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Sample records for repeated checking task

  1. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  2. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  3. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive, compulsive-like checking of an object leads to reductions in memory confidence, vividness, and detail. Experimental research suggests that this is caused by increased familiarity with perceptual characteristics of the stimulus and automatization of the checking procedure (Dek, van den Ho

  4. Repeating Input-Based Tasks with Young Beginner Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated task-repetition with young Japanese children. Fifteen children with no prior knowledge of English completed a communicative listening task that was designed to introduce new vocabulary. The same task was repeated nine times over five weeks. In line with Allwright's (1984) claim that "interaction…

  5. A challenging task for assessment of checking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotge, J Y; Clair, A H; Jaafari, N; Hantouche, E G; Pelissolo, A; Goillandeau, M; Pochon, J B; Guehl, D; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P; Tignol, J; Mallet, L; Aouizerate, B

    2008-06-01

    The present study concerns the objective and quantitative measurement of checking activity, which represents the most frequently observed compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To address this issue, we developed an instrumental task producing repetitive checking in OCD subjects. Fifty OCD subjects and 50 normal volunteers (NV) were administered a delayed matching-to-sample task that offered the unrestricted opportunity to verify the choice made. Response accuracy, number of verifications, and response time for choice taken to reflect the degree of uncertainty and doubt were recorded over 50 consecutive trials. Despite similar levels of performance, patients with OCD demonstrated a greater number of verifications and a longer response time for choice before checking than NV. Such behavioral patterns were more pronounced in OCD subjects currently experiencing checking compulsions. The present task might be of special relevance for the quantitative assessment of checking behaviors and for determining relationships with cognitive processes.

  6. Informatization tools (means of study effectiveness checking based on hierarchy system of tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Викторович Криволапов

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Study effectiveness checking system, based on tasks hierarchy system is considered in this article. Introduced performance score model, can not only helps along time saving and teacher's work facilitation but gives more objective appraisal of student's knowledge.

  7. The Impact of Repeated Health Checks for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felce, David; Baxter, Helen; Lowe, Kathy; Dunstan, Frank; Houston, Helen; Jones, Glyn; Felce, Janet; Kerr, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: An earlier study (Baxter "et al." 2006) found that a structured health check conducted in primary care identified clinically significant previously unrecognized morbidity among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim here was to examine whether follow-up health checks would identify equally significant newly identified morbidity…

  8. CHECK AND CONTROL ELECTRONIC SYSTEM IN MAGNETIC-IMPULSE SETUP WITH MULTIPLE REPEATING OF DISCHARGE IMPULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaljanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern microprocessor system controling the complex of electromagnetic flattening of vehicles is created in this work. Microprocessor system for control and check of magnetic-impulse setup meets the formulated conditions for the conversion on the other level of modern electro technical devices.

  9. Task-Irrelevant Expectation Violations in Sequential Manual Actions: Evidence for a "Check-after-Surprise" Mode of Visual Attention and Eye-Hand Decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M

    2016-01-01

    When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking), visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM)-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b) that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change) cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search. How might task-irrelevant expectation violations in such well-practiced sequential manual actions modify attentional selection? This question was investigated by a computerized version of the number-connection test. Participants clicked on nine spatially distributed numbered target circles in ascending order while eye movements were recorded as proxy for covert attention. Target's visual features and locations stayed constant for 65 prechange-trials, allowing practicing the manual action sequence. Consecutively, a task-irrelevant expectation violation occurred and stayed for 20 change-trials. Specifically, action target number 4 appeared in a different font. In 15 reversion-trials, number 4 returned to the original font. During the first task-irrelevant change trial, manual clicking was slower and eye scanpaths were larger and contained more fixations. The additional fixations were mainly checking fixations on the changed target while acting on later targets. Whereas the eyes repeatedly revisited the task-irrelevant change, cursor-paths remained completely unaffected. Effects lasted for 2-3 change trials and did not reappear during reversion. In conclusion, an unexpected task-irrelevant change on a task-defining feature of a well-practiced manual sequence leads to eye-hand decoupling and a "check-after-surprise" mode of attentional selection.

  10. Task-irrelevant expectation violations in sequential manual actions: Evidence for a “check-after-surprise” mode of visual attention and eye-hand decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Martina Foerster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking, visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search. How might task-irrelevant expectation violations in such well-practiced sequential manual actions modify attentional selection? This question was investigated by a computerized version of the number-connection test. Participants clicked on nine spatially-distributed numbered target circles in ascending order while eye movements were recorded as proxy for covert attention. Target’s visual features and locations stayed constant for 65 prechange-trials, allowing practicing the manual action sequence. Consecutively, a task-irrelevant expectation violation occurred and stayed for 20 change-trials. Specifically, action target number 4 appeared in a different font. In 15 reversion-trials, number 4 returned to the original font. During the first task-irrelevant change trial, manual clicking was slower and eye scanpaths were larger and contained more fixations. The additional fixations were mainly checking fixations on the changed target while acting on later targets. Whereas the eyes repeatedly revisited the task-irrelevant change, cursor-paths remained completely unaffected. Effects lasted for 2-3 change trials and did not reappear during reversion. In conclusion, an unexpected task-irrelevant change on a task-defining feature of a well-practiced manual sequence leads to eye-hand decoupling and a check-after-surprise mode of attentional selection.

  11. Repeatability of the timing of eye-hand coordinated movements across different cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, C; van der Steen, J; Schol, R J; Pel, J J M

    2013-08-15

    Quantification of eye-hand coordinated behaviour is a relatively new tool to study neurodegeneration in humans. Its sensitivity depends on the assessment of different behavioural strategies, multiple task testing and repeating tasks within one session. However, large numbers of repetition trials pose a significant burden on subjects. To introduce this method in large-scale population studies, it is necessary to determine whether reducing the number of task repetitions, which will lower subject burden, still leads to acceptable measurement accuracy. The objective of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of eye-hand coordination outcome parameters in eight healthy volunteers using a test-retest approach. Subjects were assessed during a shortened test procedure consisting of eight repetitions of three behavioural tasks: a reflex-based tapping task, a planning-based tapping task and a memory-based tapping task. Eye-hand coordination was quantified in terms of timing (eye and hand latencies), kinematics and accuracy. Eye and hand latencies were found within a normal range (between 150 and 450ms). A paired samples t-test revealed no differences in timing parameters between the first and second measurements. It was concluded that eight trial repetitions are sufficient for quantifying eye-hand coordination in terms of timing, kinematics and accuracy. This approach demonstrates the testing of multiple visuomotor behaviours within a reasonable time span of a few minutes per task.

  12. Perseveration causes automatization of checking behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Giele, Catharina L; Cath, Danielle C

    2015-08-01

    Repeated checking leads to reductions in meta-memory (i.e., memory confidence, vividness and detail), and automatization of checking behavior (Dek, van den Hout, Giele, & Engelhard, 2014, 2015). Dek et al. (2014) suggested that this is caused by increased familiarity with the checked stimuli. They predicted that defamiliarization of checking by modifying the perceptual characteristics of stimuli would cause de-automatization and attenuate the negative meta-memory effects of re-checking. However, their results were inconclusive. The present study investigated whether repeated checking leads to automatization of checking behavior, and if defamiliarization indeed leads to de-automatization and attenuation of meta-memory effects in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Participants performed a checking task, in which they activated, deactivated and checked threat-irrelevant stimuli. During a pre- and post-test checking trial, check duration was recorded and a reaction time task was simultaneously administered as dual-task to assess automatization. After the pre- and post-test checking trial, meta-memory was rated. Results showed that relevant checking led to automatization of checking behavior on the RT measure, and negative meta-memory effects for patients and controls. Defamiliarization led to de-automatization measured with the RT task, but did not attenuate the negative meta-memory effects of repeated checking. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Experimental check of possibility of research of repeated inclusion of the open gas generator in the water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldaev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of repeated burning interruption with the subsequent ignition in the water environment for bibasic firm fuel as a part of a model open solid propellant gas generator is presented. Video filming of burning zone mobile localizer providing process of repeated inclusion of a gas generator are given. Some parameters of the processes proceeding in these conditions are defined

  14. Three-dimensional knee kinematics by conventional gait analysis for eleven motor tasks of daily living: typical patterns and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheys, Lennart; Leardini, Alberto; Wong, Pius D; Van Camp, Laurent; Callewaert, Barbara; Bellemans, Johan; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-04-01

    The availability of detailed knee kinematic data during various activities can facilitate clinical studies of this joint. To describe in detail normal knee joint rotations in all three anatomical planes, 25 healthy subjects (aged 22-49 years) performed eleven motor tasks, including walking, step ascent and descent, each with and without sidestep or crossover turns, chair rise, mild and deep squats, and forward lunge. Kinematic data were obtained with a conventional lower-body gait analysis protocol over three trials per task. To assess the repeatability with standard indices, a representative subset of 10 subjects underwent three repetitions of the entire motion capture session. Extracted parameters with good repeatability included maximum and minimum axial rotation during turning, local extremes of the flexion curves during gait tasks, and stride times. These specific repeatable parameters can be used for task selection or power analysis when planning future clinical studies.

  15. Comparison of intraclass correlation coefficient estimates and standard errors between using cross-sectional and repeated measurement data: the Safety Check cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H; Wasserman, Richard; Barkin, Shari

    2011-03-01

    Designing cluster randomized trials in clinical studies often requires accurate estimates of intraclass correlation, which quantifies the strength of correlation between units, such as participants, within a cluster, such as a practice. Published ICC estimates, even when available, often suffer from the problem of wide confidence intervals. Using data from a national, randomized, controlled study concerning violence prevention for children--the Safety Check--we compare the ICC values derived from two approaches only baseline data and using both baseline and follow-up data. Using a variance component decomposition approach, the latter method allows flexibility in handling complex data sets. For example, it allows for shifts in the outcome variable over time and for an unbalanced cluster design. Furthermore, we evaluate the large-sample formula for ICC estimates and standard errors using the bootstrap method. Our findings suggest that ICC estimates range from 0.012 to 0.11 for providers within practice and range from 0.018 to 0.11 for families within provider. The estimates derived from the baseline-only and repeated-measurements approaches agree quite well except in cases in which variation over repeated measurements is large. The reductions in the widths of ICC confidence limits from using repeated measurement over baseline only are, respectively, 62% and 42% at the practice and provider levels. The contribution of this paper therefore includes two elements, which are a methodology for improving the accuracy of ICC, and the reporting of such quantities for pediatric and other researchers who are interested in designing clustered randomized trials similar to the current study.

  16. Predictive value of serum progesterone level on β-hCG check day in women with previous repeated miscarriages after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Shin, Jung Ho; Hur, Jun Yong; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of the progesterone level at the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) check day for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with previous unexplained repeated miscarriages. One hundred and forty-eight women, with visible gestational sac after IVF, were recruited in this observational study. All subjects had unexplained recurrent miscarriages in more than two previous IVF cycles. The progesterone level at the β-hCG check day (i.e. 14 days after oocyte retrieval) was assessed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the progesterone level was evaluated to predict the ongoing pregnancy or miscarriage outcomes. The overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 60.8% (90/148). The cut-off value with β-hCG levels higher than 126.5 mIU/mL and with progesterone levels higher than 25.2 ng/mL could be the predictive factors for ongoing pregnancy maintenance (AUC = 0.788 and 0.826; sensitivity = 0.788 and 0.723; specificity = 0.689 and 0.833; P hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and 13.0% (10/77) in those with > 25.2 ng/mL. In the comparison of the ROC curves between both values, a similar significance was found. The subjects with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL showed higher ongoing pregnancy rates [98.0% (49/50) vs. 41.8% (41/98)] than those with β-hCG ≤ 126.5 mIU/mL or progesterone ≤ 25.2 ng/mL. The progesterone level at 14 days after oocyte retrieval can be a good predictive marker for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in women with repeated IVF failure with miscarriage, together with the β-hCG level. The combined cut-off value of progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL and β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL may suggest a good prognosis.

  17. Check, check, double check: checking the autopilot causes distrust : Experimental studies on the effects of compulsive perseveration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by persistent doubt. The majority of patients with OCD engage in repeated checking to reduce these feelings of uncertainty. However, numerous studies demonstrated that repetitive behavior ironically increases uncertainty: perseverative checking in

  18. Using Task Analytic Models and Phenotypes of Erroneous Human Behavior to Discover System Failures Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2010-09-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in ways unanticipated by analysts or designers. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. This paper presents a method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both erroneous and normative human behavior from normative task models. The resulting model can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human automation-interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. This method is illustrated with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. In this example, a problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. Future extensions of our method are discussed.

  19. Cognitive control mechanisms revealed by ERP and fMRI: evidence from repeated task-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainson, R; Cunnington, R; Jackson, G M; Rorden, C; Peters, A M; Morris, P G; Jackson, S R

    2003-08-15

    We investigated the extent to which a common neural mechanism is involved in task set-switching and response withholding, factors that are frequently confounded in task-switching and go/no-go paradigms. Subjects' brain activity was measured using event-related electrical potentials (ERPs) and event-related functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging in separate studies using the same cognitive paradigm. Subjects made compatible left/right keypress responses to left/right arrow stimuli of 1000 msec duration; they switched every two trials between responding at stimulus onset (GO task-green arrows) and stimulus offset (WAIT task-red arrows). With-holding an immediate response (WAIT vs. GO) elicited an enhancement of the frontal N2 ERP and lateral PFC activation of the right hemisphere, both previously associated with the "no-go" response, but only on switch trials. Task-switching (switch vs. nonswitch) was associated with frontal N2 amplification and right hemisphere ventrolateral PFC activation, but only for the WAIT task. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was the only brain region to be activated for both types of task switch, but this activation was located more rostrally for the WAIT than for the GO switch trials. We conclude that the frontal N2 ERP and lateral PFC activation are not markers for withholding an immediate response or switching tasks per se, but are associated with switching into a response-suppression mode. Different regions within the ACC may be involved in two processes integral to task-switching: processing response conflict (rostral ACC) and overcoming prior response suppression (caudal ACC).

  20. Combining experimental observation and modelling in investigating feedback and emotions in repeated selection tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    People seem to learn tasks even without formal training. This can be modelled as the outcome of a feedback system that accumulates experience. In this paper we investigate such a feedback system, following an iterative research approach. A feedback loop is specified that is detailed using contempora

  1. Combining experimental observation and modelling in investigating feedback and emotions in repeated selection tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    People seem to learn tasks even without formal training. This can be modelled as the outcome of a feedback system that accumulates experience. In this paper we investigate such a feedback system, following an iterative research approach. A feedback loop is specified that is detailed using

  2. The effect of repeated nicotine administration on the performance of drug-naive rats in a five-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, A; Simon, H; Sanger, D J; Moser, P

    1999-11-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive performance both in animals and in humans, particularly in tests involving attentional processes. The five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used as a model of attentional performance in rats, and previous studies have demonstrated effects of nicotine in this task on measures such as improved reaction time. Using a modified version of this task (in which rats were required to respond to the disappearance of one of five stimulus lights), we evaluated the effects of repeated nicotine administration (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, on three occasions over 7 days) in drug-naive rats. After the first administration, nicotine increased accuracy and reduced inappropriate responding (anticipatory responses and responses during time-out) compared to performance following vehicle administration on the preceding day. However, with repeated administration the improvement in accuracy disappeared, and other effects became apparent. Thus, after the third administration the main effects of nicotine were to increase inappropriate responding and to reduce reaction times. A fourth administration 1-2 weeks later produced similar results to the third administration, suggesting that the effects of nicotine were now constant. Despite the general increase in inappropriate responding, there was no impairment in accuracy. In contrast to the response to repeated nicotine, the performance of the rats on the 3 vehicle days remained constant. These data demonstrate that the administration of nicotine to drug-naive subjects improves performance in the 5-CSRTT but that with repeated administration this effect disappears and is replaced by a profile in which inappropriate and impulsive responding predominate.

  3. Stand for the Network Repeated Game Task Scheduling Algorithm%容忍网络中基于重复博弈的任务调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨

    2013-01-01

    延迟容忍网络环境具有动态性、异构性等特点,导致传统网格任务调度算法收敛速度慢、局部最优等缺陷,使网格任务调度效率低。为了提高网格任务调度效率,提出一种基于重复博弈的任务调度算法。算法根据任务调度原理和博弈论的特点,建立了网格任务调度模型和性能指标的数学模型,然后采用重复博弈算法对该模型进行优化,提高资源利用率和任务执行效率。仿真实验结果表明,该算法的任务调度策略是可行有效的,提高了任务调度的速度和效率,很好地解决网络任务调度中存在的难题。%Delay tolerance network environment has the dynamic, heterogeneous characteristics, leading to the traditional grid task scheduling algorithm convergence speed is slow, the local superior defect, make the grid task scheduling effi-ciency low. In order to improve the grid task scheduling efficiency, this paper puts forward a repeated game based on the task scheduling algorithm. Task scheduling algorithm according to the principle and the characteristics of game theory, the establishment of a grid task scheduling model and mathematical model of the performance, then the repeated game algorithm to optimize the model, raise the utilization ratio of resource and task performance. The simulation results show that the algorithm of task scheduling strategy is feasible and effective, and improve the speed and efficiency of task scheduling, a very good solution to solve the network scheduling problem existing in.

  4. Effects of repeated collaborative retrieval on individual memory vary as a function of recall versus recognition tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Helena M; Rajaram, Suparna

    2009-11-01

    Our research examines how prior group collaboration modulates later individual memory. We recently showed that repeated collaborative recall sessions benefit later individual recall more than a single collaborative recall session (Blumen & Rajaram, 2008). Current research compared the effects of repeated collaborative recall and repeated collaborative recognition on later individual recall and later individual recognition. A total of 192 participants studied a list of nouns and then completed three successive retrieval sessions in one of four conditions. While two collaborative recall sessions and two collaborative recognition sessions generated comparable levels of individual recall (CRecall-CRecall-I Recall approximately CRecognition-CRecognition-I Recall , Experiment 1a), two collaborative recognition sessions generated greater levels of individual recognition than two collaborative recall sessions (CRecognition-CRecognition- IRecognition > CRecall-CRecall- I Recognition , Experiment 1b). These findings are discussed in terms of two opposing mechanisms that operate during collaborative retrieval-re-exposure and retrieval disruption-and in terms of transfer-appropriate processing across collaborative and individual retrieval sessions.

  5. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  6. Long-Term Safety of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Opening via Focused Ultrasound with Microbubbles in Non-Human Primates Performing a Cognitive Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Downs

    Full Text Available Focused Ultrasound (FUS coupled with intravenous administration of microbubbles (MB is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reliably open (increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB in multiple in vivo models including non-human primates (NHP. This procedure has shown promise for clinical and basic science applications, yet the safety and potential neurological effects of long term application in NHP requires further investigation under parameters shown to be efficacious in that species (500 kHz, 200-400 kPa, 4-5 μm MB, 2 minute sonication. In this study, we repeatedly opened the BBB in the caudate and putamen regions of the basal ganglia of 4 NHP using FUS with systemically-administered MB over 4-20 months. We assessed the safety of the FUS with MB procedure using MRI to detect edema or hemorrhaging in the brain. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI sequences showed a 98% success rate for openings in the targeted regions. T2-weighted and SWI sequences indicated a lack edema in the majority of the cases. We investigated potential neurological effects of the FUS with MB procedure through quantitative cognitive testing of' visual, cognitive, motivational, and motor function using a random dot motion task with reward magnitude bias presented on a touchpanel display. Reaction times during the task significantly increased on the day of the FUS with MB procedure. This increase returned to baseline within 4-5 days after the procedure. Visual motion discrimination thresholds were unaffected. Our results indicate FUS with MB can be a safe method for repeated opening of the BBB at the basal ganglia in NHP for up to 20 months without any long-term negative physiological or neurological effects with the parameters used.

  7. Regular health checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.......To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based....

  8. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  9. Model Checking Linearizability via Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yanhong A.; Sun, Jun

    Linearizability is an important correctness criterion for implementations of concurrent objects. Automatic checking of linearizability is challenging because it requires checking that 1) all executions of concurrent operations be serializable, and 2) the serialized executions be correct with respect to the sequential semantics. This paper describes a new method to automatically check linearizability based on refinement relations from abstract specifications to concrete implementations. Our method avoids the often difficult task of determining linearization points in implementations, but can also take advantage of linearization points if they are given. The method exploits model checking of finite state systems specified as concurrent processes with shared variables. Partial order reduction is used to effectively reduce the search space. The approach is built into a toolset that supports a rich set of concurrent operators. The tool has been used to automatically check a variety of implementations of concurrent objects, including the first algorithms for the mailbox problem and scalable NonZero indicators. Our system was able to find all known and injected bugs in these implementations.

  10. Spell Checking: Making Writing Meaningful in the Inclusive Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Tamarah M.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the CHECK procedure for teaching students with learning disabilities skills in the actual operation of a computer spell-check. Students are urged to check the beginning sound, hunt for correct consonants, examine the vowels, make changes, and keep repeating the process. (CR)

  11. Compositional encoding for bounded model checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun SUN; Yang LIU; Jin Song DONG; Jing SUN

    2008-01-01

    Verification techniques like SAT-based bounded model checking have been successfully applied to a variety of system models. Applying bounded model checking to compositional process algebras is, however, a highly non-trivial task. One challenge is that the number of system states for process algebra models is not statically known, whereas exploring the full state space is computa-tionally expensive. This paper presents a compositional encoding of hierarchical processes as SAT problems and then applies state-of-the-art SAT solvers for bounded model checking. The encoding avoids exploring the full state space for complex systems so as to deal with state space explosion. We developed an automated analyzer which combines complementing model checking tech-niques (I.e., bounded model checking and explicit on-the-fly model checking) to validate system models against event-based temporal properties. The experiment results show the analyzer handles large systems.

  12. Checking Java Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darwin, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut tells you about tools that will improve the quality of your Java code, using checking above and beyond what the standard tools do, including: Using javac options, JUnit and assertions Making your IDE work harder Checking your source code with PMD Checking your compiled code (.class files) with FindBugs Checking your program's run-time behavior with Java PathFinder

  13. Direct Model Checking Matrix Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Hans Kleine Büning; Li-Fu Wang

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, Model Checking has proven its efficacy and power in circuit design, network protocol analysis and bug hunting. Recent research on automatic verification has shown that no single model-checking technique has the edge over all others in all application areas. So, it is very difficult to determine which technique is the most suitable for a given model. It is thus sensible to apply different techniques to the same model. However, this is a very tedious and time-consuming task, for each algorithm uses its own description language. Applying Model Checking in software design and verification has been proved very difficult. Software architectures (SA) are engineering artifacts that provide high-level and abstract descriptions of complex software systems. In this paper a Direct Model Checking (DMC) method based on Kripke Structure and Matrix Algorithm is provided. Combined and integrated with domain specific software architecture description languages (ADLs), DMC can be used for computing consistency and other critical properties.

  14. Semantic Importance Sampling for Statistical Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    approach called Statistical Model Checking (SMC) [16], which relies on Monte - Carlo -based simulations to solve this verification task more scalably...Conclusion Statistical model checking (SMC) is a prominent approach for rigorous analysis of stochastic systems using Monte - Carlo simulations. In this... Monte - Carlo simulations, for computing the bounded probability that a specific event occurs during a stochastic system’s execution. Estimating the

  15. Software tool for physics chart checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Harold; Wu, Yu; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Physics chart check has long been a central quality assurance (QC) measure in radiation oncology. The purpose of this work is to describe a software tool that aims to accomplish simplification, standardization, automation, and forced functions in the process. Nationally recognized guidelines, including American College of Radiology and American Society for Radiation Oncology guidelines and technical standards, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group reports were identified, studied, and summarized. Meanwhile, the reported events related to physics chart check service were analyzed using an event reporting and learning system. A number of shortfalls in the chart check process were identified. To address these problems, a software tool was designed and developed under Microsoft. Net in C# to hardwire as many components as possible at each stage of the process. The software consists of the following 4 independent modules: (1) chart check management; (2) pretreatment and during treatment chart check assistant; (3) posttreatment chart check assistant; and (4) quarterly peer-review management. The users were a large group of physicists in the author's radiation oncology clinic. During over 1 year of use the tool has proven very helpful in chart checking management, communication, documentation, and maintaining consistency. The software tool presented in this work aims to assist physicists at each stage of the physics chart check process. The software tool is potentially useful for any radiation oncology clinics that are either in the process of pursuing or maintaining the American College of Radiology accreditation.

  16. Symbolic model checking APSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanwei LIU; Ji WANG; Huowang CHEN; Xiaodong MA; Zhaofei WANG

    2009-01-01

    Property specification language (PSL) is a specification language which has been accepted as an industrial standard. In PSL, SEREs are used as additional formula constructs. In this paper, we present a variant of PSL, namely APSL, which replaces SEREs with finite automata. APSL and PSL are of the exactly same expressiveness. Then, we extend the LTL symbolic model checking algorithm to that of APSL, and then present a tableau based APSL verification technique, which can be easily implemented via the BDD based symbolic approach. Moreover, we implement an extension of NuSMV, and this adapted version supports symbolic model checking of APSL. Experimental results show that this variant of PSL can be efficiently verified. Henceforth, symbolic model checking PSL can be carried out by a transformation from PSL to APSL and symbolic model checking APSL.

  17. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  18. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  19. Parallel Software Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parallel Software Model Checking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...3: ∧ ≥ 10 ∧ ≠ 10 ⇒ : Parallel Software Model Checking Team Members Sagar Chaki, Arie Gurfinkel

  20. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  1. Timing analysis by model checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydich, Dimitri; Guaspari, David

    2000-01-01

    The safety of modern avionics relies on high integrity software that can be verified to meet hard real-time requirements. The limits of verification technology therefore determine acceptable engineering practice. To simplify verification problems, safety-critical systems are commonly implemented under the severe constraints of a cyclic executive, which make design an expensive trial-and-error process highly intolerant of change. Important advances in analysis techniques, such as rate monotonic analysis (RMA), have provided a theoretical and practical basis for easing these onerous restrictions. But RMA and its kindred have two limitations: they apply only to verifying the requirement of schedulability (that tasks meet their deadlines) and they cannot be applied to many common programming paradigms. We address both these limitations by applying model checking, a technique with successful industrial applications in hardware design. Model checking algorithms analyze finite state machines, either by explicit state enumeration or by symbolic manipulation. Since quantitative timing properties involve a potentially unbounded state variable (a clock), our first problem is to construct a finite approximation that is conservative for the properties being analyzed-if the approximation satisfies the properties of interest, so does the infinite model. To reduce the potential for state space explosion we must further optimize this finite model. Experiments with some simple optimizations have yielded a hundred-fold efficiency improvement over published techniques.

  2. Interest Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  3. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  4. Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC versus emergency repeat cesarean section at teaching hospitals in India: an ICMR task force study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Dhillon

    2014-06-01

    Results: A total of 155863 deliveries occurred during the study duration, there were 28.1% (n=43824 cesarean section and (10.1% (n=15664 were the number of previous cesarean section. In 84% (n=13151 had repeat cesarean delivery and 2513 (16% delivered vaginally. A trial of labor was planned in 4035 (25.8% women. The success rate of VBAC was 62.3% with 2513 women had successful vaginal delivery and 1522 (37.7% delivered by emergency repeat cesarean section. Major indication of emergency cesarean section was CPD (52.9%, foetal distress (25.8%, severe PIH/eclampsia (5.0%, previous 2 CS (0.7%, APH (1.4% and others (2.7%. In majority, surgical technique was conventional and in 3.7% the Misgav-Ladach technique was used. Scar dehiscence and surgical complications were observed in 5.4% and 4.0% of cases respectively. Blood transfusion was given in 7.0% and post-operative complications were seen in 6.8%. Perinatal and maternal mortality was 18.0/1000 and 257/100000 deliveries respectively. Conclusions: Safety in childbirth for women with prior cesarean is a major public health concern. Repeat caesarean section and planned vaginal birth after cesarean section are both associated with benefits and harms and correct management represents one of the most significant and challenging issues in obstetric practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 592-597

  5. Intrasubject reproducibility of prefrontal cortex activities during a verbal fluency task over two repeated sessions using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Yu; Nishimura, Yukika; Hara, Naomi; Okada, Motohiro; Tanii, Hisashi; Okazaki, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether intrasubject reproducibility could be observed in the frontal cortex and to assess the mental-health status of subjects in each session. We measured changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) during a letter version of the verbal fluency task using near-infrared spectroscopy imaging in twenty healthy adults over two sessions approximately two months apart. Additionally, the mental-health status of the subjects in each session was evaluated according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the Profile of Mood States, and the revised edition of the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory. The association between those scores and [oxy-Hb] changes during the verbal fluency task in each session was investigated. Performance on the verbal fluency task was about equal across the two sessions, and frontal activation during the task was observed globally in approximately the same region. In the test-retest reliability, acceptable values were shown in both the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients of the mean [oxy-Hb] changes and the correlation coefficients of the whole waveforms for each subject in the two sessions. Mental-health status as measured by several questionnaires was within the healthy range, and no correlation with the frontal activation was seen, except in several channels. The current results suggest that the measurement experience exerted very little influence, except for in a very small region. In addition, the intrasubject reproducibility of frontal activation measured by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy was well demonstrated in mentally healthy subjects at intervals of two months.

  6. Partial model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1995-01-01

    A major obstacle in applying finite-state model checking to the verification of large systems is the combinatorial explosion of the state space arising when many loosely coupled parallel processes are considered. The problem also known as the state-explosion problem has been attacked from various...... sides. This paper presents a new approach based on partial model checking where parts of the concurrent system are gradually removed while transforming the specification accordingly. When the intermediate specifications constructed in this manner can be kept small, the state-explosion problem is avoided....... Experimental results with a prototype implemented in Standard ML, shows that for Milner's Scheduler-an often used benchmark-this approach improves on the published results on binary decision diagrams and is comparable to results obtained using generalized decision diagrams. Specifications are expressed...

  7. Check Verbraucherpolitik und Verbraucherbeteiligung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Kornelia; Micklitz, Hans-W.; Oehler, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the opportunities for an empirically grounded decision support system as an instrument for independent and scientifically based consumer policy consulting. To date, consumer policy is dominated by the information paradigm and the leitbild of the rational, sovereign...... and information-seeking consumer. Yet, both everyday practice and research in behavioural economics show that this view lacks empirical ground. In fact, there are different consumer types and different forms of rationalities at work. Effective consumer policy making should be based on the empirically revealed...... an empirically based “Check Consumer Policy and Consumer Participation” as a systematic decision and evaluation tool for policy makers. This check should be independent from the government and should be grounded on an empirical view of the consumer. Consumer policy tools should be tested with real consumers...

  8. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  9. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address.

  10. Conditional Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Dirk; Keremoglu, M Erkan; Wendler, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Software model checking, as an undecidable problem, has three possible outcomes: (1) the program satisfies the specification, (2) the program does not satisfy the specification, and (3) the model checker fails. The third outcome usually manifests itself in a space-out, time-out, or one component of the verification tool giving up; in all of these failing cases, significant computation is performed by the verification tool before the failure, but no result is reported. We propose to reformulate the model-checking problem as follows, in order to have the verification tool report a summary of the performed work even in case of failure: given a program and a specification, the model checker returns a condition P ---usually a state predicate--- such that the program satisfies the specification under the condition P ---that is, as long as the program does not leave states in which P is satisfied. We are of course interested in model checkers that return conditions P that are as weak as possible. Instead of outcome ...

  11. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive.

  12. Bounded Model Checking of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang

    2007-01-01

    Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.

  13. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  14. Perceived social presence reduces fact-checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Youjung; Meng, Rachel; Johar, Gita Venkataramani

    2017-06-06

    Today's media landscape affords people access to richer information than ever before, with many individuals opting to consume content through social channels rather than traditional news sources. Although people frequent social platforms for a variety of reasons, we understand little about the consequences of encountering new information in these contexts, particularly with respect to how content is scrutinized. This research tests how perceiving the presence of others (as on social media platforms) affects the way that individuals evaluate information-in particular, the extent to which they verify ambiguous claims. Eight experiments using incentivized real effort tasks found that people are less likely to fact-check statements when they feel that they are evaluating them in the presence of others compared with when they are evaluating them alone. Inducing vigilance immediately before evaluation increased fact-checking under social settings.

  15. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    Both model checking and static analysis are prominent approaches to detecting software errors. Model Checking is a successful formal method for verifying properties specified in temporal logics with respect to transition systems. Static analysis is also a powerful method for validating program...... properties which can predict safe approximations to program behaviors. In this thesis, we have developed several static analysis based techniques to solve model checking problems, aiming at showing the link between static analysis and model checking. We focus on logical approaches to static analysis......-calculus can be encoded as the intended model of SFP. Our research results have strengthened the link between model checking and static analysis. This provides a theoretical foundation for developing a unied tool for both model checking and static analysis techniques....

  16. 31 CFR 103.29 - Purchases of bank checks and drafts, cashier's checks, money orders and traveler's checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., cashier's checks, money orders and traveler's checks. 103.29 Section 103.29 Money and Finance: Treasury... orders and traveler's checks. (a) No financial institution may issue or sell a bank check or draft, cashier's check, money order or traveler's check for $3,000 or more in currency unless it maintains...

  17. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based...

  18. Transaction management with integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    , which are difficult to maintain and error prone. Two important aspects must be taken care of. 1.~It is too time consuming to check integrity constraints from scratch after each update, so simplified checks before each update should be used relying on the assumption that the current state is consistent...

  19. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  20. New methods of concurrent checking

    CERN Document Server

    Goessel, Michael; Sogomonyan, Egor; Marienfeld, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Written by a team of two leading experts and two very successful young former PhD students, New Methods of Concurrent Checking describes new methods of concurrent checking, such as partial duplication, use of output dependencies, complementary circuits, self-dual parity, self-dual duplication and others. A special chapter demonstrates how the new general methods of concurrent checking can be more specifically applied to regular structures to obtain optimum results. This is exemplified for all types of adders up to 64 bits with a level of detail never before presented in the literature. The cle

  1. Model Checking Algorithms for CTMDPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Peter; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL) can be interpreted over continuoustime Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) to specify quantitative properties of stochastic systems that allow some external control. Model checking CSL formulae over CTMDPs requires then the computation of optimal control strategie...

  2. Model Checking Algorithms for CTMDPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Peter; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL) can be interpreted over continuoustime Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) to specify quantitative properties of stochastic systems that allow some external control. Model checking CSL formulae over CTMDPs requires then the computation of optimal control strategie...

  3. Treasury Check Verification Query (TCVQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The TCVQ system determines the SSN of an individual whose check has been returned to a local field office. The FO is able to request this information via the TCVQ...

  4. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  5. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  6. Operational workforce planning for check-in counters at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolletz, Raik

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses operation models for workforce planning for check-in systems at airports. We characterize different tasks of the hierarchical workforce planning problem with time-dependent demand. A binary linear programming formulation is developed for the fortnightly tour scheduling problem...

  7. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    and abstract interpretation. Model checking views the program as a finite automaton and tries to prove logical properties over the automaton model, or present a counter-example if not possible — with a focus on precision. Abstract interpretation translates the program semantics into abstract semantics...... problems as the other by a reformulation. This thesis argues that there is even a convergence on the practical level, and that a generalisation of the formalism of timed automata into lattice automata captures key aspects of both methods; indeed model checking timed automata can be formulated in terms...... of an abstract interpretation. For the generalisation to lattice automata to have benefit it is important that efficient tools exist. This thesis presents multi-core tools for efficient and scalable reachability and Büchi emptiness checking of timed/lattice automata. Finally, a number of case studies...

  8. Production mask composition checking flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Wang, Alice; Lin, Roger; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The mask composition checking flow is an evolution of the traditional mask rule check (MRC). In order to differentiate the flow from MRC, we call it Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC). The mask house does MRC only to identify process limitations including writing, etching, metrology, etc. There still exist many potential errors that could occur when the frame, main circuit and dummies all together form a whole reticle. The MDCC flow combines the design rule check (DRC) and MRC concepts to adapt to the complex patterns in today's wafer production technologies. Although photomask data has unique characteristics, the MRC tool in Calibre® MDP can easily achieve mask composition by using the Extended MEBES job deck (EJB) format. In EJB format, we can customize the combination of any input layers in an IC design layout format, such as OASIS. Calibre MDP provides section-based processing for many standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands that support DRC-like checks on mask data. Integrating DRC-like checking with EJB for layer composition, we actually perform reticle-level DRC, which is the essence of MDCC. The flow also provides an early review environment before the photomask pattern files are available. Furthermore, to incorporate the MDCC in our production flow, runtime is one of the most important indexes we consider. When the MDCC is included in the tape-out flow, the runtime impact is very limited. Calibre, with its multi-threaded processes and good scalability, is the key to achieving acceptable runtime. In this paper, we present real case runtime data for 28nm and 14nm technology nodes, and prove the practicability of placing MDCC into mass production.

  9. Transaction management with integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Database integrity constraints, understood as logical conditions that must hold for any database state, are not fully supported by current database technology. It is typically up to the database designer and application programmer to enforce integrity via triggers or tests at the application level......, which are difficult to maintain and error prone. Two important aspects must be taken care of. 1.~It is too time consuming to check integrity constraints from scratch after each update, so simplified checks before each update should be used relying on the assumption that the current state is consistent...

  10. Forgetting what you have checked: a link between working memory impairment and checking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari, N; Frasca, M; Rigalleau, F; Rachid, F; Gil, R; Olié, J-P; Guehl, D; Burbaud, P; Aouizerate, B; Rotgé, J-Y; Vibert, N

    2013-02-01

    Compulsive checking behaviors are common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several authors have suggested that these checking rituals could be related to memory deficits. Our aim was to test whether patients with OCD show working memory impairment in relation to their checking behavior. We evaluated the verbal and visuospatial components of patients' and controls' working memory using the reading span and backward location span tests. Checking behaviors were measured by recording participants' eye movements during an image comparison task using a non-invasive, infra-red TOBII 1750 eyetracker. Participants were seated, head-free, in a natural position in front of the eyetracker screen where the images were displayed. Patients with OCD made more gaze moves to compare images than controls. Both patients' working memory spans were reduced, and the patients' deficit in the comparison task was negatively related to their working memory spans. This work demonstrates that checking behavior in OCD is linked to a general reduction of the patients' verbal and visuospatial working memory span. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Practical Type Checking of Functions Defined on Context-Free Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ming Chen; Yun-Mei Dong

    2004-01-01

    A type checking method for the functional language LFC is presented. A distinct feature of LFC is that it uses Context-Free (CF) languages as data types to represent compound data structures. This makes LFC a dynamically typed language. To improve efficiency, a practical type checking method is presented, which consists of both static and dynamic type checking. Although the inclusion relation of CF languages is not decidable, a special subset of the relation is decidable, i.e., the sentential form relation, which can be statically checked. Moreover, most of the expressions in actual LFC programs appear to satisfy this relation according to the statistic data of experiments. So, despite that the static type checking is not complete, it undertakes most of the type checking task. Consequently the run-time efficiency is effectively improved. Another feature of the type checking is that it converts the expressions with implicit structures to structured representation. Structure reconstruction technique is presented.

  12. Applying GPS to check horizontal control quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Vincent

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available GPS technologies can also be used for check quality in available horizontal point set with coordinates CJ of the frame S-JTSK. When survey and setting-out tasks should be performed in certain area, one can found in it allways some points of the fundamental and detail state controls. To use these points for some actual aims, it is necessary to investigate their compatibility (among the point mark positions and the point coordinate of control points. This can be done using GPS surveying that may be at the same time employed to determine the new point in the relevant area.Principle of quality investigatingf an existing control is founded on determination of point coordinates CJt from GPS measurements. Then, based on discrepancies among the "official" netpoint coordinates CJ and coordinates CJt "given by GPS", it can be estimated the degree and the real compatibility dislocations in the network structure of the existing points.Realisation procedure for the introduced investigation is demonstrated on GPS checking (by SOKKIA STRATUS receivers horizontal control for reconstruction of a railway bridge on river Bodrog in East Slovakia.It can be shown from the results in Table 3, that points P3 and P7 are useless due to their incompatibility (inconsistency in the inspected point set. For other 7 points (Table 7 the average measure of incompatibility reads 9.8 mm that make possible applying these points for precise setting-out

  13. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    on the existence of a quotient construction, allowing a property phi of a parallel system phi/A to be transformed into a sufficient and necessary quotient-property yolA to be satisfied by the component 13. Given a model checking problem involving a network Pi I and a property yo, the method gradually move (by...

  14. Model checking of component connectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework for automata theoretic model checking of coordination systems specified in Reo coordination language. To this goal, we introduce Buchi automata of records (BAR) and their augmented version (ABAR) as an operational modeling formalism that covers several intended forms of behavi

  15. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just;

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is sti...

  16. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable...

  17. Stove checking behaviour in people with OCD vs. anxious controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucarelli, Bianca; Purdon, Christine

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the repetition of an action degrades memory for that action, as well as confidence that is has been done correctly. This has important implications for understanding the compulsive repetition of actions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). At this time, though, much of the research has been conducted on analogue or nonclinical OCD samples in comparison to healthy controls and often using virtual, as opposed to actual, threat stimuli. Furthermore, although it has been argued that people with OCD are overly attentive to threat stimuli, the research on actual attention to threat is scant. People with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n = 30) and people with a clinically significant diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, but no OCD (n = 18) completed measures of memory confidence and responsibility and then underwent a stove-checking task in a functioning kitchen while wearing a portable eye tracking device. Pre- and post-task ratings of harm and responsibility were taken, along with post-task ratings of memory and certainty. People with OCD did not exhibit poorer memory confidence than the anxious control (AC) group, but did report greater trait and state responsibility for harm. The OCD group checked longer than did the AC group and check duration predicted post-task ratings of harm, but to the same extent in both groups. People with OCD attended to threat items less than did the AC group. Greater visual attention to the stove during the checking period was associated with greater post-task ratings of responsibility and harm and with less certainty in and memory for the check - but only for the AC group. The sample size was modest, women were over-represented and problems with the eye tracking device reduced the amount of reliable data available for analysis. Compulsions are complex actions that are mediated by many trait, state and contextual factors. People with OCD may be able to circumvent self

  18. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal....

  19. Excessive checking for non-anxiogenic stimuli in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, A H; N'diaye, K; Baroukh, T; Pochon, J B; Morgiève, M; Hantouche, E; Falissard, B; Pelissolo, A; Mallet, L

    2013-10-01

    Repetitive checking in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would serve to relieve obsession-related anxiety and/or to compensate memory deficit, but experimental literature on this subject is inconsistent. The main objective is to test the influence of obsession-related anxiety and memory on repetitive checking in OCD. Twenty-three OCD checkers, 17 OCD non-checkers and 41 controls performed a delayed-matching-to-sample task with an unrestricted checking option. Some stimuli were obsession-related in order to measure the influence of anxiety on checking. A version of the task without checking possibility was used to assess memory abilities. OCD checkers had similar memory performances but checked more than the other groups when presented with non-anxiogenic stimuli. Level of anxiety associated to the stimulus did not influence the number of checks. Increased checking in OCD checkers, being independent of memory abilities and primary obsession-related anxiety, would, therefore, be closer to an automated behaviour than a coping strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUPeng

    2005-01-01

    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.

  1. Check-up examination: recommendations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgini, Vanessa; Meindl-Fridez, Claudine; Battegay, Edouard; Zimmerli, Lukas U

    2015-01-01

    Check-up examinations, or periodic health examinations (PHEs), have gained in importance during the last decades and are nowadays among the most common reasons for consultations in primary care settings. The aim of PHEs is to identify risk factors and early signs of disease, but also to prevent future illness by early intervention. Therefore, each PHE should include counselling, immunisation and physical examination according to the patient's age and gender. However, deciding whether to screen a patient and choosing the most appropriate screening method can be challenging for general practitioners. The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) provides updated recommendations on different existing preventive care measures based on relevant literature review. The aim of this review is to provide an updated statement of recommendations regarding preventive care measures based mostly on the guidelines derived from the USPSTF and the Swiss Medical Board. Among the major updates, there is no recommendation anymore to routinely screen for breast cancer and prostate cancer in asymptomatic adults. Since 2013, however, the USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose CT in patients aged 55 to 80 years with a smoking history of ≥30 pack years. During PHEs, the physician should be alert to the patients' hidden agendas, which are the reason for one third of all consultations in primary care.

  2. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  3. Analyzing Mode Confusion via Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Carreno, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Mode confusion is one of the most serious problems in aviation safety. Today's complex digital flight decks make it difficult for pilots to maintain awareness of the actual states, or modes, of the flight deck automation. NASA Langley leads an initiative to explore how formal techniques can be used to discover possible sources of mode confusion. As part of this initiative, a flight guidance system was previously specified as a finite Mealy automaton, and the theorem prover PVS was used to reason about it. The objective of the present paper is to investigate whether state-exploration techniques, especially model checking, are better able to achieve this task than theorem proving and also to compare several verification tools for the specific application. The flight guidance system is modeled and analyzed in Murphi, SMV, and Spin. The tools are compared regarding their system description language, their practicality for analyzing mode confusion, and their capabilities for error tracing and for animating diagnostic information. It turns out that their strengths are complementary.

  4. Anonymity control in electronic check systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunguang; Yang Yixian; Hu Zhengming

    2005-01-01

    Electronic check systems, as one of electronic payment systems, are more desirable than other electronic cash systems. In the system, only a single check is used to pay any price that is not more than the face value. The main problem in check systems is to design an efficient refund mechanism that makes refund checks undistinguished from initial checks during payment and deposit. The problem of anonymity control also called fairness is also an important issue in check systems. All check systems yet are unconditional anonymity that opens the door to misuse for crime such as laundering and blackmailing. In this paper, the notion of anonymity revocation is introduced to electronic check system for the first time, and a model of fair electronic check system is proposed. An efficient fair online electronic check system with reusable refund is presented. In the system, a passive trustee is employed to revoke the anonymity of un-honest users. Moreover, the system solves the reusability problem of refunds thanks to the RSA-based partially signature. The system is efficient and meets all basic security requirements.

  5. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  6. HDL Implementation of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawandip Kaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes are one of the most promising error-correcting codes approaching Shannon capacity and have been adopted in many applications. These codes offer huge advantages in terms of coding gain, throughput and power dissipation. Error correction algorithms are often implemented in hardware for fast processing to meet the real-time needs of communication systems. However hardwareimplementation of LDPC decoders using traditional Hardware Description Language (HDL based approach is a complex and time consuming task. In this paper HDL Implementation of Low Density Parity Check Decoder architecture is presented with different rates i.e. 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 4/7, 8/9, 9/10 and variable data lengths i.e. 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 bits and consequent changeable precision factor.

  7. Checking for Optimal Solutions in Some NP-Complete Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michel; Orland, Henri

    2005-09-01

    For some weighted NP-complete problems, checking whether a proposed solution is optimal is a nontrivial task. Such is the case for the traveling salesman problem, or the spin-glass problem in three dimensions. In this Letter, we consider the weighted tripartite matching problem, a well known NP-complete problem. We write mean-field finite temperature equations for this model and derive their zero temperature limit. We show that any solution of the zero temperature equations provides an exact absolute ground state of the system. As a consequence, we propose a criterion which can be checked in polynomial time, and such that given a putative optimal solution, if the criterion is satisfied, then the solution is indeed optimal. This criterion is generalized to a class of variants of the multiple traveling salesmen problems.

  8. Advanced microbial check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A flight certified assembly identified as a Microbial Check Valve (MCV) was developed and tested. The MCV is a canister packed with an iodinated anionic exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through the device. The device is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of organism removal is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was successfully developed for the space shuttle to: disinfect fuel cell water; and prevent back contamination of the stored potable water supply. One version of the device consists of a high residual iodinated resin bed that imparts approximately 2 ppm of iodine to the fuel cell water as it flows to the potable water tanks. A second version of the device consists of a low residual iodinated resin bed. One of these low residual beds is located at each use port in the potable water system for the dual purpose of removing some iodine from the potable water as it is dispensed and also to prevent back contamination of the potable supply.

  9. Heteroscedasticity checks for regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For checking on heteroscedasticity in regression models, a unified approach is proposed to constructing test statistics in parametric and nonparametric regression models. For nonparametric regression, the test is not affected sensitively by the choice of smoothing parameters which are involved in estimation of the nonparametric regression function. The limiting null distribution of the test statistic remains the same in a wide range of the smoothing parameters. When the covariate is one-dimensional, the tests are, under some conditions, asymptotically distribution-free. In the high-dimensional cases, the validity of bootstrap approximations is investigated. It is shown that a variant of the wild bootstrap is consistent while the classical bootstrap is not in the general case, but is applicable if some extra assumption on conditional variance of the squared error is imposed. A simulation study is performed to provide evidence of how the tests work and compare with tests that have appeared in the literature. The approach may readily be extended to handle partial linear, and linear autoregressive models.

  10. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.; Dokoupil, P.

    2016-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of the flow in the pipeline system.

  11. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs......, to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1093 - Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91... preceding 24 months, that person satisfactorily conducts a proficiency or competency check under the..., and emergency procedures to ensure competence to conduct the pilot flight checks required by...

  13. Heteroscedasticity checks for regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Lixing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Carroll, R. J., Ruppert, D., Transformation and Weighting in Regression, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1988.[2]Cook, R. D., Weisberg, S., Diagnostics for heteroscedasticity in regression, Biometrika, 1988, 70: 1—10.[3]Davidian, M., Carroll, R. J., Variance function estimation, J. Amer. Statist. Assoc., 1987, 82: 1079—1091.[4]Bickel, P., Using residuals robustly I: Tests for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1978, 6: 266—291.[5]Carroll, R. J., Ruppert, D., On robust tests for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1981, 9: 205—209.[6]Eubank, R. L., Thomas, W., Detecting heteroscedasticity in nonparametric regression, J. Roy. Statist. Soc., Ser. B, 1993, 55: 145—155.[7]Diblasi, A., Bowman, A., Testing for constant variance in a linear model, Statist. and Probab. Letters, 1997, 33: 95—103.[8]Dette, H., Munk, A., Testing heteoscedasticity in nonparametric regression, J. R. Statist. Soc. B, 1998, 60: 693—708.[9]Müller, H. G., Zhao, P. L., On a semi-parametric variance function model and a test for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1995, 23: 946—967.[10]Stute, W., Manteiga, G., Quindimil, M. P., Bootstrap approximations in model checks for regression, J. Amer. Statist. Asso., 1998, 93: 141—149.[11]Stute, W., Thies, G., Zhu, L. X., Model checks for regression: An innovation approach, Ann. Statist., 1998, 26: 1916—1939.[12]Shorack, G. R., Wellner, J. A., Empirical Processes with Applications to Statistics, New York: Wiley, 1986.[13]Efron, B., Bootstrap methods: Another look at the jackknife, Ann. Statist., 1979, 7: 1—26.[14]Wu, C. F. J., Jackknife, bootstrap and other re-sampling methods in regression analysis, Ann. Statist., 1986, 14: 1261—1295.[15]H rdle, W., Mammen, E., Comparing non-parametric versus parametric regression fits, Ann. Statist., 1993, 21: 1926—1947.[16]Liu, R. Y., Bootstrap procedures under some non-i.i.d. models, Ann. Statist., 1988, 16: 1696—1708.[17

  14. 7 CFR 58.243 - Checking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.243 Checking quality. All milk, milk products and dry milk products shall be subject to... aid to quality control in addition to the regular routine analysis made on the finished products. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking quality. 58.243 Section 58.243...

  15. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... military police records may be released under the provisions of AR 340-21 to authorized personnel for valid... with AR 340-21. (b) Checks will be accomplished by a review of the COPS MPRS. Information will be... police reports filed worldwide. Authorized users of COPS MPRS can conduct name checks for...

  16. Tractor Mechanic Check Sheets for Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Forms for student self-checks and the instructor's final checklist (student evaluation) are provided for use with thirty-three learning modules on maintaining and servicing fuel and electrical systems in tractor mechanics. The student self-check asks the students questions about their understanding of the modules' content. The instructor's…

  17. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Zybtsev, Y.; I. Marmut

    2011-01-01

    The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed) as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  18. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check...

  19. Performance of compulsive behavior in rats is not a unitary phenomenon - validation of separate functional components in compulsive checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Mark C; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Johnson, Eric; Cheon, Paul; Taji, Leena; Agarwal, Arnav; Foster, Jane; Szechtman, Henry

    2014-09-01

    A previous analysis of the quinpirole sensitisation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed that the behavioral phenotype of compulsive checking consists of three constitutive components - vigor of checking performance, focus on the task of checking, and satiety following a bout of checking. As confirmation of this analysis, the aim of the present study was to reconstitute, without quinpirole treatment, each of the putative components, with the expectation that these would self-assemble into compulsive checking. To reconstitute vigor and satiety, the employed treatment was a bilateral lesion of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), as this treatment was shown previously to exaggerate these components. To reconstitute focus, the employed treatment was a low dose of the serotonin-1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrochloride (DPAT) (0.0625 mg/kg), as high doses of this drug induce compulsive behavior and exacerbate focus. Results showed that injection of DPAT to NAc lesion rats did yield compulsive checking. Neither the drug alone nor the NAc lesion by itself produced compulsive checking. The demonstrated synthesis of compulsive checking by the combined treatment of low-dose DPAT and NAc lesion strengthened the previous fractionation of the model obsessive-compulsive disorder phenotype into three constitutive components, and suggested a role for serotonin-1A receptors outside the NAc in enhanced focus on the task of checking.

  20. Features of compulsive checking behavior mediated by nucleus accumbens and orbital frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Anna; Silva, Charmaine; McMurran, Thomas; Bisnaire, Liane; Foster, Jane; Szechtman, Henry

    2010-11-01

    The quinpirole sensitization model of obsessive-compulsive disorder was used to investigate the functional role that brain regions implicated in a neuroanatomical circuit of obsessive-compulsive disorder may play in compulsive checking behavior. Following repeated injections of saline or quinpirole (0.5mg/kg, twice per week, ×8 injections) to induce compulsive checking, rats received N-methyl-d-aspartate lesions of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala, or sham lesions. When retested at 17days post-surgery, the results showed effects of NAc and OFC but not basolateral amygdala lesion. NAc lesions affected measures indicative of the amount of checking behavior, whereas OFC lesions affected indices of staying away from checking. The pattern of results suggested that the functional roles of the NAc and OFC in checking behavior are to control the vigor of motor performance and focus on goal-directed activity, respectively. Furthermore, similarities in behavior between quinpirole sham rats and saline NAc lesion rats suggested that quinpirole may drive the vigor of checking by inhibition of NAc neurons, and that the NAc may be a site for the negative feedback control of checking.

  1. Enriched MU-Calculi Module Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, Alessandro; Parente, Mimmo

    2008-01-01

    The model checking problem for open systems has been intensively studied in the literature, for both finite-state (module checking) and infinite-state (pushdown module checking) systems, with respect to Ctl and Ctl*. In this paper, we further investigate this problem with respect to the Mu-calculus enriched with nominals and graded modalities (hybrid graded Mu-calculus), in both the finite-state and infinite-state settings. Using an automata-theoretic approach, we show that hybrid graded Mu-calculus module checking is solvable in exponential time, while hybrid graded Mu-calculus pushdown module checking is solvable in double-exponential time. These results are also tight since they match the known lower bounds for Ctl. We also investigate the module checking problem with respect to the hybrid graded Mu-calculus enriched with inverse programs (Fully enriched Mu-calculus): by showing a reduction from the domino problem, we show its undecidability. We conclude with a short overview of the model checking problem ...

  2. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implications of remaining weaknesses of these tools. We believe that a principled engineering approach to designing...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  3. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    , to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  4. Health Check Tools: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Teen (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Osteoporosis Check Up On Your Bones (National Institute of ... Eye Discharge (DSHI Systems) Eye Redness (DSHI Systems) Pregnancy and Nutrition Daily Food Plan for Moms (Department ...

  5. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  6. Check List: Are You a Gifted Principal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicki L.

    1984-01-01

    An 18-item check list is provided for principals to evaluate themselves relative to encouraging gifts and talents of their most able students. Suggestions are given in the areas of educational needs, specialized materials, and counseling. (MC)

  7. A Check List for the Reading Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemake, Josephine S.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a check list created by teachers to be used as an evaluation instrument in observations of reading laboratories in the New York City area. Reflects their ideas about the essential components of a remedial reading program. (FL)

  8. Computational fact checking from knowledge networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Rocha, Luis M; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation...

  9. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  10. Perceived social presence reduces fact-checking

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Youjung; Meng, Rachel; Johar, Gita Venkataramani

    2017-01-01

    The dissemination of unverified content (e.g., ���fake��� news) is a societal problem with influence that can acquire tremendous reach when propagated through social networks. This article examines how evaluating information in a social context affects fact-checking behavior. Across eight experiments, people fact-checked less often when they evaluated claims in a collective (e.g., group or social media) compared with an individual setting. Inducing momentary vigilance increased the rate of fa...

  11. WE-E-BRB-10: DosCheck - an Electronic Chart Checking Tool for Dosimetrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Wu, Y; Yaddanapudi, S; Moore, K; Pierbuxg, B; Brame, S; Mutic, S

    2012-06-01

    In addition to treatment planning, dosimetrists have to prepare documentation and manually enter data in treatment management system (TMS) which did not transfer or setup automatically. The required documents and data are dependent on the disease site, treatment machine and clinical workflow. Errors and inconsistencies can cause redundant work, treatment delays and potentially treatment errors. To address these issues, an electronic checking software tool, DosCheck was clinically implemented to check the existence of necessary documentations and the integrity of manually-entered data. The purpose of this software is to reduce the frequency of human errors and to improve efficiency. DosCheck reads data and documents from 1) TMS, 2) Pinnacle TPS, and 3) DICOM plan files stored in a DICOM-RT PACS. It processes documents in Word and PDF format, treatment plan data in Pinnacle native format and DICOM format, and Mosaiq data in database records. The software cross-checks data accuracy and consistency by following rules that are pre-defined according to the clinical requirements and treatment sties. It interacts with dosimetrists and presents instantaneous results via graphical user interface. DosCheck has been implemented in C#. It performs a full check for a patient with 20 seconds. It has been clinically commissioned and is used daily by all dosimetrists at our institution. Retrospective analysis shows that DosCheck identifies 30% to 40% of previously reported dosimetrist human errors. Additional ∼30% errors are checked by other tools that could be integrated DosCheck in the near future. As an electronic data checking tool, DosCheck can obtain and process data and documents from multiple clinical computer systems in the radiation oncology department, and perform checks according to clinical rules. It is able to improve the accuracy and efficiency of clinical data and document process, and therefore to reduce any potential inconsistencies and errors. © 2012 American

  12. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  13. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  14. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  15. Energy reduction through voltage scaling and lightweight checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadric, Edin

    As the semiconductor roadmap reaches smaller feature sizes and the end of Dennard Scaling, design goals change, and managing the power envelope often dominates delay minimization. Voltage scaling remains a powerful tool to reduce energy. We find that it results in about 60% geomean energy reduction on top of other common low-energy optimizations with 22nm CMOS technology. However, when voltage is reduced, it becomes easier for noise and particle strikes to upset a node, potentially causing Silent Data Corruption (SDC). The 60% energy reduction, therefore, comes with a significant drop in reliability. Duplication with checking and triple-modular redundancy are traditional approaches used to combat transient errors, but spending 2--3x the energy for redundant computation can diminish or reverse the benefits of voltage scaling. As an alternative, we explore the opportunity to use checking operations that are cheaper than the base computation they are guarding. We devise a classification system for applications and their lightweight checking characteristics. In particular, we identify and evaluate the effectiveness of lightweight checks in a broad set of common tasks in scientific computing and signal processing. We find that the lightweight checks cost only a fraction of the base computation (0-25%) and allow us to recover the reliability losses from voltage scaling. Overall, we show about 50% net energy reduction without compromising reliability compared to operation at the nominal voltage. We use FPGAs (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays) in our work, although the same ideas can be applied to different systems. On top of voltage scaling, we explore other common low-energy techniques for FPGAs: transmission gates, gate boosting, power gating, low-leakage (high-Vth) processes, and dual-V dd architectures. We do not scale voltage for memories, so lower voltages help us reduce logic and interconnect energy, but not memory energy. At lower voltages, memories become dominant

  16. A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao

    2012-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language (IEEE-1850) describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.

  17. Moderate-Density Parity-Check Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzan, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of short to moderate block-length, linear error-correcting codes, called moderate-density parity-check (MDPC) codes. The number of ones of the parity-check matrix of the codes presented is typically higher than the number of ones of the parity-check matrix of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. But, still lower than those of the parity-check matrix of classical block codes. The proposed MDPC codes are cyclic and are designed by constructing idempotents using cyclotomic cosets. The construction is simple and allows finding short block-length, high-rate codes with good minimum distance. Inspired by some recent iterative soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoders used in a context of classical block codes, we propose a low complexity, efficient, iterative decoder called Auto-Diversity (AD) decoder. AD decoder is based on belief propagation (BP) decoder and takes advantage of the fundamental property of automorphism group of the constructed cyclic code.

  18. Applicability of refractometry for fast routine checking of hospital preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Stijn; Verón, Aurora Monteagudo; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2016-04-30

    Quality control of hospital pharmacy formulations is of the utmost importance to ensure constant quality and to avoid potential mistakes before administration to the patient. In this study we investigated the applicability of refractometry as a fast, inexpensive and easy-to-use quality control measurement. Refractive indices (RI) of a multitude of different hospital formulations with varying concentrations of active compound were measured. The samples consisted of a number of binary aqueous solutions (one compound in water), complex aqueous solutions (multiple compounds in water or in a constant matrix), two suspensions and one emulsion. For all these formulations, linear regression analysis was performed, quality control limits determined and accuracy and repeatability were checked. Subsequently, actual hospital pharmacy samples were analyzed to check whether they were within the specified limits. For both binary and complex aqueous formulations, repeatability was good and a linear correlation for all samples could be observed on condition that the concentration of the active compound was sufficiently high. The refractometer was not sensitive enough for solutions of folic acid and levothyroxine, which had too low a concentration of active compound. Due to lack of homogeneity and light scattering, emulsions and suspensions do not seem suitable for quality control by refractometry. A mathematical equation was generated to predict the refractive index of an aqueous solution containing clonidine HCl as active compound. Values calculated from the equation were compared with measured values and deviations of all samples were found to be lower than 1.3%. In order to use refractometry in a hospital pharmacy for quality control of multicomponent samples, additional intermediate measurements would be required, to overcome the fact that refractometry is not compound specific. In conclusion, we found that refractometry could potentially be useful for daily, fast quality

  19. Repeatability Evaluation of Finger Tapping Device with Magnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    We tested the repeatability of a finger tapping device with magnetic sensors to determine its reliability. This device, which was developed to assist in the diagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and strokes, measures the distance between the first and index fingers during finger tapping movements (opening and closing the fingers repeatedly). We evaluated three types of repeatability based on ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Welch's test (test for equal means in a oneway layout): repeatability when measured at different times, when using different devices, and when using different measurers. We calculated these three types for three finger tapping tasks on both hands for 21 characteristics calculated from finger tapping waveforms. Results demonstrated that the repeatability when using different devices is high regardless of the task or hand. The repeatability when measuring at different times and when using different measurers is high at some tasks, but not all. One of the finger tapping tasks (finger tapping movement with the largest amplitude and highest velocity), which is used in a conventional PD diagnosis method (UPDRS), does not have enough repeatability, while other tasks show high repeatability. Results also showed that five characteristics have the highest repeatability (ICC ≥ 0.5 or significance probability of Welch's test ≥ 5% in all tasks): “total moving distance,” “average of local minimum acceleration in opening motion,” “average of local minimum acceleration in closing motion,” “average of local maximum distance” and “average of local minimum velocity”. These results clearly demonstrate the strong repeatability of this device and lead to more precise diagnosis of movement disorders.

  20. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    in a few seconds on a standard PC. Our tool is one of the first to give an efficient and useful static analysis of assembly code. It enables increased confidence in correctness, significantly reduced testing requirements, and support for maintenance throughout the system life-cycle....... require extensive brute-force testing, making development and maintenance costly. This is particularly true for system components that are written in assembly language. Static checking has the potential of alleviating these problems, but until now there has been little tool support for programming...... fundamental safety and liveness properties. Our approach is based on a known algorithm for model checking of pushdown systems, and produces a control-flow graph annotated with information about time, space, safety, and liveness. Each benchmark is approximately 1000 lines of code, and the checking is done...

  1. Checking Timed Automata for Linear Duration Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2000-01-01

    It is proved in this paper that checking a timed automaton M with respect to a linear duration property D can be done by investigating only the integral timed states of M. An equivalence relation is introduced in this paper to divide the infinite number of integral timed states into finite number of equivalence classes. Based on this, a method is proposed for checking whether M satisfies D. In some cases, the number of equivalence classes is too large for a computer to manipulate. A technique for reducing the search-space for checking linear duration property is also described. This technique is more suitable for the case in this paper than those in the literature because most of those techniques are designed for reachability analysis.

  2. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  3. HCH for Checking Containment of XPath Fragment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Feng; Yu-Guo Liao; Yong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    XPath is ubiquitous in XML applications for navigating XML trees and selecting a set of element nodes. In XPath query processing, one of the most important issues is how to efficiently check containment relationship between two XPath expressions. To get out of the intricacy and complexity caused by numerous XPath features, we investigate this issue on a frequently used fragment of XPath expressions that consists of node tests, the child axis (/), the descendant axis (//), branches ([]) and label wildcards (*). Prior work has shown that homomorphism technology can be used for containment checking. However, homomorphism is the sufficient but not necessary condition for containment. For special classes of this fragment, the homomorphism algorithm returns false negatives. To address this problem, this paper proposes two containment techniques, conditioned homomorphism and hidden conditioned homomorphism, and then presents sound algorithms for checking containment. Experimental results confirm the practicability and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  4. Graded CTL Model Checking for Test Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Napoli, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a great attention from the scientific community towards the use of the model-checking technique as a tool for test generation in the simulation field. This paper aims to provide a useful mean to get more insights along these lines. By applying recent results in the field of graded temporal logics, we present a new efficient model-checking algorithm for Hierarchical Finite State Machines (HSM), a well established symbolism long and widely used for representing hierarchical models of discrete systems. Performing model-checking against specifications expressed using graded temporal logics has the peculiarity of returning more counterexamples within a unique run. We think that this can greatly improve the efficacy of automatically getting test cases. In particular we verify two different models of HSM against branching time temporal properties.

  5. Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Hof, C.C.G.; van Est, R.; Daemen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones, public transport smart cards, security cameras and GPS systems in our car - we are surrounded by digital devices. They track us, guide us, help us, and control us. The book Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things shows us how our digital and physical worlds are

  6. The Effects of Check-In/Check-Out on Kindergarten Students in an Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobalvarro, Adriana; Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Hughes, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of Check-in/Check-out (CICO), a targeted behavioral intervention, on reducing the problem behaviors of kindergarten students in an urban setting. Participants were referred by their teacher for exhibiting disruptive classroom behaviors, which resulted in classroom removal. Results…

  7. Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Hof, C.C.G.; van Est, R.; Daemen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones, public transport smart cards, security cameras and GPS systems in our car - we are surrounded by digital devices. They track us, guide us, help us, and control us. The book Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things shows us how our digital and physical worlds are

  8. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  9. Adaptable Assertion Checking for Scientific Software Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, T L; Devanbu, P T

    2004-03-12

    We present a proposal for lowering the overhead of interface contract checking for science and engineering applications. Run-time enforcement of assertions is a well-known technique for improving the quality of software; however, the performance penalty is often too high for their retention during deployment, especially for long-running applications that depend upon iterative operations. With an efficient adaptive approach the benefits of run-time checking can continue to accrue with minimal overhead. Examples from scientific software interfaces being developed in the high performance computing research community will be used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach.

  10. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  11. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...... the definitions with models to ensure that all interactions are captured. The method is illustrated on a home automation example with model checking as analysis tool. In particular, the modelling formalism is timed automata and the analysis uses UPPAAL to find interactions....

  12. EZDCP:A new static task scheduling algorithm with edge-zeroing based on dynamic critical paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 华强胜

    2003-01-01

    A new static task scheduling algorithm named edge-zeroing based on dynamic critical paths is proposed.The main ideas of the algorithm are as follows: firstly suppose that all of the tasks are in different clusters; secondly, select one of the critical paths of the partially clustered directed acyclic graph; thirdly, try to zero one of graph communication edges; fourthly, repeat above three processes until all edges are zeroed; finally, check the generated clusters to see if some of them can be further merged without increasing the parallel time. Comparisons of the previous algorithms with edge-zeroing based on dynamic critical paths show that the new algorithm has not only a low complexity but also a desired performance comparable or even better on average to much higher complexity heuristic algorithms.

  13. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  14. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  15. Chinese Primary Standard Seawater: Stability checks and comparisons with IAPSO Standard Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Luo, Yan; Kang, Ying; Yu, Tao; Wang, Aijun; Zhang, Chuan

    2016-07-01

    The authors give a brief introduction to the Chinese Primary Standard Seawater, with a description of its preparation procedures. IAPSO Standard Seawater (IAPSO SSW), was taken as a stable reference in the stability check of Chinese Primary Standard Seawater (CP SSW), and linear regression model as well as hypothesis testing were introduced into the analysis of check results; a demonstration check of CP SSW (batch number P8) achieved a positive conclusion. In comparisons of several batches of these two kinds of standard seawater on Practical Salinity, identical seawater samples from a homogeneous source were measured repeatedly. To evaluate the comparison results, performance criteria referred to as En numbers were adopted, the maximum of which was 0.42, indicating that no significant differences lay between these two kinds of SSWs when used to determine Practical Salinity. Measures taken to assure the reliability of measurement results are presented.

  16. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  17. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...

  18. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  19. Posterior Predictive Model Checking in Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This simulation study compared the utility of various discrepancy measures within a posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) framework for detecting different types of data-model misfit in multidimensional Bayesian network (BN) models. The investigated conditions were motivated by an applied research program utilizing an operational complex…

  20. Software Model Checking for Verifying Distributed Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    Verification procedure is an intelligent exhaustive search of the state space of the design Model Checking 6 Verifying Synchronous Distributed App...Distributed App Sagar Chaki, June 11, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Tool Usage Project webpage (http://mcda.googlecode.com) • Tutorial

  1. Inkjet 3D printed check microvalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof; Lizanets, Danylo

    2017-04-01

    3D printing enables fast and relatively easy fabrication of various microfluidic structures including microvalves. A check microvalve is the simplest valve enabling control of the fluid flow in microchannels. Proper operation of the check valve is ensured by a movable element that tightens the valve seat during backward flow and enables free flow for forward pressure. Thus, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the movable element is crucial for optimal design and operation of the valve. In this paper, we present for the first time the results of investigations on basic mechanical properties of the building material used in multijet 3D printing. Specified mechanical properties were used in the design and fabrication of two types of check microvalve—with deflecting or hinge-fixed microflap—with 200 µm and 300 µm thickness. Results of numerical simulation and experimental data of the microflap deflection were obtained and compared. The valves were successfully 3D printed and characterised. Opening/closing characteristics of the microvalve for forward and backward pressures were determined. Thus, proper operation of the check microvalve so developed was confirmed.

  2. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.19 Check cashing. (a) A reservation business... order. A reservation business may not give scrip, credit or other substitute for U.S. currency...

  3. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...

  4. Model checking Quasi Birth Death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, A.K.I.

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-Birth Death processes (QBDs) are a special class of infinite state CTMCs that combines a large degree of modeling expressiveness with efficient solution methods. This work adapts the well-known stochastic logic CSL for use on QBDs as CSL and presents model checking algorithms for so-called lev

  5. Check list of European Hymenomycetous Heterobasidiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1966-01-01

    With this check list an attempt is made to account for the recorded European species of those Basidiomycetes that Patouillard called the “Hétérobasidies”, excluding, however, the Uredinales and Ustilaginales. Therefore, it covers the Septobasidiales, Tremellales (comprising the Auriculariineae and T

  6. Inadequate preanesthesia equipment checks in a simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Brown, A; Devitt, J H; Kurrek, M; Cohen, M

    2000-10-01

    To assess how completely anesthesiologists check their machinery and equipment before use, and to determine what influence seniority, age and type of practice may have on checking practices. One hundred and twenty anesthesiologists were videotaped during a simulated anesthesia session. Each participant was scored by an assessor according to the number of items checked prior to the induction of anesthesia. A checklist of 20 items derived from well-publicized, international standards was used. Participants were grouped according to their type of practice. Overall, mean scores were low. The ideal score was 20. There were no differences among university anesthesiologists (mean score 10.1, standard deviation 4.3), community anesthesiologists (7.5 +/- 4.3) and anesthesia residents (9.0 +/- 3.8). Each of these groups scored, on average, better than medical students (3.6 +/- 3.7) (P 0.1) nor number of years in practice (r = -0.18, P > 0.1) correlated with score. Our study suggests that the equipment-checking practices of anesthesiologists require considerable improvement when compared with national and international standards. Possible reasons for this are discussed and some remedial suggestions are made.

  7. Efficient CSL Model Checking Using Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996 [ 1, 2]. Their proof can be turned into an approximation algorithm with worse than expone...

  8. Automata-Based CSL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...

  9. Model checking timed automata : techniques and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Martijn.

    2006-01-01

    Model checking is a technique to automatically analyse systems that have been modeled in a formal language. The timed automaton framework is such a formal language. It is suitable to model many realistic problems in which time plays a central role. Examples are distributed algorithms, protocols, emb

  10. Model Checking Software Systems: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-10

    gained. We suggest a radically different tack: model checking. The two formal objects compared are a finite state machine model of the software...simply terminates. 3.1.1. State Machine Model Let’s consider a simplified model with just one client, one server, and one file. The top graph

  11. Anchor Stress Checking of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the calculating is to check the anchor stresses of the security injection tank to know whether the stress is satisfied the code requirements on the basis of all the reaction forces gained in the static, seismic and thermal stress results.

  12. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique ap...

  13. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  14. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the tools Spin a

  15. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  16. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  17. 12 CFR 229.51 - General provisions governing substitute checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which a bank has provided the warranties described in § 229.52 is the legal equivalent of an original... indorsements applied by parties that previously handled the check in any form (including the original check, a substitute check, or another paper or electronic representation of such original check or substitute...

  18. 14 CFR 121.315 - Cockpit check procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit check procedure. 121.315 Section... Cockpit check procedure. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide an approved cockpit check procedure for... for items to be checked. (c) The approved procedures must be readily usable in the cockpit of...

  19. Quality Checking for Multi-GNSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehne, Wolfgang; Mervart, Leos; Ruelke, Axel; Stuerze, Andrea; Weber, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Quality checking of GNSS observations has a long tradition within the international GNSS community. For example, the RINEX files provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) and IAG sub-commissions dealing with GNSS have been routinely checked with the tool teqc (Translation, Editing and Quality Checking (Estey & Meertens, 1999)). Data Centres like the regional GNSS data centre at the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) are relying on such tools. With upcoming new GNSS like BeiDou or Galileo and new regional systems like QZSS or IRNSS and growing number of Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS), new signals and frequencies, and new formats like RTCM-MSM and RINEX 3 the need for flexible quality checking tools is arising. The IGS is keeping the pace with his initiative on multi-GNSS (MGEX) which is focusing on the use of the GNSS beyond the established GPS and GLONASS and with the establishment of a new working group on data quality control. Together with the Technical University of Prague (CTU) BKG has been developing the tool BKG Ntrip Client (BNC). Initially started as a tool for providing real-time navigational and observational data and derived products to the user BNC has been subsequently extended, e.g. by precise point positioning (PPP) and by post-processing capabilities. In the near past special features for editing and quality control have been established, e.g. for multipath analyses (MP) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this presentation, we will demonstrate the various features of BNC for quality control. Examples especially for multi-GNSS data will be shown. Potential usage for the open GNSS community will be outlined. Some proposals for a unified ASCII output to facilitate usage of different software tools on quality checking will finalize the presentation.

  20. Self-regulation, engagement, motivation, and performance in a simulated quality control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Kraig L; Melton, Ellen C; Woodruff, Abbie; Corbin, G Brandon

    2004-06-01

    This study examined how self-regulation and task-related motivation were related to the accuracy of error detection and task engagement in a simulated quality control task that mimicked prescription-checking behavior in a pharmacy. Ninety-one participants completed measures of self-regulation, task engagement, and task-related motivation and then checked 80 simulated scripts with inserted error ratios ranging from 26% to 38%. Motivation and task engagement were assessed at the beginning of the task, the midpoint of the task, and after the task was over. Performance was measured in terms of sensitivity (error detections) and specificity (false alarm responses). Results indicated that motivation was correlated with higher sensitivity, while self-regulation was correlated with lower specificity. Higher mid-task motivation and higher self-regulation were also predictive of greater task engagement at the midpoint of the task only. Results are discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  1. The Dynamic Checking of Complex Real Time System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao; HUANG Benwen; WU Guoqing

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an dynamic execution model of complex real-time software based on requirement description model RTRSM, and then propose a checking method based on configuration covering and its corresponding algorithm. This checking method can check the execution situations between parallel elements in a dynamic execution step of real-time software systems. It also can check all the states and transitions which assure the completeness of checking. In the end, related theorem is proofed.

  2. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  3. CheckMATE: Confronting your Favourite New Physics Model with LHC Data

    CERN Document Server

    Drees, Manuel; Kim, Jong Soo; Schmeier, Daniel; Tattersall, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In the first three years of running, the LHC has delivered a wealth of new data that is now being analysed. With over 20 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, both ATLAS and CMS have performed many searches for new physics that theorists are eager to test their model against. However, tuning the detector simulations, understanding the particular analysis details and interpreting the results can be a tedious task. CheckMATE (Check Models At Terascale Energies) is a program package which accepts simulated event files in many formats for any model. The program then determines whether the model is excluded or not at 95% C.L. by comparing to many recent experimental analyses. Furthermore the program can calculate confidence limits and provide detailed information about signal regions of interest. It is simple to use and the program structure allows for easy extensions to upcoming LHC results in the future. CheckMATE can be found at: http://checkmate.hepforge.org

  4. 32 CFR Attachment A to Subpart B... - Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Access Programs by sect. 4.4 of Executive Order 12958) (60 FR 19825, 3 CFR 1995 Comp., p. 333); (2) “L... Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC) A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense..., Subpt. B, Att. A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147—Standard A—National Agency Check With...

  5. Check-Up Checklist: Things to Do Before Your Next Check-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be Safe on Halloween Be Smoke-Free Check Alarm Batteries Know Your Family History Keep Foods Safe ... or skin changes? Are you having pain, dizziness, fatigue, problems with urine or stool, or menstrual cycle ...

  6. SU-D-BRD-05: Online Framework for Plan Tracking and Automatic Checks in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaks, D; Fletcher, R; Salamon, S; Kim, G; Ning, T; Cornell, M; Pawlicki, T; Cervino, L [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an online framework that tracks a patient’s plan from initial simulation to treatment and that helps automate elements of the physics plan checks usually performed in the record and verify (RV) system and treatment planning system. Methods: We have developed PlanTracker, an online plan tracking system that automatically imports new patients tasks and follows it through treatment planning, physics checks, therapy check, and chart rounds. A survey was designed to collect information about the amount of time spent by medical physicists in non-physics related tasks. We then assessed these non-physics tasks for automation. Using these surveys, we directed our PlanTracker software development towards the automation of intra-plan physics review. We then conducted a systematic evaluation of PlanTracker’s accuracy by generating test plans in the RV system software designed to mimic real plans, in order to test its efficacy in catching errors both real and theoretical. Results: PlanTracker has proven to be an effective improvement to the clinical workflow in a radiotherapy clinic. We present data indicating that roughly 1/3 of the physics plan check can be automated, and the workflow optimized, and show the functionality of PlanTracker. When the full system is in clinical use we will present data on improvement of time use in comparison to survey data prior to PlanTracker implementation. Conclusion: We have developed a framework for plan tracking and automatic checks in radiation therapy. We anticipate using PlanTracker as a basis for further development in clinical/research software. We hope that by eliminating the most simple and time consuming checks, medical physicists may be able to spend their time on plan quality and other physics tasks rather than in arithmetic and logic checks. We see this development as part of a broader initiative to advance the clinical/research informatics infrastructure surrounding the radiotherapy clinic. This research

  7. Check-Operators and Quantum Spectral Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei

    2017-06-01

    We review the basic properties of effective actions of families of theories (i.e., the actions depending on additional non-perturbative moduli along with perturbative couplings), and their description in terms of operators (called check-operators), which act on the moduli space. It is this approach that led to constructing the (quantum) spectral curves and what is now nicknamed the EO/AMM topological recursion. We explain how the non-commutative algebra of check-operators is related to the modular kernels and how symplectic (special) geometry emerges from it in the classical (Seiberg-Witten) limit, where the quantum integrable structures turn into the well studied classical integrability. As time goes, these results turn applicable to more and more theories of physical importance, supporting the old idea that many universality classes of low-energy effective theories contain matrix model representatives.

  8. Model Checking with Probabilistic Tabled Logic Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlin, Andrey; Smolka, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    We present a formulation of the problem of probabilistic model checking as one of query evaluation over probabilistic logic programs. To the best of our knowledge, our formulation is the first of its kind, and it covers a rich class of probabilistic models and probabilistic temporal logics. The inference algorithms of existing probabilistic logic-programming systems are well defined only for queries with a finite number of explanations. This restriction prohibits the encoding of probabilistic model checkers, where explanations correspond to executions of the system being model checked. To overcome this restriction, we propose a more general inference algorithm that uses finite generative structures (similar to automata) to represent families of explanations. The inference algorithm computes the probability of a possibly infinite set of explanations directly from the finite generative structure. We have implemented our inference algorithm in XSB Prolog, and use this implementation to encode probabilistic model...

  9. Clamp force and alignment checking device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, John Patrick; Cai, Wayne W.; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Mink, Keith

    2017-04-11

    A check fixture measures a total clamp force applied by a welder device. The welder device includes a welding horn having a plurality of weld pads and welding anvil having a plurality of weld pads. The check fixture includes a base member operatively supporting a plurality of force sensors. The base member and the force sensors are received between the weld pads of the welding horn and the anvil pads of the welding anvil. Each force sensor is configured to measure an individual clamp force applied thereto by corresponding weld and anvil pads when the base member is received between the welding horn and the welding anvil and the welder device is in the clamped position. The individual clamp forces are used to determine whether the weld and/or anvil pads are worn or misaligned.

  10. Model Checking the Remote Agent Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Lina; Muscettola, Nicola; Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work tackles the problem of using Model Checking for the purpose of verifying the HSTS (Scheduling Testbed System) planning system. HSTS is the planner and scheduler of the remote agent autonomous control system deployed in Deep Space One (DS1). Model Checking allows for the verification of domain models as well as planning entries. We have chosen the real-time model checker UPPAAL for this work. We start by motivating our work in the introduction. Then we give a brief description of HSTS and UPPAAL. After that, we give a sketch for the mapping of HSTS models into UPPAAL and we present samples of plan model properties one may want to verify.

  11. Speed checks on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In view of the significant number of speeding incidents that have been reported, CERN will shortly start to carry out speed checks on the site. The radar used for this purpose will show drivers the speed measured. The disciplinary measures taken against those exceeding the authorised limit (generally 50 k.p.h.) will include a ban from driving on the site for a minimum of one month. Maximilian Metzger
Secretary-General

  12. Water system microbial check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    A residual iodine microbial check valve (RIMCV) assembly was developed and tested. The assembly is designed to be used in the space shuttle potable water system. The RIMCV is based on an anion exchange resin that is supersaturated with an iodine solution. This system causes a residual to be present in the effluent water which provides continuing bactericidal action. A flight prototype design was finalized and five units were manufactured and delivered.

  13. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...... applied for implementing this semantics in the UPPAAL-SMC simulation engine. We report on two applications of the resulting tool-set coming from systems biology and energy aware buildings....

  14. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Romijn, J.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the tools Spin and Xtl (from the Caesar/Aldebaran package). It turns out that the protocol does not meet some safety properties and that there are situations in which the protocol may never converge to designate a l...

  15. Living MedsCheck: Learning how to deliver MedsCheck in community practice in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Kelly; Sanghera, Niki; Rahmaan, Israa; Roy, Meghna; Tritt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To share the experiences of graduating students as they learn to deliver a new medication review service in community pharmacies in Ontario, Canada. Four graduating pharmacy students volunteered in different community pharmacies to learn how to navigate a new provincial program called MedsCheck, which pays pharmacists to do medication reviews. Each student selected his or her own practice site, including 2 independent community pharmacies, a grocery store chain pharmacy and a hospital outpatient pharmacy. To help the students learn to deliver the new MedsCheck services, a faculty mentor met with them on a weekly basis. To reflect on doing MedsChecks in the "real world" and to elicit feedback from the online community, each student blogged about his or her experiences. All 4 students felt that peer mentoring improved their ability to deliver MedsCheck services. They also identified a number of barriers to delivering the MedsChecks and helped each other try to overcome the barriers. MedsCheck is a new service in Ontario and is not easily implemented in the current pharmacy model of practice. Peer mentoring is a helpful way to share successes and overcome barriers to delivery. Can Pharm J 2013;146:33-38.

  16. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  17. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  18. Technical note: electronic chart checks in a paperless radiation therapy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deshan; Wu, Yu; Brame, Ryan S; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Li, H Harold; Goddu, S Murty; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-08-01

    EcCk, which stands for Electronic Chart ChecK, is a computer software and database system. It was developed to improve quality and efficiency of patient chart checking in radiation oncology departments. The core concept is to automatically collect and analyze patient treatment data, and to report discrepancies and potential concerns. EcCk consists of several different computer technologies, including relational database, DICOM, dynamic HTML, and image processing. Implemented in MATLAB and C#, EcCk processes patient data in DICOM, PDF, Microsoft Word, database, and Pinnacle native formats. Generated reports are stored on the storage server and indexed in the database. A standalone report-browser program is implemented to allow users to view reports on any computer in the department. Checks are performed according to predefined logical rules, and results are presented through color-coded reports in which discrepancies are summarized and highlighted. Users examine the reports and take appropriate actions. The core design is intended to automate human task and to improve the reliability of the performed tasks. The software is not intended to replace human audits but rather to aid as a decision support tool. The software was successfully implemented in the clinical environment and has demonstrated the feasibility of automation of this common task with modern clinical tools. The software integrates multiple disconnected systems and successfully supports analysis of data in diverse formats. While the human is the ultimate expert, EcCk has a significant potential to improve quality and efficiency of patient treatment record audits, and to allow verification of tasks that are not easily performed by humans. EcCk can potentially relieve human experts from simple and repetitive tasks, and allow them to work on other important tasks, and in the end to improve the quality and safety of radiation therapy treatments.

  19. Programming Tasks in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Barteczko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the goals of teaching programing languages, kinds of programming tasks, evaluation criteria and methods for solutions checking. Many aspects of the assessments need, especially within e-learning framework, dedicated tools for solutions checking. Considered are the possibilities and methods for their automatic application. Integration of automatic evaluation tools in a consistent system is proposed. Through the rich content of the interaction with students such a system would lead to increase of e-learning quality. Examples presented in this article apply to programs and tools for the Java platform.

  20. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  1. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  2. Debiasing egocentrism and optimism biases in repeated competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Rose

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When judging their likelihood of success in competitive tasks, people tend to be overoptimistic for easy tasks and overpessimistic for hard tasks (the shared circumstance effect; SCE. Previous research has shown that feedback and experience from repeated-play competitions has a limited impact on SCEs. However, in this paper, we suggest that competitive situations, in which the shared difficulty or easiness of the task is more transparent, will be more amenable to debiasing via repeated play. Pairs of participants competed in, made predictions about, and received feedback on, multiple rounds of a throwing task involving both easy- and hard-to-aim objects. Participants initially showed robust SCEs, but they also showed a significant reduction in bias after only one round of feedback. These and other results support a more positive view (than suggested from past research on the potential for SCEs to be debiased through outcome feedback.

  3. Neuronal activity correlated with checking behaviour in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbaud, Pierre; Clair, Anne-Hélène; Langbour, Nicolas; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Goillandeau, Michel; Michelet, Thomas; Bardinet, Eric; Chéreau, Isabelle; Durif, Franck; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stephan; Fontaine, Denys; Magnié-Mauro, Marie-Noelle; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Bataille, Benoît; Millet, Bruno; Vérin, Marc; Baup, Nicolas; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Cornu, Philippe; Pelissolo, Antoine; Arbus, Christophe; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Yelnik, Jérôme; Welter, Marie-Laure; Mallet, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Doubt, and its behavioural correlate, checking, is a normal phenomenon of human cognition that is dramatically exacerbated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation in the associative-limbic area of the subthalamic nucleus, a central core of the basal ganglia, improved obsessive-compulsive disorder. To understand the physiological bases of symptoms in such patients, we recorded the activity of individual neurons in the therapeutic target during surgery while subjects performed a cognitive task that gave them the possibility of unrestricted repetitive checking after they had made a choice. We postulated that the activity of neurons in this region could be influenced by doubt and checking behaviour. Among the 63/87 task-related neurons recorded in 10 patients, 60% responded to various combinations of instructions, delay, movement or feedback, thus highlighting their role in the integration of different types of information. In addition, task-related activity directed towards decision-making increased during trials with checking in comparison with those without checking. These results suggest that the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus plays a role in doubt-related repetitive thoughts. Overall, our results not only provide new insight into the role of the subthalamic nucleus in human cognition but also support the fact that subthalamic nucleus modulation by deep brain stimulation reduced compulsive behaviour in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  4. Statistical Model Checking for Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Model Checking (SMC) is a highly scalable simulation-based verification approach for testing and estimating the probability that a stochastic system satisfies a given linear temporal property. The technique has been applied to (discrete and continuous time) Markov chains, stochastic...... proved very useful for identifying interesting properties of biological systems. Our aim is to offer the best of the two worlds: optimal domain specific interfaces and formalisms suited to biology combined with powerful SMC analysis techniques for stochastic and hybrid systems. This goal is obtained...

  5. Outage maintenance checks on large generator windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nindra, B.; Jeney, S.I.; Slobodinsky, Y. [National Electric Coil, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the present days of austerity, more constraints and pressures are being brought on the maintenance engineers to certify the generators for their reliability and life extension. The outages are shorter and intervals between the outages are becoming longer. The annual outages were very common when utilities had no regulatory constraints and also had standby capacities. Furthermore, due to lean and mean budgets, outage maintenance programs are being pursued more aggressively, so that longer interval outages can be achieved to ensure peak generator performance. This paper will discuss various visual checks, electrical tests and recommended fixes to achieve the above mentioned objectives, in case any deficiencies are found.

  6. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified......, no effective separation exists even within a presidential system, but, we argue, can be partially restored by having an accountable judiciary. Our empirical findings show that a divided government and elected, rather than appointed, state supreme court judges are associated with lower corruption and...

  7. Optimal database locks for efficient integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    In concurrent database systems, correctness of update transactions refers to the equivalent effects of the execution schedule and some serial schedule over the same set of transactions. Integrity constraints add further semantic requirements to the correctness of the database states reached upon...... the execution of update transactions. Several methods for efficient integrity checking and enforcing exist. We show in this paper how to apply one such method to automatically extend update transactions with locks and simplified consistency tests on the locked entities. All schedules produced in this way...

  8. Checking MSC Specifications for Timing Inconsistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuandong(李宣东); TAN Wenkai(谭文凯); ZHENG Guoliang(郑国梁)

    2002-01-01

    Message sequence chart (MSC) is a graphical and textual language for the description and specification of the interactions between system components. MSC specifica tions allow convenient expression of multiple scenarios, and offer an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Like any other aspect of the specification and design process, MSCs are amenable to errors, and their analysis is important. In this paper, the verification problem of MSC specification for timing inconsistency is studied, which means that no execu tion scenario described by an MSC specification is timing consistent. An algorithm is developed to check MSC specifications for timing inconsistency.

  9. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  10. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  11. A Little Training Helps Couples Ease into Skin Cancer Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html A Little Training Helps Couples Ease Into Skin Cancer Checks Study finds the potentially life-saving routine ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Skin cancer checks between couples don't have to be ...

  12. Found Poems, Member Checking and Crises of Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish veracity, qualitative researchers frequently rely on member checks to insure credibility by giving participants opportunities to correct errors, challenge interpretations and assess results; however, member checks are not without drawbacks. This paper describes an innovative approach to conducting member checks. Six members…

  13. 30 CFR 77.309 - Visual check of system equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual check of system equipment. 77.309... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.309 Visual check of system equipment. Frequent visual checks shall be made by the operator of the thermal dryer system control station, or by some other competent person,...

  14. Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS). Do We Check Too Much and Maintain Too Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-26

    They were similar to the trucks and tractors that many soldiers had back home on the farms . Since the U.S. was predominantly a rural society then, the...of an item requiring before-operation checks would render the :t m - iot mission-capable. Currently there are over 200 PMCS checks on the new Abrams...ensure that we are maintaining our vehicles in a go-to-war condition and that we are doing it the smart way. Our system requires significant changes

  15. Model Checking over Paraconsistent Temporal Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dong-huo; WANG Lin-zhang; CUI Jia-lin

    2008-01-01

    Classical logic cannot be used to effectively reason about concurrent systems with inconsistencies (inconsistencies often occur, especially in the early stage of the development, when large and complex concurrent systems are developed). In this paper, we propose the use of a guasi-classical temporal logic (QCTL) for supporting the verification of temporal properties of such systems even where the consistent model is not available. Our models are paraKripke structures ( extended standard Kripke structures), in which both a formula and its negation are satisfied in a same state, and properties to be verified are expressed by QCTL with paraKripke structures semantics. We introduce a novel notion of paraKripke models, which grasps the paraconsistent character of the entailment relation of QCTL. Furthermore, we explore the methodology of model checking over QCTL, and describe the detailed algorithm of implementing QCTL model checker. In the sequel, a simple example is presented, showing how to exploit the proposed model checking technique to verify the temporal properties of inconsistent concurrent systems.

  16. Model-Based Trace-Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Y; Gravell, A; Ferreira, C; Augusto, J C

    2011-01-01

    Trace analysis can be a useful way to discover problems in a program under test. Rather than writing a special purpose trace analysis tool, this paper proposes that traces can usefully be analysed by checking them against a formal model using a standard model-checker or else an animator for executable specifications. These techniques are illustrated using a Travel Agent case study implemented in J2EE. We added trace beans to this code that write trace information to a database. The traces are then extracted and converted into a form suitable for analysis by Spin, a popular model-checker, and Pro-B, a model-checker and animator for the B notation. This illustrates the technique, and also the fact that such a system can have a variety of models, in different notations, that capture different features. These experiments have demonstrated that model-based trace-checking is feasible. Future work is focussed on scaling up the approach to larger systems by increasing the level of automation.

  17. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to model explicitly states with a subsequent skipping of activations and arbitrary logical rules of type AND, XOR, OR etc. to model the split and join of the control flow. We apply model checking as a verification method for the safeness and liveness of Boolean systems. Model checking of Boolean systems uses the elementary theory of propositional logic, no modal operators are needed. Our verification builds on a finite complete prefix of a certain T-system attached to the Boolean system. It splits the processes of the Boolean sy...

  18. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  19. The effects of repeated idea elaboration on unconscious plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa-Jayne; Perfect, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs in a recall task when someone presents someone else's idea as his or her own. Recent research has shown that the likelihood of such an error is inflated if the idea is improved during the retention interval, but not if it is imagined. Here, we explore the effects of repeating the elaboration phase during the retention interval. Participants in a group first generated alternate uses to common objects before elaborating the ideas either by imagining them or by improving them. This elaboration phase occurred once, twice, or not at all. Later, they attempted to recall their original ideas and generate new ideas. Repeated imagery did not inflate unconscious plagiarism on either task. In contrast, repeating the improvement phase increased plagiarism to dramatically high levels in the recall task. The latter effect might be particularly pertinent to real-world cases of plagiarism in which the ideas under dispute have been the subject of creative development over many occasions.

  20. Requirements Specifications Checking of Embedded Real-Time Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoqing(毋国庆); SHU Fengdi(舒风笛); WANG Min(王敏); CHEN Weiqing(陈伟清)

    2002-01-01

    After introducing the overview of our requirements description model HRFSM,the paper presents a dynamic software execution model (DERTS) of embedded real-time software, which can integrate control flow, data flow and time. Based on DERTS, a checking method is also presented. It consists of three kinds of checking and can check the consistency and completeness of the requirement specifications of embedded real-time software. Besides providing information helpful to improve the efficiency of analyzing and checking specifications,the checking method is flexible, and easy to understand and to use for the analyst.

  1. Improved Integrity Constraints Checking in Distributed Databases by Exploiting Local Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A.Alwan; Hamidah Ibrahim; Nur Izura Udzir

    2009-01-01

    Most of the previous studies concerning checking the integrity constraints in distributed database derive simplified forms of the initial integrity constraints with the sufficiency property, since the sufficient test is known to be cheaper than the complete test and its initial integrity constraint as it involves less data to be transferred across the network and can always be evaluated at the target site (single site). Their studies are limited as they depend strictly on the assumption that an update operation will be executed at a site where the relation specified in the update operation is located, which is not always true. Hence, the sufficient test, which is proven to be local test by previous study, is no longer appropriate. This paper proposes an approach to checking integrity constraints in a distributed database by utilizing as much as possible the local information stored at the target site. The proposed approach derives support tests as an alternative to the existing complete and sufficient tests proposed by previous researchers with the intention to increase the number of local checking regardless the location of the submitted update operation. Several analyses have been performed to evaluate the proposed approach, and the results show that support tests can benefit the distributed database, where local constraint checking can be achieved.

  2. Checking in: An Analysis of the (Lack of) Body Checking in Women's Ice Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Charlene; Roberts, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of women's ice hockey in North America, players continue to face limitations because of the prohibition of body checking. In this paper, we argue from a liberal feminist philosophical perspective that this prohibition reinforces existing traditional stereotypes of female athletes. Because the women's game does not…

  3. Can I Just Check...? Effects of Edit Check Questions on Measurement Error and Survey Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugtig Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to questions earlier in the same interview to query apparent inconsistencies in responses; dependent interviewing uses responses from prior interviews to query apparent inconsistencies over time.Weuse data from three waves of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS to assess the effects of edit checks on estimates, and data from an experimental study carried out in the context of the BHPS, where survey responses were linked to individual administrative records, to assess the effects on measurement error. The findings suggest that interviewing methods without edit checks underestimate non-labour household income in the lower tail of the income distribution. The effects on estimates derived from total household income, such as poverty rates or transition rates into and out of poverty, are small.

  4. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  5. Scalable multi-core model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarman, Alfons Wilhelmus

    2014-01-01

    Our modern society relies increasingly on the sound performance of digital systems. Guaranteeing that these systems actually behave correctly according to their specification is not a trivial task, yet it is essential for mission-critical systems like auto-pilots, (nuclear) power-plant controllers a

  6. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna Joy; Weke, Elly; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2016-07-11

    Repeat HIV testing in late pregnancy has the potential to decrease rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by identifying mothers who seroconvert after having tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Despite being national policy in Kenya, the available data suggest that implementation rates are low. We conducted 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers and managers to explore barriers and enablers to implementation of repeat HIV testing guidelines for pregnant women. Participants were from the Nyanza region of Kenya and were purposively selected to provide variation in socio-demographics and job characteristics. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed in Dedoose software using a thematic analysis approach. Four themes were identified a priori using Ferlie and Shortell's Framework for Change and additional themes were allowed to emerge from the data. Participants identified barriers and enablers at the client, provider, facility, and health system levels. Key barriers at the client level from the perspective of providers included late initial presentation to antenatal care and low proportions of women completing the recommended four antenatal visits. Barriers to offering repeat HIV testing for providers included heavy workloads, time limitations, and failing to remember to check for retest eligibility. At the facility level, inconsistent volume of clients and lack of space required for confidential HIV retesting were cited as barriers. Finally, at the health system level, there were challenges relating to the HIV test kit supply chain and the design of nationally standardized antenatal patient registers. Enablers to improving the implementation of repeat HIV testing included client dissemination of the benefits of antenatal care through word-of-mouth, provider cooperation and task shifting, and it was suggested that use of an electronic health record system could provide automatic reminders for retest eligibility. This study

  7. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  8. Photogrammetric approach to automated checking of DTMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potucková, Marketa

    2005-01-01

    Geometrically accurate digital terrain models (DTMs) are essential for orthoimage production and many other applications. Collecting reference data or visual inspection are reliable but time consuming and therefore expensive methods for finding errors in DTMs. In this paper, a photogrammetric...... approach to automated checking and improving of DTMs is evaluated. Corresponding points in two overlapping orthoimages are found by means of area based matching. Provided the image orientation is correct, discovered displacements correspond to DTM errors. Improvements of the method regarding its...... reliability are discussed. Thresholds for image matching parameters are applied. A topographic database can be used for eliminating areas where mismatches might occur. Experimental results based on coloured aerial images at the scale of 1:25 000 and DTM derived from 5 m contour lines are reported....

  9. Advanced techniques for efficient data integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    Integrity constraint checking, understood as the verification of data correctness and well-formedness conditions that must be satisfied in any state of a database, is not fully supported by current database technology. In a typical scenario, a database is required to comply with given semantic...... criteria (the integrity constraints) and to maintain the compliance each time data are updated. Since the introduction of the SQL2 standard, the SQL language started supporting assertions, which allow one to define general data consistency requirements expressing arbitrarily complex “business rules......” that may go beyond predefined constraints such as primary keys and foreign keys. General integrity constraints are, however, far from being widely available in commercial systems; in fact, their usage is commonly not encouraged, since the database management system would not be able to provide...

  10. Conformant Planning via Symbolic Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; 10.1613/jair.774

    2011-01-01

    We tackle the problem of planning in nondeterministic domains, by presenting a new approach to conformant planning. Conformant planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions that is guaranteed to achieve the goal despite the nondeterminism of the domain. Our approach is based on the representation of the planning domain as a finite state automaton. We use Symbolic Model Checking techniques, in particular Binary Decision Diagrams, to compactly represent and efficiently search the automaton. In this paper we make the following contributions. First, we present a general planning algorithm for conformant planning, which applies to fully nondeterministic domains, with uncertainty in the initial condition and in action effects. The algorithm is based on a breadth-first, backward search, and returns conformant plans of minimal length, if a solution to the planning problem exists, otherwise it terminates concluding that the problem admits no conformant solution. Second, we provide a symbolic representation ...

  11. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  12. Automated Environment Generation for Software Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Oksana; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2003-01-01

    A key problem in model checking open systems is environment modeling (i.e., representing the behavior of the execution context of the system under analysis). Software systems are fundamentally open since their behavior is dependent on patterns of invocation of system components and values defined outside the system but referenced within the system. Whether reasoning about the behavior of whole programs or about program components, an abstract model of the environment can be essential in enabling sufficiently precise yet tractable verification. In this paper, we describe an approach to generating environments of Java program fragments. This approach integrates formally specified assumptions about environment behavior with sound abstractions of environment implementations to form a model of the environment. The approach is implemented in the Bandera Environment Generator (BEG) which we describe along with our experience using BEG to reason about properties of several non-trivial concurrent Java programs.

  13. Statically checked documentation with design patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornils, Aino; Hedin, Görel

    2000-01-01

    Over the past years, along with the increase in popularity of design patterns, some problems with the use of design patterns have been identified. The so-called tracing problem describes the difficulty in documenting software systems using design patterns. Initial approaches to solving the tracing...... problem have focused on guidelines for documenting design pattern roles and rules within a system, but experience has shown that both in the initial design, and especially in later code revisions, it is all too easy for code and documentation to diverge, rendering the documentation misleading. The authors...... present a flexible and extensible tool which enables designers to use design patterns in a safe and efficient way, which checks the design pattern rules, and which semi-automatically documents, and maintains the documentation of a software system...

  14. Statistical Model Checking for Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    average cost of products (in terms of the attributes of the products’ features) and the probability of features to be (un)installed at runtime. The product lines must be modelled in QFLan, which extends the probabilistic feature-oriented language PFLan with novel quantitative constraints among features......We report on the suitability of statistical model checking for the analysis of quantitative properties of product line models by an extended treatment of earlier work by the authors. The type of analysis that can be performed includes the likelihood of specific product behaviour, the expected...... and on behaviour and with advanced feature installation options. QFLan is a rich process-algebraic specification language whose operational behaviour interacts with a store of constraints, neatly separating product configuration from product behaviour. The resulting probabilistic configurations and probabilistic...

  15. Probabilistic Model--Checking of Quantum Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, S; Papanikolaou, N; Gay, Simon; Nagarajan, Rajagopal; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    We establish fundamental and general techniques for formal verification of quantum protocols. Quantum protocols are novel communication schemes involving the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena for representation, storage and transmission of data. As opposed to quantum computers, quantum communication systems can and have been implemented using present-day technology; therefore, the ability to model and analyse such systems rigorously is of primary importance. While current analyses of quantum protocols use a traditional mathematical approach and require considerable understanding of the underlying physics, we argue that automated verification techniques provide an elegant alternative. We demonstrate these techniques through the use of PRISM, a probabilistic model-checking tool. Our approach is conceptually simpler than existing proofs, and allows us to disambiguate protocol definitions and assess their properties. It also facilitates detailed analyses of actual implemented systems. We illustrate our techniqu...

  16. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    ACT is an extension of Java for making type-safe XML transformations. Unlike other approaches, XACT provides a programming model based on XML templates and XPath together with a type checker based on data-flow analysis. We show how to extend the data-flow analysis technique used in the XACT system...... to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking....... The resulting system supports a flexible style of programming XML transformations and provides static guarantees of validity of the generated XML data....

  17. Verification of Quantum Cryptography Protocols by Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elboukhari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike classical cryptography which is based on mathematical functions, Quantum Cryptography orQuantum Key Distribution (QKD exploits the laws of quantum physics to offer unconditionally securecommunication. The progress of research in this field allows the anticipation of QKD to be availableoutside of laboratories within the next few years and efforts are made to improve the performance andreliability of the implemented technologies. But despite this big progress, several challenges remain. Forexample the task of how to test the devices of QKD did not yet receive enough attention. These apparatusesbecome heterogeneous, complex and so demand a big verification effort. In this paper we propose to studyquantum cryptography protocols by applying the technique of probabilistic model checking. Using PRISMtool, we analyze the security of BB84 protocol and we are focused on the specific security property ofeavesdropper's information gain on the key derived from the implementation of this protocol. We show thatthis property is affected by the parameters of the eavesdropper’s power and the quantum channel.

  18. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  19. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  20. Effect of stimulus check size on multifocal visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Chandra; Klistorner, Alexander I; Graham, Stuart L

    2003-03-01

    In this study we examined the effects of varying stimulus check size on multifocal visual evoked potential (VEP). We also evaluated the currently used cortical scaling of stimulus segments. The ObjectiVision multifocal objective perimeter stimulates the eye with random check patterns at 56 cortically scaled segments within the visual field extending to a radius of 26 degrees. All cortically scaled segments have equal number of checks, which gradually increase in size from the center to the periphery, proportional to the size of the segment. Stimuli with 9, 16, 25, 36 and 49 checks/segment were tested on 10 eyes belonging to 10 normal subjects. The check size varied inversely with number of checks per segment. VEP was recorded using bipolar occipital cross electrodes (7 min/eye), the amplitude and latency of responses obtained were compared with the check size at different eccentricities. Our findings suggest that the existing setting with 16 checks/segment subtending 26' to 140' from center to periphery, is the most effective amongst all the check sizes. Decreasing the check size prolongs the latency in the central field only. Cortical scaling of segments generates responses of the same order of magnitude throughout the field, but could be improved slightly to enhance the signal from the outer two rings.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Debris Flow Force Caused by Climate Change and Its application to Check Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, S. D.; Jun, K.; JUN, B. H.; Lee, H. J.; TAK, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Due to global warming, climate change cause a super hurricane and heavy rainfall frequently. Heavy rainfall cause by debris flow in mountainous terrains, and disasters by debris flow force have continuously increased. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of debris flow force acting on the check dam. The numerical approach to the debris flow force was performed by the Finite Difference Method (FDM) based on the erosion-deposition combination model including the equation of continuity, mass conservation, and momentum conservation. In order to investigate behavior of the debris flow force according to the variance of supplying water discharge and channel slope angle, a rectangular straight channel and one closed type check dam was set up for conducting numerical simulations. As the supply water discharges increase, the curve of the impact force by debris flow becomes unstable and fluctuation with high impact force occurred as time passes. And the peak impact force showed a steeper slope and appeared more quickly, the high impact force undergoes a fluctuation with high speed, and acting on the check dam. At the mountainous upstream, strong rainfall energy provoke a repeat erosion and deposition which results in debris flow force causing much damage along the check dam at the mountainous place. The analyses of the present study help provide information to predict future debris flow force and how to design for the check dam. This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2014-74] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government

  2. A correspondence between type checking via reduction and type checking via evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Clark, Dave

    2012-01-01

    We describe a derivational approach to proving the equivalence of different representations of a type system. Different ways of representing type assignments are convenient for particular applications such as reasoning or implementation, but some kind of correspondence between them should be proven....... In this paper we address two such semantics for type checking: one, due to Kuan et al., in the form of a term rewriting system and the other in the form of a traditional set of derivation rules. By employing a set of techniques investigated by Danvy et al., we mechanically derive the correspondence between...... a reduction-based semantics for type checking and a traditional one in the form of derivation rules, implemented as a recursive descent. The correspondence is established through a series of semantics-preserving functional program transformations....

  3. Attentive Turkers: MTurk participants perform better on online attention checks than do subject pool participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Participant attentiveness is a concern for many researchers using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Although studies comparing the attentiveness of participants on MTurk versus traditional subject pool samples have provided mixed support for this concern, attention check questions and other methods of ensuring participant attention have become prolific in MTurk studies. Because MTurk is a population that learns, we hypothesized that MTurkers would be more attentive to instructions than are traditional subject pool samples. In three online studies, participants from MTurk and collegiate populations participated in a task that included a measure of attentiveness to instructions (an instructional manipulation check: IMC). In all studies, MTurkers were more attentive to the instructions than were college students, even on novel IMCs (Studies 2 and 3), and MTurkers showed larger effects in response to a minute text manipulation. These results have implications for the sustainable use of MTurk samples for social science research and for the conclusions drawn from research with MTurk and college subject pool samples.

  4. CheckMATE: Confronting your favourite new physics model with LHC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Manuel; Dreiner, Herbert K.; Kim, Jong Soo; Schmeier, Daniel; Tattersall, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    In the first three years of running, the LHC has delivered a wealth of new data that is now being analysed. With over 20 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, both ATLAS and CMS have performed many searches for new physics that theorists are eager to test their model against. However, tuning the detector simulations, understanding the particular analysis details and interpreting the results can be a tedious task. CheckMATE (Check Models At Terascale Energies) is a program package which accepts simulated event files in many formats for any model. The program then determines whether the model is excluded or not at 95% C.L. by comparing to many recent experimental analyses. Furthermore the program can calculate confidence limits and provide detailed information about signal regions of interest. It is simple to use and the program structure allows for easy extensions to upcoming LHC results in the future.

  5. CFD analysis of a ball check microvalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Dumitrache, Constantin L.; Grigorescu, Lucian

    2015-02-01

    The microvalves with balls as seen before are used in many applications and their behaviour in terms of fluid dynamics mainly at their opening time (when as demonstrated the ball is bouncing up and down altering the flow parameters) is of a paramount importance. The present study is focused on a micro check ball valve circulating a fluid air-like (with the same constant proprieties). The CFD model is taking into account a transitory zone of functioning from zero time when the pressure inside a "tank" is reaching the opening pressure of the valve, to the final step 0.05 seconds when the ball is stabilizing after bouncing up and down. The geometry of the valve with dimensions in μm is given below (the model is comprising a "slice" of 5 μm thickness extracted from the entire valve. In this paper by using advanced numeric techniques, the behavior of the valve in its transitory opening stage was studied with credible and useful results for further optimisation studies.

  6. Verifying Multi-Agent Systems via Unbounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, M.; Lomuscio, A.; Lasica, T.; Penczek, W.; Szreter, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to the problem of verification of epistemic properties in multi-agent systems by means of symbolic model checking. In particular, it is shown how to extend the technique of unbounded model checking from a purely temporal setting to a temporal-epistemic one. In order to achieve this, we base our discussion on interpreted systems semantics, a popular semantics used in multi-agent systems literature. We give details of the technique and show how it can be applied to the well known train, gate and controller problem. Keywords: model checking, unbounded model checking, multi-agent systems

  7. 25 CFR 115.704 - May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... checks/payments or pension fund checks/payments even though those funds are not specified in § 115.702... May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks.../payments or pension fund checks/payments or any funds from sources that are not identified in the table in...

  8. Stimulus-Category and Response-Repetition Effects in Task Switching: An Evaluation of Four Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druey, Michel D.

    2014-01-01

    In many task-switch studies, task sequence and response sequence interact: Response repetitions produce benefits when the task repeats but produce costs when the task switches. Four different theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain these effects: a reconfiguration-based account, association-learning models, an episodic-retrieval…

  9. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth......: There was no evident optimization of jaw motor function in terms of reduction in the variability of bite force values and muscle activity, when this simple task was repeated up to sixty times, in participants with normal intact periodontium....

  10. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  11. 31 CFR 240.11 - Treasury Check Offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury Check Offset. 240.11 Section 240.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS...

  12. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...

  13. BACKGROUND ELIMINATION IN BANK CHECKS USING GREYSCALE MORPHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, S.; Shridhar, M.; Houle, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of background elimination in personal bank checks to facilitate machine recognition of user entered information. One of the key problems that affect the extraction of user entered information is the wide diversity of the backgrounds of checks. They have differen

  14. 31 CFR 10.31 - Negotiation of taxpayer checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation of taxpayer checks. 10.31 Section 10.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE... § 10.31 Negotiation of taxpayer checks. A practitioner who prepares tax returns may not endorse...

  15. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12 Section 240.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use...

  16. 19 CFR 111.41 - Endorsement of checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of checks. 111.41 Section 111.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.41 Endorsement of checks....

  17. Development of a stainless steel check valve for cryogenic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, T.T.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Burger, J.F.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Sirbi, A.; Rogalla, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a check valve for use in a sorption compressor that will drive a 10 mW 4.5 K Joule–Thomson cryocooler. For the check valve extremely low backflow rates are tolerable at an operating temperature of the valve of 50 K. To fulfill these requirements, the sealing m

  18. U.T.E.S. Interest Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The revised Oregon metro edition of the U.T.E.S. interest check list for intermediate education aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations in the nation. Specific instructions advise the student that the check list is not a test and that…

  19. 26 CFR 301.6657-1 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 301.6657-1 Section 301.6657-1... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6657-1 Bad checks. (a) In general. Except as provided in... district director that it was tendered in good faith with reasonable cause to believe that it would be...

  20. Strategic Planning through Model Checking of ATL Formulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroga, W.J.; Rutkowski, L.; Siekmann, J.; Tadeusiewicz, R.; Zadeh, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Model checking of temporal logic has already been proposed for automatic planning. In this paper, we introduce a simple adaptation of the ATL model checking algorithm that returns a strategy to achieve given goal. We point out that the algorithm generalizes minimaxing, and that ATL models generalize

  1. Check-up Measurement (update). Deliverable D5.22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtzer, A.C.G.; Giessen, A.M.D. van der; Djurica, M.

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable D5.22 presents the GEN6 check-up measurement. It describes the most prominent outcomes of the GEN6 project up to this point in time. The check-up measurement helps to focus the monitoring towards the most relevant achievements of the project, such that an efficient and well-targeted

  2. Modern Trends in Airport Self Check-in Kiosks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Sabatová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to maintain the flow of the check-in process of air passengers, it is essential that services that ensure this process have been carried as quickly and effectively. One of the major current problems in this area is the efficiency of clearance of a large number of passengers over the check-in counters. By the gradual development of so-called self check-in services eventually delegate some activities in check-in process to passengers and the entire clearance process to speed up. In this article the authors deal with current state of the use of self check-in services in the world and predict the expected evolution of these services in the future. Subsequently, the authors present a new design of self-service kiosk and graphical user interface (GUI of application such self-service check-in kiosk based on the analysis of the functions and features of similar solutions available on the market and with considering all currently known IATA requirements and the criteria relating to disabled passengers in order to lighten the load check-in counters and thereby accelerated the clearance of the passenger at the airport. The aim of the authors was to create a cost competitive solution offering such new features and services that do not offer other solutions, with an emphasis on improving the efficiency of the check-in process of passengers at the airport.

  3. 76 FR 16861 - Availability of Funds and Collection of Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... proposed rule. \\29\\ See Regulation CC Sec. 229.20 and EFA Act Sec. 608. A state's funds-availability law...: Background Regulation CC (12 CFR part 229) implements the Expedited Funds Availability Act (EFA Act) and the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (Check 21 Act).\\1\\ The Board implemented the EFA Act in...

  4. Not Just right experiences as ironic result of perseverative checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dis, E.A.M.; van den Hout, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocD) typically report to have “not just right experiences” (NJRE). up till now it is unclear which behavioral ocD features may give rise to NJREs. We used an induced checking paradigm to experimentally study whether perseverative checking

  5. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This probl...

  6. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  7. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  8. Statistical Model Checking of Rich Models and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted

    in undecidability issues for the traditional model checking approaches. Statistical model checking has proven itself a valuable supplement to model checking and this thesis is concerned with extending this software validation technique to stochastic hybrid systems. The thesis consists of two parts: the first part......Software is in increasing fashion embedded within safety- and business critical processes of society. Errors in these embedded systems can lead to human casualties or severe monetary loss. Model checking technology has proven formal methods capable of finding and correcting errors in software....... However, software is approaching the boundary in terms of the complexity and size that model checking can handle. Furthermore, software systems are nowadays more frequently interacting with their environment hence accurately modelling such systems requires modelling the environment as well - resulting...

  9. Using hospital pharmacy technicians to check unit dose carts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, S H; Emerson, P K

    1994-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of technicians checking unit dose carts as compared with pharmacists checking unit dose carts. The final (after check) fill in both arms of the study was evaluated for accuracy on the same five criteria: 1) correct drug, 2) correct dose, 3) correct dosage form, 4) correct quantity, and 5) expiration date. In the technician arm, 7571 doses were checked with 10 errors, giving a 99.76% (1 error in 420) accuracy. In the pharmacist arm of the study, 3116 doses were checked with 34 total errors, giving a 98.91% (1 error in 92) accuracy. The results of this study indicate that technicians would have as high if not a higher accuracy rate than pharmacists. Using pharmacy technicians in this role should continue the same level of care by maintaining a high accuracy in medication dispensing and provide greater economic benefit to the organization by using technical rather than professional personnel.

  10. Counterexample-Preserving Reduction for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost of LTL model checking is highly sensitive to the length of the formula under verification. We observe that, under some specific conditions, the input LTL formula can be reduced to an easier-to-handle one before model checking. In such reduction, these two formulae need not to be logically equivalent, but they share the same counterexample set w.r.t the model. In the case that the model is symbolically represented, the condition enabling such reduction can be detected with a lightweight effort (e.g., with SAT-solving. In this paper, we tentatively name such technique “counterexample-preserving reduction” (CePRe, for short, and the proposed technique is evaluated by conducting comparative experiments of BDD-based model checking, bounded model checking, and property directed reachability-(IC3 based model checking.

  11. Diagnosis of repeated/intermittent failures in discrete event systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, S.; Kumar, R.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the notion of repeated failure diagnosability for diagnosing the occurrence of a repeated number of failures in discrete event systems. This generalizes the earlier notion of diagnosability that was used to diagnose the occurrence of a failure, but from which the information regarding the multiplicity of the occurrence of the failure could not be obtained. It is possible that in some systems the same type of failure repeats a multiple number of times. It is desirable to have a diagnoser which not only diagnoses that such a failure has occurred but also determines the number of times the failure has occurred. To aide such analysis we introduce the notions of K-diagnosability (K failures diagnosability), [1,K]-diagnosability (1 through K failures diagnosability), and [1,1]-diagnosability (1 through 1 failures diagnosability). Here the rst (resp., last) notion is the weakest (resp., strongest) of all three, and the earlier notion of diagnosability is the same as that of K-diagnosability or that of [1,K]- diagnosability with K = 1. We give polynomial algorithms for checking these various notions of repeated failure diagnosability, and also present a procedure of polynomial complexity for the on-line diagnosis of repeated failures.

  12. Task switching and response correspondence in the psychological refractory period paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Schweickert, Richard; Proctor, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of task switching and response correspondence in a psychological refractory period paradigm. A letter task (vowel-consonant) and a digit task (odd-even) were combined to form 4 possible dual-task pairs in each trial: letter-letter, letter-digit, digit-digit, and digit-letter. Foreknowledge of task transition (repeat or switch) and task identity (letter or digit) was varied across experiments: no foreknowledge in Experiment 1, partial foreknowledge (task transition only) in Experiment 2, and full foreknowledge in Experiment 3. For all experiments, the switch cost for Task 2 was additive with stimulus onset asynchrony, and the response-correspondence effect for Task 2 was numerically smaller in the switch condition than in the repeat condition. These outcomes suggest that reconfiguration for Task 2 takes place after the central processing of Task 1 and that the crosstalk correspondence effect is due to response activation by way of stimulus-response associations.

  13. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Routing Number Guide to Next-Day Availability Checks and Local Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Checks and Local Checks A Appendix A to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED... Association. The routing number takes two forms: a fractional form and a nine-digit form. A paying bank... bank. B. The first four digits of the nine-digit routing number (and the denominator of the fractional...

  15. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  16. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  17. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  18. "Task" as Research Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  19. Check dam and polyacrylamide performance under simulated stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihoon; McCaleb, Melanie M; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2013-11-15

    High levels of turbidity and fine suspended sediments are often found in stormwater discharges from construction sites even when best management practices (BMPs) for sediment control are in place. This study evaluated turbidity reduction by three check dam types: 1) rock check dam representing a standard BMP, 2) excelsior wattle representing a fiber check dam (FCD), and 3) rock check dam wrapped with excelsior erosion control blanket (rock + excelsior ECB) representing an alternative FCD. Three check dams (all same type) were installed in a lined, 24-m ditch on a 5-7% slope and three consecutive simulated stormwater flows were run in the ditch. Additional tests were performed by adding granular polyacrylamide (PAM) on the check dams in the same manner using two sediment sources differing in clay content. Without PAM treatment, significantly higher effluent turbidity (>900 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) exited the ditch with rock check dams than with excelsior wattles or rock + excelsior ECBs (dam types was in the order of excelsior wattle > rock + excelsior ECB > rock check dam, indicating better water pooling behind the wattle. The PAM treatment reduced turbidity substantially (>75% relative to no PAM treatment) for all check dam types and it was very effective in excelsior wattles (<57 NTU) and rock + excelsior ECBs (<90 NTU) even during the third storm event. This study demonstrates that the passive treatment of runoff with PAM on FCDs (or rock + excelsior ECB) in construction site ditches can be very effective for sediment retention and turbidity reduction.

  20. PREREQUISITE PROGRAMMES IN OWN CHECKS IN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisite Programmes approach is a requirement for implementing a correct own check plan. This new approach, born according to the European Legislation, is completely recognized by third Nation Authorities and private Inspection and Accreditation Bodies. This method is the basis to verify if an own check system is under control and to verify if corrective actions are built up to warrant hygienic production standards. The present work demonstrate that a correct own check plan is built up only by a Pre Requisites Program approach. The new UNI EN ISO 22000:2005 standard describe this concept specifying the difference between PRP and CCP.

  1. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  2. Implementing Model-Check for Employee and Management Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss methods to which ModelCheck can be implemented to not only improve model quality, but also satisfy both employees and management through different sets of quality checks. This approach allows a standard set of modeling practices to be upheld throughout a company, with minimal interaction required by the end user. The presenter will demonstrate how to create multiple ModelCheck standards, preventing users from evading the system, and how it can improve the quality of drawings and models.

  3. Effects of Repeated Practice and Contextual-Writing Experiences on College Students' Writing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Karla M.; Ashbaugh, Hollis; Warfield, Terry D.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of both general and task-specific writing experiences on college students' writing-skill development. As predicted, repeated practice was associated with superior writing skills and after controlling for repeated practice, writing within a specific test domain was associated with superior writing skills. Implications for…

  4. Repeating Patterns in Kindergarten: Findings from Children's Enactments of Two Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther S.; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes kindergarten children's engagement with two patterning activities. The first activity includes two tasks in which children are asked to choose possible ways for extending two different repeating patterns and the second activity calls for comparing different pairs of repeating patterns. Children's recognition of the unit of…

  5. Modified Suboptimal Iterative Decoding for Regular Repeat- Accumulate Coded Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Thamer Nesr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two algorithms are suggested in order to improve the performance of systematic Repeat-Accumulate ( decoding. The first one is accomplished by the insertion of pilot symbols among the data stream that entering the encoder. The positions where pilots should be inserted are chosen in such a way that to improve the minimum Hamming distance and/or to reduce the error coefficients of the code. The second proposed algorithm includes the utilization of the inserted pilots to estimate scaling (correction factors. Two-dimensional correction factor was suggested in order to enhance the performance of traditional Minimum-Sum decoding of regular repeat accumulate codes. An adaptive method can be achieved for getting the correction factors by calculating the mean square difference between the values of received pilots and the a-posteriori data of bit and check node related to them which created by the minimum-sum ( decoder

  6. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  7. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  8. Developments of the in-check platform for diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Michele; Alessi, Enrico; Conoci, Sabrina; Marchi, Mauro; Panvini, Gaetano

    2008-02-01

    In-Check is STMicroelectronics proprietary platform for molecular diagnostics. In-Check lays its foundations on the monolithic integration of microelectronics and micromachining technology MEMS, with microfluidic and optical features, bio-chemical surface functionalization and molecular biology. It comprises a core lab-on-chip device, control and reading instrumentation, a complete suite of software modules, and application protocols. Leveraging on such capabilities, In-Check enables fast, highly sensitive and specific, multi-analytical capability of nucleic acid analysis. The platform provides a unique combination of nucleic acid amplification, by polymerase-chain-reaction and target identification and typing by DNA microarray. These integrated biological functionalities together with top quality standard and process control are key features for a platform to be accepted by the highly demanding modern medical diagnostic. This paper describes recent developments of In-Check and some core biological characterizations.

  9. An Item Factor Analysis of the Mooney Problem Check List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David W.; Deiker, Thomas

    1976-01-01

    Explores the factor structure of the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) at the junior and senior high school level by undertaking a large obverse factor analysis of item responses in three adolescent criterion groups. (Author/DEP)

  10. Checking Patient's Drug History May Help Curb Opioid Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a legitimate prescription," said study co-author Colleen Carey. She's an assistant professor of policy analysis and ... by law to check them before writing prescriptions, Carey and her colleagues noted in a university news ...

  11. Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) Accelerator for Embedded Processor Datapaths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdul Rehman Buzdar; Liguo Sun; Rao Kashif; Muhammad Waqar Azhar; Muhammad Imran Khan

    2017-01-01

    We present the integration of a multimode Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) accelerator unit with an embedded processor datapath to enhance the processor performance in terms of execution time and energy efficiency...

  12. Exercise: When to Check with Your Doctor First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Keeping physically active is key to a healthy lifestyle. But sometimes it's best to check with ... 11, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/exercise/art-20047414 . Mayo Clinic Footer ...

  13. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  14. Kokkos? Task DAG Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Harold C.; Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.

  15. Performance of Compiler-Assisted Memory Safety Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Performance of Compiler -Assisted Memory Safety Checking David Keaton Robert C. Seacord August 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2014-TN...014 | vii Abstract Buffer overflows affect a large installed base of C code. This technical note describes the criteria for deploying a compiler ...describes a modification to the LLVM compiler to enable hoisting bounds checks from loops and functions. This proof-of-concept prototype has been used

  16. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola;

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  17. An Extended Ontology Model and Ontology Checking Based on Description Logics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 蒋馥; 吴家春

    2004-01-01

    Ontology is defined as an explicit specification of a conceptualization. In this paper, an extended ontology model was constructed using description logics, which is a 5-tuples including term set, individual set, term definition set, instantiation assertion set and term restriction set. Based on the extended model, the issue on ontology checking was studied with the conclusion that the four kinds of term checking, including term satisfiability checking, term subsumption checking, term equivalence checking and term disjointness checking, can be reduced to the satisfiability checking, and satisfiability checking can be transformed into instantiation consistence checking.

  18. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  19. Experimental and Analytical Study on the Lift Check Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Song, C. S.; Kim, H. S.; Hong, S. C. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. H. [Samshin Limited Co., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In general, the check valve mounted on the flow line is used for the purpose of protecting the pump and the related facility, making the flow path, and maintaining the pressure boundary during the operation mode change in steam power plant and nuclear power plant. Fig. 1 shows the example of check valve in nuclear power plant. Especially, the check valve mounted on safety feed system and nuclear safety system is operated to open state and has a role of acquiring enough fluid such as safety feed and auxiliary feed water in the Design Basis Accident. And the check valve is operated with enough sealing and with protecting steam hammer in normal operational mode. For this purpose, the check valve can be open easily and be maintained in the open state in case of small flow velocity. In this research, the experimental and analytical study on the check vale was performed. The flow coefficient and closure time were compared between the experimental and the analytical result by numerical simulation. The validation of the analytical method was performed.

  20. Strategy optimization for mask rule check in wafer fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuen Huei; Lin, Shaina; Lin, Roger; Wang, Alice; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin

    2015-07-01

    Photolithography process is getting more and more sophisticated for wafer production following Moore's law. Therefore, for wafer fab, consolidated and close cooperation with mask house is a key to achieve silicon wafer success. However, generally speaking, it is not easy to preserve such partnership because many engineering efforts and frequent communication are indispensable. The inattentive connection is obvious in mask rule check (MRC). Mask houses will do their own MRC at job deck stage, but the checking is only for identification of mask process limitation including writing, etching, inspection, metrology, etc. No further checking in terms of wafer process concerned mask data errors will be implemented after data files of whole mask are composed in mask house. There are still many potential data errors even post-OPC verification has been done for main circuits. What mentioned here are the kinds of errors which will only occur as main circuits combined with frame and dummy patterns to form whole reticle. Therefore, strategy optimization is on-going in UMC to evaluate MRC especially for wafer fab concerned errors. The prerequisite is that no impact on mask delivery cycle time even adding this extra checking. A full-mask checking based on job deck in gds or oasis format is necessary in order to secure acceptable run time. Form of the summarized error report generated by this checking is also crucial because user friendly interface will shorten engineers' judgment time to release mask for writing. This paper will survey the key factors of MRC in wafer fab.

  1. Automated survey of 8000 plan checks at eight facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Bernard, Damian A; Chu, James C H; Kirk, Michael C; Hamilton, Russell J; Lei, Yu; Driewer, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    To identify policy and system related weaknesses in treatment planning and plan check work-flows. The authors' web deployed plan check automation solution, PlanCheck, which works with all major planning and record and verify systems (demonstrated here for mosaiq only), allows them to compute violation rates for a large number of plan checks across many facilities without requiring the manual data entry involved with incident filings. Workflows and failure modes are heavily influenced by the type of record and verify system used. Rather than tackle multiple record and verify systems at once, the authors restricted the present survey to mosaiq facilities. Violations were investigated by sending inquiries to physicists running the program. Frequent violations included inadequate tracking in the record and verify system of total and prescription doses. Infrequent violations included incorrect setting of patient orientation in the record and verify system. Peaks in the distribution, over facilities, of violation frequencies pointed to suboptimal policies at some of these facilities. Correspondence with physicists often revealed incomplete knowledge of settings at their facility necessary to perform thorough plan checks. The survey leads to the identification of specific and important policy and system deficiencies that include: suboptimal timing of initial plan checks, lack of communication or agreement on conventions surrounding prescription definitions, and lack of automation in the transfer of some parameters.

  2. Improved Bounded Model Checking for the Universal Fragment of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xu; Wei Chen; Yan-Yan Xu; Wen-Hui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) has been introduced as a complementary technique to BDD-based symbolic model checking in recent years, and a lot of successful work has been done in this direction. The approach was first introduced by A. Biere et al. in checking linear temporal logic (LTL) formulae and then also adapted to check formulae of the universal fragment of computation tree logic (ACTL) by W. Penczek et al. As the efficiency of model checking is still an important issue, we present an improved BMC approach for ACTL based on Penczek's method. We consider two aspects of the approach. One is reduction of the number of variables and transitions in the k-model by distinguishing the temporal operator EX from the others. The other is simplification of the transformation of formulae by using uniform path encoding instead of a disjunction of all paths needed in the k-model. With these improvements, for an ACTI, formula, the length of the final encoding of the formula in the worst case is reduced. The improved approach is implemented in the tool BMV and is compared with the original one by applying both to two well known examples, mutual exclusion and dining philosophers. The comparison shows the advantages of the improved approach with respect to the efficiency of model checking.

  3. Repeater-Assisted Zeno Effect in Classical Stochastic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Shi-Jian; WANG Li-Gang; WANG Zhi-Guo; LIN Hai-Qing

    2012-01-01

    We address the possibility of the classical Zeno effect in classical stochastic processes as sampled by transferring a digitized image through a classical channel with surrounding noise. It is shown that the the classical state of the image decays inevitably with the distance of the channel due to the interference of the surroundings. However, if there are enough repeaters, which can both check and recover the state's information, the classical state's decay rate will be significantly suppressed, then a classical Zeno effect might occur.%We address the possibility of the classical Zeno effect in classical stochastic processes as sampled by transferring a digitized image through a classical channel with surrounding noise.It is shown that the the classical state of the image decays inevitably with the distance of the channel due to the interference of the surroundings.However,if there are enough repeaters,which can both check and recover the state's information,the classical state's decay rate will be significantly suppressed,then a classical Zeno effect might occur.

  4. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  5. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  6. Analyzing Web pages visual scanpaths: between and within tasks variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, Gautier; Bastien, J M Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for comparing scanpaths in a bottom-up approach, and a test of the scanpath theory. To do so, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 113 participants were invited to accomplish a set of tasks on two different websites. For each site, they had to perform two tasks that had to be repeated ounce. The data were analyzed using a procedure similar to the one used by Duchowski et al. [8]. The first step was to automatically identify, then label, AOIs with the mean-shift clustering procedure [19]. Then, scanpaths were compared two by two with a modified version of the string-edit method, which take into account the order of AOIs visualizations [2]. Our results show that scanpaths variability between tasks but within participants seems to be lower than the variability within task for a given participant. In other words participants seem to be more coherent when they perform different tasks, than when they repeat the same tasks. In addition, participants view more of the same AOI when they perform a different task on the same Web page than when they repeated the same task. These results are quite different from what predicts the scanpath theory.

  7. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  8. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching fr

  9. [Proposal and preliminary validation of a check-list for the assessment of occupational exposure to repetitive movements of the upper lims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E; Cairoli, S; Baracco, A

    2000-01-01

    Over the last few years the Authors developed and implemented, a specific check-list for a "rapid" assessment of occupational exposure to repetitive movements and exertion of the upper limbs, after verifying the lack of such a tool which also had to be coherent with the latest data in the specialized literature. The check-list model and the relevant application procedures are presented and discussed. The check-list was applied by trained factory technicians in 46 different working tasks where the OCRA method previously proposed by the Authors was also applied by independent observers. Since 46 pairs of observation data were available (OCRA index and check-list score) it was possible to verify, via parametric and nonparametric statistical tests, the level of association between the two variables and to find the best simple regression function (exponential in this case) of the OCRA index from the check-list score. By means of this function, which was highly significant (R2 = 0.98, p check-list score which better corresponded to the critical values (for exposure assessment) of the OCRA index looked for. The following correspondance values between OCRA Index and check-list were then established with a view to classifying exposure levels. The check-list "critical" scores were established considering the need for obtaining, in borderline cases, a potential effect of overestimation of the exposure level. On the basis of practical application experience and the preliminary validation results, recommendations are made and the caution needed in the use of the check-list is suggested.

  10. Check your biosignals here: a new dataset for off-the-person ECG biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Hugo Plácido; Lourenço, André; Fred, Ana; Raposo, Nuno; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2014-02-01

    The Check Your Biosignals Here initiative (CYBHi) was developed as a way of creating a dataset and consistently repeatable acquisition framework, to further extend research in electrocardiographic (ECG) biometrics. In particular, our work targets the novel trend towards off-the-person data acquisition, which opens a broad new set of challenges and opportunities both for research and industry. While datasets with ECG signals collected using medical grade equipment at the chest can be easily found, for off-the-person ECG data the solution is generally for each team to collect their own corpus at considerable expense of resources. In this paper we describe the context, experimental considerations, methods, and preliminary findings of two public datasets created by our team, one for short-term and another for long-term assessment, with ECG data collected at the hand palms and fingers.

  11. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.

  12. Intelligent Data Visualization for Cross-Checking Spacecraft System Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James C.; Remolina, Emilio; Breeden, David; Stroozas, Brett A.; Mohammed, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Any reasoning system is fallible, so crew members and flight controllers must be able to cross-check automated diagnoses of spacecraft or habitat problems by considering alternate diagnoses and analyzing related evidence. Cross-checking improves diagnostic accuracy because people can apply information processing heuristics, pattern recognition techniques, and reasoning methods that the automated diagnostic system may not possess. Over time, cross-checking also enables crew members to become comfortable with how the diagnostic reasoning system performs, so the system can earn the crew s trust. We developed intelligent data visualization software that helps users cross-check automated diagnoses of system faults more effectively. The user interface displays scrollable arrays of timelines and time-series graphs, which are tightly integrated with an interactive, color-coded system schematic to show important spatial-temporal data patterns. Signal processing and rule-based diagnostic reasoning automatically identify alternate hypotheses and data patterns that support or rebut the original and alternate diagnoses. A color-coded matrix display summarizes the supporting or rebutting evidence for each diagnosis, and a drill-down capability enables crew members to quickly view graphs and timelines of the underlying data. This system demonstrates that modest amounts of diagnostic reasoning, combined with interactive, information-dense data visualizations, can accelerate system diagnosis and cross-checking.

  13. Repeated cognitive stimulation alleviates memory impairments in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Yeung, Stephen T; Ager, Rahasson R; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Baglietto-Vargas, David; LaFerla, Frank M

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive decline. Previous studies have identified the benefits of cognitive enrichment on reducing disease pathology. Additionally, epidemiological and clinical data suggest that repeated exercise, and cognitive and social enrichment, can improve and/or delay the cognitive deficiencies associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, 3xTg-AD mice were exposed to a rigorous training routine beginning at 3 months of age, which consisted of repeated training in the Morris water maze spatial recognition task every 3 months, ending at 18 months of age. At the conclusion of the final Morris water maze training session, animals subsequently underwent testing in another hippocampus-dependent spatial task, the Barnes maze task, and on the more cortical-dependent novel object recognition memory task. Our data show that periodic cognitive enrichment throughout aging, via multiple learning episodes in the Morris water maze task, can improve the memory performance of aged 3xTg-AD mice in a separate spatial recognition task, and in a preference memory task, when compared to naïve aged matched 3xTg-AD mice. Furthermore, we observed that the cognitive enrichment properties of Morris water maze exposer, was detectable in repeatedly trained animals as early as 6 months of age. These findings suggest early repeated cognitive enrichment can mitigate the diverse cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease.

  14. The use of check valve performance data to support new concepts (probabilistic risk assessment, condition monitoring) for check valve program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.; Gower, D.

    1996-12-01

    The concept of developing an integrated check valve database based on the Nuclear Power Reliability Data System (NPRDS) data was presented at the last Symposium. The Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group (NIC), working in cooperation with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has completed an operational database of check valve performance from 1984 to the present. NIC has committed to the nuclear industry to periodically update the data and maintain this information accessible. As the new concepts of probabilistic risk analysis and condition monitoring are integrated into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, a critical element will be performance data. From check valve performance data, feasible failure modes and rates can be established. When a failure rate or frequency of failures can be established based on a significant enough population (sampling), a more solid foundation for focusing resources and determining appropriate frequencies and testing can be determined. The presentation will give the updated status of the NIC Check Valve Performance Database covering (1) methodology used to combine the original ORNL data; (2) process/controls established for continuing update and refinement of the data; (3) discussion of how this data is being utilized by (a) OM-22 for condition monitoring, and (b) risk-based inservice testing work of Westinghouse Owners` Group; and (4) results/trends of data evaluations. At the 1994 Symposium, ORNL provided an update as of 1991 to their original work of 1984 -1990 which they had performed to characterize check valve degradations and failures in the nuclear industry. These characterizations will be updated to 1995 and additional reviews provided to give insight into the current condition and trends of check valve performance.

  15. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  16. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  17. A Spatialization-based Method for Checking and Updating Metadata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the application of spatialization technology on metadata quality check and updating was discussed. A new method based on spatialization was proposed for checking and updating metadata to overcome the deficiency of text based methods with the powerful functions of spatial query and analysis provided by GIS software. This method employs the technology of spatialization to transform metadata into a coordinate space and the functions of spatial analysis in GIS to check and update spatial metadata in a visual environment. The basic principle and technical flow of this method were explained in detail, and an example of implementation using ArcMap of GIS software was illustrated with a metadata set of digital raster maps. The result shows the new method with the support of interaction of graph and text is much more intuitive and convenient than the ordinary text based method, and can fully utilize the functions of GIS spatial query and analysis with more accuracy and efficiency.

  18. Model Checking-Based Testing of Web Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hongwei; MIAO Huaikou

    2007-01-01

    A formal model representing the navigation behavior of a Web application as the Kripke structure is proposed and an approach that applies model checking to test case generation is presented. The Object Relation Diagram as the object model is employed to describe the object structure of a Web application design and can be translated into the behavior model. A key problem of model checking-based test generation for a Web application is how to construct a set of trap properties that intend to cause the violations of model checking against the behavior model and output of counterexamples used to construct the test sequences.We give an algorithm that derives trap properties from the object model with respect to node and edge coverage criteria.

  19. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Cole, T J; Green, S J; Walker, K A; Rennie, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card was used by junior paediatric doctors to assess 262 babies under 6 months old presenting to hospital. The duty registrar and two consultants independently graded the severity of each baby's illness without knowledge of the Baby Check score. The registrars assessed the babies at presentation while the consultants reviewed the notes. The consultants and registrars agreed about the need for hospital admission only about 75% of the time. The score's sensitivity and predictive values were similar to those of the registrars' grading. The score's specificity was 87%. Babies with serious diagnosis scored high, while minor illnesses scored low. The predictive value for requiring hospital admission increased with the score, rising to 100% for scores of 20 or more. The appropriate use of Baby Check should improve the detection of serious illness. It could also reduce the number of babies admitted with minor illness, without putting them at increased risk.

  20. CheckMATE 2: From the model to the limit

    CERN Document Server

    Dercks, Daniel; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Weber, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We present the latest developments to the CheckMATE program that allows models of new physics to be easily tested against the recent LHC data. To achieve this goal, the core of CheckMATE now contains over 60 LHC analyses of which 12 are from the 13 TeV run. The main new feature is that CheckMATE 2 now integrates the Monte Carlo event generation via Madgraph and Pythia 8. This allows users to go directly from a SLHA file or UFO model to the result of whether a model is allowed or not. In addition, the integration of the event generation leads to a significant increase in the speed of the program. Many other improvements have also been made, including the possibility to now combine signal regions to give a total likelihood for a model.

  1. Schedulability of Herschel revisited using statistical model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Schedulability analysis is a main concern for several embedded applications due to their safety-critical nature. The classical method of response time analysis provides an efficient technique used in industrial practice. However, the method is based on conservative assumptions related to execution...... to obtain some guarantee on the (un)schedulability of the model even in the presence of undecidability. Two methods are considered: symbolic model checking and statistical model checking. Since the model uses stop-watches, the reachability problem becomes undecidable so we are using an over......-approximation technique. We can safely conclude that the system is schedulable for varying values of BCET. For the cases where deadlines are violated, we use polyhedra to try to confirm the witnesses. Our alternative method to confirm non-schedulability uses statistical model-checking (SMC) to generate counter...

  2. Error Checking for Chinese Query by Mining Web Log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the search engine, error-input query is a common phenomenon. This paper uses web log as the training set for the query error checking. Through the n-gram language model that is trained by web log, the queries are analyzed and checked. Some features including query words and their number are introduced into the model. At the same time data smoothing algorithm is used to solve data sparseness problem. It will improve the overall accuracy of the n-gram model. The experimental results show that it is effective.

  3. The Complexity of Model Checking Higher-Order Fixpoint Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Roland; Lange, Martin; Somla, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    of solving rather large parity games of small index. As a consequence of this we obtain an ExpTime upper bound on the expression complexity of each HFLk,m. The lower bound is established by a reduction from the word problem for alternating (k-1)-fold exponential space bounded Turing Machines. As a corollary...... provides complexity results for its model checking problem. In particular we consider its fragments HFLk,m which are formed using types of bounded order k and arity m only. We establish k-ExpTime-completeness for model checking each HFLk,m fragment. For the upper bound we reduce the problem to the problem...

  4. Model Checking Event-B by Encoding into Alloy

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, Paulo J

    2008-01-01

    As systems become ever more complex, verification becomes more main stream. Event-B and Alloy are two formal specification languages based on fairly different methodologies. While Event-B uses theorem provers to prove that invariants hold for a given specification, Alloy uses a SAT-based model finder. In some settings, Event-B invariants may not be proved automatically, and so the often difficult step of interactive proof is required. One solution for this problem is to validate invariants with model checking. This work studies the encoding of Event-B machines and contexts to Alloy in order to perform temporal model checking with Alloy's SAT-based engine.

  5. The check and error analysis of the BRDF experiment bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed introduction is given to the check method of the BRDF experiment bench which is built on our own. Measurement is made on the BRDF of the standard white plate made of polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) with reference to the existing standard white plate whose surface reflectance is known and by the method of theory approximate and relative comparison. On the basis of that, the BRDF value of the standard white plate in the wave band of 0. 6328 μm is given and the experiment bench is checked, the relative error of the experiment bench being within 20%.

  6. Optimisation of BPMN Business Models via Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the optimisation of business processes modelled in the business process modelling language BPMN, which builds upon earlier work, where we developed a model checking based method for the analysis of BPMN models. We define a structure for expressing optimisation goals...... candidate improved processes based on the fittest of the previous generation. The evaluation of the fitness of each candidate in a generation is performed via model checking, detailed in previous work. At each iteration, this allows the determination of the precise numerical evaluation of the performance...

  7. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  8. Practice increases procedural errors after task interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Erik M; Hambrick, David Z

    2017-05-01

    Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption. We found this effect, with practice generally improving speed and accuracy, but impairing accuracy after interruptions. The results show that positive effects of practice can interact with architectural constraints on episodic memory to have negative effects on performance. In practical terms, the results suggest that practice can be a risk factor for procedural errors in task environments with a high incidence of task interruption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Stepp

    Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

  10. 浅析国际工程工程量清单校核的重要性%Importance of Workload List Checking for International Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文红; 郭亮辉

    2014-01-01

    Workload list checking is of great importance for international projects in“Deliver Keys” mode to avoid risks and increase efficiency.The importance of workload list checking for international projects in EPC ( Engineering, Pro-curement and Construction) mode are discussed from the aspects of principles of list preparation, characteristics of the list, list workload, item lacking and repeated checking.%为规避风险,实现企业增效,以国际工程“交钥匙”项目为例,从清单编制原则、清单特征描述、清单工程量、清单漏项、重复校核等方面讨论了国际工程EPC合同模式下对工程量清单校核的重要性。

  11. Model Checking and Model-based Testing in the Railway Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes some approaches and emerging trends for verification and model-based testing of railway control systems. We describe state-of-the-art methods and associated tools for verifying interlocking systems and their configuration data, using bounded model checking and k......-induction. Using real-world models of novel Danish interlocking systems, it is exemplified how this method scales up and is suitable for industrial application. For verification of the integrated HW/SW system performing the interlocking control tasks, a modelbased hardware-in-the-loop testing approach is presented...... with good test strength are explained. Interlocking systems represent just one class of many others, where concrete system instances are created from generic representations, using configuration data for determining the behaviour of the instances. We explain how the systematic transition from generic...

  12. Bringing Automated Model Checking to PLC Program Development - A CERN Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. Model checking appears to be an appropriate approach for this purpose. However, this technique is not widely used in industry yet, due to some obstacles. The main obstacles encountered when trying to apply formal verification techniques at industrial installations are the difficulty of creating models out of PLC programs and defining formally the specification requirements. In addition, models produced out of real-life programs have a huge state space, thus preventing the verification due to performance issues. Our work at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) focuses on developing efficient automatic verification methods for industrial critical installations based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems. In this paper, we present a tool generating automatically formal models out of PLC code. The tool implements a general methodology which can support several input languages, ...

  13. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  14. Testing the fireball/blastwave model by monitoring afterglows from soft gamma repeaters

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Y. F.

    2005-01-01

    The popular fireball/blastwave model of classical gamma-ray bursts is applied to soft gamma-ray bursts. It is found that X-ray afterglows from strong events may be above their quiescent levels for 40 -- 400 seconds. Optical afterglows may also be detectable. By monitoring the three repeaters, we will have an ideal way to check the fireball/blastwave model.

  15. Model checking: one can do much more than you think!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.

    2012-01-01

    Model checking is an automated verification technique that actively is applied to find bugs in hardware and software designs. Companies like IBM and Cadence developed their in-house model checkers, and acted as driving forces behind the design of the IEEE-standardized temporal logic PSL. On the othe

  16. Feasibility Checking for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue...

  17. Level of agency in sub-clinical checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayachi, S; Van der Linden, M

    2009-03-01

    This study examined cognitive representations of routine action, through the assessment of level of agency, in individuals with sub-clinical checking. The level of agency stems from Action Identification Theory [Vallacher, R. R., Wegner, D. M. (1989). Levels of personal agency: Individual variation in action identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, 660-671], which states that how actions are usually identified (based on instrumental aspects or purpose) reflects the predominant accessibility of internal representation (movements executed vs. goal pursued). Furthermore, this framework proposed that altered action regulation is related to low-level of agency (i.e., action identification at an instrumental level). In the current study, the main result indicated that checking symptoms were related to a low-level of agency, that is, individuals with sub-clinical checking identified habitual actions on the basis of instrumental aspects. This seems to indicate that checkers may act with a lack of goal representations. The results are discussed in terms of the role of low-level of agency in checking phenomena and related cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Interactive comparison of hypothesis tests for statistical model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Reijsbergen, D.P.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a web-based interactive comparison of hypothesis tests as are used in statistical model checking, providing users and tool developers with more insight into their characteristics. Parameters can be modified easily and their influence is visualized in real time; an integrated simulation

  19. Efficient Integrity Checking for Databases with Recursive Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    into incremental and optimized tests specialized for given update patterns. These tests may involve the introduction of new views, but for relevant cases of recursion, simplified integrity constraints are obtained that can be checked more efficiently than the original ones and without auxiliary views. Notably...

  20. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    arose originally from the geneticists' need to filter their input data from erroneous information, and is well motivated from both a biological and a sociological viewpoint. This paper shows that consistency checking is NP-complete, even in the presence of three alleles. Several other results...

  1. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  2. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...

  3. Multi-core and/or symbolic model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Tom; Laarman, Alfons; Pol, van de Jaco; Luettgen, G.; Merz, S.

    2012-01-01

    We review our progress in high-performance model checking. Our multi-core model checker is based on a scalable hash-table design and parallel random-walk traversal. Our symbolic model checker is based on Multiway Decision Diagrams and the saturation strategy. The LTSmin tool is based on the PINS arc

  4. Remedial Sheets for Progress Checks, Segments 1-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    The first part of the Self-Paced Physics Course remediation materials is presented for U. S. Naval Academy students who miss core problems on the progress check. The total of 78 problems is incorporated in this volume to match study segments 1 through 14. Each remedial sheet is composed of a statement of the missed problem and references to…

  5. Check list of European hymenomycetous Heterobasidiae. Supplement and corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    This continuation of the “Check list of European hymenomycetous Heterobasidiae” (published in Persoonia 4: 145-335. 1966) contains supplementary matter as well as corrections. — Ypsilonidium (Donk) Donk is published as a new genus. Two new specific combinations are made with this generic name. — Mur

  6. A Check List for Evaluating Persuasive Features of Mathematics Courseware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Baharuddin; Gharbaghi, Alireza; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Rosli, Mohd Shafie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to introduce a check list for evaluating persuasive features of mathematics courseware. Since mathematics is a source of anxiety among students (Zeidner & Matthews, 2010), this research is an attempt to employ persuasive features that can be used in mathematics courseware. Specifically, we sought to determine…

  7. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  8. Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John; Casten, John; Cowling, Catherine; Gray, Charles; Guhr, David; Hoofnagle, Kara; Huffman, Jessica; Mina, Moises; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of bouncers at on site establishments that served alcohol was observed. Our aim was to better understand how bouncers went about their job when the bar had a mandatory policy to check identification of all customers. Utilizing an ethnographic decision model, we found that bouncers were significantly more likely to card customers that…

  9. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which

  10. Radiation therapy plan checks in a paperless clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, R Alfredo; Pennington, Edward C; Waldron, Timothy J; Bayouth, John E

    2009-01-27

    Traditional quality assurance checks of a patient's radiation therapy plan involve printing out treatment parameters from the treatment planning system and the "record and verify" (R&V) system and visually checking the information for one-to-one correspondence. In a paperless environment, one can automate this process through independent software that can read the treatment planning data directly and compare it against the parameters in the R&V system's database. In addition to verifying the data integrity, it is necessary to check the logical consistency of the data and the accuracy of various calculations. The results are then imported into the patient's electronic medical record. Appropriate workflows must be developed to ensure that no steps of the QA process are missed. This paper describes our electronic QA system (EQS), consisting of in-house software and workflows. The EQS covers 3D conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy, electrons, stereotactic radiosurgery, total body irradiation, and clinical set ups with and without virtual simulation. The planning systems handled by our EQS are ADAC Pinnacle and Varian FASTPLAN, while the R&V systems are LANTIS and VARIS. The improvement in our plan check process over the paperless system is described in terms of the types of detected errors. The potential problems with the implementation and use of the EQS, as well as workarounds for data that are not easily accessible through electronic means, are described.

  11. Symmetry and partial order reduction techniques in model checking Rebeca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaghouri, M.M.; Sirjani, M.; Mousavi, M.R.; Movaghar, A.

    2007-01-01

    Rebeca is an actor-based language with formal semantics that can be used in modeling concurrent and distributed software and protocols. In this paper, we study the application of partial order and symmetry reduction techniques to model checking dynamic Rebeca models. Finding symmetry based equivalen

  12. Lessons Learned Model Checking an Industrial Communications Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science [LNCS], volume 2057). Toronto, Canada, May 19-20, 2001. Berlin...Model Checking,” 128-147. Integrated Formal Methods: The 4th International Conference (IFM 2004) ( Lecture Notes in Computer Science [LNCS], volume...on Computer Aided Verification (CAV 1990). ( Lecture Notes in Computer Science [LNCS], volume 531). New Brunswick, NJ, June 18-21, 1990.

  13. Model checking conditional CSL for continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ming; Zhan, Naijun;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the model-checking problem of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with respect to conditional logic. To the end, we extend Continuous Stochastic Logic introduced in Aziz et al. (2000) [1] to Conditional Continuous Stochastic Logic (CCSL) by introducing a conditional...

  14. Two Types of Test Assembly Checked and Accepted for CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The detail design of two types of test assembly used in the simulating transportation, and themounting and hydraulic test were completed in 2002. This two types of test assembly are manufactured inshanghai No.1 machine tool works, and checked and accepted in March 2003. The former is used in the

  15. Surrogate headform accelerations associated with stick checks in girls' lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Costa, Laura; Rich, Ryan; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany

    2015-04-01

    Girls' lacrosse is fundamentally a different sport than boys' lacrosse, and girls are not required to wear protective headgear. Recent epidemiological studies have found that stick checks are the leading cause of concussion injury in girls' lacrosse. The purpose of this study was to determine stick check speeds and estimate the head acceleration associated with direct checks to the head. In addition, we briefly examine if commercially available headgear can mitigate the accelerations. Seven (n = 7) experienced female lacrosse players checked, with varying severity, a NOSCAE and an ASTM headform. Stick speed at impact and the associated peak linear accelerations of the headform were recorded. The NOCSAE headform was fitted with four commercially available headgear and similar stick impact testing was performed. The median stick impact speed was 8.1 m/s and 777 deg/s. At these speeds, peak linear acceleration was approximately 60g. Three out of the four headgear significantly reduced the peak linear acceleration when compared with the bare headform. These data serve as baseline for understanding the potential mechanism and reduction of concussions from stick impacts in girls' lacrosse.

  16. Combining monitoring with run-time assertion checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, Stijn de

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new technique for Run-time Checking for two object-oriented languages: Java and the Abstract Behavioral Specification language ABS. In object-oriented languages, objects communicate by sending each other messages. Assuming encapsulation, the behavior of objects is completely determine

  17. The Role of Personal Ethical Checking in Courageous School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.; Pitts, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    When school leaders make calculated decisions to deviate from hierarchical or cultural directives and norms, they may be viewed as mavericks or brigands. This paper details a process of ethical checking to help differentiate ethical decisions from more arbitrary or self-serving decisions. The paper examines conflicts inherent in many professional…

  18. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brihaye, Thomas; Jungers, Marc; Lasaulce, Samson

    2010-01-01

    Model checking (MC) is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control ( PC) problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors...

  19. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, A.

    2006-01-01

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which utiliz

  20. Check list of the Hungarian Salticidae with biogeographical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szüts, Tamás

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An updated check list of the Hungarian jumping spider fauna is presented. 70 species are recorded from Hungary so far. Four species are new to the Hungarian fauna: Hasarius adansoni, Neon valentulus, Sitticus caricis, Synageles subcingulatus. With 12 original drawings.

  1. Architecture Compliance Checking of Semantically Rich Modular Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjaak Brinkkemper; Christian Köppe; Dr. Leo Pruijt

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Architecture Compliance Checking (ACC) is an approach to verify the conformance of implemented program code to high-level models of architectural design. ACC is used to prevent architectural erosion during the development and evolution of a software system. Static ACC, based on static

  2. First experiences with the LHC BLM sanity checks

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, J; Effinger, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M G; Zamantzas, C

    2010-01-01

    The reliability concerns have driven the design of the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system from the early stage of the studies up to the present commissioning and the latest development of diagnostic tools. To protect the system against non-conformities, new ways of automatic checking have been developed and implemented. These checks are regularly and systematically executed by the LHC operation team to ensure that the system status is after each test "as good as new". The sanity checks are part of this strategy. They are testing the electrical part of the detectors (ionisation chamber or secondary emission detector), their cable connections to the front-end electronics, further connections to the back-end electronics and their ability to request a beam abort. During the installation and in the early commissioning phase, these checks have shown their ability to find also non-conformities caused by unexpected failure event scenarios. In every day operation, a non-conformity discovere...

  3. Building tasks from verbal instructions: an EEG study on practice trial exposure and task structure complexity during novel sequences of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth; Jones, Timothy W; Davis, Elizabeth A; Ly, Trang T; Anderson, Mike

    2014-12-01

    Configuring the mind to perform a novel task is an effortful process and one that is related to differences in general intelligence. Previous research has suggested that when participants are given instructions for a future task, representations of the rules contained in the instructions can influence subsequent behavior, even when the rules are not necessary to perform the upcoming task. One hypothesis for the continued activation of rule representations suggests that the practice trials participants perform before the experimental trials may instantiate the unnecessary task rules into participants' mental model of the task (i.e., the task space). To test this hypothesis, EEGs were recorded as participants (N = 66) completed a multirule task designed to contrast the effects of increasing task structure complexity and practice trial exposure. The results showed that, as was predicted, performance is significantly poorer when more task rules are specified in the task instructions. Practice trials with the extra rule did not affect task performance, indicating that an unacted verbal instruction is sufficient to incorporate the rule into participants' mental model of the task. The EEG results showed that instruction complexity was linked to a phasic increase in frontal theta synchronization but reduced posterior alpha and beta desynchronization. These changes in synchronization occurred during a time period of low intertrial phase coherence and suggest that participants were "checking the task rules" amidst a trial. This transient neural activity may reflect compensatory mechanisms for dealing with increased mind-wandering that is more likely to occur in complex tasks.

  4. Mobile vehicle road and weather observation quality check methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel Raymond

    data quality and accuracy, requiring the development of quality checks for mobile data collection. Using OBDII-equipped automobiles and mobile collection methods, we can begin to address issues of data quality by understanding, characterizing, and demonstrating the quality of mobile system observations from operational and research environments. Several forms of quality checking can be used, including range checks, Barnes spatial checks, comparing vehicle data to road weather models, and applying Clarus quality check methodologies and algorithms to mobile observations. Development of these quality checks can lead to the future integration of mobile data into the Clarus system, data implementation for improved forecasting, maintenance decision support, and traveler safety. This paper will discuss the benefits and challenges in mobile data collection, along with how the development and implementation of a system of quality checks will improve the quality and accuracy of mobile data collection.

  5. Test-retest reliability and task order effects of emotional cognitive tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Pounder, Zoe; Preston, Sally; Hanson, Andy; Gallagher, Peter; Harmer, Catherine J; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the retest reliability of emotional cognitive tasks or the impact of using different tasks employing similar emotional stimuli within a battery. We investigated this in healthy subjects. We found improved overall performance in an emotional attentional blink task (EABT) with repeat testing at one hour and one week compared to baseline, but the impact of an emotional stimulus on performance was unchanged. Similarly, performance on a facial expression recognition task (FERT) was better one week after a baseline test, though the relative effect of specific emotions was unaltered. There was no effect of repeat testing on an emotional word categorising, recall and recognition task. We found no difference in performance in the FERT and EABT irrespective of task order. We concluded that it is possible to use emotional cognitive tasks in longitudinal studies and combine tasks using emotional facial stimuli in a single battery.

  6. Using IMPRINT to Guide Experimental Design with Simulated Task Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Workload Values Task Description Workload Value Nothing 0.0 Register/Detect (Detect Occurrence of Image ) 1.0 Inspect/Check (Discrete Inspection/Static...lot of teamwork involved, if someone sees something they don’t understand, they may ask another analyst who is an expert in that field. Most of the... teamwork is ad-hoc. The analysts communicate directly with each other verbally. An analyst will often will ask another analyst to ‘come over and

  7. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  8. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  9. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  10. What Task Designers Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Describes a research project that is concerned with the design procedures followed by those engaged in designing pedagogic tasks for use in classrooms. Focuses on the part of the project that involves actual observation of designers in the process of developing one specific task for class use. Findings are presented under three headers: control…

  11. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  12. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance

    OpenAIRE

    Finardi, Kyria Rebeca

    2008-01-01

    This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms ...

  13. Patterns of attendance to health checks in a municipality setting: the Danish ‘Check Your Health Preventive Program’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Louise Bjerregaard

    2017-03-01

    More than half of a general population voluntarily attended a general health check, despite a resource intensive offer. People with low resources had lower attendance rates. This study adds a detailed description of mutually exclusive groups of attenders, for use in future planning and implementation of preventive actions.

  14. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is fragme......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together...

  15. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  16. Cardiac data increase association between self-report and both expert ratings of task load and task performance in flight simulator tasks: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Karavidas, Maria; Lu, Shou-En; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Vaschillo, Bronya; Cheng, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Seven professional airplane pilots participated in a one-session test in a Boeing 737-800 simulator. Mental workload for 18 flight tasks was rated by experienced test pilots (hereinafter called "expert ratings") and by study participants' self-report on NASA's Task Load Index (TLX) scale. Pilot performance was rated by a check pilot. The standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN) significantly added 3.7% improvement over the TLX in distinguishing high from moderate-load tasks and 2.3% improvement in distinguishing high from combined moderate and low-load tasks. Minimum RRI in the task significantly discriminated high- from medium- and low-load tasks, but did not add significant predictive variance to the TLX. The low-frequency/high-frequency (LF:HF) RRI ratio based on spectral analysis of R-R intervals, and ventricular relaxation time were each negatively related to pilot performance ratings independently of TLX values, while minimum and average RRI were positively related, showing added contribution of these cardiac measures for predicting performance. Cardiac results were not affected by controlling either for respiration rate or motor activity assessed by accelerometry. The results suggest that cardiac assessment can be a useful addition to self-report measures for determining flight task mental workload and risk for performance decrements. Replication on a larger sample is needed to confirm and extend the results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  18. Task-baseret kommunikativ sprogundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen

    2015-01-01

    Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-......Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-...

  19. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  20. Changes to criminal records checks used to safeguard vulnerable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2012-07-01

    The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is introducing changes to the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) checks carried out on those people who work with vulnerable groups. The new law is the coalition Government's response to the criticism of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Group Act 2006. It will merge the CRB and Independent Safeguarding Authority into a new Disclosure and Barring Service and will enhance the rights of applicants to challenge the CRB's right to disclose non-conviction information as part of an enhanced criminal records check. In the first of two articles on the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the current framework for disclosing criminal records and the impact of the changes on district nurses applying for new posts.

  1. Non-trivial checks of novel consistency relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wang, Junpu, E-mail: lashaber@gmail.com, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: jwang217@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.

  2. Non-Trivial Checks of Novel Consistency Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Wang, Junpu

    2014-01-01

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of slow-roll single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.

  3. Rejuvinasi Sistem Checks and Balances Dalam Sistem Ketatanegaraan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Rahmatullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rejuvenation of Check and Balance System in Statehood System in Indonesia. Instead of delegated to only a person or an Institution, State Sovereignty shall be divided into some Institutions (separation of power.  The concept of Separation of power is difficult to be implemented because the each State Institution cannot share their power, therefore the concept of distribution of power has been introduced as alternative. This concept recognise Check and balances system. However, It will not guarantee harmony between State Institution. It exist the tension between State Institutions because They feel having the same authority, as seen in some cases such as between Parliament and president on Bill of  head of regional election, Police Department and Commission of Eradication Corruption and the latest is the conflict between Supreme Court and Judicial Commission. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v1i2.2992

  4. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. A Succinct Approach to Static Analysis and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr

    In a number of areas software correctness is crucial, therefore it is often desirable to formally verify the presence of various properties or the absence of errors. This thesis presents a framework for concisely expressing static analysis and model checking problems. The framework facilitates...... in the classical formulation of ALFP logic. Finally, we show that the logics and the associated solvers can be used for rapid prototyping. We illustrate that by a variety of case studies from static analysis and model checking....... rapid prototyping of new analyses and consists of variants of ALFP logic and associated solvers. First, we present a Lattice based Least Fixed Point Logic (LLFP) that allows interpretations over complete lattices satisfying Ascending Chain Condition. We establish a Moore Family result for LLFP...

  6. SMT-based Bounded Model Checking with Difference Logic Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Bersani, Marcello M; Morzenti, Angelo; Pradella, Matteo; Rossi, Matteo; Pietro, Pierluigi San

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Bounded Model Checking (BMC) is based on translating the model checking problem into SAT, the Boolean satisfiability problem. This paper introduces an encoding of Linear Temporal Logic with Past operators (PLTL) into the Quantifier-Free Difference Logic with Uninterpreted Functions (QF-UFIDL). The resulting encoding is a simpler and more concise version of existing SATbased encodings, currently used in BMC. In addition, we present an extension of PLTL augmented with arithmetic relations over integers, which can express unbounded counters; as such, the extended logic is more expressive than PLTL. We introduce suitable restrictions and assumptions that are shown to make the verification problem for the extended logic decidable, and we define an encoding of the new logic into QF-UFIDL. Finally, a performance comparison with the SAT-based approach on purely PLTL examples shows significant improvements in terms of both execution time and memory occupation.

  7. Model Checking Real-Time Value-Passing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen; Zio-Ning Cao

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,to model check real-time value-passing systems,a formal language Timed Symbolic Transition Graph and a logic system named Timed Predicate μ-Calculus are proposed.An algorithm is presented which is local in that it generates and investigates the reachable state space in top-down fashion and maintains the partition for time evaluations as coarse as possible while on-the-fly instantiating data variables.It can deal with not only data variables with finite value domain,but also the so called data independent variables with infinite value domain.To authors knowledge,this is the first algorithm for model checking timed systems containing value-passing features.

  8. Efficient family-based model checking via variability abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Brabrand, Claus

    2016-01-01

    variational models using the standard version of (single-system) Spin. The variability abstractions are first defined as Galois connections on semantic domains. We then show how to use them for defining abstract family-based model checking, where a variability model is replaced with an abstract version of it......Many software systems are variational: they can be configured to meet diverse sets of requirements. They can produce a (potentially huge) number of related systems, known as products or variants, by systematically reusing common parts. For variational models (variational systems or families...... of related systems), specialized family-based model checking algorithms allow efficient verification of multiple variants, simultaneously, in a single run. These algorithms, implemented in a tool Snip, scale much better than ``the brute force'' approach, where all individual systems are verified using...

  9. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...

  10. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya [Sankoukai Miyazaki Hospital, Isahaya, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  11. Spectral Shape of Check-Hybrid GLDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Paolini, Enrico; Chiani, Marco; Fossorier, Marc P C

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymptotic exponent of both the weight spectrum and the stopping set size spectrum for a class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes. Specifically, all variable nodes (VNs) are assumed to have the same degree (regular VN set), while the check node (CN) set is assumed to be composed of a mixture of different linear block codes (hybrid CN set). A simple expression for the exponent (which is also referred to as the growth rate or the spectral shape) is developed. This expression is consistent with previous results, including the case where the normalized weight or stopping set size tends to zero. Furthermore, it is shown how certain symmetry properties of the local weight distribution at the CNs induce a symmetry in the overall weight spectral shape function.

  12. A Novel Nanometric Reversible Signed Divider with Overflow Checking Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Dastan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the best approaches for designing future computers is that we use reversible logic. Reversible logic circuits have lower power consumption than the common circuits, used in computers nowadays. In this study we propose a new reversible division circuit. This reversible division circuit is signed divider and has an overflow checking capability. Among the designed and proposed reversible division circuits, our proposed division circuit is the first reversible signed divider with overflow checking capability which has been designed. In this circuit we use some reversible components like reversible parallel adder, reversible left-shift register, reversible multiplexer, reversible n-bit register and reversible n-bit register with parallel load line. In this paper all the scales are in the nanometric area.

  13. Detecting feature interactions in Web services with model checking techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As a platform-independent software system, a Web service is designed to offer interoperability among diverse and heterogeneous applications.With the introduction of service composition in the Web service creation, various message interactions among the atomic services result in a problem resembling the feature interaction problem in the telecommunication area.This article defines the problem as feature interaction in Web services and proposes a model checking-based detection method.In the method, the Web service description is translated to the Promela language - the input language of the model checker simple promela interpreter (SPIN), and the specific properties, expressed as linear temporal logic (LTL) formulas, are formulated according to our classification of feature interaction.Then, SPIN is used to check these specific properties to detect the feature interaction in Web services.

  14. Comparative analysis of cognitive tasks for modeling mental workload with electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeho; Kim, Miyoung; Hwangbo, Minsu; Oh, Eunmi

    2014-01-01

    Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have shown that cognitive workload can be estimated by using several types of cognitive tasks. In this study, we attempted to characterize cognitive tasks that have been used to manipulate workload for generating classification models. We carried out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks: the n-back task and the mental arithmetic task. Based on experiments with 7 healthy subjects using Emotiv EPOC, we compared the consistency, robustness, and efficiency of each task in determining cognitive workload in a short training session. The mental arithmetic task seems consistent and robust in manipulating clearly separable high and low levels of cognitive workload with less training. In addition, the mental arithmetic task shows consistency despite repeated usage over time and without notable task adaptation in users. The current study successfully quantifies the quality and efficiency of cognitive workload modeling depending on the type and configuration of training tasks.

  15. Model checking abstract state machines with answer set programming

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a logic programming paradigm that has been shown as a useful tool in various application areas due to its expressive modelling language. These application areas include Bourided Model Checking (BMC). BMC is a verification technique that is recognized for its strong ability of finding errors in computer systems. To apply BMC, a system needs to be modelled in a formal specification language, such as the widely used formalism of Abstract State Machines (ASMs). In ...

  16. Model Checking Processes Specified In Join-Calculus Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Piotr Maludziński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a model checking tool used to verify concurrent systems specified in join-calculus algebra. The temporal properties of systems under verification are expressed in CTL logic. Join-calculus algebra with its operational semantics defined by the chemical abstract machine serves as the basic method for the specification of concurrent systems and their synchronization mechanisms, and allows the examination of more complex systems.

  17. Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios Sagar Chaki and Derrick Karimi Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University {chaki...different runs varies randomly depending on the thread interleaving. The use of a portfolio of solvers to maximize the likelihood of a quick solution is...investigated. Using the Extreme Value theorem, the runtime of each variant, as well as their portfolios is analysed statistically. A formula for the

  18. Grounding devices of electrical equipment's installation and check to maintain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2009-01-01

    At this stage in real life,the incidents of electricity are increasing,the main reason is that the subjective sense is weak,non-importance,especially the operation and maintenance is more neglected,and even there is no sense in this area.In this paper,based on electrical equipment grounding system for use in practice,simple introdusing grounding device of electrical equipment's installation and maintenance checks.

  19. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Shireesha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing newsoftware products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuserepository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describeshow a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking ifoptimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providingcoding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable componentsand guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  20. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  1. Symbolic Model Checking and Analysis for E-Commerce Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jing-Hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for analyzing non-repudiation and fairness of e-commerce protocols. The authentication e-mail protocol CMP1 is modeled as finite state machine and analyzed in two vital aspects - non-repudiation and fairness using SMV. As a result, the CMP1 protocol is not fair and we have improved it. This result shows that it is effective to analyze and check the new features of e-commerce protocols using SMV model checker

  2. A Graphical μ-Calculus and Local Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林惠民

    2002-01-01

    A graphical notation for the propositionalμ-calculus, called modal graphs, ispresented. It is shown that both the textual and equational presentations of theμ-calculus canbe translated into modal graphs. A model checking algorithm based on such graphs is proposed.The algorithm is truly local in the sense that it only generates the parts of the underlyingsearch space which are necessary for the computation of the final result. The correctness of thealgorithm is proven and its complexity analysed.

  3. What is the purpose of the Stress Check Program?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Norio; Saito, Manabu; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Since December 1, 2015, the Japanese government has required employers to conduct the Stress Check Program. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare announced that this program should focus on the primary prevention of mental health problems. Although employers are obliged to perform screening for mental health problems and a physician's interview, employees are not mandated to participate in this program. Classical occupational health studies have accumulated evidence indicating that quant...

  4. Independence-Based Optimization of Epistemic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    model checking, Chaum’s Dining Cryptographers protocol [10] is described in Section 3. Sec- tion 4 recalls Shenoy and Shafer’s valuation algebra , which...future directions. Appendix A provides additional detail on the experiments. 2 Background: Epistemic Logic We begin by recalling some basic definitions...anonymous broadcast. This protocol, both in its basic form, as well as an extension that is more generally applicable, has previously been analysed using

  5. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiang Li; Weiqiang Xia; Liwen Nan; Youjia Zhao; Fujin Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completel...

  6. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shireesha, P; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1303

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  7. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shireesha, P.; S.S.V.N.Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and ...

  8. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  9. Proof Validation in Real Analysis: Inferring and Checking Warrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Lara; Weber, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In the study reported here, we investigate the skills needed to validate a proof in real analysis, i.e., to determine whether a proof is valid. We first argue that when one is validating a proof, it is not sufficient to make certain that each statement in the argument is true. One must also check that there is good reason to believe that each…

  10. Network segregation in a model of misinformation and fact checking

    CERN Document Server

    Tambuscio, Marcella; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Ruffo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Misinformation under the form of rumor, hoaxes, and conspiracy theories spreads on social media at alarming rates. One hypothesis is that, since social media are shaped by homophily, belief in misinformation may be more likely to thrive on those social circles that are segregated from the rest of the network. One possible antidote is fact checking which, in some cases, is known to stop rumors from spreading further. However, fact checking may also backfire and reinforce the belief in a hoax. Here we take into account the combination of network segregation, finite memory and attention, and fact-checking efforts. We consider a compartmental model of two interacting epidemic processes over a network that is segregated between gullible and skeptic users. Extensive simulation and mean-field analysis show that a more segregated network facilitates the spread of a hoax only at low forgetting rates, but has no effect when agents forget at faster rates. This finding may inform the development of mitigation techniques ...

  11. Approximating Attractors of Boolean Networks by Iterative CTL Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Hannes; Siebert, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of approximating asynchronous attractors of Boolean networks by minimal trap spaces. We define three criteria for determining the quality of an approximation: "faithfulness" which requires that the oscillating variables of all attractors in a trap space correspond to their dimensions, "univocality" which requires that there is a unique attractor in each trap space, and "completeness" which requires that there are no attractors outside of a given set of trap spaces. Each is a reachability property for which we give equivalent model checking queries. Whereas faithfulness and univocality can be decided by model checking the corresponding subnetworks, the naive query for completeness must be evaluated on the full state space. Our main result is an alternative approach which is based on the iterative refinement of an initially poor approximation. The algorithm detects so-called autonomous sets in the interaction graph, variables that contain all their regulators, and considers their intersection and extension in order to perform model checking on the smallest possible state spaces. A benchmark, in which we apply the algorithm to 18 published Boolean networks, is given. In each case, the minimal trap spaces are faithful, univocal, and complete, which suggests that they are in general good approximations for the asymptotics of Boolean networks.

  12. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.

  13. Assembly-line health check up in digitalized hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalan; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Zigang

    2002-01-01

    The health check up flow of digital hospital can be consulted with the assembly line of industry factory. Because they have the following same features: highly specialized workstation, closeness and continuance, rhythm, balanced production, continuous production. The essential prerequisites are as the follows: The inspecting items and methods should be stable; advanced product mix and stable production design; standardized raw material, consumption, procedure, inspection method; there are lots of request for health inspection; the customers move at the least unit; the space arrangement should be reasonable; the time arrangement should be proportion. With the computer net, the digital inspection can achieves the raw material controlling accurately. The basis of check up line concerns about equipment, net and software, data collection, and personnel. The group technology is used in the health inspection flow design of the digital hospital in the field of items customers and zone redivided. The digital assembly linemic health inspect has the following stages: member registering, notice, check in, arrange order, time control, report, feedback and analysis. The assembly linemic has following advantages: increasing the productivity, the space utility, satisfaction of customer, fund returning, lowering the cost and ensuring the quality.

  14. Assembly-Line Health Check up in Digitalized Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅兰; 姚斌; 张子刚

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The health check up flow of digital hospital can be consulted with the assembly line ofindustry factory. Because they have the following same features: highly specialized workstation,closeness and continuance, rhythm, balanced production, continuous production. The essentialprerequisites are as the follows: The inspecting items and methods should be stable; advancedproduct mix and stable production design; standardized raw material, consumption, procedure,inspection method; there are lots of request for health inspection; the customers move at the leastunit; the space arrangement should be reasonable; the time arrangement should be proportion.With the computer net, the digital inspection can achieves the raw material controlling accurately.The basis of check up line concerns about equipment, net and software, data collection, and per-sonnel. The group technology is used in the health inspection flow design of the digital hospital inthe field of items customers and zone redivided. The digital assembly linemic health inspect has thefollowing stages: member registering, notice, check in, arrange order, time control, report, feed-back and analysis. The assembly linemic has following advantages: increasing the productivity,the space utility, satisfaction of customer, fund returning, lowering the cost and ensuring thequality.

  15. Abstraction and Refinement in Static Model-Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Musumbu, Kaninda

    2009-01-01

    interpretation is a general methodology for building static analyses of programs. It was introduced by P. and R. Cousot in \\cite{cc}. We present, in this paper, an application of a generic abstract interpretation to domain of model-checking. Dynamic checking are usually easier to use, because the concept are establishe d and wide well know. But they are usually limited to systems whose states space is finite. In an other part, certain faults cannot be detected dynamically, even by keeping track of the history of the states space.Indeed, the classical problem of finding the right test cases is far from trivial and limit the abilities of dynamic checkers further. Static checking have the advantage that they work on a more abstract level than dynamic checker and can verify system properties for all inputs. Problem, it is hard to guarantee that a violation of a modeled property corresponds to a fault in the concrete system. We propose an approach, in which we generate counter-examples dynamically using the abstra...

  16. Improved Trial Division Technique for Primality Checking in RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarjit Banerjee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers. To check the primality of large number in personal computer is huge time consuming using the best known trial division algorithm. The time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using the representation of divisors in the form of 6n±1. According to the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic, every number has unique factorization. So to check primality, it is sufficient to check if the number is divisible by any prime below the square root of the number. The set of divisors obtained by 6n±1 form representation contains many composites. These composite numbers have been reduced by 30k approach. In this paper, the number of composites has been further reduced using 210k approach. A performance analysis in time complexity has been given between 210k approach and other prior applied methods. It has been observed that the time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using 210k approach.

  17. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  19. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  20. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  1. Feasibility Study of Enforcing Immunization Check Before Primary School or Kindergarten Enrollment in Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the feasibility of enforcing immunization certificate check before children enroll in primary schools or kindergartens in Guizhou Province. Methods Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted. The multi-stage and cluster sampling approach was adopted for the quantitative part of the study. A questionnaire was designed and 996 children and their keepers were interviewed. Principals, doctors or teachers of the primary schools, directors and child care nurses of kindergarten, and staff of immunization agencies were invited to take part in 12 focus group discussions; meanwhile,face-to-face individual in-depth interviews with 16 officials of the Health, Education and Governmental Departments at various levels were conducted. Results The total number of subjects was 996. 16.7% of the children in the study completed all the procedures of the National Immunization Programme. 34.3% of them had immunization certificates while the remainder 44.7%registered in immunization agencies. Factors, including the migrant children, doubt about vaccine efficiency, mother's occupation and educational background, knowledge of the National Immunization Programme on targeted vaccines, played an important role in obtaining or not immunization certificates. 95% of the keepers interviewed thought the immunization certificates were useful; 94.8% of them considered the check was critical while only 3.6% of them thought it unnecessary. The first reason from those who found it unnecessary was that they feared that repeated immunization might affect their children's health.The second reason was the cost of immunization, which some of them could not afford to pay. However, the Health Department expressed a favorable attitude to the checking scheme. Though the Education Department agreed that the scheme was essential, they worried that it would affect the enrollment rate. Conclusion In spite of the difficulty in administering immunization certificate check, the effort would be

  2. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  3. A survey of FRB fields: Limits on repeatability

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, E; Keane, E F; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Barr, E D; Barsdell, B R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Caleb, M; Champion, D J; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Ng, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B W

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist to explain the source of the bright, millisecond duration pulses known as fast radio bursts (FRBs). If the progenitors of FRBs are non-cataclysmic, such as giant pulses from pulsars, pulsar-planet binaries, or magnetar flares, FRB emission may be seen to repeat. We have undertaken a survey of the fields of eight known FRBs from the High Time Resolution Universe survey to search for repeating pulses. Although no repeat pulses were detected the survey yielded the detection of a new FRB, described in Petroff et al. (2015a). From our observations we rule out periodic repeating sources with periods P $\\leq$ 8.6 hours and rule out sources with periods 8.6 < P < 21 hours at the 90% confidence level. At P $\\geq$ 21 hours our limits fall off as ~1/P. Dedicated and persistent observations of FRB source fields are needed to rule out repetition on longer timescales, a task well-suited to next generation wide-field transient detectors.

  4. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  5. Lesion Neuroanatomy of the Sustained Attention to Response Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Gillebert, Celine R.; Schoofs, Hanne; Dupont, Patrick; Peeters, Ronald; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2009-01-01

    The Sustained Attention to Response task is a classical neuropsychological test that has been used by many centres to characterize the attentional deficits in traumatic brain injury, ADHD, autism and other disorders. During the SART a random series of digits 1-9 is presented repeatedly and subjects have to respond to each digit (go trial) except…

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  7. Leadership Job Dimensions and Competency Requirements for Commissioned and Noncommissioned Officers. Task IIA: Remediate Inadequacies in Existing Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    should be spent on this activity. As aspects of the job are suggested by the group, write them on a blackboard or flip chart . They need to be available...the holes. Write the tasks on the blackboard or flip chart so that they may be discussed and revised. Another check on comprehensiveness can be...feel it is adequately covered in the task list. Again, new tasks can be . written where necessary. 5. Use blackboard or flip chart to write down goals

  8. The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marlène; Bennett, Tom; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-09-15

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among

  9. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  10. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  11. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  12. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  13. Simulations for EBS Task Force BMT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. [Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    The Aespoe HRL International Joint Committee has set up a Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS). Its long time objective is to develop effective tools for analysis of THM(C) behaviour of buffer and backfill. The idea of the Task Force is to offer a forum to develop the tools of the work groups. This BMT has two parts: BMT 1.1 and BMT 1.2 based on the performance of THM mock-up experiments on MX-80 bentonite by CEA and FEBEX bentonite by CIEMAT, respectively. Simulation results are presented here. These simulations are performed with Freefem++ software, which is a high-level programming language for solving partiel differential equations with finite element method. The mathematical model used is based on continuum thermodynamics. The simulations repeat the evolution of relevant THM variables of the experiments fairly well, but some modificatios of parameters is needed, especially in hydraulic behaviour. (orig.)

  14. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  15. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  16. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  17. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  18. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  19. Slit-check dams for the control of debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are paroxysmal events that mobilize, alongside water, huge quantities of sediment in a very short time, then with both solid and liquid huge discharges, possibly exceeding the capacity of the current torrent restoration works. In this respect, the climate change forcing cannot be ignored. In the majority of urbanized areas, that are generally the most vulnerable, there is often not enough space to create channelling works able to let the volumes pass through without overflowing. The simplest, less expensive and most sustainable solution consists in reducing the peak solid discharge by creating storage areas upstream of the settlements, typically upstream of the alluvial fans, allowing for reduced works of canalization, that are compatible with the constraints imposed by the urbanization. The general idea consists in storing a part of the flowing solids during the peak of the hydrograph and releasing it in a successive phase or during minor floods. For this purpose, and in order to optimize the solid peak discharge reduction, it is necessary that properly designed open-check dams, capable of inducing a significative sedimentation of the solid discharge only when this exceeds a design-threshold value, control the deposition basins. A correct design of the check dam is crucial in order to induce the sedimentation in the right amount and at the right moment: a too early sedimentation might fill the volume before the peak, like in the case of close-check dams, while a too weak sedimentation might not use the whole available volume. In both cases, the channelling works might not be sufficient to let all the flow pass through, compromising the safety of the settlement. To avoid this inconvenience, we propose the use of slit-check dams, whose efficiency has already been proved for bed load. Check dams are often designed only on the base of the designer's experience. Besides, even today it is often believed that the filtering effect of open check dams is

  20. Mobile Attendance Checking System on Android Platform for Kazakhstani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparkhojayev, N.; Shakhov, E.; Mailybayev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the 21st century-the century of Information Technology, it is difficult to imagine life without any gadgets: phones, tablets, computers, laptops, and so on. Today, smartphones and tablets are becoming popular, and thus their operating systems become popular too. Android is designed for low-power devices that run on battery power at full capacity, using all of its services, such as cameras, lights, GPS navigation, Wi-Fi, etc. In Kazakhstani universities, the process of checking students’ attendance is one of the important issues, because final grade evaluation of students is based on their total number of appearances and their grades during the whole semester. This raises the question of having some tool to control students’ attendance. There are many possible ways of controlling attendance: there are many examples when universities prefer to control attendance by the use of paper sheet, and some universities prefer to use two-stage way of controlling attendance: firstly, teachers and professors use paper sheet for checking students’ attendance and after this, they fill out these information into a system manually. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like “presence” or “absence” if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Furthermore, some students may call his/her friend as “presence” nevertheless to the fact that this student is currently absent. After taking into consideration all these issues and the fact that many gadgets use Android platform, authors of the following research paper decided to create a mobile system that makes easier to check students’ attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Almaty Management University, Kazakhstan. The system is based on Android platform, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

  1. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Hlavacs, Helmut; Haq, Inam Ul; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Fakhri Alam; Ahmad, Awais

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  2. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    The current trend of distributing computations over a network is here, as a novelty, applied to a safety critical system, namely a railway interlocking system. We show how the challenge of guaranteeing safety of the distributed application has been attacked by formally specifying and model checking...... the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  3. Model-Checking Linear-Time Properties of Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    We define a formal framework for reasoning about linear-time properties of quantum systems in which quantum automata are employed in the modeling of systems and certain closed subspaces of state (Hilbert) spaces are used as the atomic propositions about the behavior of systems. We provide an algorithm for verifying invariants of quantum automata. Then automata-based model-checking technique is generalized for the verification of safety properties recognizable by reversible automata and omega-properties recognizable by reversible Buechi automata.

  4. Daily check of the electron beams with a diode system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilette, P. [Hospital Civil de Charleroi (Belgium). Centre for Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A fast systems to check all the accelerator beams on a daily basis has been developed. A cheap home-made detector, based on non-medical diodes (type 1N5408), has been used since July 1992 to verify all the electron beams every day. The relative energy and Top-cGy correspondence is verified with one single irradiation of less than 1 minute by 6 diodes fixed in a polystyrene phantom. The principle of construction, software implementation and results are presented.

  5. Energy Audit Checks - A socioeconomic assessment; Energikartlaeggningscheckar - En samhaellsekonomisk utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    This review is part of the Swedish Energy Agency's work with skills and methodology development on economic analyzes. The present socioeconomic analysis is the first of its kind to evaluate the current support for energy audit checks and is based on the instrument's purpose, goals and obstacles. Cost effectiveness is the main focus, as well as a description of the instrument's benefits and costs. The evaluation also aims to further develop the instrument in conjunction with the implementation of energy efficiency directive. Proposals for new instruments have however not been part of the mission.

  6. [Discharge of very preterm infants from neonatology: check list].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F

    2004-02-01

    Key elements of the check list for neonatal discharge include: discharge discussion with parents, relation with maternal and child welfare assistants and family practitioner, scheduling of follow-up visits, request for insurance coverage, parental presence allowance, special education allowance, debriefing with nurses and nurses providers, clinical and biological appraisal, discharge prescription. For a former extremely premature baby, going home - often after a long hospitalization and a variety of pathologic problems - must be prepared and should not be decided in haste, not only for the baby and his/her parents, but also. for the neonatal staff!

  7. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  8. Model Checking Data Consistency for Cache Coherence Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Pan; Hui-Min Lin; Yi Lv

    2006-01-01

    A method for automatic verification of cache coherence protocols is presented, in which cache coherence protocols are modeled as concurrent value-passing processes, and control and data consistency requirement are described as formulas in first-orderμ-calculus. A model checker is employed to check if the protocol under investigation satisfies the required properties. Using this method a data consistency error has been revealed in a well-known cache coherence protocol.The error has been corrected, and the revised protocol has been shown free from data consistency error for any data domain size, by appealing to data independence technique.

  9. Android Security (Decompilation of APK File to Check Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world wide revolution in Android technology is changing our lives in term of the way we learn and use. Android Security fits into this because the technology has been around long enough and can provide various benefits for security in this area. The main objective of this paper is to Decompile the Android App And Check the permissions Used By That App (What The permissions any app is accessing Like reading messages, Using our internet data, reading our call logs. This Research Paper Helps Peoples To aware About the Un necessary Applications and Their Permissions That Are in Our Phone Stealing Our Credit Card details, secret details etc.

  10. Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leungwattanakit, Watcharin; Artho, Cyrille; Hagiya, Masami; Tanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Mitsuharu

    2009-01-01

    Model checkers find failures in software by exploring every possible execution schedule. Java PathFinder (JPF), a Java model checker, has been extended recently to cover networked applications by caching data transferred in a communication channel. A target process is executed by JPF, whereas its peer process runs on a regular virtual machine outside. However, non-deterministic target programs may produce different output data in each schedule, causing the cache to restart the peer process to handle the different set of data. Virtualization tools could help us restore previous states of peers, eliminating peer restart. This paper proposes the application of virtualization technology to networked model checking, concentrating on JPF.

  11. Gut Check: The evolution of an educational board game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, David A; Ettinger, Cassandra L; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2017-04-01

    The "gamification" of science has gained a lot of traction in recent years, and games that convey scientific concepts or themes are increasingly popular. While a number of existing games touch on microbiology, very few consider the beneficial (as opposed to the detrimental) aspects of microbes. We designed a board game called "Gut Check: The Microbiome Game" to fill this gap. The game is meant to be both educational as well as challenging and fun. Here we discuss the development of the game, some of the logistics of game development in this context, and offer suggestions for others thinking of similar projects.

  12. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid: A Stochastic Model Checking Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Zhu, Huibiao; Huang, Heqing

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology functions to the physical elements of a system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues that require novel methods and applications. In this context, an important issue is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this technical report, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker.

  13. Injection Beam Loss and Beam Quality Checks for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Bracco, Chiara; Drosdal, Lene; Holzer, Eva; Khasbulatov, Denis; Magnin, Nicolas; Meddahi, Malika; Nordt, Annika; Sapinski, Mariusz; Vogt, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the injection into the LHC is monitored by a dedicated software system which acquires and analyses the pulse waveforms from the injection kickers, and measures key beam parameters and compares them with the nominal ones. The beam losses at injection are monitored on many critical devices in the injection regions, together with the longitudinal filling pattern and maximum trajectory offset on the first 100 turns. The paper describes the injection quality check system and the results from LHC beam commissioning, in particular the beam losses measured during injection at the various aperture limits. The results are extrapolated to full intensity and the consequences are discussed

  14. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report......, we identify an important gap in the specification on key updates, and present a methodology for determining optimal key update policies and security parameters. We exploit the stochastic model checking approach using the probabilistic model checker PRISM, and assess the security needs for realistic...

  15. Model Checking Workflow Net Based on Petri Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Conghua; CHEN Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    The soundness is a very important criterion for the correctness of the workflow.Specifying the soundness with Computation Tree Logic (CTL) allows us to verify the soundness with symbolic model checkers.Therefore the state explosion problem in verifying soundness can be overcome efficiently.When the property is not satisfied by the system,model checking can give a counter-example, which can guide us to correct the workflow.In addition, relaxed soundness is another important criterion for the workflow.We also prove that Computation Tree Logic * (CTL * ) can be used to character the relaxed soundness of the workflow.

  16. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Fruth, Matthias; Kwiatkowska, Marta

    2012-01-01

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report, we identify an important gap in the specification on key updates, and present a methodology for determining optimal key update policies and security parameters. We exploit the stochastic model checking approach using the probabilistic model checker PRISM, and assess the security needs for realistic application scenarios.

  17. Probabilistic Priority Message Checking Modeling Based on Controller Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Although the probabilistic model checking tool called PRISM has been applied in many communication systems, such as wireless local area network, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, the technique is not used in a controller area network (CAN). In this paper, we use PRISM to model the mechanism of priority messages for CAN because the mechanism has allowed CAN to become the leader in serial communication for automobile and industry control. Through modeling CAN, it is easy to analyze the characteristic of CAN for further improving the security and efficiency of automobiles. The Markov chain model helps us to model the behaviour of priority messages.

  18. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...

  19. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing collection, comments requested the Voluntary Appeal File (VAF... Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check...

  20. 76 FR 6199 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Regulatory Commission 10 CFR Part 73 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event... Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... revisions in these implementing regulations that address the voluntary application for enhanced weapons and...

  1. Goal orientation, perceived task outcome and task demands in mathematics tasks: effects on students' attitude in actual task settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Gerard; van Putten, Cornelis M; de Brabander, Cornelis J

    2002-09-01

    In earlier studies, it has been found that students' domain-specific cognitions and personal learning goals (goal orientation) influence task-specific appraisals of actual learning tasks. The relations between domain-specific and task-specific variables have been specified in the model of adaptive learning. In this study, additional influences, i.e., perceived task outcome on a former occasion and variations in task demands, were investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify personality and situational variables that mediate students' attitude when confronted with a mathematics task. Students worked on a mathematics task in two subsequent sessions. Effects of perceived task outcome at the first session on students' attitude at the second session were investigated. In addition, we investigated how differences in task demands influenced students' attitude. Variations in task demands were provoked by different conditions in task-instruction. In one condition, students were told that the result on the test would add to their mark on mathematics. This outcome orienting condition was contrasted with a task-orienting condition where students were told that the results on the test would not be used to give individual grades. Participants were sixth grade students (N = 345; aged 11-12 years) from 14 primary schools. Multivariate and univariate analyses of (co)variance were applied to the data. Independent variables were goal orientation, task demands, and perceived task outcome, with task-specific variables (estimated competence for the task, task attraction, task relevance, and willingness to invest effort) as the dependent variables. The results showed that previous perceived task outcome had a substantial impact on students' attitude. Additional but smaller effects were found for variation in task demands. Furthermore, effects of previous perceived task outcome and task demands were related to goal orientation. The resulting pattern confirmed that, in general

  2. Practical use of the repeating patterns in mask writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Inoue, Tadao; Yamabe, Masaki

    2010-03-01

    In May 2006, the Mask Design, Drawing, and Inspection Technology Research Department (Mask D2I) at the Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) launched a 4-year program for reducing mask manufacturing cost and TAT by concurrent optimization of MDP, mask writing, and mask inspection. As one of the tasks being pursued at the Mask Design Data Technology Research Laboratory, we have evaluated the effect of reducing the drawing shot counts by utilizing the repeating patterns, and showed positive impact on mask making by using CP drawing. During the past four years, we have developed a software to extract repeating patterns from fractured OPCed mask data which can be used to minimize the shot counts. In this evaluation, we have used an actual device production data obtained from the member companies of MaskD2I. To the extraction software we added new functions for extracting common repeating patterns from a set of multiple masks, and studied how this step can reduce the counts in comparison to the shot counts required during the conventional mask writing techniques. We have also developed software that uses the extraction result of repeating patterns and prepares drawing-data for the MCC/CP drawing system, which has been developed at the Mask Writing Equipment Technology Research Laboratory. With this software, we have simulated EB proximity effect on CP writing and examined how it affect the shot count reduction where CP shots with large CD errors are to be divided into VSB shots. In this paper, we will report the evaluation result of the practical application of repeating patterns in mask writing with this software.

  3. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  4. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  5. Task-Based Learning: The Interaction between Tasks and Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between tasks and learners in task-based learning. Findings suggest that manipulation of task characteristics and conditions may not achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes, and that new ways are needed to focus learners' attention of form without sacrificing the meaning-driven principles of task-based learning.…

  6. 28 CFR 105.23 - Procedure for requesting criminal history record check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.23 Procedure for requesting criminal... checks, declaring that it is an authorized employer that employs private security officers; that all fingerprints and requests for criminal history background checks are being submitted for private...

  7. 12 CFR 210.12 - Return of cash items and handling of returned checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information portion of the item contains a record of all MICR-line information required for a substitute check... the item contains a record of all MICR-line information required for a substitute check under § 229.2... the item contains a record of all MICR-line information required for a substitute check under § 229.2...

  8. High pressure check valve for application in a miniature cryogenic scorption cooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.F.; Wekken, van der M.C.; Berenschot, E.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Rogalla, H.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Elwenspoek, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a check valve with integrated filter that can stand gas pressures of more than 100 bar in the closed direction and which has a very low pressure drop at low absolute gas pressures in the forward direction. The check valve is designed as a part of a check valve unit for applicatio

  9. Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

  10. 77 FR 38714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the TE/GE Compliance Check Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the TE/GE Compliance Check Questionnaires... Compliance Check Questionnaires. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before August 27, 2012 to... INFORMATION: Title: TE/GE Compliance Check Questionnaires. OMB Number: 1545-2071. Form Number: Not applicable...

  11. 42 CFR 457.216 - Treatment of uncashed or canceled (voided) CHIP checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of uncashed or canceled (voided) CHIP... canceled (voided) CHIP checks. (a) Purpose. This section provides rules to ensure that States refund the... section— Canceled (voided) check means an CHIP check issued by a State or fiscal agent that prior to...

  12. 30 CFR 75.902-1 - Maximum voltage ground check circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum voltage ground check circuits. 75.902-1... Alternating Current Circuits § 75.902-1 Maximum voltage ground check circuits. The maximum voltage used for such ground check circuits shall not exceed 40 volts....

  13. 30 CFR 75.803-1 - Maximum voltage ground check circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum voltage ground check circuits. 75.803-1 Section 75.803-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... § 75.803-1 Maximum voltage ground check circuits. The maximum voltage used for ground check...

  14. Efficient Parallel Statistical Model Checking of Biochemical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ballarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of verifying stochastic models of biochemical networks against behavioral properties expressed in temporal logic terms. Exact probabilistic verification approaches such as, for example, CSL/PCTL model checking, are undermined by a huge computational demand which rule them out for most real case studies. Less demanding approaches, such as statistical model checking, estimate the likelihood that a property is satisfied by sampling executions out of the stochastic model. We propose a methodology for efficiently estimating the likelihood that a LTL property P holds of a stochastic model of a biochemical network. As with other statistical verification techniques, the methodology we propose uses a stochastic simulation algorithm for generating execution samples, however there are three key aspects that improve the efficiency: first, the sample generation is driven by on-the-fly verification of P which results in optimal overall simulation time. Second, the confidence interval estimation for the probability of P to hold is based on an efficient variant of the Wilson method which ensures a faster convergence. Third, the whole methodology is designed according to a parallel fashion and a prototype software tool has been implemented that performs the sampling/verification process in parallel over an HPC architecture.

  15. Reasoning About Strategies: On the Model-Checking Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Mogavero, Fabio; Perelli, Giuseppe; Vardi, Moshe Y

    2011-01-01

    In open systems verification, to formally check for reliability, one needs an appropriate formalism to model the interaction between agents and express the correctness of the system no matter how the environment behaves. An important contribution in this context is given by modal logics for strategic ability, in the setting of multi-agent games, such as ATL, ATL*, and the like. Recently, Chatterjee, Henzinger, and Piterman introduced Strategy Logic (CHP-SL), with the aim of getting a powerful framework for reasoning explicitly about strategies. CHP-SL is obtained by using first-order quantifications over strategies and it has been investigated in the setting of two-agents turned-based games, where a non-elementary model-checking algorithm has been provided. While CHP-SL is a very expressive logic, we claim that it does not fully capture the strategic aspects of multi-agent systems. In this paper, we introduce and study a more general strategy logic, denoted SL, for reasoning about strategies in multi-agent co...

  16. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  17. Development of a stainless steel check valve for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, T. T.; Venhorst, G. C. F.; Burger, J. F.; Holland, H. J.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Sirbi, A.; Rogalla, H.

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a check valve for use in a sorption compressor that will drive a 10 mW 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cryocooler. For the check valve extremely low backflow rates are tolerable at an operating temperature of the valve of 50 K. To fulfill these requirements, the sealing mechanism of the valve is based on a full metal to metal contact. In order to obtain sufficiently low leak rates, both parts were machined to a surface flatness in the order of 100 nm. In addition, the closing plate (boss) of the valve deforms (bends) slightly under pressure, forming itself to the opposite valve seat and thus reducing the gap between these parts. The measured leak flow at 50 K was 1.6 μg/s helium @ 16 bar pressure difference, which is well below the aim of 3 μg/s. The valve was subjected to an accelerated lifetime test of 300,000 cycles. It was observed that the leak flow through the valve during this test steadily decreased to a level of 0.15 μg/s after 100,000 cycles.

  18. Stat-LRC: statistical rules check for variational lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Aswin; Kundu, Sandip

    2010-03-01

    As interconnect densities increase with each technology generation, the lithographic processes required to print all features with acceptable irregularities have become more complex. Restricted design rules (RDR) and modelbased Design for Manufacturability (DFM) guidelines have been added to the existing Design Rule Check (DRC) software to prevent unprintable patterns to be drawn on the mask by predicting their imprint on the wafer. It is evident from analyses of predicted patterns that edge placement errors have a continuous distribution, hence a pass/fail cut-off is somewhat arbitrary. In this paper, we describe a methodology to perform Statistical Lithography Rules Check (Stat-LRC) involving design yield based on interconnect linewidth distribution for variation in lithographic input error sources. In this scheme, a list of error locations indicating polygons that have yield below a user specified threshold are listed. The overall design yield is recovered by trading-off slightly poorer EPE distributions for lines with short runs with excellent ones. The simulation/analysis environment is fully automated and yield recovery improvement has been demonstrated.

  19. Tarmo: A Framework for Parallelized Bounded Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Wieringa, Siert; Heljanko, Keijo; 10.4204/EPTCS.14.5

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates approaches to parallelizing Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for shared memory environments as well as for clusters of workstations. We present a generic framework for parallelized BMC named Tarmo. Our framework can be used with any incremental SAT encoding for BMC but for the results in this paper we use only the current state-of-the-art encoding for full PLTL. Using this encoding allows us to check both safety and liveness properties, contrary to an earlier work on distributing BMC that is limited to safety properties only. Despite our focus on BMC after it has been translated to SAT, existing distributed SAT solvers are not well suited for our application. This is because solving a BMC problem is not solving a set of independent SAT instances but rather involves solving multiple related SAT instances, encoded incrementally, where the satisfiability of each instance corresponds to the existence of a counterexample of a specific length. Our framework includes a generic architecture for a ...

  20. Model Checking Degrees of Belief in a System of Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Franco; Primero, Giuseppe; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning about degrees of belief has been investigated in the past by a number of authors and has a number of practical applications in real life. In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particular, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derived automatically from the possible executions of the system, thereby providing a computationally grounded formalism. We leverage the semantics to (a) construct a model checking algorithm, (b) investigate its complexity, (c) provide a Java implementation of the model checking algorithm, and (d) evaluate our approach using the standard benchmark of the dining cryptographers. Finally, we provide a detailed case study: using our framework and our implementation, we assess and verify the situational awareness of the pilot of Air France 447 flying in off-nominal conditions.

  1. Model-Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library along with state-of-the-art algorithms for building the transition relation and the state space of discrete state systems. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and give upper bounds of the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi-Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools: EVMDDs for encoding arithmetic expressions, identity-reduced MDDs for representing the transition relation, and the saturation algorithm for reachability analysis. We compare our new symbolic model checking EVMDD library with the widely used CUDD package and show that, in many cases, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster than CUDD.

  2. Maintenance Check-ups Following Treatment for Cannabis Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert S; Towe, Sheri; Banes, Kelsey; Roffman, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Substance use disorders, including cannabis use disorders and associated negative consequences, are best considered chronic and in need of continuing care. In contrast, most treatment efficacy studies evaluate a fixed number of intervention sessions at a single point in time. The present study evaluated the efficacy of posttreatment maintenance check-ups (MCUs) in maintaining and improving outcomes following nine sessions of motivational enhancement treatment/cognitive behavioral treatment (MET/CBT). Adults dependent on cannabis (n=74) were randomly assigned to the MCU or a no check-up (NCU) condition and followed up at 3- and 9-months. MCU sessions occurred 1 and 4months following the completion of the base treatment. Additional MET/CBT sessions were available to participants throughout the follow-up period. The MCUs specifically encouraged treatment re-entry for those showing ongoing signs of disorder. Participants in the MCU condition reported significantly greater abstinent rates at both follow-ups and were using on fewer days at the 3-month but not the 9-month follow-up. Contrary to hypotheses, MCU participants did not attend more additional treatment and differences in rates of cannabis use emerged prior to the first MCU session. Future research with longer follow-up periods and longer monitoring of outcomes is needed to fully evaluate the utility of MCUs or other forms of continuing care.

  3. Model checking coalitional games in shortage resource scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Della Monica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification of multi-agents systems (MAS has been recently studied taking into account the need of expressing resource bounds. Several logics for specifying properties of MAS have been presented in quite a variety of scenarios with bounded resources. In this paper, we study a different formalism, called Priced Resource-Bounded Alternating-time Temporal Logic (PRBATL, whose main novelty consists in moving the notion of resources from a syntactic level (part of the formula to a semantic one (part of the model. This allows us to track the evolution of the resource availability along the computations and provides us with a formalisms capable to model a number of real-world scenarios. Two relevant aspects are the notion of global availability of the resources on the market, that are shared by the agents, and the notion of price of resources, depending on their availability. In a previous work of ours, an initial step towards this new formalism was introduced, along with an EXPTIME algorithm for the model checking problem. In this paper we better analyze the features of the proposed formalism, also in comparison with previous approaches. The main technical contribution is the proof of the EXPTIME-hardness of the the model checking problem for PRBATL, based on a reduction from the acceptance problem for Linearly-Bounded Alternating Turing Machines. In particular, since the problem has multiple parameters, we show two fixed-parameter reductions.

  4. New results on pushdown module checking with imperfect information

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzelli, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Model checking of open pushdown systems (OPD) w.r.t. standard branching temporal logics (pushdown module checking or PMC) has been recently investigated in the literature, both in the context of environments with perfect and imperfect information about the system (in the last case, the environment has only a partial view of the system's control states and stack content). For standard CTL, PMC with imperfect information is known to be undecidable. If the stack content is assumed to be visible, then the problem is decidable and 2EXPTIME-complete (matching the complexity of PMC with perfect information against CTL). The decidability status of PMC with imperfect information against CTL restricted to the case where the depth of the stack content is visible is open. In this paper, we show that with this restriction, PMC with imperfect information against CTL remains undecidable. On the other hand, we individuate an interesting subclass of OPDS with visible stack content depth such that PMC with imperfect informatio...

  5. SoS contract verification using statistical model checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mignogna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive formal verification for systems of systems (SoS is impractical and cannot be applied on a large scale. In this paper we propose to use statistical model checking for efficient verification of SoS. We address three relevant aspects for systems of systems: 1 the model of the SoS, which includes stochastic aspects; 2 the formalization of the SoS requirements in the form of contracts; 3 the tool-chain to support statistical model checking for SoS. We adapt the SMC technique for application to heterogeneous SoS. We extend the UPDM/SysML specification language to express the SoS requirements that the implemented strategies over the SoS must satisfy. The requirements are specified with a new contract language specifically designed for SoS, targeting a high-level English- pattern language, but relying on an accurate semantics given by the standard temporal logics. The contracts are verified against the UPDM/SysML specification using the Statistical Model Checker (SMC PLASMA combined with the simulation engine DESYRE, which integrates heterogeneous behavioral models through the functional mock-up interface (FMI standard. The tool-chain allows computing an estimation of the satisfiability of the contracts by the SoS. The results help the system architect to trade-off different solutions to guide the evolution of the SoS.

  6. Repeating Patterns: Strategies to Assist Young Students to Generalise the Mathematical Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie; Cooper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on very young students' ability to engage in repeating pattern tasks and identifying strategies that assist them to ascertain the structure of the pattern. It describes results of a study which is part of the Early Years Generalising Project (EYGP) and involves Australian students in Years 1 to 4 (ages 5-10). This paper reports…

  7. What are task-sets: a single, integrated representation or a collection of multiple control representations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan eRangelov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing two randomly alternating tasks typically results in higher reaction times (RTs following a task switch, relative to a task repetition. These task switch costs (TSC reflect processes of switching between control settings for different tasks. The present study investigated whether task sets operate as a single, integrated representation or as an agglomeration of relatively independent components. In a cued task switch paradigm, target detection (present/absent and discrimination (blue/green/right-/left-tilted tasks alternated randomly across trials. The target was either a color or an orientation singleton among homogeneous distractors. Across two trials, the task and target-defining dimension repeated or changed randomly. For task switch trials, agglomerated task sets predict a difference between dimension changes and repetitions: joint task and dimension switches require full task set reconfiguration, while dimension repetitions permit re-using some control settings from the previous trial. By contrast, integrated task sets always require full switches, predicting dimension repetition effects (DREs to be absent across task switches. RT analyses showed significant DREs across task switches as well as repetitions supporting the notion of agglomerated task sets. Additionally, two event-related potentials (ERP were analyzed: the Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (PCN indexing spatial selection dynamics, and the Sustained-Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (SPCN indexing post-selective perceptual/semantic analysis. Significant DREs across task switches were observed for both the PCN and SPCN components. Together, DREs across task switches for RTs and two functionally distinct ERP components suggest that re-using control settings across different tasks is possible. The results thus support the ‘agglomerated-task-set’ hypothesis, and are inconsistent with ‘integrated task sets’.

  8. A Daunting Task Still

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Despite steady economic growth for three decades, China is still a developing country facing daunting poverty alleviation tasks. According to the poverty line of 1,196 yuan ($176) per capita net income in a year set in March 2009, the country still has a poverty population of more than 40 million, mainly living in rural areas.

  9. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  10. Can tasks be inherently boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Evan

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban et al. argue that the experiences of "effort," "boredom," and "fatigue" are indications that the costs of a task outweigh its benefits. Reducing the costs of tasks to "opportunity costs" has the effect of rendering tasks costless and of denying that they can be inherently boring or tedious, something that "vigilance tasks" were intentionally designed to be.

  11. Nicotine improves antisaccade task performance without affecting prosaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrison, Abigail L; Briand, Kevin A; Sereno, Anne B

    2004-08-01

    Although there is ample evidence for a cognitive-attentional benefit of the stimulant nicotine, the source of this benefit is not as well understood. One approach is to address what aspects of performance nicotine affects at a functional systems level. It is currently debated whether the benefits produced by nicotine are the effect of enhanced higher cognitive function or reflect an overall increase in general arousal. In order to address this question, the effects of nicotine on two simple eye movement tasks were studied: the saccade (S) and antisaccade (AS) tasks. Because the S and AS tasks utilize identical sensory stimuli (peripheral targets) and require identical motor responses (eye movements) but differ significantly in their cognitive demands, the use of these two tasks should enable a parsing of nicotine effects on cognitive versus sensory-motor processes. In this study, the S and AS tasks were performed by two experimental groups, task naïve subjects and highly practised subjects. For the first group, that of the task naïve subjects, nicotine gum administration resulted in a decrease in AS errors. For the second group, that of two experienced subjects tested repeatedly over a 3 week period, nicotine also produced a significant decrease in AS task errors, as well as resulting in a significant decrease in AS response times. Neither task naïve nor experienced subjects showed any effects of nicotine on the S task. Examining the effects of nicotine on highly controlled and constrained tasks such as the S and AS task may provide another level of insight into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial cognitive effects of nicotine. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  13. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bishop, David

    2011-08-01

    Short-duration sprints (ability to recover and to reproduce performance in subsequent sprints is probably an important fitness requirement of athletes engaged in these disciplines, and has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). This review (Part I) examines how fatigue manifests during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), and discusses the potential underpinning muscular and neural mechanisms. A subsequent companion review to this article will explain a better understanding of the training interventions that could eventually improve RSA. Using laboratory and field-based protocols, performance analyses have consistently shown that fatigue during RSE typically manifests as a decline in maximal/mean sprint speed (i.e. running) or a decrease in peak power or total work (i.e. cycling) over sprint repetitions. A consistent result among these studies is that performance decrements (i.e. fatigue) during successive bouts are inversely correlated to initial sprint performance. To date, there is no doubt that the details of the task (e.g. changes in the nature of the work/recovery bouts) alter the time course/magnitude of fatigue development during RSE (i.e. task dependency) and potentially the contribution of the underlying mechanisms. At the muscle level, limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by-products, such as hydrogen ions, emerge as key factors responsible for fatigue. Although not as extensively studied, the use of surface electromyography techniques has revealed that failure to fully activate the contracting musculature and/or changes in inter-muscle recruitment strategies (i.e. neural factors) are also associated with fatigue outcomes. Pending confirmatory research, other factors such as stiffness regulation, hypoglycaemia, muscle damage and hostile environments (e.g. heat, hypoxia) are also likely to compromise

  14. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  15. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  16. Using Hybrid Decision Tree -Houph Transform Approach For Automatic Bank Check Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba A. Elnemr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps in the realization of an automatic system of bank check processing is the automatic classification of checks and extraction of handwritten area. This paper presents a new hybrid method which couple together the statistical color histogram features, the entropy, the energy and the Houph transform to achieve the automatic classification of checks as well as the segmentation and recognition of the various information on the check. The proposed method relies on two stages. First, a two-step classification algorithm is implemented. In the first step, a decision classification tree is built using the entropy, the energy, the logo location and histogram features of colored bank checks. These features are used to classify checks into several groups. Each group may contain one or more type of checks. Therefore, in the second step the bank logo or bank name are matched against its stored template to identify the correct prototype. Second, Hough transform is utilized to detect lines in the classified checks. These lines are used as indicator to the bank check fields. A group of experiments is performed showing that the proposed technique is promising as regards classifying the bank checks and extracting the important fields in that check.

  17. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Quaresima, Valentina; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    We examine the test-retest reliability of biceps brachii tissue oxygenation index (TOI) parameters measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during a 10-s sustained and a 30-repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contraction task at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (30% MVC) and maximal (100% MVC) intensities. Eight healthy men (23 to 33 yr) were tested on three sessions separated by 3 h and 24 h, and the within-subject reliability of torque and each TOI parameter were determined by Bland-Altman+/-2 SD limits of agreement plots and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant (P>0.05) differences between the three sessions were found for mean values of torque and TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated tasks at both contraction intensities. All TOI parameters were within+/-2 SD limits of agreement. The CVs for torque integral were similar between the sustained and repeated task at both intensities (4 to 7%) however, the CVs for TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated task were lower for 100% MVC (7 to 11%) than for 30% MVC (22 to 36%). It is concluded that the reliability of the biceps brachii NIRS parameters during both sustained and repeated isometric contraction tasks is acceptable.

  18. Member Checking: A Tool to Enhance Trustworthiness or Merely a Nod to Validation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Linda; Scott, Suzanne; Cavers, Debbie; Campbell, Christine; Walter, Fiona

    2016-06-22

    The trustworthiness of results is the bedrock of high quality qualitative research. Member checking, also known as participant or respondent validation, is a technique for exploring the credibility of results. Data or results are returned to participants to check for accuracy and resonance with their experiences. Member checking is often mentioned as one in a list of validation techniques. This simplistic reporting might not acknowledge the value of using the method, nor its juxtaposition with the interpretative stance of qualitative research. In this commentary, we critique how member checking has been used in published research, before describing and evaluating an innovative in-depth member checking technique, Synthesized Member Checking. The method was used in a study with patients diagnosed with melanoma. Synthesized Member Checking addresses the co-constructed nature of knowledge by providing participants with the opportunity to engage with, and add to, interview and interpreted data, several months after their semi-structured interview. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Loess Plateau check dams can potentially sequester eroded soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Liu, Shuguang; Yuan, Wenping; Dong, Wenjie; Xia, Jiangzhou; Cao, Yaojun; Jia, Yanwei

    2016-06-01

    Check dams are special soil and water conservation structures in the Loess Plateau, China. They play an important role in intercepting sediments and soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the decomposition of intercepted SOC and the environmental regulations at check dams have not been investigated. We conducted several paired field experiments at both check dams and slope lands in the Yanhe Watershed of the Loess Plateau to examine the characteristics of SOC decomposition at check dams. On average, the SOC mineralization rate in slope lands was approximately three times higher than in check dams. Increased soil moisture and compaction in check dams can constrain carbon mineralization by limiting the oxygen availability of SOC and can isolate substrate carbon from heterotrophic microorganisms. Our results indicate that check dams display a considerable potential for eroded SOC sequestration via reducing the soil respiration rate and highlight the important implications of lateral carbon redistribution and human engineering projects when estimating regional or global ecosystem carbon cycles.

  20. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model...

  1. Checking the new IRI model The bottomside B parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G

    2002-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.

  2. SimCheck: An Expressive Type System for Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pritam; Shankar, Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    MATLAB Simulink is a member of a class of visual languages that are used for modeling and simulating physical and cyber-physical systems. A Simulink model consists of blocks with input and output ports connected using links that carry signals. We extend the type system of Simulink with annotations and dimensions/units associated with ports and links. These types can capture invariants on signals as well as relations between signals. We define a type-checker that checks the wellformedness of Simulink blocks with respect to these type annotations. The type checker generates proof obligations that are solved by SRI's Yices solver for satisfiability modulo theories (SMT). This translation can be used to detect type errors, demonstrate counterexamples, generate test cases, or prove the absence of type errors. Our work is an initial step toward the symbolic analysis of MATLAB Simulink models.

  3. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brihaye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking (MC is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control (PC problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors wanted to know whether this approach can be applied to distributed PC. It turns out that it can be applied successfully and allows one to analyze realistic scenarios including the case of discrete transmit powers and games with incomplete information. The proposed methodology is as follows. We state some objectives a transmitter-receiver pair would like to reach. The network is modeled by a game where transmitters are considered as timed automata interacting with each other. The objectives are then translated into timed alternating-time temporal logic formulae and MC is exploited to know whether the desired properties are verified and determine a winning strategy.

  4. Advanced Microbial Check Valve development. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.; Sauer, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a flight qualified assembly that provides bacteriologically safe drinking water for the Space Shuttle. The 1-lb unit is basically a canister packed with an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through it. It is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of disinfection is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was developed to disinfect the fuel cell water and to prevent back contamination of stored potable water on the Space Shuttle. This paper reports its potential for space applications beyond the basic Shuttle mission. Data are presented that indicate the MCV is suitable for use in advanced systems that NASA has under development for the reclamation of humidity condensate, wash water and human urine.

  5. Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach in Primality Checking for RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Das

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American [1]. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers [2]. In this paper two distinct approaches have been dealt with for primality checking. These are deterministic approach and probabilistic approach. For the deterministic approach, it has chosen modified trial division and for probabilistic approach, Miller-Rabin algorithm is considered. The different kinds of attacks on RSA and their remedy are also being discussed. This includes the chosen cipher text attacks, short private key exponent attack and frequency attack. Apart from these attacks, discussion has been made on how to choose the primes for the RSA algorithm. The time complexity has been demonstrated for the various algorithms implemented and compared with others. Finally the future modifications and expectations arising out of the current limitations have also been stated at the end.

  6. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu-Ros, Oliva G; Tugores, Antonia; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frias-Martinez, Enrique; Ramasco, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used) or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. ...

  7. Heuristics for Hierarchical Partitioning with Application to Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Michael Oliver; Alur, Rajeev

    2001-01-01

    for a temporal scaling technique, called “Next” heuristic [2]. The latter is applicable in reachability analysis and is included in a recent version of the Mocha model checking tool. We demonstrate performance and benefits of our method and use an asynchronous parity computer and an opinion poll protocol as case...... that captures the quality of a structure relative to the connections and favors shallow structures with a low degree of branching. Finding a structure with minimal cost is NP-complete. We present a greedy polynomial-time algorithm that approximates good solutions incrementally by local evaluation of a heuristic...... function. We argue for a heuristic function based on four criteria: the number of enclosed connections, the number of components, the number of touched connections and the depth of the structure. We report on an application in the context of formal verification, where our algorithm serves as a preprocessor...

  8. Application of Model-Checking Technology to Controller Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Jessen, Jan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    its continuous environment, which is modelled and taken care of in our frameworks. Our first technique does it by using Matlab to discretise the problem and then Uppaal-tiga to solve the obtained timed game. This is implemented as a toolbox. The second technique relies on the user defining a timed......In this paper we present two frameworks that have been implemented to link traditional model-checking techniques to the domain of control. The techniques are based on solving a timed game and using the resulting solution (a strategy) as a controller. The obtained discrete controller must fit within...... game model in Uppaal- tiga. Then the strategy is automatically imported in Simulink as an S-function for simulation and validation purposes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these frameworks in different case-studies....

  9. Checking the Quality of Clinical Guidelines using Automated Reasoning Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Hommersom, Arjen; van Bommel, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Requirements about the quality of clinical guidelines can be represented by schemata borrowed from the theory of abductive diagnosis, using temporal logic to model the time-oriented aspects expressed in a guideline. Previously, we have shown that these requirements can be verified using interactive theorem proving techniques. In this paper, we investigate how this approach can be mapped to the facilities of a resolution-based theorem prover, Otter, and a complementary program that searches for finite models of first-order statements, Mace. It is shown that the reasoning required for checking the quality of a guideline can be mapped to such fully automated theorem-proving facilities. The medical quality of an actual guideline concerning diabetes mellitus 2 is investigated in this way.

  10. LHCb: Analysing DIRAC's Behavior using Model Checking with Process Algebra

    CERN Multimedia

    Remenska, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the Grid solution designed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. Based on a service-oriented architecture, DIRAC consists of many cooperating distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the Grid resources. Services accept requests from agents and running jobs, while agents run as light-weight components, fulfilling specific goals. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check for changes in the service states, and react to these accordingly. A characteristic of DIRAC's architecture is the relatively low complexity in the logic of each agent; the main source of complexity lies in their cooperation. These agents run concurrently, and communicate using the services' databases as a shared memory for synchronizing the state transitions. Although much effort is invested in making DIRAC reliable, entities occasionally get into inconsistent states, leadi...

  11. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  12. A Formal Verification Methodology for Checking Data Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Umezawa, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Formal verification techniques have been playing an important role in pre-silicon validation processes. One of the most important points considered in performing formal verification is to define good verification scopes; we should define clearly what to be verified formally upon designs under tests. We considered the following three practical requirements when we defined the scope of formal verification. They are (a) hard to verify (b) small to handle, and (c) easy to understand. Our novel approach is to break down generic properties for system into stereotype properties in block level and to define requirements for Verifiable RTL. Consequently, each designer instead of verification experts can describe properties of the design easily, and formal model checking can be applied systematically and thoroughly to all the leaf modules. During the development of a component chip for server platforms, we focused on RAS (Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability) features and described more than 2000 properties in...

  13. Checking EABC performance in comparison others cryptography algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mehdi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, selecting algorithm to encryption data is very important considering attacks are varied andaccording to there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Therefore choosing one algorithmis hard among many algorithms. Data confidentiality is one of the most important functions of encryptionalgorithms, it means when the transferring data between different systems is vague for unauthorized systemsor people. Moreover, Encryption algorithms must maintain data integrity and provide availability forinformation. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simply access to the information and do notallow discovering the relationship between information and the encrypted one. Therefore, availability can bedifficult for them. Existing complexities make their longevity and effectiveness increase. In This Article, Ithas been tried to check EABC performance considering execution time, CPU Utilization, Throughput ofencrypting/decrypting database.

  14. Check Point金融行业客户案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    此案例的金融行业用户为国家重点金融交易机构,承担了非常重要的多种金融业务,安全性和可靠性的重要在该机构中是不言而喻的。在没有选择Check Point之前,该用户只采用了传统的利用交换架构的路由交换设备配置Access List的防火墙保护方案。但该架构在安全问题日益严重的今天,已经越来越不能满足用户的需求,主要体现在:

  15. Methods to model-check parallel systems software.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlin, O. S.; McCune, W.; Lusk, E.

    2003-12-15

    We report on an effort to develop methodologies for formal verification of parts of the Multi-Purpose Daemon (MPD) parallel process management system. MPD is a distributed collection of communicating processes. While the individual components of the collection execute simple algorithms, their interaction leads to unexpected errors that are difficult to uncover by conventional means. Two verification approaches are discussed here: the standard model checking approach using the software model checker SPIN and the nonstandard use of a general-purpose first-order resolution-style theorem prover OTTER to conduct the traditional state space exploration. We compare modeling methodology and analyze performance and scalability of the two methods with respect to verification of MPD.

  16. Model Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and review the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi- Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools. Compared to the CUDD package, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster

  17. Hardware Support for Safety-critical Java Scope Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Memory management in Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on time bounded, non garbage collected scoped memory regions used to store temporary objects. Scoped memory regions may have different life times during the execution of a program and hence, to avoid leaving dangling pointers, it is necessary...... between threads and any other scoped region is thread private. In this paper we present how, due to this simplified model, a single scope nesting level can be used to check the legality of every reference assignment. We also show that with simple hardware extensions a processor can see some improvement...... in terms of execution time for applications where cross-scope references are frequent. Our proposal was implemented and tested on the Java Optimized Processor (JOP)....

  18. Experiments in Model-Checking Optimistic Replication Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Boucheneb, Hanifa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a series of model-checking experiments to verify optimistic replication algorithms based on Operational Transformation (OT) approach used for supporting collaborative edition. We formally define, using tool UPPAAL, the behavior and the main consistency requirement (i.e. convergence property) of the collaborative editing systems, as well as the abstract behavior of the environment where these systems are supposed to operate. Due to data replication and the unpredictable nature of user interactions, such systems have infinitely many states. So, we show how to exploit some features of the UPPAAL specification language to attenuate the severe state explosion problem. Two models are proposed. The first one, called concrete model, is very close to the system implementation but runs up against a severe explosion of states. The second model, called symbolic model, aims to overcome the limitation of the concrete model by delaying the effective selection and execution of editing operations until th...

  19. Ground-based complex for checking the optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenyuk, V.; Boreiko, V.; Dmitrotsa, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Lavrova, M.; Popescu, E. M.; Sabirov, B.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Volvach, A.; Yashin, I.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose TUS space experiment is to study cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies produced by extensive air showers from space. The concentrator is located on satellite, made in the form of the Fresnel mirror towards the earth's atmosphere, the focus of which is a photodetector. The angle of view of the mirror is ±4.5° that for a given height of the orbit corresponds to the area 80 × 80 km2 on ground. The ground complex consisting of a number of stations, to check the optical system of the experiment is created, (their location and the amount will be determined after the launch of the satellite based on its actual orbit).

  20. Nonlinear smoothing identification algorithm with application to data consistency checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idan, M.

    1993-01-01

    A parameter identification algorithm for nonlinear systems is presented. It is based on smoothing test data with successively improved sets of model parameters. The smoothing, which is iterative, provides all of the information needed to compute the gradients of the smoothing performance measure with respect to the parameters. The parameters are updated using a quasi-Newton procedure, until convergence is achieved. The advantage of this algorithm over standard maximum likelihood identification algorithms is the computational savings in calculating the gradient. This algorithm was used for flight-test data consistency checks based on a nonlinear model of aircraft kinematics. Measurement biases and scale factors were identified. The advantages of the presented algorithm and model are discussed.