculated as the overlap between the nodal-vessels structure in the reference and repeat CT scans. The motion magnitude between delineated structures was quantified using nonrigid registration. Translational corrections resulted in an average overlap of 58 ± 13% and in a range of motion between 9.9 and 27.3 mm. Translational and rotational corrections significantly improved the overlap (64 ± 13%, p value = 0.007) and moderately reduced the range of motion to 7.6-23.8 mm (p value = 0.03). Bladder filling changes significantly correlated with the nodal-vessels motion (p [de
Kotani, Akira; Tsutsumi, Risa; Shoji, Asaki; Hayashi, Yuzuru; Kusu, Fumiyo; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hakamata, Hideki
This paper puts forward a time and material-saving method for evaluating the repeatability of area measurements in gradient HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV), based on the function of mutual information (FUMI) theory which can theoretically provide the measurement standard deviation (SD) and detection limits through the stochastic properties of baseline noise with no recourse to repetitive measurements of real samples. The chromatographic determination of terbinafine hydrochloride and enalapril maleate is taken as an example. The best choice of the number of noise data points, inevitable for the theoretical evaluation, is shown to be 512 data points (10.24s at 50 point/s sampling rate of an A/D converter). Coupled with the relative SD (RSD) of sample injection variability in the instrument used, the theoretical evaluation is proved to give identical values of area measurement RSDs to those estimated by the usual repetitive method (n=6) over a wide concentration range of the analytes within the 95% confidence intervals of the latter RSD. The FUMI theory is not a statistical one, but the "statistical" reliability of its SD estimates (n=1) is observed to be as high as that attained by thirty-one measurements of the same samples (n=31). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peixoto-Junior, R F; Creste, S; Landell, M G A; Nunes, D S; Sanguino, A; Campos, M F; Vencovsky, R; Tambarussi, E V; Figueira, A
Brown rust (causal agent Puccinia melanocephala) is an important sugarcane disease that is responsible for large losses in yield worldwide. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the genetic diversity of this pathogen in the main Brazilian sugarcane cultivation areas. In this study, we characterized the genetic diversity of 34 P. melanocephala isolates from 4 Brazilian states using loci identified from an enriched simple sequence repeat (SSR) library. The aggressiveness of 3 isolates from major sugarcane cultivation areas was evaluated by inoculating an intermediately resistant and a susceptible cultivar. From the enriched library, 16 SSR-specific primers were developed, which produced scorable alleles. Of these, 4 loci were polymorphic and 12 were monomorphic for all isolates evaluated. The molecular characterization of the 34 isolates of P. melanocephala conducted using 16 SSR loci revealed the existence of low genetic variability among the isolates. The average estimated genetic distance was 0.12. Phenetic analysis based on Nei's genetic distance clustered the isolates into 2 major groups. Groups I and II included 18 and 14 isolates, respectively, and both groups contained isolates from all 4 geographic regions studied. Two isolates did not cluster with these groups. It was not possible to obtain clusters according to location or state of origin. Analysis of disease severity data revealed that the isolates did not show significant differences in aggressiveness between regions.
Davidson, Terence; Smith, Hilary; Burns, Jan
Researchers and clinicians have hypothesised that cognitive assessments have the power to influence the self-identity of people with learning disabilities. This research aimed to explore the experience of a sample of people who had been given a cognitive assessment by a psychologist based in a team for people with learning disabilities. Five…
Wouters, Hans; van Gool, Willem A; Schmand, Ben; Lindeboom, Robert
BACKGROUND: To examine whether it is appropriate to sum the cognitive part of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) items to assess cognitive impairment. This assumes items to have (1) equal measurement precision and (2) hierarchically ordered categories. METHODS: Rasch analysis on the
Edward K. Chang
Discussion: Performance on weekly formative assessments was predictive of final exam scores. Struggling medical students will benefit from extra cumulative practice exams while students who are excelling do not need extra practice.
Rocca, Maria A; Amato, Maria P; De Stefano, Nicola
In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However...... that causes clinical symptoms to trigger. Findings on cortical reorganisation support the contribution of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve in limiting cognitive deficits. The development of clinical and imaging biomarkers that can monitor disease development and treatment response is crucial to allow...
Soller, Amy; Stevens, Ron
.... Examples ranging from fields as diverse as defense analysis, cognitive science, and instruction are illustrated throughout to demonstrate the variety of applications that benefit from such stochastic...
Anderson, Katie L; Frazier, Hilaree N; Maimaiti, Shaniya; Bakshi, Vikas V; Majeed, Zana R; Brewer, Lawrence D; Porter, Nada M; Lin, Ai-Ling; Thibault, Olivier
Novel therapies have turned to delivering compounds to the brain using nasal sprays, bypassing the blood brain barrier, and enriching treatment options for brain aging and/or Alzheimer's disease. We conducted a series of in vivo experiments to test the impact of intranasal Apidra, a zinc-free insulin formulation, on the brain of young and aged F344 rats. Both single acute and repeated daily doses were compared to test the hypothesis that insulin could improve memory recall in aged memory-deficient animals. We quantified insulin signaling in different brain regions and at different times following delivery. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using MRI and also characterized several brain metabolite levels using MR spectroscopy. We show that neither acute nor chronic Apidra improved memory or recall in young or aged animals. Within 2 hours of a single dose, increased insulin signaling was seen in ventral areas of the aged brains only. Although chronic Apidra was able to offset reduced CBF with aging, it also caused significant reductions in markers of neuronal integrity. Our data suggest that this zinc-free insulin formulation may actually hasten cognitive decline with age when used chronically. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ounsi, Hani F; Franciosi, Giovanni; Paragliola, Raffaele; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Salameh, Ziad; Tay, Franklin R; Ferrari, Marco; Grandini, Simone
The shaping capacity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments is often assessed by photographic or micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) measurements, and these instruments are often used more than once clinically. This study was conducted to compare photographic and micro-CT measurements and to assess if the repeated use of NiTi instruments affected the shape of canal preparation. Ten new sets of ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used in 60 resin blocks simulating curved root canals. Groups 1 to 6 (n=10) represented the first to sixth use of the instrument, respectively. Digitized images of the prepared blocks were taken in both mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) directions and area measurements (mm(2)) were calculated using AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA). The volumes of the same prepared canals were measured using micro-CT (mm(3)). Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences between photographic and volumetric measurements and differences between uses. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant differences between groups (P < .001). Regarding measurement type, there were no significant differences between BL and MD measurements, but there were significant differences between micro-CT and BL measurements (P < .001) and micro-CT and MD measurements (P=.001). Significant differences were also noted between uses. Within the limitations of the present study, micro-CT scanning is more discriminative of the changes in canal space associated with repeated instrument use than photographic measurements. Canal preparations are significantly smaller after the third use of the same instrument. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu-Ing; Murden, Robert A; Lamb, James; Beversdorf, David Q; Kataki, Maria; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Bornstein, Robert A
To develop a self-administered cognitive assessment instrument to facilitate the screening of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia and determine its association with gold standard clinical assessments including neuropsychologic evaluation. Adults aged above 59 years with sufficient vision and English literacy were recruited from geriatric and memory disorder clinics, educational talks, independent living facilities, senior centers, and memory screens. After Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) screening, subjects were randomly selected to complete a clinical evaluation, neurologic examination, neuropsychologic battery, functional assessment, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Subjects were identified as dementia, MCI, or normal based on standard clinical criteria and neuropsychologic testing. Two hundred fifty-four participants took the SAGE screen and 63 subjects completed the extensive evaluation (21 normal, 21 MCI, and 21 dementia subjects). Spearman rank correlation between SAGE and neuropsychologic battery was 0.84 (0.76 for MMSE). SAGE receiver operating characteristics on the basis of clinical diagnosis showed 95% specificity (90% for MMSE) and 79% sensitivity (71% for MMSE) in detecting those with cognitive impairment from normal subjects. This study suggests that SAGE is a reliable instrument for detecting cognitive impairment and compares favorably with the MMSE. The self-administered feature may promote cognitive testing by busy clinicians prompting earlier diagnosis and treatment.
Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.
MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive
Juliana Adami Sedrez
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Vert-3D is a radiation-free system which offers a three-dimensional view of the back’s surface, providing a quantitative assessment of spinal curvatures. Objective: To verify the repeatability, inter-rater reproducibility, and correlation between Cobb angles and the results of the Vert-3D system version 1 in the evaluation of the front curvatures of the spine in children with different nutritional profiles. Methods: The sample was composed of 115 children who underwent posterior-anterior panoramic digital radiography of the spine and five evaluations with the Vert-3D system by three trained raters. Results: Version 1 of the Vert-3D system showed: (1 significant and moderate correlations of repeatability for arrows on the left (ICC between .54 to .83 and significant and moderate correlations for arrows on the right (ICC between .55 to .60 for only normal BMI; (2 significant correlations of inter-rater reproducibility for left arrows (ICC between .47 to .65, weak to moderate correlations for right arrows (ICC between .29 to .60, and no significance for obese samples; and (3 significant correlations ranging between .31 and .60 on the left side and non-significant correlations to the right side between Cobb angles and scoliosis arrows. Conclusion: High correlation levels solely on the left side decrease the possibility of system-use for the assessment of scoliosis.
Moss, R. H.
Assessment of potential impacts and adaptations to global environmental change evaluate the continuously evolving state of science through the lens of relevance to challenges such as planning long-lived infrastructure and managing risks to property, ecosystems, public health, and other valued assets or objectives. These planning and decision contexts present varied challenges, including: multiple attributes at risk from interacting environmental and socioeconomic trends; uncertainties (scientific and otherwise); partial solutions with indefinite costs and benefits; and tradeoffs across stakeholder groups. Research and evaluation of assessments indicate they convey information that is more usable and relevant to decision makers if they are designed as sustained interactions of pertinent scientific and user communities and result in products beyond written reports. This talk will report on the work of a Federal Advisory Committee for the Sustained National Climate Assessment (SNCA) to develop recommendations to increase the SNCA's relevance and usability. The recommendations build on the conclusions of a 2013 report by the predecessor SNCA advisory committee and suggest next steps for (1) engagement, (2) provision of core scientific products, (3) tailoring of information and tools to provide insights under uncertainty, and (4) evaluation of products and outcomes. The recommended process focuses on providing insights relevant to consideration of risks and solutions. While resulting in a wide range of products and outcomes on an ongoing basis, aggregation and assessment of emerging insights and good practice for supporting decision making under uncertainty would recur over a four-year adaptive management cycle in the context of the preparation of the US national assessment report mandated under the Global Change Research Act. Uncertainty about the future role of Federal agencies in the assessment process and opportunities for increased engagement by non-Federal actors
De Roeck, Ellen Elisa; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Bjerke, Maria; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Dierckx, Eva
Cognitive frailty is characterized by the presence of cognitive impairment in exclusion of dementia. In line with other frailty domains, cognitive frailty is associated with negative outcomes. The Comprehensive Frailty Assessment Instrument (CFAI) measures 4 domains of frailty, namely physical, psychological, social, and environmental frailty. The absence of cognitive frailty is a limitation. An expert panel selected 6 questions from the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline that were, together with the CFAI and the Montreal cognitive assessment administered to 355 older community dwelling adults (mean age = 77). After multivariate analysis, 2 questions were excluded. All the questions from the original CFAI were implemented in a principal component analysis together with the 4 cognitive questions, showing that the 4 cognitive questions all load on 1 factor, representing the cognitive domain of frailty. By adding the cognitive domain to the CFAI, the reliability of the adapted CFAI (CFAI-Plus), remains good (Cronbach's alpha: .767). This study showed that cognitive frailty can be added to the CFAI without affecting its good psychometric properties. In the future, the CFAI-Plus needs to be validated in an independent cohort, and the interaction with the other frailty domains needs to be studied. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter
Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology in depressed primary care patients. A total of 267 depressed patients were followed for 3 years using a repeated-assessments design consisting of 36 monthly assessments of the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders depression symptoms and positive and negative life events. We examined whether the severity of depressive symptomatology changed directly after the occurrence of a life event. Negative events were not associated with short-term changes in depressive symptomatology. In contrast, positive events were followed by a significant decrease in depressive symptoms one and two months after their occurrence. These findings may translate into emphasis during treatment on engagement in activities that may increase the chance of positive life experiences.
Williams, C A L; Panerai, R B; Robinson, T G; Haunton, V J
We tested the hypothesis that paradigms from the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III), including those that had not been studied using TCD previously (novel) versus those which had been (established), would elicit changes in CBF velocity (CBFv). Healthy subjects were studied with bilateral transcranial Doppler (TCD), beat-to-beat blood pressure (Finapres), continuous electrocardiogram (ECG), and end-tidal CO 2 (nasal capnography). After a 5-min baseline recording, cognitive tests of the ACE-III were presented to subjects, covering attention (SUB7, subtracting 7 from 100 sequentially), language (REP, repeating words and phrases), fluency (N-P, naming words), visuospatial (DRAW, clock-drawing), and memory (MEM, recalling name and address). An event marker noted question timing. Forty bilateral data sets were obtained (13 males, 37 right-hand dominant) with a median age of 31 years (IQR 22-52). Population normalized mean peak CBFv% in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres, respectively, were: SUB7 (11.3±9.6%, 11.2±10.5%), N-P (12.7±11.7%, 11.5±12.0%), REP (12.9±11.7%, 11.6±11.6%), DRAW (13.3±11.7%, 13.2±15.4%) and MEM (13.2±10.3%, 12.0±10.1%). There was a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant CBFv responses (pCognitive paradigms derived from the ACE-III led to significant lateralised changes in CBFv that were not distinct for novel paradigms. Further work is needed to assess the potential of paradigms to improve the interpretation of cognitive assessments in patients at risk of mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W
Assessment of canine palatability is important for both the pet food and pharmaceutical industries; however, the current palatability assessment protocols are limited in their utility. The most common technique, the two-pan test, does not control for the satiating effects of food and may not be useful for long-term palatability analysis because nutritional or caloric characteristics of the diets may interfere with the results. Furthermore, the large quantities of foods consumed may be detrimental to the health of animals that do not self-limit their food intake. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a cognitive protocol could be used to determine food palatability in dogs. Five beagle dogs were trained on a three-choice object-discrimination learning task. After establishing object preferences, the preferred object was associated with no reward, a second object was associated with the dog's normal laboratory diet (Purina Agribrands Canine Lab Chow No. 5006; Agribrands Purina Canada, Inc., Woodstock, ON, Canada), and the third object was associated with a commercial (Hill's P/D; Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc., Topeka, KS) diet. In the discrimination-training phase, dogs were trained until they learned to avoid the no-reward object. They were subsequently given an additional 20 test sessions, which were used to determine food preference. In the reversal phase, which involved reversal learning, the object-food associations were modified, such that the object that was previously associated with Hill's P/D diet was now associated with the normal laboratory diet and vice versa. Once the dogs learned to avoid the no-reward object, they were tested for an additional 20 sessions. All subjects learned to avoid the no-reward object during the initial learning, and the number of choices to the object associated with the Hill's P/D diet was greater than the number of choices to the objects associated with the dry laboratory diet (P food-choice associations were reversed
Full Text Available Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating and repetitive, and these factors may lead participants to disengage with the task at hand. This, in turn, may negatively impact our data quality and reduce any intervention effects. Gamification may provide a solution. If we can successfully import game design elements into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then we may be able improve the quality of data, increase the effectiveness of our interventions, and maximise participant engagement. We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature of gamified cognitive testing and training tasks to identify where, how and why gamification has been used, and whether it has been successful. We searched several online databases, from January 2007 to January 2015, and screened 33,000 articles that matched our search terms. Our review identified 34 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were validated successfully and were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Despite this, the heterogeneity of study designs and typically small sample sizes highlights the need for further research. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and how they relate to several models of player engagement. In conclusion the evidence suggests that gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and scientifically valid cognitive tasks, but that no single game can be engaging to every participant and therefore gamification is not a silver-bullet for all motivational problems in psychological research.
Andressa de Oliveira Ferro
Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Stroke (CVA can generate motor, sensory and cognitive development deficits, affecting the individual’s performance in daily activities. Changes in any cognitive area can affect the individual’s occupational engagement. Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and functional capacity in patients suffering from stroke, showing the importance of cognitive assessment for occupational therapy intervention. Method: A comparative study with cross-sectional sampling of 44 subjects aged 30-80 years, both sexes. The subjects were divided in three groups: Adult: 11 individuals affected by stroke, 30-59 years old; Elderly: 10 individuals affected by stroke, 60-80 years old; Control: 23 normal subjects, 30-80 years old. Tests applied: MMSE, Clock Test, Test of tracks A and B, and functional capacity (BOMFAQ. Results: Cognitive changes were identified in the Adult and Elderly groups. The Adult group showed poorer performance on the Clock test (visuospatial and executive functions compared with the Control group. The Adult and Elderly groups presented worse performance in the Track A test (attention compared with the Control group. In the Track B test (visual attention, graphomotor skills, and mental flexibility, applied with absolute numbers, no significant differences were observed between the Adult and Elderly groups and the Control group, but cognitive impairment was perceived when the test was applied with categories. The Adult group showed higher prevalence of moderate/severe impairment in the carrying out of daily activities. Conclusion: As a rule, individuals suffering from stroke, in addition to having impaired functional capacity, present cognitive impairments that can negatively impact the performance of daily tasks, whether they are occupational, leisure or self-care activities. Accordingly, we observed the need to evaluate cognitive rehabilitation for better targeting and quality of life improvement.
Bondar, Luiza; Velema, Laura; Mens, Jan Willem; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa [Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, 3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zwijnenburg, Ellen [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)
In cervical cancer patients the nodal clinical target volume (CTV, defined using the major pelvic blood vessels and enlarged lymph nodes) is assumed to move synchronously with the bony anatomy. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by investigating the motion of the major pelvic blood vessels and enlarged lymph nodes visible in CT scans. For 13 patients treated in prone position, four variable bladder-filling CT scans per patient, acquired at planning and after 40 Gy, were selected from an available dataset of 9-10 CT scans. The bladder, rectum, and the nodal-vessels structure containing the iliac vessels and all visible enlarged nodes were delineated in each selected CT scan. Two online patient setup correction protocols were simulated. The first corrected bony anatomy translations and the second corrected translations and rotations. The efficacy of each correction was calculated as the overlap between the nodal-vessels structure in the reference and repeat CT scans. The motion magnitude between delineated structures was quantified using nonrigid registration. Translational corrections resulted in an average overlap of 58 ± 13% and in a range of motion between 9.9 and 27.3 mm. Translational and rotational corrections significantly improved the overlap (64 ± 13%, p value = 0.007) and moderately reduced the range of motion to 7.6-23.8 mm (p value = 0.03). Bladder filling changes significantly correlated with the nodal-vessels motion (p < 0.001). The motion of the nodal-vessels was large, nonrigid, patient-specific, and only moderately synchronous with the bony anatomy. This study highlights the need for caution when reducing the CTV-to-PTV (PTV planning target volume) margin of the nodal CTV for highly conformal radiation techniques. (orig.) [German] Bei Zervixkarzinompatientinnen wird davon ausgegangen, dass das nodale klinische Zielvolumen (CTV, definiert anhand der grossen Blutgefaesse des Beckens und vergroesserter Lymphknoten) sich synchron mit
Sherifa A Hamed
Full Text Available Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG, neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. Cognition was tested using a sensitive battery of psychometric testing (Mini-mental State Examination [MMSE], Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 4 th edition [SBIS] and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised [WMS-R] and by recording P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs, a neurophysiological analog for cognitive function. Results: Compared with healthy subjects (n = 20, patients had lower total scores of cognitive testing (MMSE, SBIS and WMS-R (P = 0.001, higher Beck Depression Inventory 2 nd edition scores (P = 0.0001 and prolonged latencies (P = 0.01 and reduced amplitudes (P = 0.001 of P300 component of ERPs. Correlations were identified between total scores of cognitive testing and age (r = -0.470, P = 0.010, duration of illness (r = -0.788, P = 0.001 and depression scores (r = -0.323, P = 0.045. Using linear regression analysis and after controlling for age and depression scores, a significant correlation was identified between total scores of cognitive testing and duration of illness (β = -0.305, P = 0.045. Conclusion: Patients with mild/moderate MG may have cognitive dysfunction. This is important to determine prognosis and managing patients.
Cognitive Impairment; Cognitive Decline; Cognition Disorders; Cognitive Symptom; Cognitive Change; Cognitive Deterioration; Cognitive Abnormality; Cognitive Impairment, Mild; Cognition Disorders in Old Age; Dementia; Dementia Alzheimers; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Dementia, Mild; Dementia of Alzheimer Type
Kratz, Anna L; Murphy, Susan L; Braley, Tiffany J
To describe the daily variability and patterns of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Repeated-measures observational study of 7 consecutive days of home monitoring, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of symptoms. Multilevel mixed models were used to analyze data. General community. Ambulatory adults (N=107) with MS recruited through the University of Michigan and surrounding community. Not applicable. EMA measures of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function rated on a 0 to 10 scale, collected 5 times a day for 7 days. Cognitive function and depressed mood exhibited more stable within-person patterns than pain and fatigue, which varied considerably within person. All symptoms increased in intensity across the day (all Pfatigue showing the most substantial increase. Notably, this diurnal increase varied by sex and age; women showed a continuous increase from wake to bedtime, whereas fatigue plateaued after 7 pm for men (wake-bed B=1.04, P=.004). For the oldest subgroup, diurnal increases were concentrated to the middle of the day compared with younger subgroups, which showed an earlier onset of fatigue increase and sustained increases until bed time (wake-3 pm B=.04, P=.01; wake-7 pm B=.03, P=.02). Diurnal patterns of cognitive function varied by education; those with advanced college degrees showed a more stable pattern across the day, with significant differences compared with those with bachelor-level degrees in the evening (wake-7 pm B=-.47, P=.02; wake-bed B=-.45, P=.04). Findings suggest that chronic symptoms in MS are not static, even over a short time frame; rather, symptoms-fatigue and pain in particular-vary dynamically across and within days. Incorporation of EMA methods should be considered in the assessment of these chronic MS symptoms to enhance assessment and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier
Full Text Available Early childhood is a critical period for development of cognitive function, but research on the association between physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children is limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the association between technology-assessed physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Physical Activity and Cognitive Development Study was conducted in Shanghai, China. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers for 7 consecutive days, and cognitive functions were assessed using the Chinese version of Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence (C-WYCSI. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between physical activity and cognitive function. A total of 260 preschool children (boys, 144; girls, 116; mean age: 57.2 ± 5.4 months were included in analyses for this study. After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that Verbal Intelligence Quotient, Performance Intelligence Quotient, and Full Intelligence Quotient were significantly correlated with light physical activity, not moderate to vigorous physical activity, in boys. Standardized coefficients were 0.211, 0.218, and 0.242 (all p < 0.05 in three different models, respectively. However, the correlation between physical activity and cognitive functions were not significant in girls (p > 0.05. These findings suggest that cognitive function is apparently associated with light physical activity in boys. Further studies are required to clarify the sex-specific effect on physical activity and cognitive functions.
Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan
Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…
Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael
Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benedict, R; Amato, Mp; Boringa, J; Brochet, B; Foley, F; Fredrikson, S; Hamalainen, P; Hartung, H; Krupp, L; Penner, I; Reder, A; Langdon, D.
An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...
Lehman, Elyse Brauch; Naglieri, Jack A.; Aquilino, Sally A.
Objective: Developmental changes in the performance of children and adolescents are studied using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) which is an individually administered test of 4 basic cognitive processes. Method: The test measures the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) processes as a theory of intelligence that can…
Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris
As the relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal, there is a need to understand how spatial patterns in soil moisture influence the distribution of vegetation, and how the structure of vegetation canopies and root networks regulates the partitioning of precipitation. Spatial patterns of soil moisture are often difficult to visualise as usually, soil moisture is measured at point scales, and often difficult to extrapolate. Here, we address the difficulties in collecting large amounts of spatial soil moisture data through a study combining plot- and transect-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys to estimate soil moisture in a 3.2 km2 upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil moisture under Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) and heather moorland shrubs (Calluna vulgaris); the two dominant vegetation types in the Scottish Highlands. The study focussed on one year of fortnightly ERT surveys. The surveyed resistivity data was inverted and Archie's law was used to calculate volumetric soil moisture by estimating parameters and comparing against field measured data. Results showed that spatial soil moisture patterns were more heterogeneous in the forest site, as were patterns of wetting and drying, which can be linked to vegetation distribution and canopy structure. The heather site showed a less heterogeneous response to wetting and drying, reflecting the more uniform vegetation cover of the shrubs. Comparing soil moisture temporal variability during growing and non-growing seasons revealed further contrasts: under the heather there was little change in soil moisture during the growing season. Greatest changes in the forest were in areas where the trees were concentrated reflecting water uptake and canopy partitioning. Such differences have implications for climate and land use changes; increased forest cover can lead to greater spatial variability, greater
Brydges, Nichola M; Hall, Lynsey
Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals. In particular, the 'cognitive bias' assay has gained popularity in recent years. Major disadvantages of this technique include length of time taken for animals to acquire the task (typically several weeks), negative experiences associated with task training, and issues of motivation. Here we present a shortened cognitive bias protocol using only positive reinforcers which must actively be responded to. The protocol took an average of 4days to complete, and produced similar results to previous, longer methods (minimum 30days). Specifically, rats housed in standard laboratory conditions demonstrated negative cognitive biases when presented with ambiguous stimuli, and took longer to make a decision when faced with an ambiguous stimulus. Compared to previous methods, this protocol is significantly shorter (average 4days vs. minimum 30days), utilises only positive reinforcers to avoid inducing negative affective states, and requires active responses to all cues, avoiding potential confounds of motivational state. We have successfully developed a shortened cognitive bias protocol, suitable for use with laboratory rats. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper examines the possibility that dance games such as Dance Dance Revolution or StepMania enhance the cognitive abilities that are critical to academic achievement. These games appear to place a high cognitive load on working memory requiring the player to convert a visual signal to a physical movement up to 7 times per second. Players see a pattern of directions displayed on the screen and they memorise these as a dance sequence. Other researchers have found that attention span and memory ability, both cognitive abilities required for academic achievement, are improved through the use of physical movement and exercise. This paper reviews these claims and documents tool development for on-going research by the author.
Goldman, Jennifer G; Holden, Samantha K; Litvan, Irene; McKeith, Ian; Stebbins, Glenn T; Taylor, John-Paul
Mild cognitive impairment has gained recognition as a construct and a potential prodromal stage to dementia in both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Although mild cognitive impairment has been recognized in the Alzheimer's disease field, it is a relatively more recent topic of interest in PD. Recent advances include the development of diagnostic criteria for PD mild cognitive impairment to provide more uniform definitions for clinical and research use. Studies reveal that mild cognitive impairment in PD is frequent, but also heterogeneous, with variable clinical presentations, differences in its progression to dementia, and likely differences in underlying pathophysiology. Application of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PD Mild Cognitive Impairment Task Force diagnostic criteria has provided insights regarding cognitive measures, functional assessments, and other key topics that may require additional refinement. Furthermore, it is important to consider definitions of PD mild cognitive impairment in the landscape of other related Lewy body disorders, such as dementia with Lewy bodies, and in the context of prodromal and early-stage PD. This article examines the evolution of mild cognitive impairment in concept and definition, particularly in PD, but also in related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies; the development and application of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PD Mild Cognitive Impairment diagnostic criteria; and insights and future directions for the field of PD mild cognitive impairment. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Marioni, R E; Yang, J; Dykiert, D; Mõttus, R; Campbell, A; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Bressler, Jan; Debette, Stephanie; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert V; Davies, Gail; Bennett, David A; Deary, Ian J; Ikram, M Arfan; Launer, Lenore J; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Seshadri, Sudha; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Mosely Jr, Thomas H; Davies, G; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Visscher, P M; Deary, I J
Obesity and low cognitive function are associated with multiple adverse health outcomes across the life course. They have a small phenotypic correlation (r=−0.11; high body mass index (BMI)−low cognitive function), but whether they have a shared genetic aetiology is unknown. We investigated the phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits using data from 6815 unrelated, genotyped members of Generation Scotland, an ethnically homogeneous cohort from five sites across Scotland. Genetic correlations were estimated using the following: same-sample bivariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)–GREML; independent samples bivariate GCTA–GREML using Generation Scotland for cognitive data and four other samples (n=20 806) for BMI; and bivariate LDSC analysis using the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data on cognitive function (n=48 462) and BMI (n=339 224) to date. The GWAS summary data were also used to create polygenic scores for the two traits, with within- and cross-trait prediction taking place in the independent Generation Scotland cohort. A large genetic correlation of −0.51 (s.e. 0.15) was observed using the same-sample GCTA–GREML approach compared with −0.10 (s.e. 0.08) from the independent-samples GCTA–GREML approach and −0.22 (s.e. 0.03) from the bivariate LDSC analysis. A genetic profile score using cognition-specific genetic variants accounts for 0.08% (P=0.020) of the variance in BMI and a genetic profile score using BMI-specific variants accounts for 0.42% (P=1.9 × 10−7) of the variance in cognitive function. Seven common genetic variants are significantly associated with both traits at Pcognitive function. PMID:26857597
Fletcher, Jack M; Miciak, Jeremy
There is considerable controversy about the necessity of cognitive assessment as part of an evaluation for learning and attention problems. The controversy should be adjudicated through an evaluation of empirical research. We review five sources of evidence commonly provided as support for cognitive assessment as part of the learning disability (LD) identification process, highlighting significant gaps in empirical research and where existing evidence is insufficient to establish the reliability and validity of cognitive assessments used in this way. We conclude that current evidence does not justify routine cognitive assessment for LD identification. As an alternative, we offer an instructional conceptualization of LD: a hybrid model that directly informs intervention and is based on documenting low academic achievement, inadequate response to intensive interventions, and a consideration of exclusionary factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Bui, Kevin D; Rai, Roshan; Johnson, Michelle J
In this study, we aim to explore ways to objectively assess cognitive deficits in the stroke and HIV/stroke populations, where cognitive and motor impairments can be hard to separate. Using an upper limb rehabilitation robot called the Haptic TheraDrive, we collect performance error scores and motor learning data on the impaired and unimpaired limb during a trajectory tracking task. We compare these data to clinical cognitive scores. The preliminary results suggest a possible relationship between unimpaired upper limb performance error and visuospatial/executive function cognitive domains, but more work needs to be done to further investigate this. The potential of using robot-assisted technologies to measure unimpaired limb kinematics as a tool to assess cognitive deficits would be useful to inform more effective rehabilitation strategies for HIV, stroke, and HIV/stroke populations.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between child cognitive development scores and mother-child interaction measures and also between anthropometric measures and child cognitive development scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mother-child interaction measures and cognitive development scores, after adjusting by anthropometric measures. Thirty-three percent of the children were below the 10th percentile for height-for-age. There was no significant correlation between the total amount of mother-child interaction and child cognitive development. However, certain aspects of the home environment correlated with cognitive development, specifically the manner in which the mother responded emotionally and verbally to her child, and the organization of the child's physical and temporal environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the manner in which the mother responded and the child's weight-for-height were important in predicting child cognitive development. The child's weight-for-height and certain aspects of the home environment played an important role in the cognitive development of this refugee population. The findings indicate the importance of assessing nutritional status in this refugee population.
Knoblock, Eric J.; Madanayake, Arjuna
This effort provides a survey and assessment of various cognitive communications interest areas, including node-to-node link optimization, intelligent routing/networking, and learning algorithms, and is conducted primarily from the perspective of NASA space communications needs and benefits. Areas of consideration include optimization methods, learning algorithms, and candidate implementations/technologies. Assessments of current research efforts are provided with mention of areas for further investment. Other considerations, such as antenna technologies and cognitive radio platforms, are briefly provided as well.
The overall scores revealed that 87.5% of the participants presented with some form of cognitive deficit, 81% exhibited deficits in memory and executive functioning, 75% showed deficits in attention and visual perception, and 50% exhibited language deficits. Thus, this instrument may be usefully employed with patients who ...
Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a recently described neuropsychiatric entity with the possibility of evolving into overt dementia. It has been found to respond to therapeutic intervention, thus halting or significantly retarding the progression to dementia. Resource.poor countries like Nigeria can hardly afford to ...
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS are now well recognized worldwide, but unfortunately this domain has been less explored in India due to many undermining factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive impairments in Indian MS patients with visual or upper limb motor problems with the help of short version of Montreal cognitive assessment test (MoCA. Subjects and Methods: Thirty MS patients and 50 matched controls were recruited for the 12 points MoCA task. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis was performed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity of the 12 points MoCA in differentiating cognitively impaired patients and controls. Results: The mean 12 points MoCA scores of the controls and MS patients were 11.56 ± 0.67 and 8.06 ± 1.99, respectively. In our study, the optimal cut-off value for 12 points MoCA to be able to differentiate patients with cognitive impairments from controls is 10/12. Accordingly, 73.3% patients fell below the cut off value. Both the groups did not have significant statistical differences with regard to age and educational years. Conclusion: The 12 points, short version of MoCA, is a useful brief screening tool for quick and early detection of mild cognitive impairments in subjects with MS. It can be administered to patients having visual and motor problems. It is of potential use by primary care physicians, nurses, and other allied health professionals who need a quick screening test. No formal training for administration is required. Financial and time constraints should not limit the use of the proposed instrument.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be
He, Hao; Bustillo, Juan; Du, Yuhui; Yu, Qingbao; Jones, Thomas R.; Jiang, Tianzi; Calhoun, Vince D.; Sui, Jing
The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are largely resistant to current treatment, and are thus a life-long burden to patients. The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) provides a reliable and valid assessment of cognition across a comprehensive set of cognitive domains for schizophrenia. In resting-state fMRI, functional connectivity associated with MCCB has not yet been examined. In this paper, the interrelationships between MCCB and the abnormalities seen in two types of functional measures from resting-state fMRI—fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and functional network connectivity (FNC) maps were investigated in data from 47 schizophrenia patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. First, the fALFF maps were generated and decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA), and then the component showing the highest correlation with MCCB composite scores was selected. Second, the whole brain was separated into functional networks by group ICA, and the FNC maps were calculated. The FNC strengths with most significant correlations with MCCB were displayed and spatially overlapped with the fALFF component of interest. It demonstrated increased cognitive performance associated with higher fALFF values (intensity of regional spontaneous brain activity) in prefrontal regions, inferior parietal lobe (IPL) but lower ALFF values in thalamus, striatum, and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Interestingly, the FNC showing significant correlations with MCCB were in well agreement with the activated regions with highest z-values in fALFF component. Our results support the view that functional deficits in distributed cortico-striato-thalamic circuits and inferior parietal lobe may account for several aspects of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Cognitive diagnostic modeling has become an exciting new field of psychometric research. These models aim to diagnose examinees' mastery status of a group of discretely defined skills, or attributes, thereby providing them with detailed information regarding their specific strengths and weaknesses. Combining cognitive diagnosis with computer adaptive assessments has emerged as an important part of this new field. This article aims to provide practitioners and researchers with an introduction to and overview of recent developments in cognitive diagnostic computer adaptive assessments.
Panmi M. T. Lo
Full Text Available Social cognition is a core limiting factor of functional recovery among persons with schizophrenia. However, there is a lack of standardized and culturally relevant assessment tools for evaluating social cognitive performance in Chinese persons with schizophrenia. The purposes of this study were to (1 develop and validate two social cognitive instruments, the Chinese Facial Emotion Identification Test (C-FEIT and the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ, that assess three key domains of social cognition and (2 to evaluate preliminary psychometric properties of the two assessments. The results demonstrated that the C-FEIT and the social cognitive subscales of C-SCSQ possess satisfactory content-related validity and test–retest reliability (ICC ranging from 0.76 to 0.85. Subscales of the C-FEIT and the C-SCSQ showed low to medium correlation with two concurrent neurocognitive measures (absolute values of r ranging from 0.22 to 0.45 and concurrent measures of functional performance (absolute values of r ranging from 0.22 to 0.46. Our findings generally support the use of the C-FEIT and the C-SCSQ as reliable and valid tools for assessing emotion perception, theory of mind (intention-inferencing, and hostile attributional style, which are the key outcome indicators of social cognitive interventions for persons with schizophrenia.
Khan, Nadeem; Mupparaju, Sriram; Hou, Huagang; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold
Tumor hypoxia plays a vital role in therapeutic resistance. Consequently, measurements of tumor pO2 could be used to optimize the outcome of oxygen-dependent therapies, such as, chemoradiation. However, the potential optimizations are restricted by the lack of methods to repeatedly and quantitatively assess tumor pO2 during therapies, particularly in gliomas. We describe the procedures for repeated measurements of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. This oximetry approach provides simultaneous measurements of pO2 at more than one site in the glioma and contralateral cerebral tissue. The pO2 of intracerebral 9L, C6, F98 and U251 tumors, as well as contralateral brain, were measured repeatedly for five consecutive days. The 9L glioma was well oxygenated with pO2 of 27 - 36 mm Hg, while C6, F98 and U251 glioma were hypoxic with pO2 of 7 - 12 mm Hg. The potential of multi-site EPR oximetry to assess temporal changes in tissue pO2 was investigated in rats breathing 100% O2. A significant increase in F98 tumor and contralateral brain pO2 was observed on day 1 and day 2, however, glioma oxygenation declined on subsequent days. In conclusion, EPR oximetry provides the capability to repeatedly assess temporal changes in orthotopic glioma pO2. This information could be used to test and optimize the methods being developed to modulate tumor hypoxia. Furthermore, EPR oximetry could be potentially used to enhance the outcome of chemoradiation by scheduling treatments at times of increase in glioma pO2. PMID:22079559
Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.
Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC≤0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC≤0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390
Evans, Carol; Waring, Michael
The enhancement of assessment feedback is an international concern. This study is unique in its exploration of the nature of the relationship between student teachers' assessment feedback preferences, cognitive styles and gender, with a view to informing the development of assessment feedback practices and course design within initial teacher…
Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Valles-Salgado, María; Pérez-Pérez, Alicia; Rognoni, Teresa; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge
Interpreting cognitive tests is often challenging. The same test frequently examines multiple cognitive functions, and the functional and anatomical basis underlying test performance is unknown in many cases. This study analyses the correlation of different neuropsychological test results with brain metabolism in a series of patients evaluated for suspected Alzheimer disease. 20 healthy controls and 80 patients consulting for memory loss were included, in which cognitive study and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET were performed. Patients were categorized according to Reisberg's Global Deterioration Scale. Voxel-based analysis was used to determine correlations between brain metabolism and performance on the following tests: Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Trail Making Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP), and Tower of London (ToL) test. Mean age in the patient group was 73.9 ± 10.6 years, and 47 patients were women (58.7%). FCSRT findings were positively correlated with metabolism in the medial and anterior temporal region bilaterally, the left precuneus, and posterior cingulate. BNT results were correlated with metabolism in the middle temporal, superior, fusiform, and frontal medial gyri bilaterally. VOSP results were related to the occipital and parietotemporal regions bilaterally. ToL scores were correlated to metabolism in the right temporoparietal and frontal regions. These results suggest that different areas of the brain are involved in the processes required to complete different cognitive tests. Ascertaining the functional basis underlying these tests may prove helpful for understanding and interpreting them. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the
Shepherd, A; Tyebji, S; Hannan, A J; Burrows, E L
Cognitive dysfunction appears as a core feature of dementia, which includes its most prevalent form, Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and other brain disorders. AD alone affects more than 45 million people worldwide, with growing prevalence in aging populations. There is no cure, and therapeutic options remain limited. Gene-edited and transgenic animal models, expressing disease-specific gene mutations, illuminate pathogenic mechanisms leading to cognitive decline in AD and other forms of dementia. To date, cognitive tests in AD mouse models have not been directly relevant to the clinical presentation of AD, providing challenges for translation of findings to the clinic. Touchscreen testing in mice has enabled the assessment of specific cognitive domains in mice that are directly relevant to impairments described in human AD patients. In this review, we provide context for how cognitive decline is measured in the clinic, describe traditional methods for assessing cognition in mice, and outline novel approaches, including the use of the touchscreen platform for cognitive testing. We highlight the limitations of traditional memory-testing paradigms in mice, particularly their capacity for direct translation into cognitive testing of patients. While it is not possible to expect direct translation in testing methodologies, we can aim to develop tests that engage similar neural substrates in both humans and mice. Ultimately, that would enable us to better predict efficacy across species and therefore improve the chances that a treatment that works in mice will also work in the clinic.
Emily J. Henderson
Full Text Available Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson’s disease (PD to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters. Results. Of the 135 subjects that completed both tests, 55% had cognitive impairment according to MoCA. A MoCA score of 25 was equivalent to a TYM score of 43-44. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for TYM to differentiate between PD-normal and PD-cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.89. The optimal cutoff to distinguish PD-cognitive impairment from PD-normal was ≤45 (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 59% thereby correctly classifying 76.3% of patients with PD-cognitive impairment. Interrater agreement was high (0.97 and TYM was completed in under 7 minutes (interquartile range 5.33 to 8.52 minutes. Conclusions. The TYM test is a useful and less resource intensive screening test for cognitive deficits in PD.
Westergren, Nicolai; Bendtsen, Rasmus L.; Kjær, Troels W.
decline is important. Cognitive decline may be detected using fullyautomated computerized assessment. Such systems will provide inexpensive and widely available screenings of cognitive ability. The aim of this pilot study is to develop a real time steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer...... interface (BCI) for neurological cognitive assessment. It is intended for use by patients who suffer from diseases impairing their motor skills, but are still able to control their gaze. Results are based on 11 healthy test subjects. The system performance have an average accuracy of 100% ± 0%. The test...... subjects achieved an information transfer rate (ITR) of 14:64 bits/min ± 7:63 bits=min and a subject test performance of 47:22% ± 34:10%. This study suggests that BCI may be applicable in practice as a computerized cognitive assessment tool. However, many improvements are required for the system...
LePort, Aurora K R; Stark, Shauna M; McGaugh, James L; Stark, Craig E L
Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterised as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one's lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects' memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material.
Howard, S J; Burianová, H; Ehrich, J; Kervin, L; Calleia, A; Barkus, E; Carmody, J; Humphry, S
Standards-referenced educational reform has increased the prevalence of standardized testing; however, whether these tests accurately measure students' competencies has been questioned. This may be due to domain-specific assessments placing a differing domain-general cognitive load on test-takers. To investigate this possibility, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and quantify the neural correlates of performance on current, international standardized methods of spelling assessment. Out-of-scanner testing was used to further examine differences in assessment results. Results provide converging evidence that: (a) the spelling assessments differed in the cognitive load placed on test-takers; (b) performance decreased with increasing cognitive load of the assessment; and (c) brain regions associated with working memory were more highly activated during performance of assessments that were higher in cognitive load. These findings suggest that assessment design should optimize the cognitive load placed on test-takers, to ensure students' results are an accurate reflection of their true levels of competency. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
This qualitative case study focused on the role of cognitive referents in the sense-making process of one teacher as he attempted to change his classroom science assessment. The interpretations identify cultural myths, conceptual metonymys, as well as personally constructed beliefs as referents that constrained change. The teacher's cognitive struggle to make sense of assessment and his role as assessor are linked to conflicting referents he used in varying contexts including day-to-day assessment and summative assessment settings. The results of the study suggest that cognitive referents are important influences in driving how a teacher thinks about assessment and may constrain an individual teacher's implementation of innovative practices. Accordingly, identification of referents such as myths, their associated beliefs, and metonymic conceptual models that teachers use to make sense of their actions is an important first step in developing an understanding of constraints to educational change.
Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318
Background Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue. However, these tests are still predominantly delivered within a medical environment, limiting their utility and efficacy. Objective The aim of this research was to investigate how cognitive fatigue can be accurately assessed in situ, during the quotidian activities of life. It was hypothesized that this assessment could be achieved through the use of mobile assistive technology to assess working memory, sustained attention, information processing speed, reaction time, and cognitive throughput. Methods The study used a bespoke smartphone app to track daily cognitive performance, in order to assess potential levels of cognitive fatigue. Twenty-one participants with no prior reported brain injuries took place in a two-week study, resulting in 81 individual testing instances being collected. The smartphone app delivered three cognitive tests on a daily basis: (1) Spatial Span to measure visuospatial working memory; (2) Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to measure sustained attention, information processing speed, and reaction time; and (3) a Mental Arithmetic Test to measure cognitive throughput. A smartphone-optimized version of the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS) self-assessment questionnaire was used as a baseline to assess the validity of the three cognitive tests, as the questionnaire has already been validated in multiple peer-reviewed studies. Results
Price, Edward; Moore, George; Galway, Leo; Linden, Mark
Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue. However, these tests are still predominantly delivered within a medical environment, limiting their utility and efficacy. The aim of this research was to investigate how cognitive fatigue can be accurately assessed in situ, during the quotidian activities of life. It was hypothesized that this assessment could be achieved through the use of mobile assistive technology to assess working memory, sustained attention, information processing speed, reaction time, and cognitive throughput. The study used a bespoke smartphone app to track daily cognitive performance, in order to assess potential levels of cognitive fatigue. Twenty-one participants with no prior reported brain injuries took place in a two-week study, resulting in 81 individual testing instances being collected. The smartphone app delivered three cognitive tests on a daily basis: (1) Spatial Span to measure visuospatial working memory; (2) Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to measure sustained attention, information processing speed, and reaction time; and (3) a Mental Arithmetic Test to measure cognitive throughput. A smartphone-optimized version of the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS) self-assessment questionnaire was used as a baseline to assess the validity of the three cognitive tests, as the questionnaire has already been validated in multiple peer-reviewed studies. The most highly correlated results
Hou, H.; Dong, R.; Lariviere, J.P.; Mupparaju, S.P.; Swartz, H.M.; Khan, N.
The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O 2 +5% CO 2 ) inhalation on radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor pO 2 and its consequence on growth inhibition with fractionated radiotherapy is reported. The temporal changes in the tumor pO 2 were assessed by in vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry in mice breathing 30% O 2 or carbogen and the tumors were irradiated with 4 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days; a protocol that emulates the clinical application of carbogen. The RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO 2 of 5-9 mmHg. Carbogen (CB) breathing significantly increased tumor pO 2 , with a maximum increase at 22.9-31.2 min on days 1-5, however, the magnitude of increase in pO 2 declined on day 5. Radiotherapy during carbogen inhalation (CB/RT) resulted in a significant tumor growth inhibition from day 3 to day 6 as compared to 30%O 2 /RT and carbogen (CB/Sham RT) groups. The results provide unambiguous quantitative information on the effect of carbogen inhalation on tumor pO 2 over the course of 5 days. Tumor growth inhibition in the CB/RT group confirms that the tumor oxygenation with carbogen was radiobiologically significant. Repeated tumor pO 2 measurements by EPR oximetry can provide temporal information that could be used to improve therapeutic outcomes by scheduling doses at times of improved tumor oxygenation. (author)
HOU, Huagang; DONG, Ruhong; LARIVIERE, Jean P.; MUPPARAJU, Sriram P.; SWARTZ, Harold M.; KHAN, Nadeem
The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O2 + 5% CO2) inhalation on RIF-1 tumor pO2 and its consequence on growth inhibition with fractionated radiotherapy is reported. The temporal changes in the tumor pO2 were assessed by in vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry in mice breathing 30% O2 or carbogen and the tumors were irradiated with 4 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days; a protocol that emulates the clinical application of carbogen. The RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO2 of 5 – 9 mm Hg. Carbogen (CB) breathing significantly increased tumor pO2, with a maximum increase at 22.9 – 31.2 min on days 1 – 5, however, the magnitude of increase in pO2 declined on day 5. Radiotherapy during carbogen inhalation (CB/RT) resulted in a significant tumor growth inhibition from day 3 to day 6 as compared to 30%O2/RT and carbogen (CB/Sham RT) groups. The results provide unambiguous quantitative information on the effect of carbogen inhalation on tumor pO2 over the course of 5 days. Tumor growth inhibition in the CB/RT group confirms that the tumor oxygenation with carbogen was radiobiologically significant. Repeated tumor pO2 measurements by EPR oximetry can provide temporal information that could be used to improve therapeutic outcomes by scheduling doses at times of improved tumor oxygenation. PMID:21799293
Full Text Available Qiumei Wang,1 Zhenxin Zhang,2 Ling Li,2 Hongbo Wen,2 Qun Xu3,4 1Department of Geriatrics, 2Department of Neurology, 3School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Although Parkinson's disease (PD is clinically characterized by motor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling non-motor symptoms. Despite it attracting increasing attention worldwide, less is known about its prevalence in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess cognitive impairment and related risk factors in Chinese PD patients. Methods: We collected the demographic, diagnostic, and treatment information of 901 PD patients from 42 centers throughout the People's Republic of China, then administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, to assess motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results: Overall, 193 of 901 (21.4% PD patients met the criteria for dementia (PD-D, and 206 (22.8% met the criteria for mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Visuospatial dysfunction and attention/executive impairment predominated. Increased severity of cognitive impairment was associated with greater motor impairment. Patients with psychiatric symptoms, such as depression and hallucinations, were more likely to have dementia. Potentially, the younger-aged and more educated are shown less cognitive impairment, but age at onset, and levodopa equivalent dose, were not associated with the presence of cognitive dysfunction. Conclusion: The prevalence and profile of cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients, as well as the risk factors, are similar as those reported for other races, but the frequency of nonamnestic cognitive domains differs. Keywords: cognitive impairment, risk factor, prevalence, Parkinson's disease
João Vinícius Salgado
Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive assessment in schizophrenia has traditionally used batteries that are long and complex or differ widely in their content. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS has been developed to cover the main cognitive deficits of schizophrenia as well as to be easily and briefly administered, portable, sensitive and reliable. Objectives: To investigate the applicability and sensitivity of the Brazilian Version of the BACS (Brazilian-BACS. Methods: Performance of 20 stable patients with schizophrenia on the Brazilian-BACS was compared to 20 matched healthy controls. Results: Applying the Brazilian-BACS required 43.4±8.4 minutes for patients and 40.5±5.7 minutes for controls (p=0.17. All tests demonstrated significant differences between controls and patients (P<0.01. Pearson's correlation analysis and Cronbach's a evidenced a high internal consistency for patient performance. The cognitive deficit in the patients was approximately 1.5 standard deviations below controls. These results were consistent with those reported in the validation of the original version and in meta-analyses of similar studies. Conclusions: The Brazilian-BACS displayed good applicability and sensitivity in assessing the major cognitive constructs that are impaired in schizophrenia. Thus, the Brazilian-BACS seems to be a promising tool for assessing cognition in patients with schizophrenia in Brazil.
Full Text Available Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS. Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adults diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind, empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. Executive functions did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome.
Baez, Sandra; Rattazzi, Alexia; Gonzalez-Gadea, María L.; Torralva, Teresa; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin
Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF) and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adult's diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge, and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. EF did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome. PMID:23162450
Dias, R D; Ngo-Howard, M C; Boskovski, M T; Zenati, M A; Yule, S J
Surgeons in the operating theatre deal constantly with high-demand tasks that require simultaneous processing of a large amount of information. In certain situations, high cognitive load occurs, which may impact negatively on a surgeon's performance. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the different methods used to assess surgeons' cognitive load, and a critique of the reliability and validity of current assessment metrics. A search strategy encompassing MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, PROSPERO and the Cochrane database was developed to identify peer-reviewed articles published from inception to November 2016. Quality was assessed by using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). A summary table was created to describe study design, setting, specialty, participants, cognitive load measures and MERSQI score. Of 391 articles retrieved, 84 met the inclusion criteria, totalling 2053 unique participants. Most studies were carried out in a simulated setting (59 studies, 70 per cent). Sixty studies (71 per cent) used self-reporting methods, of which the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was the most commonly applied tool (44 studies, 52 per cent). Heart rate variability analysis was the most used real-time method (11 studies, 13 per cent). Self-report instruments are valuable when the aim is to assess the overall cognitive load in different surgical procedures and assess learning curves within competence-based surgical education. When the aim is to assess cognitive load related to specific operative stages, real-time tools should be used, as they allow capture of cognitive load fluctuation. A combination of both subjective and objective methods might provide optimal measurement of surgeons' cognition. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
LePort, Aurora K.R.; Stark, Shauna M.; McGaugh, James L.; Stark, Craig E.L.
Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterized as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one’s lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects’ memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material. PMID:26982996
Amico, P.J.; Hsu, C.J.; Youngblood, R.W.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.
This paper reports that as part of a probabilistic assessment of the safety significance of complex transients at certain PWR power plants, it was necessary to perform a cognitive human reliability analysis. To increase the confidence in the results, it was desirable to make use of actual observations of operator response which were available for the assessment. An approach was developed which incorporated these observations into the human cognitive reliability (HCR) modeling approach. The results obtained provided additional insights over what would have been found using other approaches. These insights were supported by the observations, and it is suggested that this approach be considered for use in future probabilistic safety assessments
Cox, Sharon; Bertoux, Maxime; Turner, John J D; Moss, Antony; Locker, Kirsty; Riggs, Kevin
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is associated with problems with processing complex social scenarios. Little is known about the relationship between distinct AUD-related factors (e.g., years of problematic drinking), aspects of cognitive function and dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with AUD, and the relative impact these may have on social cognition. To explore differences in social cognition between a group of participants diagnosed with AUD and controls, using a clinical measure, the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA). The mini-SEA was used to evaluate social and emotional understanding through a facial emotional recognition task and by utilising a series of social scenes some of which contain a faux pas (social error). Eighty-five participants (individuals with AUD and controls) completed demographic questions and a general cognitive and social cognitive test battery over three consecutive days. Between group analyses revealed that the participants with AUD performed less well on the faux pas test, and differences were also revealed in the emotional facial recognition task. Years of problematic alcohol consumption was the strongest predictor of poor ToM reasoning. These results suggest a strong link between AUD chronicity and social cognition, though the direction of this relationship needs further elucidation. This may be of clinical relevance to abstinence and relapse management, as basic social cognition skills and ability to maintain interpersonal relationships are likely to be crucial to recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim
First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.
Vergis, Ashley; Hardy, Krista
Assessment is an integral component of training and credentialing surgeons for practice. Traditional methods of cognitive and technical appraisal are well established but have clear shortcomings. This review outlines the components of the surgical care assessment model, identifies the deficits of current evaluation techniques, and discusses novel and emerging technologies that attempt to ameliorate this educational void.
Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Chu, Man-Wai
The objective of the present article is to explore differences and similarities between cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) and evidence-centered game design (ECgD) in the service of intentional hybridization. Although some testing specialists might argue that both are essentially the same given their origins in principled assessment design and…
Impelluso, Thomas J.
A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…
Chen, Huilin; Chen, Jinsong
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) are psychometric models developed mainly to assess examinees' specific strengths and weaknesses in a set of skills or attributes within a domain. By adopting the Generalized-DINA model framework, the recently developed general modeling framework, we attempted to retrofit the PISA reading assessments, a…
Saunders, Bruce T.; Vitro, Frank T.
The results of the present study suggest that clinical cognitive assessment is not influenced by examiner bias as in experimental or nonclinical assessment. A bias effect was not observed as a result of the referral process. The halo effect demonstrated in previous studies was not observed in this study. (Author/BY)
Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N
While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, psmartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed.
Wong, Marian Y. L.; Beasley, Amanda L.; Douglass, Tasman; Whalan, Steve; Scott, Anna
Determining the extent of repeatable differences in the behavior of animals and the factors that influence behavioral expression is important for understanding individual fitness and population processes, thereby aiding in species conservation. However, little is known about the causes of variation in the repeatability of behavioral differences among species because rarely have comparative studies been undertaken to examine the repeatability of behavioral differences among individuals within their natural ecological settings. Using two species of endemic subtropical anemonefishes, Amphiprion mccullochi and A. latezonatus at Lord Howe and North Solitary Islands, Australia, we conducted an in situ comparative analysis of personality traits, examining the repeatability of boldness, sociability and aggression as well as the potential role of environmental and social factors on behavioral expression. For A. mccullochi, only boldness and aggression were highly repeatable and these behaviors formed a behavioral syndrome. For A. latezonatus, none of the three behaviors were repeatable due to low-inter-individual variation in behavior. We suggest that the harsher and more variable environmental and social conditions experienced by A. latezonatus have resulted in reduced repeatability in behavior, in contrast to A. mccullochi which typically inhabits a more stable lagoonal reef environment. Additionally, group size and size rank, rather than nearest-neighbor distance and anemone size, influenced the expression of these behaviors in both species, suggesting that behavioral variation was more sensitive to social than environmental factors. Overall, differences in repeatability between these closely related species likely reflect adaptations to contrasting environmental and social conditions, although alternative explanations must be considered. The differences in behavioral consistency between these two endemic anemonefishes could lead to disparity in their resilience to
Karamanli, Harun; Ilik, Faik; Kayhan, Fatih; Pazarli, Ahmet Cemal
A number of studies have shown that COPD, particularly in its later and more severe stages, is associated with various cognitive deficits. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to elucidate the extent of cognitive impairment in patients with long-term oxygen therapy-dependent (LTOTD) COPD. In addition, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of two cognitive screening tests, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), for COPD patients and the ability of oxygen therapy to mitigate COPD-related deficits in cognitive function. The present study enrolled 45 subjects: 24 nonuser and 21 regular-user LTOTD-COPD patients. All subjects had a similar grade of education, and there were no significant differences regarding age or sex. The MoCA (cutoff: therapy increased the risk of cognitive impairment (MoCA, P=0.007 and MMSE, P=0.014), and the MoCA and MMSE scores significantly correlated with the number of emergency admissions and the number of hospitalizations in the last year. In the present study, the nonuser LTOTD-COPD group exhibited a significant decrease in cognitive status compared with the regular-user LTOTD-COPD group. This suggests that the assessment of cognitive function in nonuser LTOTD-COPD patients and the use of protective strategies, such as continuous supplemental oxygen treatment, should be considered during the management of COPD in this population. In addition, the MoCA score was superior to the MMSE score for the determination of cognitive impairment in the nonuser LTOTD-COPD patients.
Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo
The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (Pnutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). The present study clearly shows that malnutrition may play an important role in the progression of cognitive loss.
Guru, Khurshid A; Esfahani, Ehsan T; Raza, Syed J; Bhat, Rohit; Wang, Katy; Hammond, Yana; Wilding, Gregory; Peabody, James O; Chowriappa, Ashirwad J
To investigate the utility of cognitive assessment during robot-assisted surgery (RAS) to define skills in terms of cognitive engagement, mental workload, and mental state; while objectively differentiating between novice and expert surgeons. In all, 10 surgeons with varying operative experience were assigned to beginner (BG), combined competent and proficient (CPG), and expert (EG) groups based on the Dreyfus model. The participants performed tasks for basic, intermediate and advanced skills on the da Vinci Surgical System. Participant performance was assessed using both tool-based and cognitive metrics. Tool-based metrics showed significant differences between the BG vs CPG and the BG vs EG, in basic skills. While performing intermediate skills, there were significant differences only on the instrument-to-instrument collisions between the BG vs CPG (2.0 vs 0.2, P = 0.028), and the BG vs EG (2.0 vs 0.1, P = 0.018). There were no significant differences between the CPG and EG for both basic and intermediate skills. However, using cognitive metrics, there were significant differences between all groups for the basic and intermediate skills. In advanced skills, there were no significant differences between the CPG and the EG except time (1116 vs 599.6 s), using tool-based metrics. However, cognitive metrics revealed significant differences between both groups. Cognitive assessment of surgeons may aid in defining levels of expertise performing complex surgical tasks once competence is achieved. Cognitive assessment may be used as an adjunct to the traditional methods for skill assessment during RAS. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.
Pham, Tuan D.; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Truong, Cong-Thang; Okamoto, Kazushi; Futaba, Terufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Masahide; Lampe, Lisa
Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline. PMID:25803586
Tuan D Pham
Full Text Available Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline.
de Jager, Celeste A; Budge, Marc M; Clarke, Robert
Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assessment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version) for assessment of cognitive function in healthy elderly people. The utility of TICS-M was compared with more widely used MMSE and CAMCOG in a cross-sectional survey of 120 older (62 to 89 years) UK adults. The TICS-M cognitive test scores (27.97, SD 4.15) were normally distributed in contrast with those for MMSE and CAMCOG that had a negatively skewed distribution. TICS-M scores were inversely correlated with age (r = -0.21) and with the NART fullscale IQ (r = -0.35), but were independent of years of education in this cohort. TICS-M was highly correlated with MMSE (r = 0.57) and with CAMCOG (r = 0.62) scores. The time required to complete the test is comparable to MMSE and substantially less than CAMCOG. The normal distribution of TICS-M test scores suggest that this test is less constrained by the ceiling effect which limits the utility of MMSE and CAMCOG test scores in detecting early cognitive impairment. TICS-M is an appropriate instrument to assess cognitive function in both research and in clinical practice. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Parsons Thomas D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.
Kishore, Thekke Adiyat; Pedro, Renato N; Monga, Manoj; Sweet, Robert M
The purpose of the study was to assess the construct validity of an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) developed for cystoscopic and ureteroscopic cognitive and psychomotor skills. An OSATS was designed based on a 14-point comprehensive curriculum prepared by two experts that targeted both cognitive and psychomotor cystoscopic and ureteroscopic skills. Ten urology residents from a single institution with different levels of training were assessed on a series of stations that targeted these skills. Evaluation of cognitive skills was done via a written examination, and psychomotor skills assessment was done by experts using both subjective and objective metrics. Twelve of 15 cognitive tasks and 5 of 5 psychomotor tasks demonstrated construct validity with correlation coefficient (r) more than .75. All three of the cognitive tasks that failed to initially demonstrate validity did so on editorial revision and restructuring of the questions. Our cystoscopic and ureteroscopic OSATS showed excellent construct validity for our population of residents, and we have incorporated it into our urologic skills curriculum.
Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M.; Engel-Yeger, Batya
Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children…
Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara
This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....
Puma, Sébastien; Matton, Nadine; Paubel, Pierre-V; Raufaste, Éric; El-Yagoubi, Radouane
Cognitive workload is of central importance in the fields of human factors and ergonomics. A reliable measurement of cognitive workload could allow for improvements in human machine interface designs and increase safety in several domains. At present, numerous studies have used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cognitive workload, reporting the rise in cognitive workload to be associated with increases in theta band power and decreases in alpha band power. However, results have been inconsistent with some failing to reach the required level of significance. We hypothesized that the lack of consistency could be related to individual differences in task performance and/or to the small sample sizes in most EEG studies. In the present study we used EEG to assess the increase in cognitive workload occurring in a multitasking environment while taking into account differences in performance. Twenty participants completed a task commonly used in airline pilot recruitment, which included an increasing number of concurrent sub-tasks to be processed from one to four. Subjective ratings, performances scores, pupil size and EEG signals were recorded. Results showed that increases in EEG alpha and theta band power reflected increases in the involvement of cognitive resources for the completion of one to three subtasks in a multitasking environment. These values reached a ceiling when performances dropped. Consistent differences in levels of alpha and theta band power were associated to levels of task performance: highest performance was related to lowest band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005  used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip
Blyth, Tanya; Scott, Amanda; Bond, Annabelle; Paul, Eldho
Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently encounter cognitive communication disorders. Deficits can be subtle but can seriously influence an individual's ability to achieve life goals. Feedback from rehabilitation facilities indicated that high level cognitive communication disorders are not consistently identified in the acute setting. This study aimed to compare the cognitive communication results from two screening assessments, the Cognistat and the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT), in participants with a mild traumatic brain injury and to relate these findings to a range of prognostic indicators. Eighty-three adults post-TBI (16-81 years; 79.5% males) were recruited at an acute trauma centre. The language components of the two tests were analysed. The CLQT identified more participants with an impairment in language than the Cognistat, 19.3% compared to 1.2% (p communication deficits than the Cognistat in the acute setting.
Geovany Eliberto Araújo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia by examining its temporal stability, internal consistency, and discriminant and convergent validity. METHODS: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was administered to 116 stable patients with schizophrenia and 58 matched control subjects. To assess concurrent validity, a subset of patients underwent a traditional neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: The patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the controls (p0.8. The internal consistency of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was high (Cronbach's α ϝ 0.874. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia exhibits good reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity and is a promising tool for easily assessing cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and for comparing the performance of Brazilian patients with that of patients from other countries.
Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0
Hansen, Michael Møller; Taggart, J.B.; Meldrup, Dorte
Levels of variation at six VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) loci, one minisatellite and five microsatellite loci, isolated from tri- and tetranucleotide enriched DNA libraries for northern pike were generally low in two Danish populations (1-4 alleles; expected heterozygosity 0-0.57), tho......Levels of variation at six VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) loci, one minisatellite and five microsatellite loci, isolated from tri- and tetranucleotide enriched DNA libraries for northern pike were generally low in two Danish populations (1-4 alleles; expected heterozygosity 0...
Gentili, Rodolphe J; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Jaquess, Kyle J; Lo, Li-Chuan; Prevost, Michael; Miller, Matt W; Mohler, Jessica M; Oh, Hyuk; Tan, Ying Ying; Hatfield, Bradley D
Cognitive workload is an important element of cognitive-motor performance such as that exhibited during the piloting of an aircraft. Namely, an increase in task demands on the pilot can elevate cognitive information processing and, thus, the risk of human error. As such, there is a need to develop methods that reliably assess mental workload in pilots within operational settings. The present study contributes to this research goal by identifying physiological and brain biomarkers of cognitive workload and attentional reserve during a simulated aircraft piloting task under three progressive levels of challenge. A newly developed experimental method was employed by which electroencephalography (EEG) was acquired via a dry (i.e., gel-free sensors) system using few scalp sites. Self-reported responses to surveys and piloting performance indicators were analyzed. The findings revealed that as the challenge (task demands) increased, the perceived mental load increased, attentional reserve was attenuated, and task performance decreased. Such an increase in task demands was also reflected by changes in heart rate variability (HRV), as well as in the amplitude of the P300 component of event-related potentials to auditory probes, and in the spectral power of specific EEG frequency bands. This work provides a first step towards a long-term goal to develop a composite system of biomarkers for real-time cognitive workload assessment and state assessment of pilots in operational settings.
Jacques, J.M.; Gatot, L. [Research Center for Crisis and Conflict Management (ReCCCoM), University of Namur (FUNDP), Faculty of Economic, Social and Management Sciences, Namur (Belgium)
The author have tried to show that rational risk analysis exhibits some severe shortcomings in areas where the danger is new and the scientific knowledge is limited and controversial. In such contexts, the traditional dichotomy between objective and subjective risk is not of much help. Thus, traditional risk communication based on information, education, trust in institutions, is not adapted here. The first elements of analysis proposed in this tentative paper suggest that in such contexts, risk communication should be based on participatory methods such as forums for debate. The stake is therefore the democratization of assessment procedure and the development of different means which allow to couple risk and technology assessment. (authors)
Jacques, J.M.; Gatot, L.
The author have tried to show that rational risk analysis exhibits some severe shortcomings in areas where the danger is new and the scientific knowledge is limited and controversial. In such contexts, the traditional dichotomy between objective and subjective risk is not of much help. Thus, traditional risk communication based on information, education, trust in institutions, is not adapted here. The first elements of analysis proposed in this tentative paper suggest that in such contexts, risk communication should be based on participatory methods such as forums for debate. The stake is therefore the democratization of assessment procedure and the development of different means which allow to couple risk and technology assessment. (authors)
Gould, Felicia; McGuire, Laura Stone; Durand, Dante; Sabbag, Samir; Larrauri, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Harvey, Philip D.
Objective Self-assessment deficits, often referred to as impaired insight or unawareness of illness, are well established in people with schizophrenia. There are multiple levels of awareness, including awareness of symptoms, functional deficits, cognitive impairments, and the ability to monitor cognitive and functional performance in an ongoing manner. The present study aimed to evaluate the comparative predictive value of each aspect of awareness on the levels of everyday functioning in people with schizophrenia. Method We examined multiple aspects of self-assessment of functioning in 214 people with schizophrenia. We also collected information on everyday functioning rated by high contact clinicians and examined the importance of self-assessment for the prediction of real world functional outcomes. The relative impact of performance based measures of cognition, functional capacity, and metacognitive performance on everyday functioning was also examined. Results Misestimation of ability emerged as the strongest predictor of real world functioning and exceeded the influences of cognitive performance, functional capacity performance, and performance-based assessment of metacognitive monitoring. The relative contribution of the factors other than self-assessment varied according to which domain of everyday functioning was being examined, but in all cases, accounted for less predictive variance. Conclusions These results underscore the functional impact of misestimating one’s current functioning and relative level of ability. These findings are consistent with the use of insight-focused treatments and compensatory strategies designed to increase self-awareness in multiple functional domains. PMID:25643212
Gould, Felicia; McGuire, Laura Stone; Durand, Dante; Sabbag, Samir; Larrauri, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Harvey, Philip D
Self-assessment deficits, often referred to as impaired insight or unawareness of illness, are well established in people with schizophrenia. There are multiple levels of awareness, including awareness of symptoms, functional deficits, cognitive impairments, and the ability to monitor cognitive and functional performance in an ongoing manner. The present study aimed to evaluate the comparative predictive value of each aspect of awareness on the levels of everyday functioning in people with schizophrenia. We examined multiple aspects of self-assessment of functioning in 214 people with schizophrenia. We also collected information on everyday functioning rated by high contact clinicians and examined the importance of self-assessment for the prediction of real-world functional outcomes. The relative impact of performance-based measures of cognition, functional capacity, and metacognitive performance on everyday functioning was also examined. Misestimation of ability emerged as the strongest predictor of real-world functioning and exceeded the influences of cognitive performance, functional capacity performance, and performance-based assessment of metacognitive monitoring. The relative contribution of the factors other than self-assessment varied according to which domain of everyday functioning was being examined, but, in all cases, accounted for less predictive variance. These results underscore the functional impact of misestimating one's current functioning and relative level of ability. These findings are consistent with the use of insight-focused treatments and compensatory strategies designed to increase self-awareness in multiple functional domains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ramsey, Alex T; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Depp, Colin; Dixon, David; Lenze, Eric
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has several advantages in clinical research yet little is known about the feasibility of collecting EMA data with mobile technologies in older adults, particularly those with emotional or cognitive difficulties. The aim of this feasibility study was to assess perceived acceptability, adherence rates, and reasons for non-adherence to smartphone-based EMA. At two sites, participants ( n =103) aged 65 years or older with a DSM-IV-defined anxiety or depressive disorder and cognitive concerns responded three times daily to smartphone-based EMA questions assessing clinical outcomes for two 10-day periods. Quantitative and qualitative measures assessed acceptability, adherence, and reasons for non-adherence following both 10-day EMA periods. Participants were moderately satisfied with and comfortable using smartphone-based EMA. Overall, 76% of participants completed surveys on ≥10 of the 20 assessment days, and 70% of participants completed at least 30% of the total surveys. Reasons for non-adherence included technical (malfunction), logistical (competing demands), physiological (hearing difficulties), and cognitive (forgetting) issues. Smartphone-based EMA is feasible in older adults with cognitive and emotional difficulties. EMA tools should be responsive to the needs and preferences of participants to ensure adequate acceptability and adherence in this population. Our findings can inform the design, development, and implementation of mobile technologies in older adults in research and clinical contexts.
Henry, Michelle; Thomas, Kevin G F; Ross, Ian L
Patients with Addison's disease frequently self-report memory and attention difficulties, even when on standard replacement therapy. However, few published studies examine, using objective measures and assessing across multiple domains, the cognitive functioning of Addison's disease patients relative to healthy controls. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the previously reported subjective cognitive deficits in Addison's disease are confirmed by objective measures. Conducting comprehensive neuropsychological assessments of patients with relatively rare clinical disorders, such as Addison's disease, is challenging because access to those patients is often limited, and because their medical condition might prevent extended testing sessions. Brief telephonic cognitive assessments are a useful tool in such circumstances. Hence, we administered the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone to 27 Addison's disease patients and 27 matched healthy controls. The instrument provides objective assessment of episodic memory, working memory, executive functioning, reasoning, and speed of processing. Statistical analyses confirmed that, as expected, patients performed significantly more poorly than controls on the episodic memory subtest. There were, however, no significant between-group differences on the attention, executive functioning, reasoning, and speed of processing subtests. Furthermore, patients with a longer duration of illness performed more poorly across all domains of cognition. We conclude that, for Addison's disease patients, previously reported subjective cognitive deficits are matched by objective impairment, but only in the domain of episodic memory. Future research might investigate (a) whether these memory deficits are material-specific (i.e., whether non-verbal memory is also affected), and (b) the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits.
Navas, Francisco Javier; Jordana, Jordi; León, José Manuel; Arando, Ander; Pizarro, Gabriela; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado, Juan Vicente
New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model. Sixteen cognitive process-related traits were scored on a problem-solving test in a sample of 300 Andalusian donkeys for three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. The linear model assessed the influence and interactions of four environmental factors, sex as an animal-inherent factor, age as a covariable, and the interactions between these factors. Analyses of variance were performed with GLM procedure of SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 software to assess the relative importance of each factor. All traits were significantly (P<0.05) affected by all factors in the model except for sex that was not significant for some of the cognitive processes, and stimulus which was not significant (P<0.05) for all of them except for the coping style related ones. The interaction between all factors within the model was non-significant (P<0.05) for almost all cognitive processes. The development of complex multifactorial models to study cognitive processes may counteract the inherent variability in behavior genetics and the estimation and prediction of related breeding parameters, key for the implementation of successful conservation programmes in apparently functionally misplaced endangered breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Apart from motor and behavioral dysfunctions, deficits in cognitive skills are among the well-documented sequelae of preterm birth. However, early identification of infants at risk for poor cognition is still a challenge, as no clear association between pathological findings based on neuroimaging scans and cognitive functions have been detected as yet. The Prechtl General Movement Assessment (GMA has shown its merits for the evaluation of the integrity of the young nervous system. It is a reliable tool for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits. Recent studies on preterm infants demonstrate that abnormal general movements also reflect impairments of brain areas involved in cognitive development. The aim of this systematic review was to discuss studies that included (i the Prechtl GMA applied in preterm infants, and (ii cognitive outcome measures in six data bases. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and yielded the following results: (a children born preterm with consistently abnormal general movements up to 8 weeks after term had lower intelligence quotients at school age than children with an early normalization of general movements; (b from 3 to 5 months after term, several qualitative and quantitative aspects of the concurrent motor repertoire, including postural patterns, were predictive of intelligence at 7 to 10 years of age. These findings in 428 individuals born preterm suggest that normal general movements along with a normal motor repertoire during the first months after term are markers for normal cognitive development until at least age 10.
Bertelli, Marco O; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability. Data support a model of intelligence consisting of distinct but related processes. Persons with intellectual disability with the same IQ level have different cognitive profiles, based on varying factors involved in aetiopathogenesis. Limitations of functioning and many biopsychological factors associated with intellectual disability are more highly correlated with impairments of specific cognitive functions than with overall IQ. The current model of intelligence, based on IQ, is of limited utility for intellectual disability, given the wide range and variability of cognitive functions and adaptive capacities. Assessing level of individual impairment in executive and specific cognitive functions may be a more useful alternative. This has considerable implications for the revision of the International Classification of Diseases and for the cultural attitude towards intellectual disability in general.
Giannouli, Vaitsa; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsolaki, Magda
The influence of cognitive factors on financial capacity across the dementia spectrum of cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been little investigated, while it has not been investigated at all in other types of dementia as well as in extended samples of elders in Greece. The aim of this study is to investigate financial capacity, to develop a tool, test its psychometric properties, validate, and then test the tool in groups of healthy controls compared to elders with dementia, while examining other facets of their cognitive performance. 719 elders from Greece including healthy participants and patients with different types of dementia were examined with Legal Capacity for Property Law Transactions Assessment Scale (LCPLTAS) and a battery of neuropsychological tests concerning various cognitive functions. Significantly different profiles in the scores and subscores of LCPLTAS for all the groups of dementia patients were found, with a general incapacity finding for all the dementia groups including the MCI patients. Logistic regression showed that Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale, and Trail Making Part B predicted competence on LCPLTAS for the dementia patients. Persons with MCI and dementia had lower financial knowledge scores than those without cognitive impairment, with MMSE scores below 27 suggestive as an indication of financial incapacity. The LCPLTAS provides information for a strong positive correlation with MMSE, while the use both of MMSE and LCPLTAS as adequate measures of financial (in)capacity is discussed for the Greek legal procedures regarding elder guardianship cases.
http://mhealth.amegroups.com/article/view/11037 4. Steeg Morris , D., Lathan, C., Weissfeld, L, Lacy, T., & Resnick, H. R. (2016, August). Trial...platform for assessing brain health. MHealth, 2(7). Retrieved from http://mhealth.amegroups.com/article/view/11037 4. Steeg Morris , D., Lathan, C...0141) DELIVERABLES All deliverables will be submitted on Tuesday May 16, 2017 via FedEx on a CD, tracking number is 7791 5006 0944. The items
Lavon, Ophir; Eisenkraft, Arik; Blanca, Merav; Raveh, Lily; Ramaty, Erez; Krivoy, Amir; Atsmon, Jacob; Grauer, Ettie; Brandeis, Rachel
Rivastigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, approved as a remedy in Alzheimer's disease, was suggested as pretreatment against nerve agents poisoning. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, physiologic, cognitive and emotional effects of repeated rivastigmine in young healthy male adults, in a double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Three groups completed 3 treatment periods: 0, 1.5 and 3mg twice a day, for a total of 5 intakes. Parameters monitored were: vital signs, ECG, laboratory tests, sialometry, visual accommodation, inspiratory peak flow, and cognitive function tests. Adverse reactions were mild. Peak blood levels and peak cholinesterase inhibition increased with repeated intakes, and high variability and non-linear pharmacokinetics were demonstrated. In addition, two cognitive functions were affected (perceptual speed and dynamic tracking). The complicated pharmacological profile and the high inter-personal variability limit the potential use of rivastigmine as pretreatment for war fighters and first responders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques
We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=-.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making.
Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques
Background We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. Objective The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. Methods We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Results After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=–.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making. PMID:27234145
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene
Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…
Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool f...
Costner, Ashley Nicole
School psychologists are faced with the task of conducting evaluations of students in order to determine special education eligibility. This often equates to administering a cognitive assessment measure to obtain information about skills or abilities. Although this may be a straightforward task when working with children of average or higher…
Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Larson, Erik D.; Albus, Deb A.; Liu, Kristi K.; Kwong, Elena
With the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in 2015, renewed attention was paid to the importance of guidelines for participation in alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) and to understanding of who the students are who have significant cognitive disabilities. The analyses…
Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Aim: To investigate associations between neurological condition, assessed with the Hempel examination, in terms of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and neurological optimality, and cognition and behaviour at 4 years. Study design: Cross-sectional analyses within a prospective, assessor-blinded
Verhaegh, J.; Fontijn, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Resing, W.C.M.
We present a field study with a game for children called 'Tap the little hedgehog', which is played on the TagTiles console, a tangible electronic interface. The game was developed to train and assess cognitive skills and includes tasks which, in isolation, exhibit a high correlation with a number
This study explored a diagnostic assessment method that emphasized the cognitive process of algebra learning. The study utilized a design and a theory-driven model to examine the content knowledge. Using the theory driven model, the thinking skills of algebra learning was also examined. A Bayesian network model was applied to represent the theory…
Study suggests that cognitive referents are important influences in how a teacher thinks about assessment and may constrain a teacher's implementation of innovative practices. Identification of referents such as myths, their associated beliefs, and metonymic conceptual models that teachers use to make sense of their actions is an important step in…
Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark; Guo, Qi
The purpose of the current investigation was to describe how the artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to interpret student performance on cognitive diagnostic assessments (CDAs) and evaluate the performances of ANNs using simulation results. CDAs are designed to measure student performance on problem-solving tasks and provide useful…
Full Text Available In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1 neurocognitive tests would benefit substantially from incorporating assessments (based on findings from cognitive neuroscience that entail systematic manipulation of fundamental aspects of number processing. Tests that focus on evaluating networks of core neurocognitive deficits have considerable potential to lead to more precise diagnosis and to provide the basis for designing specific intervention programs tailored to the deficits exhibited by the individual child. (2 implicit knowledge, derived from inspection of variables that are irrelevant to the task at hand, can also provide a useful assessment tool. Implicit knowledge is powerful and plays an important role in human development, especially in cases of psychiatric or neurological deficiencies (such as math learning disabilities
In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1) neurocognitive tests would benefit substantially from incorporating assessments (based on findings from cognitive neuroscience) that entail systematic manipulation of fundamental aspects of number processing. Tests that focus on evaluating networks of core neurocognitive deficits have considerable potential to lead to more precise diagnosis and to provide the basis for designing specific intervention programs tailored to the deficits exhibited by the individual child. (2) implicit knowledge, derived from inspection of variables that are irrelevant to the task at hand, can also provide a useful assessment tool. Implicit knowledge is powerful and plays an important role in human development, especially in cases of psychiatric or neurological deficiencies (such as math learning disabilities or math anxiety).
Telch, M.J.; Lucas, R.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.; Heimberg, R.G.; Hart, T.
The current study describes the validation of a new cognitive assessment measure for social phobia, entitled the Appraisal of Social Concerns (ASC). Item content is relevant to a range of social situations. The ASC can be used to tailor interventions to patients' idiosyncratic concerns. Data are
Schönknecht, Oskar Dieter Peter; Hunt, Aoife; Toro, Pablo; Guenther, Thomas; Henze, Marcus; Haberkorn, Uwe; Schröder, Johannes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a variety of cognitive deficits which can be reliably assessed by the neuropsychological test battery of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD), but the cerebral changes underlying the respective cognitive deficits are only partly understood. Measures of severity of dementia in AD as well as delayed episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment significantly correlated with bihemispheric cerebral glucose hypometabolism. We therefore hypothesized that the CERAD cognitive battery may represent cerebral dysfunction of both hemispheres in patients with AD. In 32 patients with AD, cerebral glucose metabolism was investigated using positron-emission-tomography with 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET) and associated with the test scores of the CERAD cognitive battery by statistical parametric mapping. Episodic memory scores significantly correlated with temporopari etal glucose metabolism of both hemispheres while delayed episodic memory significantly was correlated with the right frontotemporal cortices. Verbal fluency and naming scores significantly correlated with glucose metabolism in left temporoparietal and right frontal cortices, whereas constructional praxis predominantly correlated significantly with the bilateral precuneus. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that not only memory function but also functions of language and constructional praxis in AD are associated with glucose metabolism as revealed by FDG PET in subsets of uni- and bilateral brain areas. The findings of our study for the first time demonstrate that in AD neuropsychological deficits as assessed by the CERAD refer to different cerebral sites of both hemispheres.
Leyla Baysal Kıraç
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of cognitive impairment in patients with clinically isolated syndromes and definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis within the last 2 years. Methods. We assessed the cognitive status of 46 patients aged 18–49 years with clinically isolated syndromes or definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis who have onset of their symptoms within the last 2 years. Patients were matched with 40 healthy participants for age, sex, and educational level. Neuropsychological assessment was performed by stroop test, paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT, controlled oral word association test (COWAT, clock drawing test, trail making test (TMT, faces symbol test (FST. Hamilton Depression Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale were used to quantify the severity of any depression and fatigue the subjects might suffer. Results. 19.6% of early MS/CIS group failed at 4 and more tests and had significant cognitive impairment focused on attention, executive functions, memory, and learning. No significant relationship was found between cognitive impairment and disability and fatigue scores. Discussion. Cognitive impairment can be present from the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis. It should be considered among the main manifestations of MS even in the earliest stages of the disease.
Cognitive Errors (CEs) are a key construct in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Integral to CBT is that individuals with depression process information in an overly negative or biased way, and that this bias is reflected in specific depressotypic CEs which are distinct from normal information processing. Despite the importance of this construct in CBT theory, practice, and research, few methods are available to researchers and clinicians to reliably identify CEs as they occur. In this paper, the author presents a rating system, the Cognitive Error Rating Scale, which can be used by trained observers to identify and assess the cognitive errors of patients or research participants in vivo, i.e., as they are used or reported by the patients or participants. The method is described, including some of the more important rating conventions to be considered when using the method. This paper also describes the 15 cognitive errors assessed, and the different summary scores, including valence of the CEs, that can be derived from the method.
Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: assessing the effects using the best level of evidence - study protocol
Crowther Caroline A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis is to assess whether the effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroid treatment given to women at risk of preterm birth to benefit their babies are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. Methods/Design The Prenatal Repeat Corticosteroid International IPD Study Group: assessing the effects using the best level of Evidence (PRECISE Group will conduct an IPD meta-analysis. The PRECISE International Collaborative Group was formed in 2010 and data collection commenced in 2011. Eleven trials with up to 5,000 women and 6,000 infants are eligible for the PRECISE IPD meta-analysis. The primary study outcomes for the infants will be serious neonatal outcome (defined by the PRECISE International IPD Study Group as one of death (foetal, neonatal or infant; severe respiratory disease; severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4; chronic lung disease; necrotising enterocolitis; serious retinopathy of prematurity; and cystic periventricular leukomalacia; use of respiratory support (defined as mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure or other respiratory support; and birth weight (Z-scores. For the children, the primary study outcomes will be death or any neurological disability (however defined by trialists at childhood follow up and may include developmental delay or intellectual impairment (developmental quotient or intelligence quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean, cerebral palsy (abnormality of tone with motor dysfunction, blindness (for example, corrected visual acuity worse than 6/60 in the better eye or deafness (for example, hearing loss requiring amplification or worse. For the women, the primary outcome will be maternal sepsis (defined as chorioamnionitis; pyrexia after trial entry requiring the use of antibiotics; puerperal sepsis; intrapartum fever requiring the use
Smith, Kirsty S; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus; Fairley, Christopher K; McNulty, Anna; Read, Phillip; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Wand, Handan; Saville, Marion; Rawlinson, William; Garland, Suzanne M; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca
Background Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting three months after treatment, retesting rates are low. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of home collection combined with short message service (SMS) reminders on chlamydia retesting and reinfection rates in three risk groups. ...
van Steenoven, Inger; Aarsland, Dag; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E; Rick, Jacqueline; Chahine, Lama M; Dahodwala, Nabila; Trojanowski, John Q; Roalf, David R; Moberg, Paul J; Weintraub, Daniel
Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Saeid Reza Khatami
Full Text Available Background: The androgen receptor (AR gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (NTAD. We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12 of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdeletions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12 patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 ± 0.35 (range, 11-26 and 19.96 ± 0.54 (range, 12-25 in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%, while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%. Conclusion: Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran.
Ip, Edward H; Barnard, Ryan; Marshall, Sarah A; Lu, Lingyi; Sink, Kaycee; Wilson, Valerie; Chamberlain, Dana; Rapp, Stephen R
Commonly used methods to assess cognition, such as direct observation, self-report, or neuropsychological testing, have significant limitations. Therefore, a novel tablet computer-based video simulation was created with the goal of being valid, reliable, and easy to administer. The design and implementation of the SIMBAC (Simulation-Based Assessment of Cognition) instrument is described in detail, as well as informatics "lessons learned" during development. The software emulates 5 common instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and scores participants' performance. The modules were chosen by a panel of geriatricians based on relevance to daily functioning and ability to be modeled electronically, and included facial recognition, pairing faces with the correct names, filling a pillbox, using an automated teller machine (ATM), and automatic renewal of a prescription using a telephone. Software development included three phases 1) a period of initial design and testing (alpha version), 2) pilot study with 10 cognitively normal and 10 cognitively impaired adults over the age of 60 (beta version), and 3) larger validation study with 162 older adults of mixed cognitive status (release version). Results of the pilot study are discussed in the context of refining the instrument; full results of the validation study are reported in a separate article. In both studies, SIMBAC reliably differentiated controls from persons with cognitive impairment, and performance was highly correlated with Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score. Several informatics challenges emerged during software development, which are broadly relevant to the design and use of electronic assessment tools. Solutions to these issues, such as protection of subject privacy and safeguarding against data loss, are discussed in depth. Collection of fine-grained data (highly detailed information such as time spent reading directions and the number of taps on screen) is also considered. SIMBAC provides
van Wyhe, Kaylee S; van de Water, Tanya; Boivin, Michael J; Cotton, Mark F; Thomas, Kevin Gf
Despite improved efficacy of, and access to, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated cognitive impairments remain prevalent in both children and adults. Neuropsychological tests that detect such impairment can help clinicians formulate effective treatment plans. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), although developed and standardized in the United States, is used frequently in many different countries and cultural contexts to assess paediatric performance across various cognitive domains. This systematic review investigated the cross-cultural utility of the original KABC, and its 2nd edition (KABC-II), in detecting HIV-associated cognitive impairment in children and adolescents. We entered relevant keywords and MeSH terms into the PubMed, PsycInfo, EBSCOHost, ProQuest, and Scopus databases, with search limits set from 1983-2017. Two independent reviewers evaluated the retrieved abstracts and manuscripts. Studies eligible for inclusion in the review were those that (a) used the KABC/KABC-II to assess cognitive function in children/adolescents aged 2-18 years, (b) featured a definition of cognitive impairment (e.g. >2 SD below the mean) or compared the performance of HIV-infected and uninfected control groups, and (c) used a sample excluded from population on which the instruments were normed. We identified nine studies (eight conducted in African countries, and one in the United Kingdom) to comprise the review's sample. All studies detected cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children, including those who were cART-naïve or who were cART treated and clinically stable. KABC/KABC-II subtests assessing simultaneous processing appeared most sensitive. Evaluation of the methodological quality of the selected studies by two independent reviews suggested that shortcomings included reporting and selection biases. This systematic review provides evidence for the cross-cultural utility of the KABC/KABC-II, particularly the simultaneous
Hoggarth, Petra A
To assess how GPs in Canterbury determine the driving ability of their older patients with cognitive impairment. A 10-item questionnaire was sent to 514 Canterbury GPs via the mail system of three Primary Health Organisations. GPs could either post or fax back responses anonymously and were also able to add their own comments. 185 GPs returned completed questionnaires (36% response rate). Six of 10 items were rated in the middle of the response range, indicating a middling level of agreement. All but three GPs reported using a cognitive screening test and most talked to their patients about the need to plan for driving cessation. GPs did not frequently report referring for on-road driving assessments and many commented they would appreciate a more structured guideline with specific recommendations. There is room for improvement in the amount of information provided to GPs about how to best assess older patients with cognitive impairment for fitness to drive. Recommendations of specific cognitive screens and a flowchart format would be a valuable addition.
Lim, Magdalene Yeok Leng; Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin
To determine if there is an association between hearing loss and poorer cognitive scores on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and to determine if poor hearing acuity affects scoring on the cognitive screening tests of MMSE and MoCA. One hundred fourteen elderly patients (Singapore residents) aged between 55 and 86 years were sampled. Participants completed a brief history questionnaire, pure tone audiometry, and 2 cognitive screening tests-the MMSE and MoCA. Average hearing thresholds of the better ear in the frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were used for data analysis. Hearing loss was significantly associated with poorer cognitive scores in Poisson regression models adjusted for age. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were shown to decrease by 2.8% (P = .029), and MoCA scores by 3.5% (P = .013) for every 10 dB of hearing loss. Analysis of hearing-sensitive components of "Registration" and "Recall" in MMSE and MoCA using chi-square tests showed significantly poorer performance in the hearing loss group as compared to the normal hearing group. Phonetic analysis of target words with high error rates shows that the poor performance was likely contributed by decreased hearing acuity, on top of a possible true deficit in cognition in the hearing impaired. Hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive scores on MMSE and MoCA, and cognitive scoring is likely confounded by poor hearing ability. This highlights an important, often overlooked aspect of sensory impairment during cognitive screening. Provisions should be made when testing for cognition in the hearing-impaired population to avoid over-referral and subsequent misdiagnoses of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Alexander, Gregory E; Satalich, Timothy A; Shankle, W Rodman; Batchelder, William H
Clinical tests used for psychodiagnostic purposes, such as the well-known Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale: Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), include a free-recall task. The free-recall task taps into latent cognitive processes associated with learning and memory components of human cognition, any of which might be impaired with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A Hidden Markov model of free recall is developed to measure latent cognitive processes used during the free-recall task. In return, these cognitive measurements give us insight into the degree to which normal cognitive functions are differentially impaired by medical conditions, such as AD and related disorders. The model is used to analyze the free-recall data obtained from healthy elderly participants, participants diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment, and participants diagnosed with early AD. The model is specified hierarchically to handle item differences because of the serial position curve in free recall, as well as within-group individual differences in participants' recall abilities. Bayesian hierarchical inference is used to estimate the model. The model analysis suggests that the impaired patients have the following: (1) long-term memory encoding deficits, (2) short-term memory (STM) retrieval deficits for all but very short time intervals, (3) poorer transfer into long-term memory for items successfully retrieved from STM, and (4) poorer retention of items encoded into long-term memory after longer delays. Yet, impaired patients appear to have no deficit in immediate recall of encoded words in long-term memory or for very short time intervals in STM. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Virtual reality scenarios have been developed in order to assess cognitive functioning such as: memory, attention and executive function. Most scenarios replicate everyday situations like shopping activities, navigation through a park or a street, learning objects in an apartment or virtual office, or sitting and solving tasks in a classroom or apartment. Results of these studies support the use of virtual reality scenarios in neurocognitive assessment. Virtual scenarios that are used in cognitive training include a wide range of contexts from everyday life such as: a store, a kitchen, a city, as well as exercises like touching a ball on a screen for movement coordination, collecting a coconut and positioning it in a basket. Overall, virtual reality-based assessment or rehabilitation tools seem to be valid, reliable and efficient with an increased level of ecological validity.
Nara, Marina; Sugie, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Teruyuki; Sengoku, Renpei; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Harada, Kazumasa; Kyo, Shunei; Ito, Hideki
Physical exercise improves cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, information about whether the degree of MCI before exercise training affects improvement in cognitive function is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cut-off value in a MCI screening tool that predicts reversal to normal cognitive function after exercise training in older adults with MCI. Participants included 112 Japanese community-dwelling older adult outpatients (37 men, 75 women; mean age 76.3 years). We administered the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) before and after exercise training. MCI was defined as a MoCA-J score cognitive function. The MoCA-J cut-off score to predict cognitive function potentially reversible to normal was 23, with receiver operating characteristic analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.80, sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 69.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis to predict non-MCI after exercise training showed that MoCA-J score ≥23 (OR 6.9, P cognitive function that is potentially reversible to normal among community-dwelling Japanese older adults with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.
Beishon, Lucy C; Williams, Claire A L; Panerai, Ronney B; Robinson, Thompson G; Haunton, Victoria J
Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs early in dementia and can be identified by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Few studies have examined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) responses to a detailed cognitive battery. This study aimed to characterize all CBFv responses, and the effect of hemispheric dominance, to the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in healthy volunteers. Forty volunteers underwent continuous bilateral TCD, beat-to-beat blood pressure (MAP; Finapres), heart rate (HR; electrocardiogram), and end-tidal CO 2 (ETCO 2 ; capnography) monitoring. After a 5-min baseline period, all tasks from the ACE-III were performed in 3 sections (A: attention, fluency, memory; B: language; C: visuospatial, memory). Data are population mean normalized percentage (PM%) change from a 20-s baseline period before task initiation. Forty bilateral data sets were obtained (27 women, 37 right-hand dominant). All paradigms produced a sharp increase in CBFv in both dominant (PM% range: 3.29 to 9.70%) and nondominant (PM% range: 4.34 to 11.63%) hemispheres at task initiation, with associated increases in MAP (PM% range: 3.06 to 16.04%). ETCO 2 did not differ significantly at task initiation (PM% range: -1.1 to 2.4%, P > 0.05). HR differed significantly across A and C tasks at initiation (PM% range: -1.1 to 2.4%, P cognitively impaired population. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to provide a normative data set of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) responses to a complete cognitive assessment (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, ACE-III) in a large sample ( n = 40) of healthy volunteers. All tasks produced peak and sustained increases in CBFv to different extents. The ACE-III is a feasible tool to assess neurovascular coupling with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. These data can be used to inform the most appropriate cognitive task to elicit CBFv responses for future studies.
Lam, Benjamin; Middleton, Laura E; Masellis, Mario; Stuss, Donald T; Harry, Robin D; Kiss, Alex; Black, Sandra E
To compare the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) with the criterion standard of standardized neuropsychological testing and to compare the convergent validity of the MoCA with that of existing screening tools and global measures of cognition. Cross-sectional observational study. Tertiary care hospital-based cognitive neurology subspecialty clinic. A convenience sample of 107 individuals with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=75) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=32) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. In addition to the MoCA, all participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and detailed neuropsychological testing. Convergent validity was supported, with MoCA scores correlating well with the MMSE (correlation coefficient (r)=0.66, Pvalidity was supported, with MoCA subscores according to cognitive domain correlating well with analogous neuropsychological tests and, in the case of memory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.86), executive (AUC=0.79), and visuospatial function (AUC=0.79), being reasonably sensitive to impairment in those domains. The MoCA is a valid assessment of cognition that shows good agreement with existing screening tools and global measures (convergent validity) and was superior to the MMSE in this regard. The MoCA domain-specific subscores align with performance on more-detailed neuropsychological tests, suggesting not only good criterion validity for the MoCA, but also that it may be useful in guiding further neuropsychological testing. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.
Nygård, Lotte; Aznar, Marianne C; Fischer, Barbara M; Persson, Gitte F; Christensen, Charlotte B; Andersen, Flemming L; Josipovic, Mirjana; Langer, Seppo W; Kjær, Andreas; Vogelius, Ivan R; Bentzen, Søren M
We measured the repeatability of FDG PET/CT uptake metrics when acquiring scans in free breathing (FB) conditions compared with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for locally advanced lung cancer. Twenty patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Two FDG PET/CT scans per patient were conducted few days apart and in two breathing conditions (FB and DIBH). This resulted in four scans per patient. Up to four FDG PET avid lesions per patient were contoured. The following FDG metrics were measured in all lesions and in all four scans: Standardized uptake value (SUV) peak , SUV max , SUV mean , metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), based on an isocontur of 50% of SUV max . FDG PET avid volumes were delineated by a nuclear medicine physician. The gross tumor volumes (GTV) were contoured on the corresponding CT scans. Nineteen patients were available for analysis. Test-retest standard deviations of FDG uptake metrics in FB and DIBH were: SUV peak FB/DIBH: 16.2%/16.5%; SUV max : 18.2%/22.1%; SUV mean : 18.3%/22.1%; TLG: 32.4%/40.5%. DIBH compared to FB resulted in higher values with mean differences in SUV max of 12.6%, SUV peak 4.4% and SUV mean 11.9%. MTV, TLG and GTV were all significantly smaller on day 1 in DIBH compared to FB. However, the differences between metrics under FB and DIBH were in all cases smaller than 1 SD of the day to day repeatability. FDG acquisition in DIBH does not have a clinically relevant impact on the uptake metrics and does not improve the test-retest repeatability of FDG uptake metrics in lung cancer patients.
Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Keenan, Kathryn E; Stupic, Karl F; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate accuracy and repeatability of T 1 and T 2 estimates of a MR fingerprinting (MRF) method using the ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom. The ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom contains multiple compartments with standardized T 1 , T 2 , and proton density values. Conventional inversion-recovery spin echo and spin echo methods were used to characterize the T 1 and T 2 values in the phantom. The phantom was scanned using the MRF-FISP method over 34 consecutive days. The mean T 1 and T 2 values were compared with the values from the spin echo methods. The repeatability was characterized as the coefficient of variation of the measurements over 34 days. T 1 and T 2 values from MRF-FISP over 34 days showed a strong linear correlation with the measurements from the spin echo methods (R 2 = 0.999 for T 1 ; R 2 = 0.996 for T 2 ). The MRF estimates over the wide ranges of T 1 and T 2 values have less than 5% variation, except for the shortest T 2 relaxation times where the method still maintains less than 8% variation. MRF measurements of T 1 and T 2 are highly repeatable over time and across wide ranges of T 1 and T 2 values. Magn Reson Med 78:1452-1457, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Bodden, Carina; Siestrup, Sophie; Palme, Rupert; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert; Richter, S Helene
According to current guidelines on animal experiments, a prospective assessment of the severity of each procedure is mandatory. However, so far, the classification of procedures into different severity categories mainly relies on theoretic considerations, since it is not entirely clear which of the various procedures compromise the welfare of animals, or, to what extent. Against this background, a systematic empirical investigation of the impact of each procedure, including behavioral testing, seems essential. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated versus single testing on mouse welfare, using one of the most commonly used paradigms for behavioral phenotyping in behavioral neuroscience, the open-field test. In an independent groups design, laboratory mice (Mus musculus f. domestica) experienced either repeated, single, or no open-field testing - procedures that are assigned to different severity categories. Interestingly, testing experiences did not affect fecal corticosterone metabolites, body weights, elevated plus-maze or home cage behavior differentially. Thus, with respect to the assessed endocrinological, physical, and behavioral outcome measures, no signs of compromised welfare could be detected in mice that were tested in the open-field repeatedly, once, or, not at all. These findings challenge current classification guidelines and may, furthermore, stimulate systematic research on the severity of single procedures involving living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baas, Diana; Castelijns, Jos; Vermeulen, Marjan; Martens, Rob; Segers, Mien
Assessment for Learning (AfL) is believed to create a rich learning environment in which students develop their cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Monitoring student growth and providing scaffolds that shed light on the next step in the learning process are hypothesized to be essential elements of AfL that enhance cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, empirical evidence for the relation between AfL and students' strategy use is scarce. This study investigates the relation between AfL and elementary school students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. The sample comprised 528 grade four to six students (9- to 12-year-olds) from seven Dutch elementary schools. Students' perceptions of AfL and their cognitive and metacognitive strategy use were measured by means of questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relations among the variables. The results reveal that monitoring activities that provide students an understanding of where they are in their learning process predict Students' task orientation and planning. Scaffolding activities that support students in taking the next step in their learning are positively related to the use of both surface and deep-level learning strategies and the extent to which they evaluate their learning process after performing tasks. The results underline the importance of assessment practices in ceding responsibility to students in taking control of their own learning. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Havolli, Enes; Hill, Mark Dw; Godley, Annie; Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd
Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Animals show good memory performance at all RIs tested under four hours. At the four-hour RI, animals show a significantly poorer memory performance which can be rescued using donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Using this test we established and validated a spatial recognition paradigm to address topographical memory in mice by showing a decremental time-induced forgetting response and reversing this decrease in performance using pharmacological tools. The spatial recognition test differs from more commonly used visuospatial laboratory tests in both throughput capability and potentially neuroanatomical substrate. This test has the potential to be used to assess cognitive performance in transgenic animals, disease models and to screen putative cognitive enhancers or depressors.
Burdick, Katherine E.; Ketter, Terence A.; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Calabrese, Joseph R.
provided here as a preliminary guide for future trial design. Recommendations comprise exclusion of certain syndromal level comorbid diagnoses and current affective instability, restrictions on numbers and types of medications, and use of pre-screening assessment to ensure enrollment of subjects with adequate objective evidence of baseline cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS Clinical trials to address cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder face distinctive design challenges. As such trials move from proof-of-concept to confirmation of clinical efficacy, it will be important to incorporate distinctive design modifications to adequately address these challenges and increase the likelihood of demonstrating cognitive remediation effects. The field is now primed to address these challenges and a comprehensive effort to formalize best practice guidelines will be a critically important next step. PMID:25830456
Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne
To investigate speech pathologists' current practice with adults who are in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Speech pathologists with experience of adults in PTA were invited to take part in an online survey through Australian professional email/internet-based interest groups. Forty-five speech pathologists responded to the online survey. The majority of respondents (78%) reported using informal, observational assessment methods commencing at initial contact with people in PTA or when patients' level of alertness allowed and initiating formal assessment on emergence from PTA. Seven respondents (19%) reported undertaking no assessment during PTA. Clinicians described using a range of techniques to monitor cognitive-communication during PTA, including static, dynamic, functional and impairment-based methods. The study confirmed that speech pathologists have a key role in the multidisciplinary team caring for the person in PTA, especially with family education and facilitating interactions with the rehabilitation team and family. Decision-making around timing and means of assessment of cognitive-communication during PTA appeared primarily reliant on speech pathologists' professional experience and the culture of their workplace. The findings support the need for further research into the nature of cognitive-communication disorder and resolution over this period.
Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD neuropsychological battery was created to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD but it is widely-used for various dementias. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of using the CERAD battery in the assessment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Forty-nine patients with Parkinson's disease were divided into two groups (one with dementia and one without using the Movement Disorder Society criteria for Parkinson's disease dementia. Cognitive deficits were assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale as the gold standard, and the CERAD. The ROC curve for the CERAD battery had an area under the curve = 0.989 (95% CI = 0.967 – 1, p<0.0001. Among the CERAD subtests, verbal fluency had the worst accuracy, and word list learning had the best accuracy. Despite the limits of this study, the CERAD battery can be efficient for assessment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease patients.
Nogueira, Joana; Freitas, Sandra; Duro, Diana; Almeida, Jorge; Santana, Isabel
The Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) is a battery to assess cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and was developed according to the core characteristics of cognitive decline in AD: memory, language, praxis, constructive ability, and orientation. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic accuracy and discriminative capacity of the ADAS-Cog for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD, using cut-off points for the Portuguese population. The European Portuguese version of the ADAS-Cog was administrated to 650 participants, divided into a control group (n = 210), an MCI group (n = 240), and an AD group (n = 200). The clinical groups fulfilled standard international diagnostic criteria. Controls were healthy cognitive participants actively integrated in the community. The neuropsychological assessment protocol included the ADAS-Cog, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Adults and Older Adults Functional Assessment Inventory (IAFAI). The ADAS-Cog revealed good psychometric indicators, and the total scores were significantly different between the three groups (p 9 points (AUC = .835; sensitivity = 58% and specificity = 91%) and AD > 12 points (AUC = .996; sensitivity = 94% and specificity = 98%). Our findings confirmed the capacity of the ADAS-Cog total score to identify cognitive impairment in AD patients, with poor sensitivity for MCI, in a Portuguese cohort.
Price, Edward; Moore, George; Galway, Leo; Linden, Mark
Those living with an acquired brain injury often have issues with fatigue due to factors resulting from the injury. Cognitive impairments such as lack of memory, concentration and planning have a great impact on an individual’s ability to carry out general everyday tasks, which subsequently has the effect of inducing cognitive fatigue. Moreover, there is difficulty in assessing cognitive fatigue, as there are no real biological markers that can be measured. Rather, it is a very subjective eff...
The unit of Cognitive Developmental Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet have developed a method for measuring cognitive performance with handheld devices, which resulted in a mobile application for the iPod Touch. The application was previously used in a clinical trial with individuals suffering from chronic stress disorder, but had to be further developed. The application, which consisted of cognitive tests and questionnaires, required improvements that could be divided into three parts: (...
Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M
The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.
Haussmann, Robert; Mayer-Pelinski, René; Borchardt, Maike; Beier, Fabrice; Helling, Franziska; Buthut, Maria; Meissner, Gisa; Lange, Jan; Zweiniger, Anne; Donix, Markus
Diagnostic assessments for dementia include the evaluation of subjective memory impairment, dementia worries, or depressive symptoms. Data on the predictive value of these factors remain unclear, and varying help-seeking behavior may contribute to this finding. We investigate whether differentiating help-seeking motivation from other psychological factors associated with cognitive impairment would enhance the prediction of diagnostic outcomes in a memory clinic. We obtained information on help-seeking motivation from 171 patients who underwent routine diagnostic assessments. Utilizing a discriminant correspondence analysis, our results indicate that extrinsic motivation increases the likelihood of receiving a dementia diagnosis, whereas depression or the duration of deficits carries discriminatory information to further guide the differentiation of prodromal dementia. Recognizing motivational aspects of help-seeking behavior can complement the clinical evaluation of cognitive performance.
Full Text Available New technologies to enable augmentative and alternative communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS have been recently used in several studies. However, a comprehensive battery for cognitive assessment has not been implemented yet. Brain computer interfaces are innovative systems able to generate a control signal from brain responses conveying messages directly to a computer. Another available technology for communication purposes is the Eye-tracker system, that conveys messages from eye-movement to a computer. In this study we explored the use of these two technologies for the cognitive assessment of executive functions in a healthy population and in a ALS patient, also verifying usability, pleasantness, fatigue, and emotional aspects related to the setting. Our preliminary results may have interesting implications for both clinical practice (the availability of an effective tool for neuropsychological evaluation of ALS patients and ethical issues.
Hinds, Josephine T; Loukas, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Pasch, Keryn E; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L; Delnevo, Cristine; Wackowski, Olivia A
Characteristics of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) make assessment of their use a challenge for researchers. Cognitive interviews are a way of gaining insight into participants' interpretations of survey questions and the methods they use in answering them, to improve survey tools. We used cognitive interviews to modify a young adult survey and improve assessment of quantity and frequency of ENDS use, as well as reasons for initiation and use of ENDS products. Twenty-five college students between the ages of 18 and 32 participated in individual cognitive interviews, which assessed question comprehension, answer estimation, retrieval processes, and answer response processes. Comprehension issues arose discerning between ENDS device types (eg, cigalikes vs. vape pens), and answer estimation issues arose regarding ENDS use as drug delivery systems. These issues appeared to improve when pictures were added specifying the device in question, as well as when specific language naming nicotine as the ENDS product content was added to survey questions. Regarding answer retrieval, this sample of users had problems reporting their frequency of ENDS use, as well as quantifying the amount of ENDS products consumed (eg, volume of e-juice, number of cartridges, nicotine concentration). Accurate assessment of ENDS products proved challenging, but cognitive interviews provided valuable insight into survey interpretation that was otherwise inaccessible to researchers. Future research that explores how to assess the wide array of ENDS devices, as well as possible population differences among specific device-type users would be valuable to public health researchers and professionals. This study extends the current literature by using cognitive interviews to test ENDS assessment questions in a sample of young adults, a population at elevated risk for ENDS use. Problems encountered when answering ENDS use questions underscore the need to develop easily understood ENDS
Merolle, L., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Gianoncelli, A. [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Malucelli, E., E-mail: email@example.com; Cappadone, C.; Farruggia, G.; Sargenti, A.; Procopio, A. [Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Fratini, M. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma Italy (Italy); Department of Science, Roma Tre University, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Notargiacomo, A. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, 00156 Rome (Italy); Lombardo, M. [Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126 (Italy); Lagomarsino, S. [Institute of Chemical-Physical Processes, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, 00136 Rome (Italy); Iotti, S. [Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, 00136 Rome (Italy)
Elemental analysis of biological sample can give information about content and distribution of elements essential for human life or trace elements whose absence is the cause of abnormal biological function or development. However, biological systems contain an ensemble of cells with heterogeneous chemistry and elemental content; therefore, accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant, among them X-Ray microscopy based on synchrotron light source has gaining increasing attention thanks to its extremely sensitivity. However, reproducibility and repeatability of these measurements is one of the major obstacles in achieving a statistical significance in single cells population analysis. In this study, we compared the elemental content of human colon adenocarcinoma cells obtained by three distinct accesses to synchrotron radiation light.
Dyer, Adam H; Foley, Tony; O'Shea, Brendan; Kennelly, Sean P
The collateral (or informant) history is a key component in the assessment of older adults presenting with a memory problem or concern over cognition. Despite this, it rarely features in medical literature and academic curricula. Its role in general practice has never been assessed. The aim of this study is to assess the role of the collateral history in the investigation of cognitive impairment in general practice. An online survey distributed to three nationally representative cohorts of GPs in Ireland (n = 692). Ninety-five (14%; 52.2% male) responded. Nearly all (87%; 83/95) indicate that it is most often a family member who brings possible cognitive impairment to the attention of their GP. The vast majority obtain a collateral history in > 90% of cases (72.6%; 69/95) and rate it very useful in their clinical assessment of cognition. GPs report the collateral history as readily available and rarely refused, with the general practice environment well-suited to obtaining collateral histories. A small minority routinely use the GPCOG informant section (3.2%; 3/95). Nearly all (92.6%; 88/95) report having received no training in obtaining collateral histories with most (79%; 75/95) welcoming of further training in this area. Despite recognition of the utility and importance of the collateral history, the vast majority of GPs report having never received training in obtaining one and do not use structured tools to guide their interview. Further emphasis on the informant history as a distinct clinical entity on medical curricula and increasing emphasis on the availability of structured informant tools are warranted.
Full Text Available ObjectiveCognitive frailty (CF refers to the co-occurrence of physical frailty (PF and cognitive impairment in persons without dementia. We aimed to explore the prevalence and associated factors of CF in China.MethodData were obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study. A total of 5,708 community-dwelling older adults without dementia were included. CF was assessed using the Mini–Mental State Examination for the evaluation of cognitive status and the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment-Frailty Index for the evaluation of PF. Participants with both cognitive impairment and PF were classified as having CF. Sociodemographic and clinical history was also collected. Logistic analysis was used to explore the association between the associated factors and CF.ResultsThe overall crude prevalence of CF was 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI = 3.0–4.0], and the standard prevalence of CF was 2.7% (95% CI = 2.0–3.0. The prevalence of CF was significantly higher in women than men and higher in residents of rural areas than urban areas. Moreover, the prevalence of CF was found to increase with age. Multiple factor analysis showed that depression (OR = 2.462, 95% CI = 1.066–5.687 and hearing impairment (OR = 2.713, 95% CI = 1.114–6.608 were independent associated factors of CF in elderly individuals with PF.ConclusionOur results provide the first empirical evidence of CF in China. We have identified several associated factors with CF which should be considered while assessing older adults. More studies in Chinese population with CF are demanded to confirm with our findings.
Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M
An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
Rawlusyk, Kevin James
Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0
Full Text Available Demographic estimates for Poland indicate that the average life expectancy of the population will increase further over the next decades. Weakness of memory is a physiological phenomenon affecting about 60% of people over 65, whereas the prevalence of dementia in the population is estimated at 10-11%. Identification of people at high risk of developing dementia is becoming a significant medical and social problem. Cognitive impairment is one of the first symptoms of dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE is a screening method that allows initial assessment of cognitive performance. Correct diagnosis of symptoms, determining the health needs of seniors in all dimensions sets its further paths and optimal medical treatment. Aim of the paper: The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of cognitive function of people over 65. Material and methods: The analysis included 135 questionnaires of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and respondents’ particulars. Additionally, the functional efficiency of the subjects was assessed using the Barthel scale. The research was conducted among people over 65 in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship in 2017. For the purpose of this work, especially for verification of hypotheses, the following tests were used for questions on nominal scales: V Kramer (2x3, 4x5 tables etc., Phi (2x2 tables. Tb-Kendall or Tc tests were used for questions on ordinal scales. The statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS program and all relationships were statistically significant when p
Dingwall, Kylie M; Pinkerton, Jennifer; Lindeman, Melissa A
Achieving culturally fair assessments of cognitive functioning for Aboriginal people is difficult due to a scarcity of appropriately validated tools for use with this group. As a result, some Aboriginal people with cognitive impairments may lack fair and equitable access to services. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical practice in the Northern Territory regarding cognitive assessment for Aboriginal people thereby providing some guidance for clinicians new to this practice setting. Qualitative enquiry was used to describe practice context, reasons for assessment, and current practices in assessing cognition for Aboriginal Australians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians working with Aboriginal clients in central and northern Australia. Results pertaining to assessment methods are reported. A range of standardised tests were utilised with little consistency across clinical practice. Nevertheless, it was recognised that such tests bear severe limitations, requiring some modification and significant caution in their interpretation. Clinicians relied heavily on informal assessment or observations, contextual information and clinical judgement. Cognitive tests developed specifically for Aboriginal people are urgently needed. In the absence of appropriate, validated tests, clinicians have relied on and modified a range of standardised and informal assessments, whilst recognising the severe limitations of these. Past clinical training has not prepared clinicians adequately for assessing Aboriginal clients, and experience and clinical judgment were considered crucial for fair interpretation of test scores. Interpretation guidelines may assist inexperienced clinicians to consider whether they are achieving fair assessments of cognition for Aboriginal clients.
Van Liew, Charles; Santoro, Maya S; Goldstein, Jody; Gluhm, Shea; Gilbert, Paul E; Corey-Bloom, Jody
We sought to investigate whether the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) could provide a brief assessment of recall and recognition using Huntington disease (HD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) as disorders characterized by different memory deficits. This study included 80 participants with HD, 64 participants with AD, and 183 community-dwelling control participants. Random-effects hierarchical logistic regressions were performed to assess the relative performance of the normal control (NC), participants with HD, and participants with AD on verbal free recall, cued recall, and multiple-choice recognition on the MoCA. The NC participants performed significantly better than participants with AD at all the 3 levels of assessment. No difference existed between participants with HD and NC for cued recall, but NC participants performed significantly better than participants with HD on free recall and recognition. The participants with HD performed significantly better than participants with AD at all the 3 levels of assessment. The MoCA appears to be a valuable, brief cognitive assessment capable of identifying specific memory deficits consistent with known differences in memory profiles. © The Author(s) 2016.
Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike
Across many careers, individuals face alternating periods of high and low attention and cognitive workload, which can result in impaired cognitive functioning and can be detrimental to job performance. For example, some professions (e.g., fire fighters, emergency medical personnel, doctors and nurses working in an emergency room, pilots) require long periods of low workload (boredom), followed by sudden, high-tempo operations during which they may be required to respond to an emergency and perform at peak cognitive levels. Conversely, other professions (e.g., air traffic controllers, market investors in financial industries, analysts) require long periods of high workload and multitasking during which the addition of just one more task results in cognitive overload resulting in mistakes. An unobtrusive system to measure, assess, and predict cognitive workload could warn individuals, their teammates, or their supervisors when steps should be taken to augment cognitive readiness. In this talk I will describe an approach to this problem that we have found to be successful across work domains including: (1) a suite of unobtrusive, field-ready neurophysiological, physiological, and behavioral sensors that are chosen to best suit the target environment; (2) custom algorithms and statistical techniques to process and time-align raw data originating from the sensor suite; (3) probabilistic and statistical models designed to interpret the data into the human state of interest (e.g., cognitive workload, attention, fatigue); (4) and machine-learning techniques to predict upcoming performance based on the current pattern of events, and (5) display of each piece of information depending on the needs of the target user who may or may not want to drill down into the functioning of the system to determine how conclusions about human state and performance are determined. I will then focus in on our experimental results from our custom functional near-infrared spectroscopy sensor
Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Alves, Lara; Duro, Diana; Santana, Isabel
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief instrument developed for the screening of milder forms of cognitive impairment, having surpassed the well-known limitations of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The aim of the present study was to validate the MoCA as a cognitive screening test for behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Three matched subgroups of participants were considered: bv-FTD (n = 50), Alzheimer disease (n = 50), and a control group of healthy adults (n = 50). Compared with the MMSE, the MoCA demonstrated consistently superior psychometric properties and discriminant capacity, providing comprehensive information about the patients' cognitive profiles. The diagnostic accuracy of MoCA for bv-FTD was extremely high (area under the curve AUC [MoCA] = 0.934, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.866-.974; AUC [MMSE] = 0.772, 95% CI = 0.677-0.850). With a cutoff below 17 points, the MoCA results for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and classification accuracy were significantly superior to those of the MMSE. The MoCA is a sensitive and accurate instrument for screening the patients with bv-FTD and represents a better option than the MMSE.
Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Cerroni, Gianluigi; Sorbi, Sandro
In 2004, in Genoa (Italy), the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) was born. The first congress of this new scientific society took place in Rome in 2006. SINDem soon recognized the importance to investigate sleep problems in cognitive decline and created a national "sleep study group "composed by neurologists and sleep specialists. In 2012, The SINDem study group, in close relationship with the Italian Association of sleep medicine (AIMS), published the study "Prevalence of sleep disturbances in mild cognitive impairment and dementing disorders: a multicenter Italian clinical cross-sectional study on 431 patients ", confirming the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in a wide Italian population of persons with cognitive decline. The study was supported by a grant from the Italian Minister of Health and was conducted with the fundamental contribution of the Italian National Research Center (CNR). In 2014, the same group published the paper "Recommendations of the Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) on clinical assessment and management of sleep disorders in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a clinical review". The recommendations are wide and directed to professionals (neurologists but not exclusively) to try to establish uniform levels of care, promote collaborative studies into areas of uncertainty, and define the qualitative characteristics of Dementia Reference Centers about sleep disturbances.
Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.
The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social
Lickel, Athena; MacLean, William E., Jr.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Hepburn, Susan
The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children between the ages of 7-12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ,…
Smith, Kirsty S; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus; Fairley, Christopher K; McNulty, Anna; Read, Phillip; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Wand, Handan; Saville, Marion; Rawlinson, William; Garland, Suzanne M; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca
Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting three months after treatment, retesting rates are low. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of home collection combined with short message service (SMS) reminders on chlamydia retesting and reinfection rates in three risk groups. The REACT (retest after Chlamydia trachomatis) trial involves 600 patients diagnosed with chlamydia: 200 MSM, 200 women and 200 heterosexual men recruited from two Australian sexual health clinics where SMS reminders for retesting are routine practice. Participants will be randomised to the home group (3-month SMS reminder and home-collection) or the clinic group (3-month SMS reminder to return to the clinic). Participants in the home group will be given the choice of attending the clinic if they prefer. The mailed home-collection kit includes a self-collected vaginal swab (women), UriSWAB (Copan) for urine collection (heterosexual men), and UriSWAB plus rectal swab (MSM). The primary outcome is the retest rate at 1-4 months after a chlamydia diagnosis, and the secondary outcomes are: the repeat positive test rate; the reinfection rate; the acceptability of home testing with SMS reminders; and the cost effectiveness of home testing. Sexual behaviour data collected via an online survey at 4-5 months, and genotyping of repeat infections, will be used to discriminate reinfections from treatment failures. The trial will be conducted over two years. An intention to treat analysis will be conducted. This study will provide evidence about the effectiveness of home-collection combined with SMS reminders on chlamydia retesting, repeat infection and reinfection rates in three risk groups. The trial will determine client acceptability and cost effectiveness of this strategy. Australian and New
Weir, Alexander J; Paterson, Craig A; Tieges, Zoe; MacLullich, Alasdair M; Parra-Rodriguez, Mario; Della Sala, Sergio; Logie, Robert H
The next generation of medical technology applications for hand-held portable platforms will provide a core change in performance and sophistication, transforming the way health care professionals interact with patients. This advance is particularly apparent in the delivery of cognitive patient assessments, where smartphones and tablet computers are being used to assess complex neurological conditions to provide objective, accurate and reproducible test results. This paper reports on two such applications (apps) that have been developed to assist healthcare professionals with the detection and diagnosis of dementia and delirium.
Twomey, Deirdre M; Wrigley, Conal; Ahearne, Caroline; Murphy, Raegan; De Haan, Michelle; Marlow, Neil; Murray, Deirdre M
To explore the feasibility of using a touch screen assessment tool to measure cognitive capacity in toddlers. 112 typically developing children with a median age of 31 months (IQR: 26-34) interacted with a touch screen cognitive assessment tool. We examined the sensitivity of the tool to age-related changes in cognition by comparing the number of items completed, speed of task completion and accuracy in two age groups; 24-29 months versus 30-36 months. Children aged 30-36 months completed more tasks (median: 18, IQR: 18-18) than those aged 24-29 months (median: 17, IQR: 15-18). Older children also completed two of the three working memory tasks and an object permanence task faster than their younger peers. Children became faster at completing the working memory items with each exposure and registered similar completion times on the hidden object retrieval items, despite task demands being twofold on the second exposure. A novel item required children to integrate what they had learnt on preceding items. The older group was more likely to complete this item and to do so faster than the younger group. Children as young as 24 months can complete items requiring cognitive engagement on a touch screen device, with no verbal instruction and minimal child-administrator interaction. This paves the way for using touch screen technology for language and administrator independent developmental assessment in toddlers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Carotenuto, Anna; Rea, Raffaele; Ricci, Giovanna; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria; Amenta, Francesco
Background Approximately 46.8 million people are living with dementia worldwide and their number will grow in the next years. Any potential treatment should be administered as early as possible because it is important to provide an early cognitive assessment and to regularly monitor the mental function of patients. Information and communication technologies can be helpful to reach and follow patients without displacing them, but there may be doubts about the reliability of cognitive tests performed by telemedicine. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) tests administered in hospital by videoconference to patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Methods The tests were administered to 28 Alzheimer's disease outpatients (8 male, mean age 73.88, SD 7.45 years; 20 female mean age 76.00, SD 5.40 years) recruited and followed in the Alzheimer’s Unit of the A Cardarelli National Hospital (Naples, Italy) at baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of observation. Patients were evaluated first face-to-face by a psychologist and then, after 2 weeks, by another psychologist via videoconference in hospital. Results This study showed no differences in the MMSE and ADAS-cog scores when the tests were administered face-to-face or by videoconference, except in patients with more pronounced cognitive deficits (MMSE<17), in which the assessment via videoconference overestimated the cognitive impairment (face to face, MMSE mean 13.9, SD 4.9 and ADAS-cog mean 9.0, SD 3.8; videoconference, MMSE mean 42.8, SD 12.5 and ADAS-cog mean 56.9, SD 5.5). Conclusions We found that videoconferencing is a reliable approach to document cognitive stability or decline, and to measure treatment effects in patients with mild to moderate dementia. A more extended study is needed to confirm these results. PMID:29752254
Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the flexural bond performance of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP reinforcing bar under repeated loading. The flexural bond tests reinforced with GFRP reinforcing bars were carried out according to the BS EN 12269-1 (2000 specification. The bond test consisted of three loading schemes: static, monotonic, and variable-amplitude loading to simulate ambient loading conditions. The empirical bond length based on the static test was 225 mm, whereas it was 317 mm according to ACI 440 1R-03. Each bond stress on the rib is released and bonding force is enhanced as the bond length is increased. Appropriate level of bond length may be recommended with this energy-based analysis. For the monotonic loading test, the bond strengths at pullout failure after 2,000,000 cycles were 10.4 MPa and 6.5 MPa, respectively: 63–70% of the values from the static loading test. The variable loading test indicated that the linear cumulative damage theory on GFRP bonding may not be appropriate for estimating the fatigue limit when subjected to variable-amplitude loading.
Hollis, Ann M; Duncanson, Haley; Kapust, Lissa R; Xi, Patricia M; O'Connor, Margaret G
To evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive screening measures, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in predicting driving test outcome for individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Retrospective cohort study. A clinical driving evaluation program at a teaching hospital in the United States. Adult drivers who underwent assessment with the MMSE and MoCA as part of a comprehensive driving evaluation between 2010 and 2014 (N=92). MMSE and MoCA total scores were independent variables. The outcome measure was performance on a standardized road test. A preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment enhanced the validity of cognitive screening measures in the identification of at-risk drivers. In individuals with cognitive impairment there was a significant relationship between MoCA score and on-road outcome. Specifically, an individual was 1.36 times as likely to fail the road test with each 1-point decrease in MoCA score. No such relationship was detected in those without a diagnosis of cognitive impairment. For individuals who have not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment, neither the MMSE nor the MoCA can be reliably used as an indicator of driving risk, but for individuals with a preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment, the MoCA is a useful tool in this regard. A score on the MoCA of 18 or less should raise concerns about driving safety. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Uher, T; Vaneckova, M; Sormani, M P; Krasensky, J; Sobisek, L; Dusankova, J Blahova; Seidl, Z; Havrdova, E; Kalincik, T; Benedict, R H B; Horakova, D
While impaired cognitive performance is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), it has been largely underdiagnosed. Here a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening algorithm is proposed to identify patients at highest risk of cognitive impairment. The objective was to examine whether assessment of lesion burden together with whole brain atrophy on MRI improves our ability to identify cognitively impaired MS patients. Of the 1253 patients enrolled in the study, 1052 patients with all cognitive, volumetric MRI and clinical data available were included in the analysis. Brain MRI and neuropsychological assessment with the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis were performed. Multivariable logistic regression and individual prediction analysis were used to investigate the associations between MRI markers and cognitive impairment. The results of the primary analysis were validated at two subsequent time points (months 12 and 24). The prevalence of cognitive impairment was greater in patients with low brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) (3.5 ml) than in patients with high BPF (>0.85) and low T2-LV (patients predicted cognitive impairment with 83% specificity, 82% negative predictive value, 51% sensitivity and 75% overall accuracy. The risk of confirmed cognitive decline over the follow-up was greater in patients with high T2-LV (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and low BPF (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.7). The integrated MRI assessment of lesion burden and brain atrophy may improve the stratification of MS patients who may benefit from cognitive assessment. © 2016 EAN.
Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Kreiner, Svend
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the association between cognitive impairment and mortality in late senescence. A specific purpose was to validate the ability of a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in predicting mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The cognition-mortality link,...... chronic diseases and mortality. A short, valid MMSE subscale, which was a powerful predictor of mortality especially among men, is attractive for research and clinical practice......., as assessed by the original MMSE and D-MMSE (a subscale associated to dementia) was estimated on a community sample of 1,111 older people using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Impaired cognitive function as assessed by both the original MMSE and D-MMSE predicted mortality in older men and women over...... long intervals. The association persisted after controlling for sociodemographic variables, Body Mass Index, mobility, and comorbidity and was unaffected by self-reported specific chronic diseases in both men and women. In addition, disease related risk of mortality was substantially reduced...
Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn
An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS.
Raafat, Nelly; El Safy, Usama; Khater, Nahed; Hassan, Tamer; Hassan, Basheir; Siam, Ahmed; Youssef, Amira; El Shabrawy, Amany
Multiple risk factors contribute to cognitive impairment in children with β-thalassemia major. For a more refined understanding of this issue, we attempted to evaluate cognitive function in β-thalassemia major patients and identify the relationship between possible cognitive dysfunction and the following: demography, transfusion and chelation characteristics, iron overload, and disease complications. We studied 100 β-thalassemia major children and 100 healthy controls who matched well in terms of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. All participants underwent psychometric assessment using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Arabic version. The mean Full-Scale IQ and Performance IQ of patients were significantly lower than those of controls, whereas no significant difference was found for Verbal IQ. No significant relationship existed between IQ and any of the assessed parameters. We concluded that Performance IQ, not Verbal IQ, was significantly affected in β-thalassemia major patients, but there was no clear association between IQ and any of the parameters. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zhang, Baohua; Han, Mei; Tan, Shuping; De Yang, Fu; Tan, Yunlong; Jiang, Shurong; Zhang, Xiangyang; Huang, Xu-Feng
Using Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), previous study showed significant gender differences for cognitive deficits in immediate and delayed memory in schizophrenia patients. However, RBANS does not include reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. These cognitive functions can significantly affect the outcomes and daily life in patients. This study examined the gender differences of cognition using the measurement and treatment research to...
Full Text Available Awareness of emerging situations in a dynamic operational environment of a robotic assistive device is an essential capability of such a cognitive system, based on its effective and efficient assessment of the prevailing situation. This allows the system to interact with the environment in a sensible (semiautonomous / pro-active manner without the need for frequent interventions from a supervisor. In this paper, we report a novel generic Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems directly assisting humans as developed in the CORBYS project. This paper presents the overall architecture for situation assessment and its application in proof-of-concept Demonstrators as developed and validated within the CORBYS project. These include a robotic human follower and a mobile gait rehabilitation robotic system. We present an overview of the structure and functionality of the Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems with results and observations as collected from initial validation on the two CORBYS Demonstrators.
Jacova, Claudia; McGrenere, Joanna; Lee, Hyunsoo S; Wang, William W; Le Huray, Sarah; Corenblith, Emily F; Brehmer, Matthew; Tang, Charlotte; Hayden, Sherri; Beattie, B Lynn; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R
Cognitive Testing on Computer (C-TOC) is a novel computer-based test battery developed to improve both usability and validity in the computerized assessment of cognitive function in older adults. C-TOC's usability was evaluated concurrently with its iterative development to version 4 in subjects with and without cognitive impairment, and health professional advisors representing different ethnocultural groups. C-TOC version 4 was then validated against neuropsychological tests (NPTs), and by comparing performance scores of subjects with normal cognition, Cognitive Impairment Not Dementia (CIND) and Alzheimer disease. C-TOC's language tests were validated in subjects with aphasic disorders. The most important usability issue that emerged from consultations with 27 older adults and with 8 cultural advisors was the test-takers' understanding of the task, particularly executive function tasks. User interface features did not pose significant problems. C-TOC version 4 tests correlated with comparator NPT (r=0.4 to 0.7). C-TOC test scores were normal (n=16)>CIND (n=16)>Alzheimer disease (n=6). All normal/CIND NPT performance differences were detected on C-TOC. Low computer knowledge adversely affected test performance, particularly in CIND. C-TOC detected impairments in aphasic disorders (n=11). In general, C-TOC had good validity in detecting cognitive impairment. Ensuring test-takers' understanding of the tasks, and considering their computer knowledge appear important steps towards C-TOC's implementation.
Full Text Available Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%, whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.
Turney, Shaun; Cameron, Elyssa R; Cloutier, Christopher A; Buddle, Christopher M
Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%), whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.
Nazem, Sarra; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Have, Tom Ten; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S.; Moberg, Paul J.; Wilkinson, Jayne R.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Stern, Matthew B.; Weintraub, Daniel
OBJECTIVES To examine Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with “normal” global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. DESIGN A cross-sectional comparison of the MoCA and the MMSE. SETTING Two movement disorders centers at the University of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS A convenience sample of 131 patients with idiopathic PD who were screened for cognitive and psychiatric complications. MEASUREMENTS Subjects were administered the MoCA and MMSE, and only subjects defined as having a normal age- and education-adjusted MMSE score were included in the analyses (N = 100). As previously recommended in patients without PD, a MoCA score less than 26 was used to indicate the presence of at least mild cognitive impairment (MCI). RESULTS Mean MMSE and MoCA scores ± standard deviation were 28.8 ± 1.1 and 24.9 ± 3.1, respectively. More than half (52.0%) of subjects with normal MMSE scores had cognitive impairment according to their MoCA score. Impairments were seen in numerous cognitive domains, including memory, visuospatial and executive abilities, attention, and language. Predictors of cognitive impairment on the MoCA using univariate analyses were male sex, older age, lower educational level, and greater disease severity; older age was the only predictor in a multivariate model. CONCLUSION Approximately half of patients with PD with a normal MMSE score have cognitive impairment based on the recommended MoCA cutoff score. These results suggest that MCI is common in PD and that the MoCA is a more sensitive instrument than the MMSE for its detection. PMID:19170786
White matter microstructural damage in small vessel disease is associated with Montreal cognitive assessment but not with mini mental state examination performances: vascular mild cognitive impairment Tuscany study.
Pasi, Marco; Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Ciolli, Laura; Del Bene, Alessandra; Marini, Sandro; Nannucci, Serena; Pescini, Francesca; Valenti, Raffaella; Ginestroni, Andrea; Toschi, Nicola; Diciotti, Stefano; Mascalchi, Mario; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been proposed as a screening tool in vascular cognitive impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive to white matter microstructural damage. We investigated if diffusion tensor imaging-derived indices are more strongly associated with performances on MoCA or on the widely used mini mental state examination in patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease. Mild cognitive impairment patients with moderate/severe degrees of white matter hyperintensities on MRI were enrolled. Lacunar infarcts, cortical atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy and median values of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy of the cerebral white matter were studied and correlated with cognitive tests performances. Seventy-six patients (mean age 75.1±6.8 years, mean years of education 8.0±4.3) were assessed. In univariate analyses, a significant association of both MoCA and mini mental state examination scores with age, education, cortical atrophy, and medial temporal lobe atrophy was found, whereas mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated with MoCA. In partial correlation analyses, adjusting for all demographic and neuroimaging variables, both mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated only with MoCA (mean diffusivity: r= -0.275, P=0.023; fractional anisotropy: r=0.246, P=0.043). In patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease, diffusion tensor imaging-measured white matter microstructural damage is more related to MoCA than mini mental state examination performances. MoCA is suited for the cognitive screening of patients with small vessel disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Ruzik, L; Obarski, N; Papierz, A; Mojski, M
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV/VIS spectrophotometric detection combined with the chemometric method of cluster analysis (CA) was used for the assessment of repeatability of composition of nine types of perfumed waters. In addition, the chromatographic method of separating components of the perfume waters under analysis was subjected to an optimization procedure. The chromatograms thus obtained were used as sources of data for the chemometric method of cluster analysis (CA). The result was a classification of a set comprising 39 perfumed water samples with a similar composition at a specified level of probability (level of agglomeration). A comparison of the classification with the manufacturer's declarations reveals a good degree of consistency and demonstrates similarity between samples in different classes. A combination of the chromatographic method with cluster analysis (HPLC UV/VIS - CA) makes it possible to quickly assess the repeatability of composition of perfumed waters at selected levels of probability. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
To, Kien Gia; Meuleners, Lynn; Chen, Huei-Yang; Lee, Andy; Do, Dung Van; Duong, Dat Van; Phi, Tien Duy; Tran, Hoang Huy; Nguyen, Nguyen Do
To determine the test-retest repeatability of the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) for use with older Vietnamese adults with bilateral cataract. The questionnaire was translated into Vietnamese and back-translated into English by two independent translators. Patients with bilateral cataract aged 50 and older completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, one to two weeks after first administration of the questionnaire. Test-retest repeatability was assessed using the Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficients. The average age of participants was 67 ± 8 years and most participants were female (73%). Internal consistency was acceptable with the α coefficient above 0.7 for all subscales and intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.6 or greater in all subscales. The Vietnamese NEI VFQ-25 is reliable for use in studies assessing vision-related quality of life in older adults with bilateral cataract in Vietnam. We propose some modifications to the NEI-VFQ questions to reflect activities of older people in Vietnam. © 2013 ACOTA.
Harvey, Philip D; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Pinkham, Amy E; Depp, Colin A; Patterson, Thomas L
Depressed mood has a complex relationship with self-evaluation of personal competence in multiple populations. The absence of depression may be associated with overestimation of abilities, while mild depression seems to lead to accurate self-assessment. Significant depression may lead to underestimation of functioning. In this study, we expand on our previous work by directly comparing the association between different levels of depression, everyday functioning, cognitive and functional capacity performance, and self-assessment of everyday functioning in a large (n = 406) sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. Participants with very low self-reported depression overestimated their everyday functioning compared with informant reports. Higher levels of depression were associated with more accurate self-assessment, but no subgroup of patients underestimated their functioning. Depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer informant-rated social functioning, but there were no differences in vocational functioning, everyday activities, cognitive performance, and functional capacity associated with the severity of self-reported depression. There was minimal evidence of impact of depression on most aspects of everyday functioning and objective test performance and a substantial relationship between depression and accuracy of self-assessment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Ying; Dong, Jiaqi; Niu, Xun; Kong, Weijia
The patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) tend to develop cognitive deficits, which usually go unrecognized, and can affect their daily life. The Beijing version of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA-BJ), a Chinese version of MoCA, has been used for the assessment of cognitive functions of OSAHS patients in clinical practice. So far, its reliability and validity have not been tested. This study examined the reliability and validity of MoCA-BJ in a cohort of adult OSAHS patients. 152 OSAHS patients, ranging from mild, moderate to severe, 49 primary snoring subjects and 40 normal controls were evaluated for cognitive functions by employing both MoCA-BJ and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Forty of them were re-tested by MoCA-BJ 14 days after the first test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminate and concurrent validity of MoCA-BJ were analyzed. Internal consistency reliability by Cronbach's alpha was adequate (0.73). Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), an measure of test-retest reliability, was 0.87 (Preliable and stable. The MoCA-BJ was capable of detecting cognitive dysfunction by visuospatial and total MoCA-BJ score.
Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Fujii, Yutaka; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Kako, Yuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Kusumi, Ichiro
In Japan, there are currently no reliable rating scales for the evaluation of subjective cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder. We studied the relationship between the Japanese version of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and objective cognitive assessments in patients with bipolar disorder. We further assessed the reliability and validity of the COBRA. Forty-one patients, aged 16-64, in a remission period of bipolar disorder were recruited from Hokkaido University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The COBRA (Japanese version) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), the gold standard in subjective cognitive assessment, were administered. A battery of neuropsychological tests was employed to measure objective cognitive impairment. Correlations among the COBRA, FCQ, and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The Japanese version of the COBRA had high internal consistency, good retest reliability, and concurrent validity-as indicated by a strong correlation with the FCQ. A significant correlation was also observed between the COBRA and objective cognitive measurements of processing speed. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the Japanese version of the COBRA may be clinically useful as a subjective cognitive impairment rating scale in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad
Javadi, Pari Sadat Haji Seyed; Zendehbad, Azadeh; Darabi, Fatemeh; Khosravifar, Shahrzad; Noroozian, Maryam
A considerable segment of the elderly population in Iran is illiterate, and it seems the existing neuropsychological screening tests are not very useful for detecting dementia in illiterate participants. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a tool called Persian test of Elderly for Assessment of Cognition and Executive function (PEACE) for detecting dementia in both illiterate and literate participants. First, in order to design some of the cognitive aspects of the PEACE assay, we considered other prevalent neuropsychological instruments, such as the General Practitioner assessment of Cognition (GPCOG), Functional Assessment Staging (FAST), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Wechsler Memory scale. The other domains of PEACE were designed according to our clinical proficiencies and the culture of the society. In the next step, the participants were classified into three distinct groups, i.e., the control group (n=33), the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) group (n=30), and the Alzheimer's group (n=38). All of the participants in each group were divided according to their educational level, i.e., illiterate, semi-literate, and literate. We developed PEACE consisting of 14 items, each of which represents a specific cognitive function, with a maximum score of 91. The 14 items are Orientation, Praxis, Attention and Concentration, Attention and Calculation, Memory, Similarity, Abstract Thinking, General Information, Language, Judgment, Gnosis, Planning (Sequencing), Problem Solving, and Animal Naming. PEACE scores are highly correlated with those of the MMSE (r=0.78). The optimal cut-off point of PEACE chosen for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was 67.5 (sensitivity: 75.8%, specificity: 97.4%). The PEACE scores showed a significant difference between Participants with Alzheimer's disease and the control group (p=0.0000) and the MCI group (p=0.003). In addition, there was no significant difference between illiterate and literate participants in the
Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert
The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control
Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert
The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the…
Holzhauer, M.; Middelesch, H.; Bartels, C.J.; Frankena, K.; Verhoeff, J.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.
The optimal moment for trimming the claws of all dairy cows in a herd was investigated by assessing the external rotation of the hind claws of individual cows relative to the spinal column. This leg score consisted of three independent descriptors: 1 (good/ normal), 2 (moderately deviant), and 3
Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen
One of the many services that intelligent systems can provide is the automated assessment of resident well-being. We hypothesize that the functional health of individuals, or ability of individuals to perform activities independently without assistance, can be estimated by tracking their activities using smart home technologies. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based method for assessing activity quality in smart homes. To validate our approach we quantify activity quality for 179 volunteer participants who performed a complex, interweaved set of activities in our smart home apartment. We observed a statistically significant correlation (r=0.79) between automated assessment of task quality and direct observation scores. Using machine learning techniques to predict the cognitive health of the participants based on task quality is accomplished with an AUC value of 0.64. We believe that this capability is an important step in understanding everyday functional health of individuals in their home environments.
Lebedeva, Elena; Huang, Mei; Koski, Lisa
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that measurement error when using the new alternate MoCA versions to monitor change over time could be related to the use of items that are not of comparable difficulty to their corresponding originals of similar content. The objective of this study was to compare the difficulty of the alternate MoCA items to the original ones. Five selected items from alternate versions of the MoCA were included with items from the original MoCA administered adaptively to geriatric outpatients (N = 78). Rasch analysis was used to estimate the difficulty level of the items. None of the five items from the alternate versions matched the difficulty level of their corresponding original items. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of a Rasch analysis-based approach for selecting items during the process of development of parallel forms. The results suggest that better match of the items from different MoCA forms by their difficulty would result in higher sensitivity to changes in cognitive function over time.
Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P A
We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11-0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.
Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.
This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Herbrich, Laura; van Noort, Betteke; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Winter, Sibylle; Kappel, Viola
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a specialized treatment approach targeting cognitive weaknesses in anorexia nervosa (AN). Regarding follow-up effects of CRT, there are only few studies available; for adolescents, there are no data. Forty-eight adolescents with AN were assigned to receive either CRT and treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Assessments were performed at baseline (n = 48) and compared with assessments at a 6-month follow-up (n = 33). Outcome measures were set-shifting, central coherence, eating disorder and general psychopathology. The completion rate was higher in CRT compared with TAU. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological and clinical variables. Changes in body mass index percentile showed a trend towards significance for CRT. Dropout analyses revealed no significant predictors. Results provide a first insight into follow-up-assessments of CRT in adolescent AN. More randomized controlled studies are needed to clarify the long-term effects of CRT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Krista M. Lisdahl
Full Text Available One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD Study (https://abcdstudy.org/ is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of these substance use domains over a period of ten years in a nationwide sample of youth presents an unprecedented opportunity to further understand the timing and interactive relationships between substance use and neurocognitive, health, and psychopathology outcomes in youth living in the United States. Keywords: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Adolescent, Child, Substance use, Alcohol, Cannabis, Marijuana, Nicotine, Longitudinal, Methods, Assessment, Drug use, Prescription drug use, Inhalants
Begega, Azucena; Méndez López, Magdalena; de Iscar, María Jesús; Cuesta-Izquierdo, Marcelino; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; Álvarez, Luis; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L
The aim of this study was to assess various cognitive abilities such as attention, IQ, reasoning, and memory related to academic achievement in 8- and 9-year-old preterm children. A total of 141 children were assessed. The preterm group (=37 weeks) comprised 63 children and was compared to 78 full-term children. Attention was evaluated using the d2 Selective Attention test, and the IQ by the L-M form of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, establishing a profile of abilities: perception, memory, comprehension, reasoning, and verbal fluency. Significant differences in IQ were found between the preterm and full-term children. Of the cognitive abilities assessed, the only significant differences were found in verbal fluency, with preterm boys showing lower verbal fluency scores than full-term children. In conclusion, all preterm groups have attention ability similar to that of full-term children. However, preterm children obtain lower scores in intelligence measures. In addition, preterm boys have verbal fluency difficulties. Taking into account the increase in preterm births, suitable intervention programs must be planned to attend the difficulties found.
Hisaki, Tomoka; Aiba Née Kaneko, Maki; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Sasa, Hitoshi; Kouzuki, Hirokazu
Use of laboratory animals for systemic toxicity testing is subject to strong ethical and regulatory constraints, but few alternatives are yet available. One possible approach to predict systemic toxicity of chemicals in the absence of experimental data is quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. Here, we present QSAR models for prediction of maximum "no observed effect level" (NOEL) for repeated-dose, developmental and reproductive toxicities. NOEL values of 421 chemicals for repeated-dose toxicity, 315 for reproductive toxicity, and 156 for developmental toxicity were collected from Japan Existing Chemical Data Base (JECDB). Descriptors to predict toxicity were selected based on molecular orbital (MO) calculations, and QSAR models employing multiple independent descriptors as the input layer of an artificial neural network (ANN) were constructed to predict NOEL values. Robustness of the models was indicated by the root-mean-square (RMS) errors after 10-fold cross-validation (0.529 for repeated-dose, 0.508 for reproductive, and 0.558 for developmental toxicity). Evaluation of the models in terms of the percentages of predicted NOELs falling within factors of 2, 5 and 10 of the in-vivo-determined NOELs suggested that the model is applicable to both general chemicals and the subset of chemicals listed in International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI). Our results indicate that ANN models using in silico parameters have useful predictive performance, and should contribute to integrated risk assessment of systemic toxicity using a weight-of-evidence approach. Availability of predicted NOELs will allow calculation of the margin of safety, as recommended by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).
Full Text Available Aims: The main aim of this paper is to describe almost 30 years of work on psychological assessment using CBA, a research team, and to propose collaboration with Latin countries. Methods: The acronym CBA stands for Cognitive Behavioural Assessment and indicates both an overall approach to clinical assessment and a series of tests. Five general principles formed the basis on which the team developed their questionnaires: (1 assessment is not a passive collection of information, but an active process similar to problem-solving; (2 horizontal integration of questionnaires with other assessment methods; (3 vertical integration and hierarchical structure of assessment questionnaires; (4 idiographic perspective; (5 computer support. Results: The paper briefly presents the most important tests: CBA-2.0, a broad-spectrum Battery for patients who need counselling and/or psychotherapy; CBA-H (Hospital for both in-patients and out-patients suffering from physical illnesses; CBA-SPORT for professional athletes; CBA-Y (young people for adolescents and young adults; CBD-VE (treatment benefits to assess the effectiveness of psychological treatment. Conclusion: These questionnaires have produced over 100 research works, published in Italian journals or presented in conferences. In the near future, we expect important, radical changes and hope to create an international research milieu.
Tesoriero, Ricardo; Gallud Lazaro, Jose A; Altalhi, Abdulrahman H
Improve the quantity and quality of information obtained from traditional Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment Battery systems to monitor the evolution of patients' rehabilitation process as well as to compare different rehabilitation therapies. The system replaces traditional artefacts with virtual versions of them to take advantage of cutting edge interaction technology. The system is defined as a Distributed User Interface (DUI) supported by a display ecosystem, including mobile devices as well as multi-touch surfaces. Due to the heterogeneity of the devices involved in the system, the software technology is based on a client-server architecture using the Web as the software platform. The system provides therapists with information that is not available (or it is very difficult to gather) using traditional technologies (i.e. response time measurements, object tracking, information storage and retrieval facilities, etc.). The use of DUIs allows therapists to gather information that is unavailable using traditional assessment methods as well as adapt the system to patients' profile to increase the range of patients that are able to take this assessment. Implications for Rehabilitation Using a Distributed User Interface environment to carry out LOTCAs improves the quality of the information gathered during the rehabilitation assessment. This system captures physical data regarding patient's interaction during the assessment to improve the rehabilitation process analysis. Allows professionals to adapt the assessment procedure to create different versions according to patients' profile. Improves the availability of patients' profile information to therapists to adapt the assessment procedure.
Clarnette, Roger; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Antony, Deanna N; Svendrovski, Anton; Molloy, D William
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) accurately differentiates mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from mild dementia and normal controls (NC). While the MoCA is validated in multiple clinical settings, few studies compare it with similar tests also designed to detect MCI. We sought to investigate how the shorter Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen compares with the MoCA. Consecutive referrals presenting with cognitive complaints to a teaching hospital geriatric clinic (Fremantle, Western Australia) underwent a comprehensive assessment and were classified as MCI (n = 72) or dementia (n = 109). NC (n = 41) were a sample of convenience. The Qmci and MoCA were scored by trained geriatricians, in random order, blind to the diagnosis. Median Qmci scores for NC, MCI and dementia were 69 (+/-19), 52.5 (+/-12) and 36 (+/-14), respectively, compared with 27 (+/-5), 22 (+/-4) and 15 (+/-7) for the MoCA. The Qmci more accurately identified cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia), area under the curve (AUC) 0.97, than the MoCA (AUC 0.92), p = 0.04. The Qmci was non-significantly more accurate in distinguishing MCI from controls (AUC 0.91 vs 0.84, respectively = 0.16). Both instruments had similar accuracy for differentiating MCI from dementia (AUC of 0.91 vs 0.88, p = 0.35). At the optimal cut-offs, calculated from receiver operating characteristic curves, the Qmci (≤57) had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 93% for cognitive impairment, compared with 87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for the MoCA (≤23). While both instruments are accurate in detecting MCI, the Qmci is shorter and arguably easier to complete, suggesting that it is a useful instrument in an Australian geriatric outpatient population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.
Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow
Robert M Brouillette
Full Text Available While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, p<0.0001 and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r = 0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r = -0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r = 0.508, p<0.0001. The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test. Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r = 0.726; p = 0.02. Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries
Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S
To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Lee, Gyusung I; Lee, Mija R; Clanton, Tameka; Clanton, Tamera; Sutton, Erica; Park, Adrian E; Marohn, Michael R
We conducted this study to investigate how physical and cognitive ergonomic workloads would differ between robotic and laparoscopic surgeries and whether any ergonomic differences would be related to surgeons' robotic surgery skill level. Our hypothesis is that the unique features in robotic surgery will demonstrate skill-related results both in substantially less physical and cognitive workload and uncompromised task performance. Thirteen MIS surgeons were recruited for this institutional review board-approved study and divided into three groups based on their robotic surgery experiences: laparoscopy experts with no robotic experience, novices with no or little robotic experience, and robotic experts. Each participant performed six surgical training tasks using traditional laparoscopy and robotic surgery. Physical workload was assessed by using surface electromyography from eight muscles (biceps, triceps, deltoid, trapezius, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, thenar compartment, and erector spinae). Mental workload assessment was conducted using the NASA-TLX. The cumulative muscular workload (CMW) from the biceps and the flexor carpi ulnaris with robotic surgery was significantly lower than with laparoscopy (p NASA-TLX analysis showed that both robotic surgery novices and experts expressed lower global workloads with robotic surgery than with laparoscopy, whereas LEs showed higher global workload with robotic surgery (p > 0.05). Robotic surgery experts and novices had significantly higher performance scores with robotic surgery than with laparoscopy (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that the physical and cognitive ergonomics with robotic surgery were significantly less challenging. Additionally, several ergonomic components were skill-related. Robotic experts could benefit the most from the ergonomic advantages in robotic surgery. These results emphasize the need for well-structured training and well-defined ergonomics guidelines to maximize the
Full Text Available Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer's disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation.
Full Text Available The paper presents two case reports of living victims, in which imaging studies of the chest conducted at a medical facility were an essential part of the medico-legal opinion. The first case was that of a young male hospitalized due to CT evidence of bilateral rib fractions, who claimed to have been assaulted by police officers. The other case was that of a six week old baby hospitalized due to chest X-ray evidence of right hand side rib fractions. The chest X-ray was performed due to one bruise found on the baby’s forehead and two small bruises on the back, which gave rise to suspicions of child abuse. In both cases, expert witnesses in radiology definitively excluded the presence of any fractures. These cases indicate that a new assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records is needed. Expert opinions based solely on the description of imaging studies may result in grave consequences.
O'Driscoll, Ciarán; Shaikh, Madiha
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is widely used to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). While there are many available versions, the cross-cultural validity of the assessment has not been explored sufficiently. We aimed to interrogate the validity of the MoCA in a cross-cultural context: in differentiating MCI from normal controls (NC); and identifying cut-offs and adjustments for age and education where possible. This review sourced a wide range of studies including case-control studies. In addition, we report findings for differentiating dementias from NC and MCI from dementias, however, these were not considered to be an appropriate use of the MoCA. The subject of the review assumes heterogeneity and therefore meta-analyses was not conducted. Quality ratings, forest plots of validated studies (sensitivity and specificity) with covariates (suggested cut-offs, age, education and country), and summary receiver operating characteristic curve are presented. The results showed a wide range in suggested cutoffs for MCI cross-culturally, with variability in levels of sensitivity and specificity ranging from low to high. Poor methodological rigor appears to have affected reported accuracy and validity of the MoCA. The review highlights the necessity for cross-cultural considerations when using the MoCA, and recognizing it as a screen and not a diagnostic tool. Appropriate cutoffs and point adjustments for education are suggested.
Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.
Wouters, Hans; van Gool, Willem A; Schmand, Ben; Lindeboom, Robert
To examine whether it is appropriate to sum the cognitive part of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) items to assess cognitive impairment. This assumes items to have (1) equal measurement precision and (2) hierarchically ordered categories. Rasch analysis on the basis of pooled data from 3 Randomized Controlled Trials was used to examine these assumptions and to estimate each patient's level of impairment. Analyses were replicated in an independent sample. The original ADAS-cog scoring did not fit the Rasch Model and did not reliably distinguish between impairment levels. Patients with equal test scores had different impairment levels. Similarly, patients with different test scores could have the same impairment level. Revising the ADAS-cog by (1) weighting the items by their measurement precision and (2) collapsing nonhierarchical item categories resulted in good fit and a valid one to one correspondence between sum scores and estimated impairment levels. This revealed that equal differences in ADAS-cog scores did not reflect equal differences in impairment level along the test's score range. It is appropriate to summate the ADAS-cog items provided that the items are weighted and have their categories hierarchically ordered.
Gasser, A-I; Calabrese, P; Kalbe, E; Kessler, J; Rossier, P
Cognitive screening is crucial in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is still a lack of short tools in French. In this study, we aimed to compare the Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment (PANDA) with the Mini Mental Parkinson (MMP), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clock Test in French-speaking patients. We also aimed to propose cut-off scores for cognitive impairment and dementia for the French language version of the PANDA. Fifty-one patients with PD took the PANDA, the MMSE, the MMP, and the Clock Test. They also underwent extensive neuropsychological testing by a neuropsychologist who was blinded to the above-mentioned screening test results. Patients were classified as either having normal cognition (n=15), mild cognitive impairment (n=20) or dementia (n=16). When compared with the three other screening tools, the PANDA exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC) for both cognitive disorders and dementia. Using the cut-off scores proposed for the German version, the PANDA had 94% specificity and 100% sensitivity for dementia and 100% and 72%, respectively for cognitive disorders. In our study, the PANDA exhibited a higher discriminative power than the three other tests in detecting cognitive disorders and dementia. In PD patients, the PANDA should thus be considered for the detection of cognitive impairment in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Jorge; Gamito, Pedro; Alghazzawi, Daniyal M; Fardoun, Habib M; Rosa, Pedro J; Sousa, Tatiana; Picareli, Luís Felipe; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo
This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT. The results showed that the SCT correlated with global cognitive performance as measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The SCT explained one third of the total variance of this test and revealed good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating scores below one standard deviation in this screening tool. These findings suggest that performance of such functional tasks involves a broad range of cognitive processes that are associated with global cognitive functioning and that may be difficult to isolate through paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests.
Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Okada, Kensuke
A variety of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) have been developed in recent years to help with the diagnostic assessment and evaluation of students. Each model makes different assumptions about the relationship between students' achievement and skills, which makes it important to empirically investigate which CDMs better fit the actual data. In this study, we examined this question by comparatively fitting representative CDMs to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 assessment data across seven countries. The following two major findings emerged. First, in accordance with former studies, CDMs had a better fit than did the item response theory models. Second, main effects models generally had a better fit than other parsimonious or the saturated models. Related to the second finding, the fit of the traditional parsimonious models such as the DINA and DINO models were not optimal. The empirical educational implications of these findings are discussed.
Poumadere, M.; Perrin, A.
Mobile telephone technology is characterized by spectacular global expansion. In a corollary manner, radio frequencies have become omnipresent in the public and private environment, as the physical basis for mobile communications, and as something that has entered the awareness of a vast number of persons. This dual nature of radio frequencies means that population concerns have been taken into account in the risk assessment process. Against this background, we first examine the principle of separation between assessment, evaluation and management of risk. We then consider several categories of exposure. The concept of socio-cognitive exposure is proposed, to address the possible effects of chronic exposure of populations to alarming information when various health effects of radio frequencies are discussed. This approach specifies the role of information as an intermediary between environment and health. Applied to the case of radio frequencies, such a conceptual approach could result in redefining such terms as vulnerable populations, extreme situations and protective measures. (authors)
Full Text Available A variety of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs have been developed in recent years to help with the diagnostic assessment and evaluation of students. Each model makes different assumptions about the relationship between students' achievement and skills, which makes it important to empirically investigate which CDMs better fit the actual data. In this study, we examined this question by comparatively fitting representative CDMs to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2007 assessment data across seven countries. The following two major findings emerged. First, in accordance with former studies, CDMs had a better fit than did the item response theory models. Second, main effects models generally had a better fit than other parsimonious or the saturated models. Related to the second finding, the fit of the traditional parsimonious models such as the DINA and DINO models were not optimal. The empirical educational implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of Roll Back Malaria (RBM is to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality by 50% by the year 2010, and still further thereafter until the disease becomes no more a threat to public health. To contribute to the monitoring and evaluation process of this goal, two surveys were carried out in 2000 and 2003 in households and health facilities in the Kassena-Nankana district, northern Ghana using the RBM-WHO/AFRO monitoring and evaluation tools for malaria control activities. Methods Data were collected from mothers/caretakers on signs/symptoms of the most recent malaria attack for their under five year old children; the management actions that they took and their perception of health services provided at the health facilities, bednet use, antenatal attendance and place of delivery for the most recent pregnancy, malaria prophylaxis during their last pregnancy. Community health workers and herbalist/traditional healers were also interviewed about the types of health services they provide to community members. Results The results revealed a significant improvement in knowledge among mothers/caretakers over the three-year period; this affected caretakers' initial management of illnesses of their young children. The management in terms of the type and dosage of drugs used also improved significantly (p The intensification of malaria control activities and awareness creation in this district over a three year period had started demonstrating positive results towards reducing malaria disease burden. Conclusion Periodic performance assessments through surveys as described and prompt feedback of results to stakeholders in the locality serves as a catalyst to improving malaria control in malaria-endemic countries.
Gierus, J; Mosiołek, A; Koweszko, T; Wnukiewicz, P; Kozyra, O; Szulc, A
The aim of the presented research was to obtain the initial data regarding the validity of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diagnosing cognitive impairment in psychiatrically hospitalized patients. The results in MoCA obtained from 221 patients were analyzed in terms of proportional participation of patients with particular diagnosis in three result ranges. In 67 patients, additional version of the scale was also used. Comparative analysis of average results in particular diagnostic groups (organically based disorders, disorders due to psychoactive substance use, psychotic disorders, neurotic disorders and personality disorders) was also carried out, as well as an analysis of the scale's accuracy as a diagnostic test in detecting organic disorders. The reliability of the test measured with between tests correlation coefficient rho=0.92 (P=.000). Significant differences between particular diagnoses groups were detected (J-T=13736; P=.000). The cutoff points of 23 turned out to have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity (0.82 and 0.70, respectively) in diagnosing organically based disorders. The area below the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC=0.854; P=.000) suggests that MoCA has a satisfactory value as a classifier. The initial data suggest MoCA's high value in prediction of future diagnosis of organically based disorders. The initial results obtained in particular group of diagnoses support construct validity of the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahonniska-Assa, Jaana; Polack, Orli; Saraf, Einat; Wine, Judy; Silberg, Tamar; Nissenkorn, Andreea; Ben-Zeev, Bruria
While many individuals with severe developmental impairments learn to communicate with augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices, a significant number of individuals show major difficulties in the effective use of AAC. Recent technological innovations, i.e., eye-tracking technology (ETT), aim to improve the transparency of communication and may also enable a more valid cognitive assessment. To investigate whether ETT in forced-choice tasks can enable children with very severe motor and speech impairments to respond consistently, allowing a more reliable evaluation of their language comprehension. Participants were 17 girls with Rett syndrome (M = 6:06 years). Their ability to respond by eye gaze was first practiced with computer games using ETT. Afterwards, their receptive vocabulary was assessed using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4). Target words were orally presented and participants responded by focusing their eyes on the preferred picture. Remarkable differences between the participants in receptive vocabulary were demonstrated using ETT. The verbal comprehension abilities of 32% of the participants ranged from low-average to mild cognitive impairment, and the other 68% of the participants showed moderate to severe impairment. Young age at the time of assessment was positively correlated with higher receptive vocabulary. The use of ETT seems to make the communicational signals of children with severe motor and communication impairments more easily understood. Early practice of ETT may improve the quality of communication and enable more reliable conclusions in learning and assessment sessions. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uysal-Cantürk, P; Hanağası, H A; Bilgiç, B; Gürvit, H; Emre, M
Cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Mild cognitive impairment constitutes a major risk for the development of Parkinson's disease dementia in the course of the disease. A Movement Disorder Society Task Force proposed diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI), comprising two operational levels: Level I and Level II. The objective of our study was to test the accuracy of Level I versus Level II diagnostic criteria. Eighty-six consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease were screened and 68 patients without dementia or depression were included in the study. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation-R screening tools for Level I and an extensive neuropsychological battery for Level II assessment. We first diagnosed PD-MCI on the basis of Level II assessment and then calculated sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve, comparing the performance of the three screening batteries. None of the three screening batteries proposed for Level I assessment provided satisfactory combined sensitivity and specificity for detecting PD-MCI, and their performance was similar. Using the Level II criteria, 29 patients (43%) were diagnosed as having PD-MCI. Lowest cut-off levels that provided at least 80% sensitivity were 24 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, 29 for the Mini-Mental State Examination and 87 for the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation-R. However, specificity levels were below 80% at these cut-off levels. We conclude that Level I assessment alone using screening batteries is not sufficiently sensitive/specific to detect PD-MCI. © 2017 EAN.
Punchick, Boris; Freud, Tamar; Press, Yan
Abstract The prevalence of cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension (OH) increases with age, but the results of studies that assessed possible associations between them are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess possible associations between cognitive impairment and OH in patients ≥65 years of age who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the computerized medical records of the study population from 2005 to 2013. Data collected included blood pressure measurements that enabled the calculation of OH, results of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), results of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) test, and cognitive diagnoses that were determined over the course of the assessment. The rate of OH in the study population of 571 adults was 32.1%. The mean MMSE score was 22.5 ± 5.2 among participants with OH and 21.6 ± 5.8 among those without OH (P = 0.09). The absence of a significant association between OH and MMSE remained after adjusting the MMSE score for age and education level. The mean MoCA score was 16.4 ± 5.0 among participants with OH and 16.4 ± 4.8 among those without (P = 0.33). The prevalence of OH was 39% among participants without cognitive impairment, 28.9% among those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 30.6% among those with dementia (P = 0.13). There was no association between OH and cognitive impairment in adults who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:27442658
Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing
Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse
Previous research regarding peer assessment has investigated the relationships between peer feedback and learners' performance. However, few studies investigate in-depth learning processes during technology-assisted peer assessment activities, particularly from affective, cognitive, and metacognitive perspectives. This study conducts a series of…
Hess, Sean; Self, Trisha; DiLollo, Anthony
Many protocols assessing social communication skills of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are based on behavioral observations. It has been suggested, however, that social cognition encompasses processes underlying observable behaviors. Such processes include personal constructs, which can be assessed using repertory grids. Personal…
Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo
To investigate the use of P300-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology for the administration of motor-verbal free cognitive tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). We recruited 15 ALS patients and 15 age- and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent a BCI-based neuropsychological assessment, together with two standard cognitive screening tools (FAB, MoCA), two psychological questionnaires (BDI, STAI-Y) and a usability questionnaire. For patients, clinical and respiratory examinations were also performed, together with a behavioural assessment (FBI). Correlations were observed between standard cognitive and BCI-based neuropsychological assessment, mainly concerning execution times in the ALS group. Moreover, patients provided positive rates concerning the BCI perceived usability and subjective experience. Finally, execution times at the BCI-based neuropsychological assessment were useful to discriminate patients from controls, with patients achieving lower processing speed than controls regarding executive functions. The developed motor-verbal free neuropsychological battery represents an innovative approach, that could provide relevant information for clinical practice and ethical issues. Its use for cognitive evaluation throughout the course of ALS, currently not available by means of standard assessment, must be addressed in further longitudinal validation studies. Further work will be aimed at refining the developed system and enlarging the cognitive spectrum investigated.
Legisi, Lorena; DeSa, Elise; Qureshi, M Nasar
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men in developed countries. Using molecular testing may help to improve outcomes in this clinically challenging group. Since 2011, the Prostate Core Mitomic Test (PCMT), which quantifies a 3.4-kb mitochondrial DNA deletion strongly associated with prostate cancer, has been used by more than 50 urology practices accessing pathology services through our laboratory in New Jersey. However, the use of a molecular test can only be beneficial if it affects patient management and improves outcomes. To determine whether repeated biopsy decision-making was affected in a quantifiable manner through the adjunct use of molecular testing with the PCMT. In this observational study we conducted 2 independent, structured query language database queries of our patient records at our laboratory, QDx Pathology Services, in Cranford, NJ. Query 1 included all men who had a negative prostate biopsy and a negative PCMT between February 1, 2011, and June 30, 2013. Men with a previous diagnosis of cancer were excluded. Query 2 included all men who had a negative prostate biopsy and a repeated biopsy between February 1, 2011, and September 30, 2013. The data exported for each query included the unique specimen number for an index biopsy, the interval between biopsies where present, the unique specimen number for a follow-up biopsy where present, histopathology for all biopsies, the biopsy procedure dates, the patient's date of birth, and the PCMT result when utilized. The patient rebiopsy rates and intervals were compared between the patients who were using PCMT and those who were not to assess whether the adjunct use of the PCMT impacted the rebiopsy decision-making process. Query 1 identified 644 men who had a negative biopsy and a negative PCMT result within the study period. Query 2 identified 823 men with a repeat biopsy after the initial negative index biopsy within the study period. Of these men, 132 had PCMT to inform their care
Full Text Available Background: This paper presents design and results from preliminary evaluation of Tangible Geometric Games (TAG-Games for cognitive assessment in young children. The TAG-Games technology employs a set of sensor-integrated cube blocks, called SIG-Blocks, and graphical user interfaces for test administration and real-time performance monitoring. TAG-Games were administered to children from 4 to 8 years of age for evaluating preliminary efficacy of this new technology-based approach.Methods: Five different sets of SIG-Blocks comprised of geometric shapes, segmented human faces, segmented animal faces, emoticons, and colors, were used for three types of TAG-Games, including Assembly, Shape Matching, and Sequence Memory. Computational task difficulty measures were defined for each game and used to generate items with varying difficulty. For preliminary evaluation, TAG-Games were tested on 40 children. To explore the clinical utility of the information assessed by TAG-Games, three subtests of the age-appropriate Wechsler tests (i.e., Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concept were also administered.Results: Internal consistency of TAG-Games was evaluated by the split-half reliability test. Weak to moderate correlations between Assembly and Block Design, Shape Matching and Matrix Reasoning, and Sequence Memory and Picture Concept were found. The computational measure of task complexity for each TAG-Game showed a significant correlation with participants' performance. In addition, age-correlations on TAG-Game scores were found, implying its potential use for assessing children's cognitive skills autonomously.
Noroozian, Maryam; Shakiba, Alia; Iran-nejad, Shahrzad
Dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a major public health challenge in this decade and in the future. Early detection of AD through appropriate screening tools would be valuable approach in facing the burden of disease specifically in developing societies with insufficient resources. Selecting a screening tool which is non-expensive, non-invasive and implementable by trained primary healthcare providers is the first and probably the most important step in detecting high risk individuals. The goal of this review is to address the key issues in assessment tools in developing countries with a high level of illiteracy. We set about a review on literature on the subject of cognitive function assessment among minorities, people with low or no education, and people who live in underdeveloped societies. We also reviewed the studies on validation of such tests in a new society. The most popular assessment tools are more or less biased by the level of education; not all of them are useful for any type of dementia as they assess only some domains of cognitive function. Even though people with lower level of education have a higher rate of developing dementia, cognitive function cannot be accurately assessed because of limitations of current available tools. It is strongly suggested that special attention be paid to assess them by functional scales and activity daily living scales. For a more efficient assessment, cognitive tests can also benefit from illustrative questions, proverbs, metaphors, traditions, religious rituals and historical events.
Gerow, Tracy Nelson
Attaining an understanding of basic principles of inheritance and their implications is crucial for all people as society is confronted with a variety of ethical, sociological and ecological questions generated by the rapid growth of genetic knowledge. College level students are burdened by terminology, have difficulty making associations among related ideas, and often possess misconceptions or fragmented ideas about how traits are inherited. Subject comprehension is evaluated mostly with objective testing techniques that don't show how well students truly understand concepts. This research was done to determine how prior subject knowledge in biology and general cognitive ability affected community college students' understanding of several genetic principles both before and after completing a one-semester college biology course. Understanding of genetic principles was determined with a videotape assessment that evaluated student written explanations of experimental events. The evaluations were then used to place students into three categories: descriptive, transitional, and relational type learners. A subset of students was interviewed to better determine how thoroughly genetic concepts depicted in the videotape program were understood. Prior subject matter knowledge and cognitive level were discovered to be moderately correlated with ability to explain genetic phenomena. Most students in this study were categorized as either descriptive or transitional learners. Descriptive type students gave less detailed explanations, employed less successful problem solving methods, had more misconceptions and used feedback less effectively than did transitional type learners. The study results show that science teachers need to be aware of the heterogeneity existing in their students' background knowledge and cognitive skills. It demonstrated that a large contingency of students, descriptive learners, lack a framework of knowledge upon which to build new concepts or change
Ullrich, Phoebe; Werner, Christian; Bongartz, Martin; Kiss, Rainer; Bauer, Jürgen; Hauer, Klaus
To investigate the validity, reliability, sensitivity to change, and feasibility of a modified University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment (UAB-LSA) in older persons with cognitive impairment (CI). The UAB-LSA was modified for use in persons with CI Life-Space Assessment for Persons with Cognitive Impairment (LSA-CI). Measurement properties of the LSA-CI were investigated using data of 118 multimorbid older participants with CI [mean age (SD): 82.3 (6.0) years, mean Mini-Mental State Examination score: 23.3 (2.4) points] from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to improve motor performance and physical activity. Construct validity was asessed by Spearman's rank (rs) and point-biseral correlations (rpb) with age, gender, motor, and cognitive status, psychosocial factors, and sensor-derived (outdoor) physical activity variables. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Sensitivity to change was determined by standardized response means (SRMs) calculated for the RCT intervention group. The LSA-CI demonstrated moderate to high construct validity, with significant correlations of the LSA-CI scores with (outdoor) physical activity (rs = .23-.63), motor status (rs = .27-.56), fear of falling-related psychosocial variables (rs = |.24-.44|), and demographic characteristics (rpb = |.27-.32|). Test-retest reliability was good to excellent (ICC = .65-.91). Sensitivity to change was excellent for the LSA-CI composite score (SRM = .80) and small to moderate for the LSA-CI subscores (SRM = .35-.60). A completion rate of 100% and a mean completion time of 4.1 min) documented good feasibility. The LSA-CI represents a valid, reliable, sensitive, and feasible interview-based life-space assessment tool in multimorbid older persons with CI. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M
The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.
Newman, Craig G J; Bevins, Adam D; Zajicek, John P; Hodges, John R; Vuillermoz, Emil; Dickenson, Jennifer M; Kelly, Denise S; Brown, Simona; Noad, Rupert F
Ensuring reliable administration and reporting of cognitive screening tests are fundamental in establishing good clinical practice and research. This study captured the rate and type of errors in clinical practice, using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III (ACE-III), and then the reduction in error rate using a computerized alternative, the ACEmobile app. In study 1, we evaluated ACE-III assessments completed in National Health Service (NHS) clinics ( n = 87) for administrator error. In study 2, ACEmobile and ACE-III were then evaluated for their ability to capture accurate measurement. In study 1, 78% of clinically administered ACE-IIIs were either scored incorrectly or had arithmetical errors. In study 2, error rates seen in the ACE-III were reduced by 85%-93% using ACEmobile. Error rates are ubiquitous in routine clinical use of cognitive screening tests and the ACE-III. ACEmobile provides a framework for supporting reduced administration, scoring, and arithmetical error during cognitive screening.
Argento, Ornella; Incerti, Chiara C; Quartuccio, Maria E; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Francia, Ada; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pisani, Valerio; Nocentini, Ugo
Cognitive dysfunction occurs in almost 50-60% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early stages of the disease and affects different aspects of patient's life. Aims of the present study were (1) to introduce and validate an Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive functions in MS (MACFIMS) battery and (2) to propose the use of the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) as a scoring procedure to define the degree of impairment in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients. A total of 240 HC and 123 MS patients performed the Italian version of the MACFIMS composed by the same tests as the original except for the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. The CII was derived for each score of the 11 scales for participants of both groups. The results of the study show that cognitive impairment affects around 50% of our sample of MS patients. In RRMS group, only the 15.7% of patients reported a severe impairment, while in the group of SPMS, the 51.4% of patients felt in the "severely impaired" group. Results are in line with previously reported percentages of impairment in MS patients, showing that the calculation of the CII applied to the Italian version of the MACFIMS is sensitive and reliable in detecting different degrees of impairment in MS patients.
Scott, J E; Mathias, J L; Kneebone, A C; Krishnan, J
Whether total joint replacement (TJR) patients are susceptible to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear due to inconsistencies in research methodologies. Moreover, cognitive reserve may moderate the development of POCD after TJR, but has not been investigated in this context. The current study investigated POCD after TJR, and its relationship with cognitive reserve, using a more rigorous methodology than has previously been utilized. Fifty-three older adults (aged 50+) scheduled for TJR were assessed pre and post surgery (6 months). Forty-five healthy controls matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ were re-assessed after an equivalent interval. Cognition, cognitive reserve, and physical and mental health were all measured. Standardized regression-based methods were used to assess cognitive changes, while controlling for the confounding effect of repeated cognitive testing. TJR patients only demonstrated a significant decline in Trail Making Test Part B (TMT B) performance, compared to controls. Cognitive reserve only predicted change in TMT B scores among a subset of TJR patients. Specifically, patients who showed the most improvement pre to post surgery had significantly higher reserve than those who showed the greatest decline. The current study provides limited evidence of POCD after TJR when examined using a rigorous methodology, which controlled for practice effects. Cognitive reserve only predicted performance within a subset of the TJR sample. However, the role of reserve in more cognitively compromised patients remains to be determined.
Khan, Farooq; Tadros, George
To study the influence of cultural believes on the acceptance and accessibility of dementia services by patients from British Minority Ethnic (BME) groups. It is noted that non-White ethnic populations rely more on cultural and religious concepts as coping mechanisms to overcome carer stress. In British Punjabi families, ageing was seen as an accepted reason for withdrawal and isolation, and cognitive impairment was rarely identified. Illiteracy added another complexity, only 35% of older Asians in a UK city could speak English, 21% could read and write English, while 73% could read and write in their first language. False positive results using Mini Mental State Examination was found to be 6% of non-impaired white people and 42% of non-impaired black people. Cognitive assessment tests under-estimate the abilities in BME groups. Wide range of variations among white and non-White population were found, contributors are education, language, literacy and culture-specific references. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E
Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.
Kaplan, Stephen J; Seabott, Heather M; Cunningham, Erika B; Helman, James D; Calderon, Alvin; Thirlby, Richard C; Schenarts, Kimberly D
The purpose of this study is to develop and generate validity evidence for an instrument to measure social capital in residents. Mixed-methods, phased approach utilizing a modified Delphi technique, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. Four residency training institutions in Washington state between February 2016 and March 2017. General surgery, anesthesia, and internal medicine residents ranging from PGY-1 to PGY-6. The initial resident-focused instrument underwent revision via Delphi process with 6 experts; 100% expert consensus was achieved after 4 cycles. Three focus groups were conducted with 19 total residents. Focus groups identified 6 of 11 instrument items with mean quality ratings ≤4.0 on a 1-5 scale. The composite instrument rating of the draft version was 4.1 ± 0.5. After refining the instrument, cognitive interviews with the final version were completed with 22 residents. All items in the final version had quality ratings >4.0; the composite instrument rating was 4.8 ± 0.1. Social capital may be an important factor in resident wellness as residents rely upon each other and external social support to withstand fatigue, burnout, and other negative sequelae of rigorous training. This instrument for assessment of social capital in residents may provide an avenue for data collection and potentially, identification of residents at-risk for wellness degradation. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lengenfelder, Jeannie; Arjunan, Aparna; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Smith, Angela; DeLuca, John
This study examined the relationship between individual and family ratings on a measure of frontal behaviors using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Additionally, this study investigated whether self-reported symptoms of frontal-lobe dysfunction correspond to neuropsychological performance, particularly those tests measuring executive functions. Thirty-three individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 19 healthy individuals completed the FrSBe and neuropsychological measures. Results indicated that the self-ratings of individuals' apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction significantly increased from before to after injury, as did the family members' ratings, with no significant difference between the patients' and family members' reports for any of the three FrSBe subscales. Although individuals with TBI demonstrated impairments in neuropsychological measures, including measures of executive functioning, few significant correlations were found between the patients' FrSBe ratings and measures of cognitive functioning. This suggests that information from the FrSBe may differ from information gathered during a cognitive evaluation and may enhance our understanding of the behavioral sequelae following TBI that may not be captured by neuropsychological assessment alone.
Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter
Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the decontamination of metal-polluted agricultural soils. Effects of repeated phytoextraction by the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola on metal (Cd, Zn, copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) mobility were investigated in three contaminated soils with contrasting properties. EDTA kinetic extraction and the two first-order reactions model showed advantages in the assessment of soil metal mobility and clearly discriminated changes in metal fractions induced by phytoextraction. Repeated phytoextraction led to large decreases in readily labile (Q 1 0 ) and less labile (Q 2 0 ) fractions of Cd and Zn in all three soils with the sole exception of an increase in the Q 2 0 of Zn in the highly polluted soil. However, Q 1 0 fractions of soil Cu and Pb showed apparent increases with the sole exception of Pb in the acid polluted soil but showed a higher desorption rate constant (k 1 ). Furthermore, S. plumbizincicola decreased the non-labile fraction (Q 3 0 ) of all metals tested, indicating that the hyperaccumulator can redistribute soil metals from non-labile to labile fractions. This suggests that phytoextraction decreased the mobility of the metals hyperaccumulated by the plant (Cd and Zn) but increased the mobility of the metals not hyperaccumulated (Cu and Pb). Thus, phytoextraction of soils contaminated with mixtures of metals must be performed carefully because of potential increases in the mobility of non-hyperaccumulated metals in the soil and the consequent environmental risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chaudhari, Umesh; Nemade, Harshal; Wagh, Vilas; Gaspar, John Antonydas; Ellis, James K; Srinivasan, Sureshkumar Perumal; Spitkovski, Dimitry; Nguemo, Filomain; Louisse, Jochem; Bremer, Susanne; Hescheler, Jürgen; Keun, Hector C; Hengstler, Jan G; Sachinidis, Agapios
The currently available techniques for the safety evaluation of candidate drugs are usually cost-intensive and time-consuming and are often insufficient to predict human relevant cardiotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro repeated exposure toxicity methodology allowing the identification of predictive genomics biomarkers of functional relevance for drug-induced cardiotoxicity in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). The hiPSC-CMs were incubated with 156 nM doxorubicin, which is a well-characterized cardiotoxicant, for 2 or 6 days followed by washout of the test compound and further incubation in compound-free culture medium until day 14 after the onset of exposure. An xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyser was used to monitor doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity while also monitoring functional alterations of cardiomyocytes by counting of the beating frequency of cardiomyocytes. Unlike single exposure, repeated doxorubicin exposure resulted in long-term arrhythmic beating in hiPSC-CMs accompanied by significant cytotoxicity. Global gene expression changes were studied using microarrays and bioinformatics tools. Analysis of the transcriptomic data revealed early expression signatures of genes involved in formation of sarcomeric structures, regulation of ion homeostasis and induction of apoptosis. Eighty-four significantly deregulated genes related to cardiac functions, stress and apoptosis were validated using real-time PCR. The expression of the 84 genes was further studied by real-time PCR in hiPSC-CMs incubated with daunorubicin and mitoxantrone, further anthracycline family members that are also known to induce cardiotoxicity. A panel of 35 genes was deregulated by all three anthracycline family members and can therefore be expected to predict the cardiotoxicity of compounds acting by similar mechanisms as doxorubicin, daunorubicin or mitoxantrone. The identified gene panel can be applied in the safety
Kierkegaard, Marie; Petitclerc, Emilie; Hébert, Luc J; Gagnon, Cynthia
Performance-based assessments of physical function are essential in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) to monitor disease progression and evaluate interventions. Commonly used are the six-minute walk test, the 10 m-walk test, the timed up-and-go test, the timed-stands test, grip strength tests and the nine-hole peg test. The number of trials needed on a same-day test occasion and whether the first, best or average of trials should be reported as result is unknown. Thus, the aim was to describe and explore differences between trials in these measures of walking, mobility and fine hand use in 70 adults with DM1. Three trials were performed for each test except for the six-minute walk test where two trials were allowed. There were statistical significant differences over trials in all tests except for the 10 m-walk test and grip strength tests. Pair-wise comparisons showed that the second and third trials were in general better than the first, although effect sizes were small. At which trial the individuals performed their best differed between individuals and tests. People with severe muscular impairment had difficulties to perform repeated trials. Intraclass correlation coefficients were all high in analyses exploring how to report results. The conclusion and clinical implication is that, for a same-day test occasion, one trial is sufficient for the 10 m-walk test and grip strength tests, and that repeated trials should be allowed in the timed up-and-go test, timed-stands test and nine-hole peg tests. We recommend that two trials are performed for these latter tests as such a protocol could accommodate people with various levels of impairments and physical limitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jones, Douglas M; Bailey, Stephen P; Roelands, Bart; Buono, Michael J; Meeusen, Romain
Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements. Studies included in this review assessed cognitive measures of reaction time, attention, logical reasoning, information processing, and memory. Repeated cold stress, with or without evidence of cold acclimation, appears to offer no added benefit of improving cognitive performance. However, research in this area is greatly lacking and, therefore, it is difficult to draw any definitive conclusions regarding the use of cold acclimation to improve cognitive performance during subsequent cold exposures. Given the current state of minimal knowledge on this topic, athletes, occupational workers, and military commands looking to specifically enhance cognitive performance in cold environments would likely not be advised to spend the time and effort required to become acclimated to cold. However, as more knowledge becomes available in this area, recommendations may change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shanshan; Fan, Guoguang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Ci
Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL
Tierney, Mary C; Naglie, Gary; Upshur, Ross; Moineddin, Rahim; Charles, Jocelyn; Jaakkimainen, R Liisa
We investigated whether a validated computerized cognitive test, the Computerized Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI), could be independently completed by older primary care patients. We also determined the optimal cut-off for the CAMCI global risk score for mild cognitive impairment against an independent neuropsychological reference standard. All eligible patients aged 65 years and older, seen consecutively over 2 months by 1 family practice of 13 primary care physicians, were invited to participate. Patients with a diagnosis or previous work-up for dementia were excluded. Primary care physicians indicated whether they, the patient, or family had concerns about each patient's cognition. A total of 130 patients with cognitive concerns and a matched sample of 133 without cognitive concerns were enrolled. The CAMCI was individually administered after instructions to work independently. Comments were recorded verbatim. A total of 259 (98.5%) completed the entire CAMCI. Two hundred and forty-one (91.6%) completed it without any questions or after simple acknowledgment of their question. Lack of computer experience was the only patient characteristic that decreased the odds of independent CAMCI completion. These results support the feasibility of using self-administered computerized cognitive tests with older primary care patients, given the increasing reliance on computers by people of all ages. The optimal cut-off score had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 74%.
Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fan, Guoguang, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Wang, Ci, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)
Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL.
Joshua Jones; Tin Fei Sim; Jeff Hughes
Elderly people are susceptible to both falls and cognitive impairment making them a particularly vulnerable group of patients when it comes to pain assessment and management in the emergency department (ED). Pain assessment is often difficult in patients who present to the ED with a cognitive impairment as they are frequently unable to self-report their level of pain, which can have a negative impact on pain management. This paper aims to review how cognitive impairment influences pain assess...
Full Text Available Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr,1,2 Einas Al-Eisa11Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults.Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45, moderate (n=30, and severe (n=25. Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively.Results: Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45 had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55 had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92 and severe (score 31–62. There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01 and moderate (P=0.01 cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural
Baird, Lucy; Spiller, Juliet Anne
Background Prevalence studies show that 13%-42% of patients admitted to specialist palliative care inpatient units have delirium. Symptoms of delirium are often subtle and easily missed, or misdiagnosed as fatigue or depression, and so the use of a screening tool could improve early identification and management of delirium and lead to improved outcomes. Patients admitted to hospices are often frail and tired, therefore a quick and easy-to-use method of cognitive assessment is essential. Methods A quality improvement (QI) approach (PDSA: Plan, Do, Study, Act) was used to improve screening for delirium on admission to a hospice unit. A baseline measure was taken of the rate of performance of cognitive assessment on admission. Five PDSA cycles were then undertaken which involved implementing change and then evaluating results through auditing case notes and interviewing staff. Results The first cycle determined staff preference between two cognitive assessment methods: the Short Confusion Assessment Method and the four 'A's Test (4AT). Two further PDSA cycles embedded the 4AT (the preferred tool) into the admission process, establishing it as a usable tool in the hospice setting for up to 92% of admissions. A subsequent cycle showing poor sustainability prompted staff education and changes to admission documentation, resulting in an increase in cognitive assessment being performed, from 50% to 76%. Conclusion The 4AT is a usable tool in the hospice inpatient setting to assess patients' cognitive state on admission and can easily be incorporated into the admission process. The QI approach highlighted the need to link staff awareness of their use of the screening tool with perceived improvements in the treatment of delirium, which prompted the creation and implementation of a 'Delirium Checklist'. Some initial lack of sustainability was addressed by staff education and changes to the admission paperwork to ensure compliance with the use of the 4AT and sustained
Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.
Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.
Bolló-Gasol, S; Piñol-Ripoll, G; Cejudo-Bolivar, J C; Llorente-Vizcaino, A; Peraita-Adrados, H
The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) is a short, ecologically-valid memory test battery that can provide data about a subject's memory function in daily life. We used RBMT to examine daily memory function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease (AD), and in healthy controls. We also evaluated differences between the memory profiles of subjects whose MCI remained stable after 1 year and those with conversion to AD. Sample of 91 subjects older than 60 years: 30 controls, 27 MCI subjects and 34 AD patients. Subjects were assessed using MMSE and RBMT. The 40 men and 51 women in the sample had a mean age of 74.29±6.71 and 5.87±2.93 years of education. For the total profile and screening RBMT scores (Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Breno Satler Diniz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the neuropsychological profile of mild cognitive impairment subtypes (amnestic, non-amnestic and multiple-domain of a clinical sample. We further address the diagnostic properties of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the identification of the different mild cognitive impairment subtypes in clinical practice. METHOD: Cross-sectional clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of 249 elderly patients attending a memory clinic at a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: The performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment was heterogeneous across the different subtests of the neuropsychological battery, with a trend towards an overall worse performance for amnestic (particularly multiple domain mild cognitive impairment as compared to non-amnestic subtypes. Screening tests for dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination adequately discriminated cases of mild Alzheimer's disease from controls, but they were not accurate to discriminate patients with mild cognitive impairment (all subtypes from control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination of mild cognitive impairment subtypes was possible only with the aid of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. It is necessary to develop new strategies for mild cognitive impairment screening in clinical practice.OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil neuropsicológico dos subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve, amnéstico, não-amnéstico e múltiplos domínios, de uma amostra clínica. Além disto, avaliou-se as propriedades diagnósticas do Mini-exame do Estado Mental e do Cambridge Cognitive Examination na identificação dos diferentes subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve na prática clínica. MÉTODO: Avaliação clínica e neuropsicológica transversal de 249 idosos em uma clínica de memória de um hospital universitário em São Paulo, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Testes de rastreio para
Alcaide-Aguirre, R. E.; Warschausky, S. A.; Brown, D.; Aref, A.; Huggins, J. E.
Objective. Typically, clinical measures of cognition require motor or speech responses. Thus, a significant percentage of people with disabilities are not able to complete standardized assessments. This situation could be resolved by employing a more accessible test administration method, such as a brain-computer interface (BCI). A BCI can circumvent motor and speech requirements by translating brain activity to identify a subject’s response. By eliminating the need for motor or speech input, one could use a BCI to assess an individual who previously did not have access to clinical tests. Approach. We developed an asynchronous, event-related potential BCI-facilitated administration procedure for the peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT-IV). We then tested our system in typically developing individuals (N = 11), as well as people with cerebral palsy (N = 19) to compare results to the standardized PPVT-IV format and administration. Main results. Standard scores on the BCI-facilitated PPVT-IV, and the standard PPVT-IV were highly correlated (r = 0.95, p < 0.001), with a mean difference of 2.0 ± 6.4 points, which is within the standard error of the PPVT-IV. Significance. Thus, our BCI-facilitated PPVT-IV provided comparable results to the standard PPVT-IV, suggesting that populations for whom standardized cognitive tests are not accessible could benefit from our BCI-facilitated approach.
Rittman, Timothy; Ghosh, Boyd C; McColgan, Peter; Breen, David P; Evans, Jonathan; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Barker, Roger A; Rowe, James B
Differentiating idiopathic Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonian syndromes is challenging, especially in the early stages. We assessed whether the Revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) could differentiate between parkinsonian syndromes and reflect longitudinal changes in cognition in these disorders. The ACE-R was administered at baseline and after approximately 18 months to 135 patients with parkinsonian disorders: 86 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), 30 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 19 with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). We assessed differences between groups for ACE-R, ACE-R subscores and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores at baseline (analyses of variance, receiver operating characteristics curves), and the interaction between diagnosis and change in ACE-R scores between visits (analyses of variance). The ACE-R verbal fluency subscore distinguished between PSP and PD with a high sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.87); total ACE-R score and the visuospatial subscore were less specific (0.87 and 0.84 respectively) and sensitive (0.70 and 0.73). Significant group level differences were found between PD and PSP for MMSE and ACE-R (total score and subscores for attention and concentration, fluency, language, and visuospatial function), and between PD and CBD for the ACE-R visuospatial subscore. Performance worsened between visits for ACE-R score in PD (p=0.001) and CBD (p=0.001); visuospatial subscore in PD (p=0.003), PSP (p=0.022) and CBD (p=0.0002); and MMSE in CBD (p=0.004). We propose the ACE-R, particularly the verbal fluency subscore, as a valuable contributor to the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes in the correct clinical context. The ACE-R may reflect disease progression in PD and CBD.
Joly, F; Lange, M; Rigal, O; Correia, H; Giffard, B; Beaumont, J L; Clisant, S; Wagner, L
Impairment of cognitive function, a common complaint in patients receiving chemotherapy, is usually measured through neuropsychological tests. Patient self-evaluation of cognitive difficulties is an important complement to those tests. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) is a self-report questionnaire with potential to be used in standard clinical practice as a tool for evaluating patient's cognitive function before, during, and after chemotherapy. The purpose of our study was to conduct linguistic validation of the French version of the FACT-Cog. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this study. After undergoing a rigorous translation methodology, the French FACT-Cog version was pretested in France with 35 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Interviews were conducted with all patients to ascertain their understanding of each item. The validation of the final version was conducted among 63 cancer patients, and sociodemographic information was collected as well as brief measure of cognitive function and depression score. Patient comments obtained through the cognitive debriefing interviews indicated that patients understand the French FACT-Cog items as they are intended and that the measure is culturally appropriate. Internal consistency reliability of the subscales, evaluated using Cronbach's coefficient alpha, was high for all four subscales: Perceived Cognitive Impairments = 0.93, Impact On QOL = 0.85, Comments From Others = 0.70, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities = 0.89. All item-total correlations for each subscale were greater than 0.20, and most were greater than 0.50. Results from this study effectively demonstrate that the French FACT-Cog is a reliable instrument for the self-reporting of cognitive abilities in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Mackey, Audrey Leroy
The impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on academic success among community college science students was studied. Demographic variables included gender, employment status, and ethnicity. Cognitive variables included college grade point average, assessment status, course prerequisites, college course success ratios, final course grade, withdrawal patterns, and curriculum format. Non-cognitive variables included enrollment status, educational objectives, academic expectations, and career goals. The sample population included students enrolled in human anatomy courses (N = 191) at a large metropolitan community college located in central Texas. Variables that potentially influence attrition and achievement in college level science courses were examined. Final course grade and withdrawal phenomena were treated as dependent variables, while all other variables were treated as independent variables. No significant differences were found to exist between any of the demographic variables studied and the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. A difference was shown to be associated with the ethnicity variable and achievement levels. Educational objectives and career goals were shown to have an impact on the number of students who withdrew failing. The career goals variable and the academic expectations variable were shown to have an impact on achievement among daytime and evening students. College grade point average and course success ratios were shown to make a difference among students who withdrew passing. None of the other cognitive variables studied were shown to influence the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. College grade point average and course prerequisites, however, were shown to make a difference in achievement. The collaborative learning instructional format was found to have no impact on attrition or achievement, however, mean scores earned by students experiencing the collaborative learning format
Bertolotti, Giorgio; Michielin, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Sanavio, Ezio; Bottesi, Gioia; Bettinardi, Ornella; Zotti, Anna Maria
Cognitive behavioral assessment for outcome evaluation was developed to evaluate psychological treatment interventions, especially for counseling and psychotherapy. It is made up of 80 items and five scales: anxiety, well-being, perception of positive change, depression, and psychological distress. The aim of the study was to present the metric qualities and to show validity and reliability of the five constructs of the questionnaire both in nonclinical and clinical subjects. Four steps were completed to assess reliability and factor structure: criterion-related and concurrent validity, responsiveness, and convergent-divergent validity. A nonclinical group of 269 subjects was enrolled, as was a clinical group comprising 168 adults undergoing psychotherapy and psychological counseling provided by the Italian public health service. Cronbach's alphas were between 0.80 and 0.91 for the clinical sample and between 0.74 and 0.91 in the nonclinical one. We observed an excellent structural validity for the five interrelated dimensions. The clinical group showed higher scores in the anxiety, depression, and psychological distress scales, as well as lower scores in well-being and perception of positive change scales than those observed in the nonclinical group. Responsiveness was large for the anxiety, well-being, and depression scales; the psychological distress and perception of positive change scales showed a moderate effect. The questionnaire showed excellent psychometric properties, thus demonstrating that the questionnaire is a good evaluative instrument, with which to assess pre- and post-treatment outcomes.
Lazzeroni, M; Uhrdin, J; Carvalho, S; van Elmpt, W; Lambin, P; Dasu, A; Wersäll, P; Toma-Dasu, I
Early assessment of tumour response to treatment with repeated FDG-PET-CT imaging has potential for treatment adaptation but it is unclear what the optimal time window for this evaluation is. Previous studies indicate that changes in SUV mean and the effective radiosensitivity (α eff , accounting for uptake variations and accumulated dose until the second FDG-PET-CT scan) are predictive of 2-year overall survival (OS) when imaging is performed before radiotherapy and during the second week. This study aims to investigate if multiple FDG-PET-derived quantities determined during the third treatment week have stronger predictive power. Twenty-eight lung cancer patients were imaged with FDG-PET-CT before radiotherapy (PET1) and during the third week (PET2). SUV mean , SUV max , SUV peak , MTV41%-50% (Metabolic Tumour Volume), TLG41%-50% (Total Lesion Glycolysis) in PET1 and PET2 and their change (), as well as average α eff (α¯ eff ) and the negative fraction of α eff values [Formula: see text] ) were determined. Correlations were sought between FDG-PET-derived quantities and OS with ROC analysis. Neither SUV mean , SUV max , SUV peak in PET1 and PET2 (AUC = 0.5-0.6), nor their changes (AUC = 0.5-0.6) were significant for outcome prediction purposes. Lack of correlation with OS was also found for α¯ eff (AUC = 0.5) and [Formula: see text] (AUC = 0.5). Threshold-based quantities (MTV41%-50%, TLG41%-50%) and their changes had AUC = 0.5-0.7. P-values were in all cases ≫0.05. The poor OS predictive power of the quantities determined from repeated FDG-PET-CT images indicates that the third week of treatment might not be suitable for treatment response assessment. Comparatively, the second week during the treatment appears to be a better time window. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Parents report psychological distress in association with their child's cancer. Reliable tools are needed to screen parental distress over the cancer trajectory. This study aimed to estimate the stability and repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Depression and Anxiety items of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r-D; -A in parents of children diagnosed with cancer.Fifty parents (28 mothers, median age = 44 of clinically stable survivors of childhood solid and brain tumours completed questionnaires about their own distress (DT, ESAS-r-D; -A, Brief Symptom Inventory-18: BSI-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9: PHQ-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7: GAD-7 and their children's quality of life (QoL; Peds Quality of Life: PedsQL twice, with a month interval between the two assessments. At retest, parents also evaluated life events that occurred between the two time points. Hierarchical regressions explored moderators for the temporal stability of test measures.Stability estimates were ICC = .78 for the DT, .55 for the ESAS-r-D, and .47 for the ESAS-r-A. Caseness agreement between test and retest was substantial for the DT, fair for the ESAS-r-D, and slight for the ESAS-r-A. Repeatability analyses indicated that the error range for the DT was more than 2 pts below/above actual measurement, whereas it was more than 3 pts for the ESAS-r-A, and 2.5 for the ESAS-r-D. Instability of the DT could be explained by changes in children's physical QoL, but not by other components of QoL or life events. No moderators of stability could be identified for the ESAS-r items.The DT appears to be a fairly stable measure when the respondent's condition is stable yet with a relatively wide error range. Fluctuations in distress-related constructs may affect the temporal stability of the DT. The lower stability of ESAS-r items may result from shorter time-lapse instructions resulting in a greater sensitivity to change. Findings support
Reul, Sophia; Lohmann, Hubertus; Wiendl, Heinz; Duning, Thomas; Johnen, Andreas
Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD. In a retrospective approach, we evaluated and compared how cognitive profiles assessed at initial clinical presentation predicted the diagnosis of later verified AD (n = 43) and bvFTD (n = 26). Additionally, the neuropsychological standard domains memory, language, visuospatial skills, executive functions, praxis and social cognition were subjected to stepwise discriminant analysis to compare their differential contribution to diagnosis. Regardless of diagnosis, a percentage of patients presented with major deterioration in a wide range of cognitive domains when compared with age-matched normative data. Only few significant differences were detected on the group level: Patients with AD were relatively more impaired in the verbal recall, verbal recognition, figure copy, and surprisingly in the executive subdomains, set shifting and processing speed whereas bvFTD was characterised by more deficits in imitation of face postures. A combination of tests for verbal recall, imitation of limb and face postures, and figure copy showed the greatest discriminatory power. Our results imply that the contribution of a standard neuropsychological assessment is limited for differential diagnosis of AD and bvFTD at initial presentation. In contrast to current clinical guidelines, executive functions are neither particularly nor exclusively impaired in patients with bvFTD when assessed within a standard clinical neuropsychological test battery. The significant overlap of bvFTD and AD
Breden, Torsten Marcus; Vollmann, Jochen
This article gives a brief introduction to the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T) and critically examines its theoretical presuppositions. On the basis of empirical, methodological and ethical critique it is emphasised that the cognitive bias that underlies the MacCAT-T assessment needs to be modified. On the one hand it has to be admitted that the operationalisation of competence in terms of value-free categories, e.g. rational decision abilities, guarantees objectivity to a great extent; but on the other hand it bears severe problems. Firstly, the cognitive focus is in itself a normative convention in the process of anthropological value-attribution. Secondly, it misses the complexity of the decision process in real life. It is therefore suggested that values, emotions and other biographic and context specific aspects should be considered when interpreting the cognitive standards according to the MacArthur model. To fill the gap between cognitive and non-cognitive approaches the phenomenological theory of personal constructs is briefly introduced. In conclusion some main demands for further research to develop a multi-step model of competence assessment are outlined.
Davis, Daniel H J; Creavin, Sam T; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Noel-Storr, Anna H; Brayne, Carol; Cullum, Sarah
Dementia is a progressive syndrome of global cognitive impairment with significant health and social care costs. Global prevalence is projected to increase, particularly in resource-limited settings. Recent policy changes in Western countries to increase detection mandates a careful examination of the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests for dementia. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at various thresholds for dementia and its subtypes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Science Citation Index, PsycINFO and LILACS databases to August 2012. In addition, we searched specialised sources containing diagnostic studies and reviews, including MEDION (Meta-analyses van Diagnostisch Onderzoek), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), HTA (Health Technology Assessment Database), ARIF (Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility) and C-EBLM (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Committee for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine) databases. We also searched ALOIS (Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group specialized register of diagnostic and intervention studies). We identified further relevant studies from the PubMed 'related articles' feature and by tracking key studies in Science Citation Index and Scopus. We also searched for relevant grey literature from the Web of Science Core Collection, including Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index (Thomson Reuters Web of Science), PhD theses and contacted researchers with potential relevant data. Cross-sectional designs where all participants were recruited from the same sample were sought; case-control studies were excluded due to high chance of bias. We searched for studies from memory clinics, hospital clinics, primary care and community populations. We excluded studies of early onset dementia, dementia from a secondary cause, or studies where participants were selected on the basis
Full Text Available Cultivar registration agencies typically require morphophysiological trait-based distinctness of candidate cultivars. This requirement is difficult to achieve for cultivars of major perennial forages because of their genetic structure and ever-increasing number of registered material, leading to possible rejection of agronomically valuable cultivars. This study aimed to explore the value of molecular markers applied to replicated bulked plants (three bulks of 100 independent plants each per cultivar to assess alfalfa ( L. subsp. cultivar distinctness. We compared genotyping-by-sequencing information based on 2902 polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers (>30 reads per DNA sample with morphophysiological information based on 11 traits and with simple-sequence repeat (SSR marker information from 41 polymorphic markers for their ability to distinguish 11 alfalfa landraces representative of the germplasm from northern Italy. Three molecular criteria, one based on cultivar differences for individual SSR bands and two based on overall SNP marker variation assessed either by statistically significant cultivar differences on principal component axes or discriminant analysis, distinctly outperformed the morphophysiological criterion. Combining the morphophysiological criterion with either molecular marker method increased discrimination among cultivars, since morphophysiological diversity was unrelated to SSR marker-based diversity ( = 0.04 and poorly related to SNP marker-based diversity ( = 0.23, < 0.15. The criterion based on statistically significant SNP allele frequency differences was less discriminating than morphophysiological variation. Marker-based distinctness, which can be assessed at low cost and without interactions with testing conditions, could validly substitute for (or complement morphophysiological distinctness in alfalfa cultivar registration schemes. It also has interest in sui generis registration systems aimed at
Toglia, Joan; Fitzgerald, Kerri A; O'Dell, Michael W; Mastrogiovanni, Andrea R; Lin, C David
To compare Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) global and subscores in classifying cognitive impairment in persons with mild stroke and to explore the relationship between admission and discharge functional status and improvement. Retrospective analysis of data. Acute rehabilitation unit of a large urban university-affiliated hospital. Inpatients with stroke (N=72; mean age, 70y; median time poststroke, 8.5d) and mild neurologic (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4) and cognitive deficits (median MMSE score, 25). Not applicable. Admission cognitive status was assessed by using the MMSE and MoCA. The motor subscale of the FIM instrument (mFIM) and motor relative functional efficiency was used to assess discharge functional status and improvement. The MoCA classified more persons as cognitively impaired than the MMSE (89% vs 63%, respectively; using a cutoff score of 27 on the MMSE and 26 on the MoCA). The MoCA also showed less of a ceiling effect than the MMSE, higher internal reliability (Cronbach α=.78 compared with α=.60), and marginally stronger associations with discharge functional status (r=.40; P<.001) than the MMSE (r=0.30; P<.05). The MoCA visuoexecutive subscore was the strongest predictor of functional status (P=.01) and improvement (P=.02) in global and subscores for both tests. The MoCA may be an important cognitive screening tool for persons with stroke and mild cognitive dysfunction on an acute rehabilitation unit. Lower visuoexecutive subscores may assist in identifying persons at risk for decreased functional gains in self-care and mobility (mFIM) during inpatient rehabilitation. The findings justify further validation studies of the MoCA in persons with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA is a short global cognitive scale, and some studies suggest it is useful for evaluating cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. However, its accuracy has been questioned in studies involving patients with low education. Objective: We sought to assess whether some of the MoCA subtests contribute to the low accuracy of the test. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of clinical data in a cohort of 71 patients with PD, most with less than 8 years of education. Patients were examined using the MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and the MoCA. The data were analyzed using mainly descriptive statistics. Results: We analyzed the data of 66 patients that were not demented according to the clinical evaluation and classified them using the proposed cut-off MoCA scores for diagnosis of MCI and dementia. Thirteen patients (19.7% were classified as having normal cognition, 24 (36.3% MCI and 29 (43.9% dementia. Patients with dementia had longer disease duration (p=0.016 and lower education (p=0.0001. Total MoCA scores had a an almost normal distribution with a wide range of scores and only one maximum score. Performance on the MoCA was highly correlated with education (correlation coefficient=0.66, p=0.0001. At least five of the 10 MoCA subtests showed significant floor effects. Conclusion: We believe that some of the MoCA subtests may be too difficult to be completed by PD patients with low educational level, thus contributing to the test's poor diagnostic accuracy.
Cartoni, A; Lincoln, N B
The aim of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the MEAMS (Golding, 1989) for detecting cognitive impairment after stroke. Stroke patients admitted to hospital received a cognitive screening assessment, the MEAMS, and a detailed cognitive assessment. The information obtained from the detailed assessment was summarised in a structured written report. From the conclusions in these reports, patients were classified as "impaired" or "not impaired" in perception, memory, executive function and language. The sensitivity and specificity of the MEAMS subtests and the overall number of tests passed were determined in relation to the presence of impairment, as given in the overall conclusion of the written reports. There were 30 stroke patients, aged 58 to 92 (mean 75.80, SD 7.94) years. Of these, 17 were men and 13 were women. The sensitivity of the MEAMS subtests ranged from 11% to 100% and the specificity ranged from 69% to 100%. The sensitivity of the overall MEAMS score was 52% and the specificity was 100%, using a cut-off score of 3 or more fails to indicate impairment. Three subtests, Orientation, Naming and Unusual views had 81% sensitivity and 50% specificity for detecting problems in language, perception or memory. The MEAMS was not a sensitive screen for overall cognitive impairment or for memory, perceptual, language, or executive function problems after stroke, but it was specific. Although screening for cognitive impairment is important, the MEAMS is not recommended as the sole method, as it produces an unacceptably high false negative rate. Three subtests (Orientation, Naming and Unusual views) had 81% sensitivity and 50% specificity for detecting cognitive problems in language, perception or memory after stroke.
Lou, Meei-Fang; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Yu, Po-Jui
The purpose of the study was to identify the most efficient items from the Mini-Mental State Examination for assessment of cognitive function. The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most frequently used cognitive screening instrument. However, the Mini-Mental State Examination has been criticized for insensitivity to mild cognitive dysfunction, limited memory assessment and variability in level of difficulty of the individual items. This study used secondary data analysis. Item response theory two-parameter model was used to analyse the data from the admission assessment of mental status by the Mini-Mental State Examination for 801 patients. By using item response analysis, 16 items were selected from the original 30-item Mini-Mental State Examination. The 16 items included mainly the measures of orientation, recall and attention and calculation. The internal consistency of the 16-item Mini-Mental State Examination was 0.84. The proposed new cut-off point for the 16-item Mini-Mental State Examination was 11. The correct classification rate was 0.94, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 97.4%, when compared with the original 30-item Mini-Mental State Examination from the cut-off point of 24. This new cut-off point was determined for the purpose of over-identifying patients at risk so as to ensure early detection of and prevention from the onset of cognitive disturbance. Only a few items are needed to describe the subject's cognitive status. Using item response theory analysis, the study found that the Mini-Mental State Examination could be simplified. Deleting the items with less variation makes this assessment tool not only shorter, easier to administer and less strenuous for respondents, but also enables one to maintain validity as a cognitive function test for clinical setting.
Pike, Nancy A; Poulsen, Marie K; Woo, Mary A
Cognitive deficits are common, long-term sequelae in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have undergone surgical palliation. However, there is a lack of a validated brief cognitive screening tool appropriate for the outpatient setting for adolescents with CHD. One candidate instrument is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. The purpose of the research was to validate scores from the MoCA against the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd Edition (WRAML2), a widely accepted measure of cognition/memory, in adolescents and young adults with CHD. We administered the MoCA and the WRAML2 to 156 adolescents and young adults ages 14-21 (80 youth with CHD and 76 healthy controls who were gender and age matched). Spearman's rank order correlations were used to assess concurrent validity. To assess construct validity, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences in scores in youth with CHD and the healthy control group. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were also calculated. The MoCA median scores in the CHD versus healthy controls were (23, range 15-29 vs. 28, range 22-30; p young adults aged 14-21 with CHD when a cutoff score of 26 is used to differentiate youth with and without significant cognitive impairment. Future studies are needed in other adolescent disease groups with known cognitive deficits and healthy populations to explore the generalizability of validity of MoCA scores in adolescents and young adults.
Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Quattropani, Maria C; Calapai, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino
Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavandulaefolia L. have a longstanding use as traditional herbal remedies that can enhance memory and improve cognitive functions. Pharmacological actions of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia on healthy subjects and on patients suffering of cognitive decline have been investigated. Aim of this review was to summarize published clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia in the enhancement of cognitive performance in healthy subjects and neurodegenerative illnesses. Furthermore, to purchase a more complete view on safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia, we collected and discussed articles regarding toxicity and adverse reactions. Eight clinical studies investigating on acute effects of S. officinalis on healthy subjects were included in the review. Six studies investigated on the effects of S. officinalis and S. lavandaeluaefolia on cognitive performance in healthy subjects. The two remaining were carried out to study the effects of sage on Azheimer's disease. Our review shows that S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia exert beneficial effects by enhancing cognitive performance both in healthy subjects and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment and is safe for this indication. Unfortunately, promising beneficial effects are debased by methodological issues, use of different herbal preparations (extracts, essential oil, use of raw material), lack of details on herbal products used. We believe that sage promising effects need further higher methodological standard clinical trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang Shanshan; Fan Guoguang; Wang Ci; Zhou Jieqing
Objective: To investigate the values of diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI)and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of cognitive functions in children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to facilitate to understand the mechanism of PVL children's cognitive functions. Methods: Forty six children with PVL and 16 age-matched volunteer were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) of all cases was recorded. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into 3 groups:mild in 11 patients, moderate in 19, and severe in 16. DTI was performed in all cases and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were be calculated.Non-paired t test was used to compare the FA values of major white matter fibers between patients group and controls group. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the FA values among 4 groups. Results: Compared with controls, all 46 patients with PVL showed a significant mean FA reduction in left corticospinal tract (CST) (0.476 ±0.064 vs.0.531 ±0.064), bilateral anterior limb of internal capsula (ICAL) (left 0.357 ±0.050 vs. 0.405 ±0.081, right 0.370 ±0.040 vs. 0.405 ±0.036), posterior limb of internal capsule (ICPL) (left 0.483 ±0.044 vs. 0.546 ±0.091, right 0.485 ±0.046 vs. 0.547 ±0.083), arcuate fasciculus (AF) (left 0.367 ± 0.069 vs. 0.433 ± 0.097, right 0.363 ± 0.064 vs. 0.421 ±0.091), posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (left 0.390 ± 0.059 vs. 0.459 ± 0.067, right 0.382 ± 0.047 vs. 0.446 ± 0.064), anterior CG (ACG) (left 0.362 ± 0.056 vs. 0.423 ± 0.057, right 0.345 ± 0.056 vs. 0.417 ± 0.080), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) (left 0.323 ± 0.050 vs. 0.426 ±0.102, right 0.341 ± 0.056 vs. 0.416 ± 0.092) and splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) (0.535 ±0.090 vs. 0.606 ±0.060) (t=2.037-3.745, P<0.05). The severity of cognitive impairment is company with decrease of the FA values of all fibers. The FA values of bilateral CST, ICAL, ICPL, left AF, bilateral PTR, ACG, SLF and SCC were significantly different among different
Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Chopra, Sidhant; Price, Jasmine; Wood, Joanne M
With population aging, drivers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are increasing; however, there is little evidence available regarding their safety. We aimed to evaluate risk of unsafe on-road driving performance among older adults with MCI. The study was a cross-sectional observational study, set in Canberra, Australia. Participants were non-demented, current drivers (n = 302) aged 65 to 96 years (M = 75.7, SD = 6.18, 40% female) recruited through the community and primary and tertiary care clinics. Measures included a standardized on-road driving test (ORT), a battery of screening measures designed to evaluate older driver safety (UFOV®, DriveSafe, Multi-D), a neurocognitive test battery, and questionnaires on driving history and behavior. Using Winblad criteria, 57 participants were classified as having MCI and 245 as cognitively normal (CN). While the MCI group had a significantly lower overall safety rating on the ORT (5.61 versus 6.05, p = 0.03), there was a wide range of driving safety scores in the CN and MCI groups. The MCI group performed worse than the CN group on the off-road screening tests. The best fitting model of predictors of ORT performance across the combined sample included age, the Multi-D, and DriveSafe, classifying 90.4% of the sample correctly. Adults with MCI exhibit a similar range of driving ability to CN adults, although on average they scored lower on off-road and on-road assessments. Driving specific tests were more strongly associated with safety ratings than traditional neuropsychological tests.
Penitzka, S.; Wannenmacher, M.; Steinvorth, S.; MIT, Cambridge, MT; Sehlleier, S.; Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg; Fuss, M.; Texas Univ., San Antonio, TX; Wenz, F.; Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim
Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.) [de
Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen
Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behavior in the home and predicting clinical scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a clinical assessment using activity behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident's daily behavior and predict the corresponding clinical scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident's daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years. We obtain a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive scores and a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. These prediction results suggest that it is feasible to predict clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis.
Berlingeri, Manuela; Ravasio, Alessandra; Cranna, Silvia; Basilico, Stefania; Sberna, Maurizio; Bottini, Gabriella; Paulesu, Eraldo
Three cognitive components may play a crucial role in both memory awareness and in anosognosia for memory deficit (AMD): (1) a personal data base (PDB), i.e., a memory store that contains "semantic" representations about the self, (2) monitoring processes (MPs) and (3) an explicit evaluation system (EES), or comparator, that assesses and binds the representations stored in the PDB with information obtained from the environment. We compared both the behavior and the functional connectivity (as assessed by resting-state fMRI) of AMD patients with aware patients and healthy controls. We found that AMD is associated with an impoverished PDB, while MPs are necessary to successfully update the PDB. AMD was associated with reduced functional connectivity within both the default-mode network and in a network that includes the left lateral temporal cortex, the hippocampus and the insula. The reduced connectivity between the hippocampus and the insular cortex was correlated with AMD severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Gilmore, Joanna A.; Price, Karen J.; Bennett, Heather L.
This study evaluated the benefits of item enhancements applied to science-inquiry items for incorporation into an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards for high school students. Six items were included in the cognitive lab sessions involving both students with and without disabilities. The enhancements (e.g., use of visuals,…
Heric, Matthew; Carter, Jenn
Cognitive readiness (CR) and performance for operational time-critical environments are continuing points of focus for military and academic communities. In response to this need, we designed an open source interactive CR assessment application as a highly adaptive and efficient open source testing administration and analysis tool. It is capable…
Bossers, Willem J R; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Boersma, Froukje; Scherder, Erik J A; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G
UNLABELLED: AIM/GOAL: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. METHODS: A literature
Keijsers, G.P.J.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Hoogsteyns, B.; Kemp, E.C.M. de
The Nijmegen Motivation List 2 (NML2) is a new instrument to assess patient motivation for psychotherapy. A previous version of the instrument was associated with positive treatment outcome in cognitive-behaviour therapy in several studies but its psychometric properties were poor. The present study
Kostons, Danny; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred
Kostons, D., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 22(2), 121-132. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004
Keefe, Richard S E; Haig, George M; Marder, Stephen R; Harvey, Philip D; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Medalia, Alice; Davidson, Michael; Lombardo, Ilise; Bowie, Christopher R; Buchanan, Robert W; Bugarski-Kirola, Dragana; Carpenter, William T; Csernansky, John T; Dago, Pedro L; Durand, Dante M; Frese, Frederick J; Goff, Donald C; Gold, James M; Hooker, Christine I; Kopelowicz, Alex; Loebel, Antony; McGurk, Susan R; Opler, Lewis A; Pinkham, Amy E; Stern, Robert G
If treatments for cognitive impairment are to be utilized successfully, clinicians must be able to determine whether they are effective and which patients should receive them. In order to develop consensus on these issues, the International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology (ISCTM) held a meeting of experts on March 20, 2014, in Washington, DC. Consensus was reached on several important issues. Cognitive impairment and functional disability were viewed as equally important treatment targets. The group supported the notion that sufficient data are not available to exclude patients from available treatments on the basis of age, severity of cognitive impairment, severity of positive symptoms, or the potential to benefit functionally from treatment. The group reached consensus that cognitive remediation is likely to provide substantial benefits in combination with procognitive medications, although a substantial minority believed that medications can be administered without nonpharmacological therapy. There was little consensus on the best methods for assessing cognitive change in clinical practice. Some participants supported the view that performance-based measures are essential for measurement of cognitive change; others pointed to their cost and time requirements as evidence of impracticality. Interview-based measures of cognitive and functional change were viewed as more practical, but lacking validity without informant involvement or frequent contact from clinicians. The lack of consensus on assessment methods was viewed as attributable to differences in experience and education among key stakeholders and significant gaps in available empirical data. Research on the reliability, validity, sensitivity, and practicality of competing methods will facilitate consensus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Willem J.R. Bossers
Full Text Available Aim/Goal: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. Methods: A literature search (2005–2011 yielded 89 randomized controlled trials. To provide information on test recommendations the frequency of test use, effect size of the test outcome, study quality, and psychometric properties of tests were analyzed. Results: Fifty-nine neuropsychological tests (cognitive domains: global cognition, executive functioning, memory, and attention and 10 exercise tests (physical domains: endurance capacity, muscle strength, balance, and mobility were found. Conclusion: The Severe Impairment Battery, Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale – cognitive subscale were recommended to measure global cognition. The Verbal Fluency Test Category/Letters, Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Test-B were recommended to measure executive functioning. No specific memory test could be recommended. The Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test-A were recommended to measure attention. As physical exercise tests, the Timed Up and Go and Six Meter Walk for mobility, the Six Minute Walk Distance for endurance capacity, and the Tinetti Balance Scale were recommended.
Hannesdóttir, Kristin; Snaedal, Jón
The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) is designed for screening of cognitive and non-cognitive dysfunctions characteristic of persons with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cognitive part of the scale (ADAS-Cog) is both convenient for screening of probable AD and as a measure of cognitive functioning during drug intervention. The aim of this study was to translate the ADAS-Cognitive sub-test (ADAS-Cog) into Icelandic and to study its application in an elderly Icelandic population. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the ADAS-Cog were administered to 20 AD patients and 20 controls. Each patient was also rated on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). The probable AD patients were divided into two groups based on their GDS: 3-4 and 5-6 points. The patients were also divided into two groups based on their MMSE score: very mild to mild (23-30 points) and mild to moderate (15-22 points). Furthermore, the subjects were divided into two age groups: 65-76 and 77-92 years. Results revealed a highly significant difference on MMSE (22.3 +/- 3.4; 26.8 +/- 1.6; P ADAS-Cog (18.4 +/- 7.7; 7.3 +/- 3.5; P ADAS-Cog plays an important role in the diagnostic makeup of AD along with other detailed investigations, such as neuropsychological assessment.
Roalf, David R; Moore, Tyler M; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Wolk, David A; Arnold, Steven E; Weintraub, Daniel A; Moberg, Paul J
To provide a crosswalk between the recently proposed short Montreal Cognitive Assessment (s-MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) within a clinical cohort. A total of 791 participants, with and without neurologic conditions, received both the MMSE and the MoCA at the same visit. s-MoCA scores were calculated and equipercentile equating was used to create a crosswalk between the s-MoCA and MMSE. As expected, s-MoCA scores were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.82, P < .001) with MMSE scores. s-MoCA scores correctly classified 85% of healthy older adults and 91% of individuals with neurologic conditions that impair cognition. In addition, we provide an easy to use table that enables the conversion of s-MoCA score to MMSE score. The s-MoCA is quick to administer, provides high sensitivity and specificity for cognitive impairment, and now can be compared directly with the MMSE. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Cona, Giorgia; Tarantino, Vincenza; Schiff, Sami; Montagnese, Sara; Amodio, Piero; Capizzi, Giovanna
Recent evidence reveals that inter- and intra-individual variability significantly affects cognitive performance in a number of neuropsychological pathologies. We applied a flexible family of statistical models to elucidate the contribution of inter- and intra-individual variables on cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers and patients at risk for hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Sixty-five volunteers (32 patients with cirrhosis and 33 healthy volunteers) were assessed by means of the Inhibitory Control Task (ICT). A Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) was fitted for jointly modeling the mean and the intra-variability of Reaction Times (RTs) as a function of socio-demographic and task related covariates. Furthermore, a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) was fitted for modeling accuracy. When controlling for the covariates, patients without minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) did not differ from patients with MHE in the low-demanding condition, both in terms of RTs and accuracy. Moreover, they showed a significant decline in accuracy compared to the control group. Compared to patients with MHE, patients without MHE showed faster RTs and higher accuracy only in the high-demanding condition. The results revealed that the application of GAMLSS and GLMM models are able to capture subtle cognitive alterations, previously not detected, in patients' subclinical pathologies.
Julayanont, Parunyou; Brousseau, Mélanie; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S
To assess the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score (MoCA-TS) and Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Retrospective chart review. Community-based memory clinic. Individuals meeting Petersen's MCI criteria (N = 165). Baseline MoCA scores at MCI diagnosis were collected from charts of eligible individuals with MCI, and MoCA-TS, MoCA-MIS, and a cognitive domain index score were calculated to assess their prognostic value in predicting conversion to AD. One hundred fourteen participants progressed to AD (MCI-AD), and 51 did not (nonconverters; MCI-NC); 90.5% of participants with MCI with a MoCA-TS less than 20/30 and a MoCA-MIS less than 7/15 at baseline converted to AD within the average follow-up period of 18 months, compared with 52.7% of participants with MCI above the cutoffs on both scores. Individuals with multiple-domain amnestic MCI had the highest AD conversion rates (73.9%). Identifying individuals with MCI at high risk of conversion to AD is important clinically and for selecting appropriate subjects for therapeutic trials. Individuals with MCI with a low MoCA-TS and a low newly devised memory index score (MoCA-MIS) are at greater risk of short-term conversion to AD. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most frequently used cognitive measures for dementia severity and linked to deficits in everyday functioning. Recently, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) increasingly substitute for the MMSE. However, there are no specific cutoffs in the ACE-III for mild dementia. The objectives of this exploratory study were to assess the sensitivity of each scale to everyday functioning and to examine the cutoffs between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. People with mild dementia completed the MMSE, MoCA and ACE-III, whilst informal carers completed the Revised Interview for Deteriorations in Daily Living Activities for Dementia to rate their relative's initiative and performance of instrumental activities of daily living and the Katz activities of daily living scale. Data were analysed using correlation analysis, raw score comparisons, Cohen's kappa and receiver operating characteristics analysis. Thirty-three dyads completed the measures. The ACE-III was the most sensitive tool for everyday functioning performance, whilst its language subscale was specifically related to initiation of activities. The most suitable cutoff on the ACE-III between mild and moderate dementia was 61. Findings suggest the ACE-III more efficiently identifies everyday functional impairments. Further research is required to confirm these exploratory analyses of the cutoff between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. Both functional impairment and stage of dementia are needed in the diagnostic process and in the clinical assessment of people with dementia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the relationship of subjective assessments of the mentally ill with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level. The features of patients perception of various aspects of compulsory treatment and subjective satisfaction with treatment. In a study of 94 male patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia was used diagnostic system, consisting of patopsihologicheskogo study, formal survey map, the scale of assessment of negative symptoms SANS, questionnaire symptom levels SCL-90, self-existing problems, as well as - in Test authoring tool sheet to treatment and hospital stay (VG Bulygin, Kabanov, TN, 2011. The differences in subjective assessments of aspects of compulsory treatment and social functioning of patients with varying degrees of severity of negative symptoms and dependence of subjective assessments of the level of cognitive functioning.
Nazari, Siamak [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division
This study was done to assess the repeatability and uncertainty of time-lapse VSP response to CO2 injection in the Frio formation near Houston Texas. A work flow was built to assess the effect of time-lapse injected CO2 into two Frio brine reservoir intervals, the ‘C’ sand (Frio1) and the ‘Blue sand’ (Frio2). The time-lapse seismic amplitude variations with sensor depth for both reservoirs Frio1 and Frio2 were computed by subtracting the seismic response of the base survey from each of the two monitor seismic surveys. Source site 1 has been considered as one of the best sites for evaluating the time-lapse response after injection. For site 1, the computed timelapse NRMS levels after processing had been compared to the estimated time-lapse NRMS level before processing for different control reflectors, and for brine aquifers Frio1, and Frio2 to quantify detectability of amplitude difference. As the main interest is to analyze the time-lapse amplitude variations, different scenarios have been considered. Three different survey scenarios were considered: the base survey which was performed before injection, monitor1 performed after the first injection operation, and monitor2 which was after the second injection. The first scenario was base-monitor1, the second was basemonitor2, and the third was monitor1-monitor2. We considered three ‘control’ reflections above the Frio to assist removal of overburden changes, and concluded that third control reflector (CR3) is the most favorable for the first scenario in terms of NRMS response, and first control reflector (CR1) is the most favorable for the second and third scenarios in terms of NRMS response. The NRMS parameter is shown to be a useful measure to assess the effect of processing on time-lapse data. The overall NRMS for the Frio VSP data set was found to be in the range of 30% to 80% following basic processing. This could be considered as an estimated baseline in assessing the utility
Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P
Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS tend to develop cognitive deficits, which usually go unrecognized, and can affect their daily life. The Beijing version of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA-BJ, a Chinese version of MoCA, has been used for the assessment of cognitive functions of OSAHS patients in clinical practice. So far, its reliability and validity have not been tested. This study examined the reliability and validity of MoCA-BJ in a cohort of adult OSAHS patients.152 OSAHS patients, ranging from mild, moderate to severe, 49 primary snoring subjects and 40 normal controls were evaluated for cognitive functions by employing both MoCA-BJ and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Forty of them were re-tested by MoCA-BJ 14 days after the first test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminate and concurrent validity of MoCA-BJ were analyzed.Internal consistency reliability by Cronbach's alpha was adequate (0.73. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, an measure of test-retest reliability, was 0.87 (P<0.001. The total MoCA-BJ scores were significant higher in normal controls than in OSAHS groups (p<0.05. The performances of visuospatial ability in severe OSAHS group were significantly weaker than in normal controls and primary snoring group. The performances of executive ability in severe OSAHS patients were weaker than in normal controls. An optimal cut-off between normal controls and non-normal subjects was at 26 points (total MoCA score. Moreover, cut-off between non-severe and severe OSAHS was at 2 points on visuospatial subscale. Analysis of the correlation between MoCA total scores and MMSE total scores revealed a statistically significant, though relatively weak, correlation (r=0.41, P<0.05.In conclusion, our study showed that the Beijing version of the MoCA was reliable and stable. The MoCA-BJ was capable of detecting cognitive dysfunction by visuospatial and total MoCA-BJ score.
Kaur, Navaldeep; Belchior, Patricia; Gelinas, Isabelle; Bier, Nathalie
Mild deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) have consistently been reported in the individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A variety of functional assessment tools, including self-and informant report questionnaires and performance-based measures, have been employed in MCI. Previously, a limited focus has been directed at appraising the quality of questionnaires. The goal of this study was to identify the questionnaires that have been validated in the MCI population. Additionally, the quality of validation studies and psychometric attributes of these questionnaires were appraised. Relevant articles were systematically searched in PsychINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, and CINAHL against specific eligibility criteria. To evaluate the methodology of the psychometric studies, the COSMIN checklist was employed. Also, the psychometric properties of the assessment tools were evaluated based upon Terwee's criteria. A total of five psychometric studies and questionnaires were critically evaluated. Varying psychometric properties were available for the chosen tools. None of the studies received the best possible rating for their methodological quality. It was found that questionnaires with high discriminative ability to distinguish MCI from other diagnostic groups were: Disability Assessment in Dementia-6 (DAD-6), Functional Activity Questionnaire (FAQ), and Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living scale adapted for MCI patients (ADCS-MCI-ADL-24). Psychometric studies with strong methodological rigor are required in the future. Considering the fact that IADL decline has been associated with dementia, early detection of functional difficulties in MCI needs to be encouraged as it will allow suitable and timely interventions to prolong functional independence of affected individuals.
Bickerton, Wai-Ling; Riddoch, M Jane; Samson, Dana; Balani, Alex Bahrami; Mistry, Bejal; Humphreys, Glyn W
The validity and functional predictive values of the apraxia tests in the Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) were evaluated. BCoS was developed to identify patients with different forms of praxic deficit using procedures designed to be inclusive for patients with aphasia and/or spatial neglect. Observational studies were conducted from a university neuropsychological assessment centre and from acute and rehabilitation stroke care hospitals throughout an English region. Volunteers from referred patients with chronic acquired brain injuries, a consecutive hospital sample of patients within 3 months of stroke (n=635) and a population based healthy control sample (n=100) were recruited. The main outcome measures used were the Barthel Index, the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale as well as recovery from apraxia. There were high inter-rater reliabilities and correlations between the BCoS apraxia tasks and counterpart tests from the literature. The vast majority (88.3%) of the stroke survivors were able to complete the screen. Pantomime and gesture recognition tasks were more sensitive in differentiating between individuals with left hemisphere damage and right hemisphere damage whereas the Multistep Object Use test and the imitation task had higher functional correlates over and above effects of hemiplegia. Together, the initial scores of the four tasks enabled predictions with 75% accuracy, the recovery of apraxia and independence level at 9 months. As a model based assessment, BCoS offers a quick and valid way to detect apraxia and predict functional recovery. It enables early and informative assessment of most stroke patients for rehabilitation planning.
Zentall, Thomas R; Smith, Aaron P
Delayed matching-to-sample is a versatile task that has been used to assess the nature of animal memory. Although once thought to be a relatively passive process, matching research has demonstrated considerable flexibility in how animals actively represent events in memory. But delayed matching can also demonstrate how animals fail to maintain representations in memory when they are cued that they will not be tested (directed forgetting) and how the outcome expected can serve as a choice cue. When pigeons have shown divergent retention functions following training without a delay, it has been taken as evidence of the use of a single-code/default coding strategy but in many cases an alternative account may be involved. Delayed matching has also been used to investigate equivalence learning (how animals represent stimuli when they learn that the same comparison response is correct following the presentation of two different samples) and to test for metamemory (the ability of pigeons to indicate that they understand what they know) by allowing animals to decline to be tested when they are uncertain that they remember a stimulus. How animals assess the passage of time has also been studied using the matching task. And there is evidence that when memory for the sample is impaired by a delay, rather than use the probability of being correct for choice of each of the comparison stimuli, pigeons tend to choose based on the overall sample frequency (base-rate neglect). Finally, matching has been used to identify natural color categories as well as dimensional categories in pigeons. Overall, matching to sample has provided an excellent methodology for assessing an assortment of cognitive processes in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Green, Michael F.; Penn, David L.; Bentall, Richard; Carpenter, William T.; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Gur, Ruben C.; Kring, Ann M.; Park, Sohee; Silverstein, Steven M.; Heinssen, Robert
Social cognition has become a high priority area for the study of schizophrenia. However, despite developments in this area, progress remains limited by inconsistent terminology and differences in the way social cognition is measured. To address these obstacles, a consensus-building meeting on social cognition in schizophrenia was held at the National Institute of Mental Health in March 2006. Agreement was reached on several points, including definitions of terms, the significance of social cognition for schizophrenia research, and suggestions for future research directions. The importance of translational interdisciplinary research teams was emphasized. The current article presents a summary of these discussions. PMID:18184635
van Steenoven, Inger; Aarsland, Dag; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E.; Rick, Jacqueline; Chahine, Lama M.; Dahodwala, Nabila; Trojanowski, John Q.; Roalf, David R.; Moberg, Paul J.; Weintraub, Daniel
Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. PMID:25381961
van de Weijer, Sjors C F; Duits, Annelien A; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Kessels, Roy P; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Köhler, Sebastian; Tissingh, Gerrit; Kuijf, Mark L
In Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive impairment is an important non-motor symptom heralding the development of dementia. Effective treatments to slow down the rate of