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Sample records for repeated btx injections

  1. AB206. Combined detrusor-trigone BTX-A injections for urinary incontinence secondary to neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xie, Keji; Jiang, Chonghe; Tang, Ping; Ou, Rubiao; Zeng, Jianweng; Deng, Xiangrong; Zhou, Liling; Huang, Maping; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Qiuling; Huang, Jiebing; Huang, Tanghai

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect and safety of trigonal injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for patients with neurological detrusor overactivity (NDO) with incontinence. Methods A prospective, multicenter, single-blind and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted between June 2011 and June 2014. Spinal cord injury patients with urinary incontinence secondary to NDO were recruited. At a 1:1 ratio, patients randomly received 200 U BTX-A intradetrusor injections excluding the trigone (control group) or 160 U intradetrusor and 40 U intratrigonal injections (experimental group). Patients were evaluated at baseline, and 4, 12 weeks after injection. The efficacy and safety outcomes included I-QoL, voiding volume, urinary incontinence episodes, complete dryness, maximum detrusor pressure (Pdetmax), volume at first involuntary detrusor contraction (VFIDC). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and other adverse events were recorded. Results Ninety-six patients were recruited and 91 of them completed the trial. Among the 91 patients, 47 were randomized to experimental group and 44 to the control group. There were no significant differences in baseline evaluation items (gender, age, duration of spinal cord injury, level of neurological injury, AIS scores) between the two groups. At 12 weeks, the improvement was significantly better in the experimental group than in the control group for I-QoL (26.01 vs. 18.75, P=0.01), mean urinary incontinence episodes (−5.22/d vs. −4.68/d, P=0.01), complete dryness (13 vs. 5, P=0.03), mean voiding volume (159.72 vs. 139.07 mL, P=0.02), Pdetmax (−33.34 vs. −28.02 cmH2O, P=0.04), and VFIDC (106.81 vs. 97.86 mL, P=0.02), duration of first detrusor contraction (−41.54 vs. −18.65 s, P=0.03) and the number of patients with detrusor contraction (−20 vs. −9, P=0.02). In both of two groups, no patients developed VUR. Conclusions BTX-A intradetrusor and intratrigonal injections are more effective than those excluding the trigone for

  2. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and bromidrosis with botulinum toxin (BTX)-A injection%A型肉毒毒素注射治疗腋窝多汗症或伴腋臭症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 高赫; 魏丽岩; 孔雀

    2009-01-01

    Objective To probe the advantages of BTX-A for the treatment of axillary hyper-hidrosis. Methods 42 cases were treated by BTX-A injection, 50 units per axillae, 25 sites with 2 u-nits each, 1.5 cm apart. They consisted of 24 cases of axillary hyperhidrosis, 10 cases of axillary hy-perhidrosis combined bromidrosis, and 8 cases of bromidrosis. Results All hyperhidrosis patients a-chieved good effects. Among patients with axillary hyperhidrosis combined bromidrosis, it had effects on hyperhidrosis, but only one case effected on bromidrosis. Among patients with bromidrosis, only one case had effect. Conclusions In the treatment of hyperhidrosis, BTX-A is very useful, and side effect is temporary and slight. But for bromidrosis, BTX-A is not very useful.%目的 探讨A型肉毒毒素(botulinum toxin-A,BTX-A)注射治疗腋窝多汗症或伴腋臭症及单纯液臭的疗效.方法 采用BTX-A每侧腋窝注射50 U治疗,注射选点25个,间距1.5 cm,每点注射2.5 U.结果 共治疗特发性局限性腋窝多汗症或伴腋臭患者42例,其中单纯腋窝多汗症24例全部有效.腋窝多汗症伴有腋臭10例,其中注射后多汗症治疗全部有效,腋臭治疗有效者只有1例.单纯腋臭8例,碘淀粉试验阴性,注射后只有1例显效,无效7例.结论 BTX-A治疗腋窝多汗症有效,副作用轻微、一过性.BTX-A治疗多汗症所伴有的腋臭疗效欠佳,对单纯的腋臭治疗基本无效.

  3. The Effect of Frontal Rhytidectomy by BTX-A Injection on Sebum Secretion%A型肉毒毒素额部除皱后引起皮脂分泌改变的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵沛如; 喜雯婧; 苏薇洁; 冯少清; Aurelia Trisliana; 濮哲铭; 张艳; 章一新; Lucrezia Pacchioni

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of frontal rhytidectomy by different dosage of botulinum toxin type A on sebum secretion, and to investigate the correlation between the dosage and clinical efficacy. Methods Twenty volunteers with forehead ryhtides (moderate to severe) were received frontal rhytidectomy by BTX-A (BOTOX) intramuscular injection which was administered to 5 injective sites, and randomly divided into 2 groups according to different dosage (group 1:10 U;group 2:20 U). Baseline and post-treatment (2, 4, 6, 8 weeks after injection) sebum production (the region 0.5 cm far around injection point, the region 0.6-1.5 cm far around injection point, the region 1.6-2.5 cm far around injection point) were measured. Results Significant reduction of sebum secretion was showed on the region 0.5 cm far around injection point after BTX-A injection for 2, 4, 8 weeks (P0.05). No significant difference was observed between the two groups. The sebum secretion of the region 1.6-2.5 cm far around injection point was increased after BTX-A injection for 2, 4, 8, 16 weeks ( P<0.05). Conclusion Intramuscular injection of BTX-A could reduce the sebum secretion of the region 0.5 cm far around the injection point and lead to the compensatory increase of sebum secretion on the region 1.6-2.5 cm far around injection point.%目的:观察比较两种不同注射剂量的A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)行额部注射除皱术后,引起局部皮脂分泌改变的情况,并研究其剂量和功效之间的关联。方法20例额部皱纹患者(中度至重度)随机分为注射总量10 U或20 U的两个治疗组。注射药物为宝妥适(BOTOX, BOTOX Cosmetic;Allergan, Irvine, CA),使用肌肉内注射标准五点法。评价注射后2周、4周、8周、16周患者额部注射区域(注射点外围半径0.5 cm区域、注射点外围半径0.6~1.5 cm环形区域、注射点外围半径1.6~2.5 cm环形区域)皮肤油脂分泌水平。结果两种不同剂量注射2

  4. Botulinum toxin type A injection for the treatment of frown lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K H

    1998-12-01

    Patients who have exaggerated frown lines frequently ask for treatment because others mistake them to be constantly angry or annoyed. Current treatment options (surgery or implants) do not address the underlying cause of these lines, namely the excessive nerve stimulation. The mechanism of action of BTX makes it an ideal agent to target the major cause of these lines. BTX inhibits calcium metabolism in the presynaptic neuron, thereby inhibiting neuromuscular transmission and producing muscle paralysis. The current medical literature indicates that BTX can be used safely and effectively for the cosmetic treatment of frown lines. The procedure can be performed in an ambulatory setting and the use of an EMG instrument may provide better direction for the placement of the drug. However, the benefits are transient and repeated injections are necessary. The adverse effects associated with BTX injections were mild and transient. Currently, there are no safety data on the long-term effects of continuous BTX injections for the treatment of frown lines. However, studies on the long-term use of BTX at doses to treat blepharospasm and Meige's disease have shown no serious adverse effects or production of antibodies to BTX. Muscle biopsies taken from patients who have received numerous doses of BTX for more than 7 years have not shown any signs of atrophy or permanent muscle degeneration. The medical literature supports BTX therapy as an option for the treatment of cosmetic facial frown lines. However, there is not enough information on what patient characteristics are ideal in a candidate to achieve optimal response with BTX. Also, no data are available on the safety and efficacy of continuous injections in the long-term use of BTX for facial frown lines. Therefore, the use of BTX to treat frown lines should be examined carefully against other therapeutic options.

  5. 穴位注射A型肉毒毒素治疗第三腰椎横突综合征%Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) point injection for treatment of the third lumbar transverse process syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臻

    2008-01-01

    目的:观察注射A型肉毒毒素(botulinum toxin type A, BTX-A)治疗第三腰椎横突综合征的临床疗效.方法:将25例第三腰椎横突综合征患者随机分成2组,穴位注射组10例,针刺组15例.穴位注射组注射BTX-A,取第三腰椎横突处压痛点或其周围腧穴为注射点;针刺组予针刺治疗,取穴同穴位注射组.随访2个月,比较2组疗效及起效时间.结果:穴位注射组痊愈率为50.0%,起效时间为(3.75±1.65)天;针刺组分别为0和(12.47±5.33)天.2组各项指标比较,穴位注射组均优于针刺组(P<0.05).结论:穴位注射A型肉毒毒素治疗第三腰椎横突综合征的临床疗效优于单纯针刺治疗.

  6. Flexible optical chemical sensor platform for BTX

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Espinoza, Juan Diego; Sazhnikov, Viacheslav; Sabik, Sami; Ionov, Dmitriy; Smits, Edsger; Kalathimekkad, Sandeep; Van Steenberge, Geert; Alfimov, Michail; Posniak, Malgorzata; Schoo, Herman

    2012-01-01

    An in-plane flexible sensor platform for BTX detection was developed using low-cost patterning techniques and foil-based optical components. The platform was produced by a combination of laser patterning, inkjet printing and capillary filling. Key optical components such as lightguides, opticalcladding layers and metallic interconnections were realized on low cost substrates such as paper and PET. The sensing mechanism is based on the change in fluorescence spectra of a reporter dye, supporte...

  7. BTX-A administration to the target muscle affects forces of all muscles within an intact compartment and epimuscular myofascial force transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucesoy, Can A; Emre Arıkan, Önder; Ateş, Filiz

    2012-11-01

    Measurement of forces of mono- and bi-articular muscles of an entire intact muscle compartment can allow for a comprehensive assessment of the effects of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) both at and beyond the injection site, and in conditions close to those in vivo. The goal was to test the hypotheses that BTX-A affects (1) the forces of not only the injected but also the noninjected muscles of the compartment, and (2) epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT). Two groups of Wistar rats were tested: Control (no BTX-A injected) and BTX (0.1 units of BTX-A were injected exclusively to the mid-belly of TA). Isometric forces were measured simultaneously at the distal tendons of the tibialis anterior (TA) at different lengths, the restrained extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles and at the proximal tendon of EDL. Five days post-injection, BTX-A did affect the total forces of all muscles significantly: (1) The TA force decreased differentially (by 46.6%-55.9%) for most lengths such that a significant negative correlation was found between force reductions and increased muscle length. The maximum TA force decreased by 47.3%. However, the muscle's length range of force production did not change significantly. (2) Distal and proximal EDL forces decreased (on average by 67.8% and 62.9%, respectively). (3) The EHL force also decreased (on average by 9.2%). The passive forces of only the TA showed a significant increase at higher lengths. EMFT effects were shown for the control group: (1) at the shortest TA lengths, the EDL proximo-distal force differences were in favor of the distal force, which was reversed at higher lengths. (2) the EHL force measured at the shortest TA length decreased (by 34%) as a function of TA lengthening. After BTX-A exposure, such EMFT effects disappeared for the EDL, whereas they remained as profound for the EHL. Exposure to BTX-A does affect forces of all muscles operating in an intact compartment. For

  8. Botulinum toxin A for oral cavity cancer patients: in microsurgical patients BTX injections in major salivary glands temporarily reduce salivary production and the risk of local complications related to saliva stagnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradino, Bartolo; Di Lorenzo, Sara; Moschella, Francesco

    2012-10-24

    In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection) and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence) could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  9. Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolo Corradino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  10. Monitoring of BTX by passive sampling in Hat Yai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proespichaya Kanatharana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-built passive samplers were used for monitoring of trace benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX in Hat Yai from 28 July to 12 August, 2003. Sampler bottles contained activated Tenax TA 60/80 meshand a lab-built thermal well were developed and evaluated for the sampling and analysis of BTX. The sampling was carried out for two weeks before the passive samplers were thermally desorbed, trapped ina sampling loop by a laboratory built purge and trap system and analysed by gas chromatography (GC equipped with a flame ionization detector. After optimization and calibration, the developed method showed high selectivity, a good sensitivity with detection limits for BTX of 0.8, 1.1 and 13.0 µg/m3 respectively and an acceptable precision. Ambient BTX measurements were conducted at many monitoring site i.e. hot spots (high exposure, residential areas/work places (common exposure and park (low exposure. The concentration at hot spots range from 3.2 to 5.4 µg/m3 for benzene, 38.0 to 80.3 µg/m3 for toluene and 29.7 to 66.7 µg/m3 for xylene.The low BTX were found at the city periphery (Tesco-Lotus billboard sampling stations, roof level and in Hat Yai Municipal Park but no absolute background concentration could be defined. The monitoring results showed that at higher level from the street surface, the level of BTX tended to decrease and the BTX pollution built up along a street canyon (Sanehanuson Road according to the wind direction. The highest BTX were found at the underground parking, 23.5 725.1 and 267.9 µg/m3 respectively where both WHO guideline for Benzene (16.3 µg/m3 and Toluene (260 µg/m3 were exceeded.

  11. Fibrous Myopathy as a Complication of Repeated Intramuscular Injections for Chronic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Burnham

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of fibrous myopathy associated with repeated, long-term intramuscular injections for treatment of chronic temporomandibular joint pain and chronic headache, respectively, are described. Both patients developed severe, function-limiting contractures in upper and lower extremity muscles used as injection sites. In one of the cases, the contractures were painful. Electrophysiological testing, magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy results were all consistent with myopathy and replacement of skeletal muscle with noncontractile fibrous tissue. These cases are presented to increase awareness of fibrous myopathy and to promote surveillance for this serious potential complication of long-term intramuscular injections in chronic headache and other pain patients.

  12. Fear of repeated injections in children younger than 4 years receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Gabriele; Shankar, Viswanathan; Nazari, Ramin; Kooragayalu, Shravan; Smith, Mitchell; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenstreich, David

    2012-12-01

    Allergy immunotherapy during early childhood may have potential benefits for the prevention of asthma and allergy morbidity. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy has not yet been prospectively researched in children younger than 4 years, primarily because of safety concerns, including the fear and psychological distress young children may experience with repeated needle injections. To quantify fear in atopic children younger than 4 years with a history of wheezing who are receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy. Fear of injection was graded during a total of 788 immunotherapy injection visits in 18 children (age, 37 months; SD, 9 months) receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy. The parent and the injection nurse assigned fear scores on a scale of 0 to 10 after each injection visit. At the time of analysis, children had a median of 49 injection visits (range, 12-88) during a median study period of 81.5 weeks (range, 15-165 weeks). Fifteen children (83%) lost their fear of injections during the study. A fear score of 0 was achieved after a mean of 8.4 visits (SD, 7.4). The more injection visits were missed, the more likely children were to retain fear of injections (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.02; P=.05). Age, adverse events, number of injections at each visit, and change of injection personnel were not associated with increased fear. Our analysis suggests that most children receiving weekly subcutaneous immunotherapy lose their fear of injections during the treatment course. Children with increased intervals between visits may be at higher risk of experiencing fear of injections. clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT01028560. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis: efficacy and duration with repeated treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Phillipa L; Cerdan-Sanz, Suzanne; Lowe, Nicholas J

    2003-05-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been shown to be effective for the temporary reduction of local hyperhidrosis. To investigate the duration of efficacy of BTX-A with repeat treatments for axillary hyperhidrosis. Patients who completed a prior randomized, controlled, parallel-group study comparing BTX-A with vehicle for bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis were eligible for this 18-month, open-label, noncomparative, follow-up study. Patients had to request further treatment, fulfill the preceding study inclusion/exclusion criteria, and have spontaneous sweat production that was more than 50% of the baseline value of the previous study. Patients received up to four treatments of intradermal BTX-A (2 mL, 50 U). All of the 12 patients who were enrolled completed the study. Two of the 12 patients (17%) were previously treated with placebo. In the 18 months of study and follow-up, five patients (42%) required a total of two active injections. Three patients (25%) required a total of three active injections, and four patients (33%) required a total of four active injections. The response rate was 83% (10 of 12) at 4 weeks after the first treatment. The mean percentage change from baseline in overall sweat production was approximately 80% at Week 4. The mean time between the first and second treatment in this study was just over 29 weeks, with a range of 17.8 to 57.5 weeks. BTX-A is an effective repeat treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis giving variable but clinically helpful remission. No clinically relevant changes in vital signs or safety parameters were noted.

  14. Repeated injection of PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles induces accelerated blood clearance in mice and beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yongxue Zhao, Long Wang, Mina Yan, Yanling Ma, Guangxi Zang, Zhennan She, Yihui DengCollege of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Surface modification of nanocarriers with amphiphilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG, known as PEGylation, is regarded as a major breakthrough in the application of nanocarriers. However, PEGylated nanocarriers (including liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles induce what is referred to as the “accelerated blood clearance (ABC phenomenon” upon repeated injection and consequently they lose their sustained circulation characteristics. Despite this, the present authors are not aware of any reports of accelerated clearance due to repeated injection for PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, another promising nanocarrier. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of PEGylated SLNs upon repeated administration in mice; moreover, the impact of circulation time on the induction of the ABC phenomenon was studied in beagles for the first time. The ABC index, selected as the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last measured concentration of a second injection to that of the first injection, was used to evaluate the extent of this phenomenon. Results showed that the PEGylated SLNs exhibited accelerated clearance from systemic circulation upon repeated injection, both in mice and in beagles, and the ratio for the different time intervals, which showed that the ABC index exhibited significant difference within 30 minutes following the second injection, was good enough to evaluate the magnitude of ABC. This ABC index indicated that the 10 mol% PEG SLNs with a suitable prolonged circulation time induced the most marked ABC phenomenon in this research. This study demonstrated that, like PEGylated nanocarriers such as liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles, PEGylated SLNs induced the ABC phenomenon upon repeated injection

  15. Buprenorphine for pain relief in mice: repeated injections vs sustained-release depot formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, P; Tourvieille, A; Cinelli, P; Arras, M

    2015-07-01

    Sustained-release formulations of analgesic drugs are promising alternatives to repeated drug injections. Here, we compared a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (SB, 2.2 mg/kg) with a standard protocol of three injections of buprenorphine (Temgesic, 0.1 mg/kg/8 h) in mice. Buprenorphine serum concentration and analgesic action (thermal sensitivity) were determined in healthy mice. Additionally, the pain relief properties of both protocols were assessed after laparotomy using physiological and ethological measures of pain and recovery. Serum concentrations and thermal sensitivity tests indicated duration of action of at least 4 h (but less than 8 h) with the Temgesic protocol, and 24-48 h with SB. Behavioural and clinical parameters indicated at least partial pain relief after surgery for both protocols. Observed side-effects of buprenorphine independent of the protocol were increased activity, disturbed circadian rhythm and several abnormal behaviours. A tendency for decreased food and water intake as well as body weight reduction was also seen. Body weight decreased significantly in animals that received three injections of Temgesic, regardless of whether surgery was performed or not (P = 0.015; P = 0.023), hinting at a stress response towards this repeated intervention. In conclusion, an application interval of 8 h (Temgesic) appears too long and might lead to repeated periods with insufficient analgesia in animals undergoing lasting and/or substantial pain after surgery. In comparison to the standard protocol, SB provided a long-lasting, assured analgesia without possible stressful repeated injections in a standard surgical model, with only limited and acceptable behavioural side-effects.

  16. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of interleukin 1 beta induce glucose intolerance in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L; Reimers, J; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    1991-01-01

    . An ip glucose tolerance test (0.2 g D-glucose/100 g) was performed 2 h after injection of rIL-1 beta. A single injection of rIL-1 beta caused a mild depression in blood glucose and an improved glucose tolerance. Multiple injections of rIL-1 beta induced a diminished weight gain, a 24-28% reduction......Previous in vitro findings suggest the involvement of interleukin 1 (IL-1) in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of single or repeated ip injections of recombinant IL-1 beta on blood glucose and glucose tolerance...... in vivo. Normal Wistar Kyoto rats were injected ip with a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg of the mature form of recombinant IL-1 beta (amino acids 117-269) or once daily on 5 consecutive days. Control rats were given vehicle and were fed ad libitum or pair-fed together with the rIL-1 beta treated rats...

  17. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  18. Correction of post-traumatic anterior open bite by injection of botulinum toxin type A into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hyun; Park, Yong-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook

    2013-08-01

    Post-traumatic anterior open bite can occur as a result of broken balance among the masticatory muscles. The superior hyoid muscle group retracts the mandible downward and contributes to the anterior open bite. Denervation of the digastric muscle by injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can reduce the power of the digastric muscle and help to resolve the post-traumatic anterior open bite. A patient with a bilateral angle fracture had an anterior open bite even after undergoing three operations under general anesthesia and rubber traction. Although the open bite showed some improvement by the repeated operation, the occlusion was still unstable six weeks after the initial treatment. To eliminate the residual anterior open bite, BTX-A was injected into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Following injection of BTX-A, the anterior open bite showed immediate improvement. Complication and relapse were not observed during follow-up. Long-standing post-traumatic open bite could be successfully corrected by injection of BTX-A into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle without complication.

  19. Repeated injections of orexin-A developed behavioral tolerance to its analgesic effects in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Reduction of pharmacological effectiveness or tolerance appears following repeated administration of many analgesic drugs. We investigated tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, an endogenous potent analgesic peptide using the hot-plate test.Materials and Methods:Orexin-A was microinjected ICV (intracerebroventricular with an interval of 12 hr for 7 continuous days and its anti-nociceptive responses were measured on days 1, 4 and 7 using the hot-plate test following the first day of administration. Orexin-A was used at a dose of 100 pmol to induce analgesic effects. Results:ICV administration of orexin-A produced an effective anti-nociception on the first day of experiment as measured by hot-plate 5, 15, and 30 min after the injection, in comparison with both baselines (hot-plate test one day before the beginning of orexin-A administration and control, saline-administrated group. However, repeated administration of orexin-A on the following days revealed a significant reduction in this analgesic effect during day 4 to day 7. However, to rule out any associative tolerance resulting from learning related to experimental procedures and/or environmental cues, a single injection of orexin-A was administrated to animals of control group (which were receiving saline during 7 days of experiments and the analgesic effect was observed. Conclusion:These results, for the first time, indicated the appearance of tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, following repeated administrations of this agent.

  20. Highly sensitive BTX detection using surface functionalized QCM sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Asuman Aşıkoğlu; Özdemir, Okan; Altındal, Ahmet, E-mail: altindal@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    A novel organic compound was designed and successfully synthesized for the fabrication of QCM based sensors to detect the low concentrations of BTX gases in indoor air. The effect of the long-range electron orbital delocalization on the BTX vapour sensing properties of azo-bridged Pcs based chemiresistor-type sensors have also been investigated in this work. The sensing behaviour of the film for the online detection of volatile organic solvent vapors was investigated by utilizing an AT-cut quartz crystal resonator. It was observed that the adsorption of the target molecules on the coating surface cause a reversible negative frequency shift of the resonator. Thus, a variety of solvent vapors can be detected by using the phthalocyanine film as sensitive coating, with sensitivity in the ppm range and response times in the order of several seconds depending on the molecular structure of the organic solvent.

  1. Approaches to Avoid Immune Responses Induced by Repeated Subcutaneous Injections of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Bram V.; Cho, Patricia S.; Hirsh, Erica L.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Teague, Alexander G. S.; Hanekamp, John S.; Chi, Nina; Goldman, Stephanie N.; Messina, Darin J.; Houser, Stuart; Yeap, Beow Y.; Popma, Sicco H.; Sachs, David H.; Huang, Christene A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cellular treatments for repairing diseased tissues represent a promising clinical strategy. Umbilical cord tissue-derived cells (UTC) are a unique source of cells with a low immunogenic profile and potential for tissue repair. By using UTC from miniature swine, we previously demonstrated that despite their low immunogenic phenotype, UTC could induce an immune response under certain inflammatory conditions and after multiple subcutaneous (SC) injections. Given that repeat dosing of cells may be necessary to achieve a lasting therapeutic benefit, in this study, we examined approaches to avoid an immune response to multiple SC injections of UTC. Methods By using in vitro and in vivo measures of sensitization to SC cellular injections, we assessed the effects of varying the location of administration site, prolongation of timing between injections, and use of immunosuppressive treatments on repeated cellular injections in Massachusetts General Hospital major histocompatibility complex-defined miniature swine. Results Although under normal conditions, a single SC injection of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched UTC did not induce a detectable immune response, multiple SC injections of UTC demonstrated rapid humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Avoidance of an immune response to repeat SC injection was achieved by concurrent immunosuppression with each dose of UTC. Conclusions UTC and other similar cell types believed to be nonimmunogenic have the potential to induce immune responses under certain conditions. These studies provide important considerations and guidelines for preclinical studies investigating allogeneic cellular therapies. PMID:21451445

  2. Safety of Repeated-Dose Intratympanic Injections with AM-101 in Acute Inner Ear Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staecker, Hinrich; Morelock, Michael; Kramer, Timothy; Chrbolka, Pavel; Ahn, Joong Ho; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of repeated intratympanic administration of the gel-formulated NMDA receptor antagonist AM-101 in acute patients with inner ear tinnitus. Study Design Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Setting Sixty-nine secondary and tertiary sites in North America, Europe, and Asia. Subjects and Methods In total, 343 subjects with persistent acute tinnitus after traumatic cochlear injury or otitis media were randomized to receive 3 intratympanic doses of either AM-101 0.87 mg/mL or placebo over 3 to 5 days. They were followed for 84 days. The primary safety end point was the incidence of a clinically meaningful hearing deterioration from baseline to study day 35. Further safety assessments included tympanic membrane closure rates, analysis of adverse events, hematology, blood chemistry, and vital signs. In addition, data were collected on applied anesthetics and injection techniques. Results The treatment was well tolerated, with no intervention-related serious adverse events. The incidence of clinically meaningful hearing deterioration was low, comparable between treatment groups ( P = .82 for the primary safety end point) and not different between treated and untreated ears in unilaterally treated subjects. The rate of treatment and procedure-related adverse events was similar among treatment groups. The tympanic membrane was closed in 92% of subjects within 1 week and in all subjects by study day 84. Blood values and vital signs were inconspicuous. Conclusion Repeated intratympanic injections of AM-101 over a 3- to 5-day period appear to be safe and well tolerated, demonstrating the ability to potentially use this delivery approach over longer time periods.

  3. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa; Atas; Burhan; Baskan; Ayse; zkse; Fatma; Mutlu; Sarιgüzel; Süleyman; Demircan; Emine; Pangal

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection(IVI) group]were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema(DME) or age-related macular degeneration(ARMD). Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity.RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients(44.4%)were male and twenty(55.6%) were female. Average age was 68.4 ±9.0(range 50-86). The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight(66.7%) of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism.There was no bacterial growth in 8(20.5%) of IVI eyes and in 16(44.4%) of control eyes(P =0.03). Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci(CoNS) in IVI eyes and 47.2%CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant(P =0.2). Eleven of 25 bacteria(44.0%) isolated from IVI eyes and 11(57.9%) of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant(12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes)(P =0.44). There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid

  4. The Effect and Complication of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection with Serial Casting for the Treatment of Spastic Equinus Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sook Joung; Sung, In Young; Jang, Dae Hyun; Yi, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho; Ryu, Ju Seok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the effect of serial casting combined with Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection on spastic equinus foot. Method Twenty-nine children with cerebral palsy who had equinus foot were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Rehabilitation Medicine. The children were divided into 2 groups, one of which received serial casting after BTX-A injection, and the other which only received BTX-A injection. Serial casting started 3 weeks after the BTX-A injection, and was changed w...

  5. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  6. Responsiveness of 5-HT2C receptors in repeatedly diazepam-injected rats: a behavioral and neurochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asma; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-01-01

    The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT)2C receptors in anxiety and the anxiolytic effects of drugs is well documented. In view of the withdrawal anxiety associated with repeated diazepam intake, the present study concerns the efficacy of 5-HT2C receptors in rats treated with diazepam. Results show that diazepam injections at a dose of 2 mg/kg daily for two weeks increased weekly food intake and growth rate. Anxiolytic effects of the drug monitored in a light/dark activity box were not significant after single administration. One week and two weeks of administration elicited anxiolytic effects, which were smaller after two weeks of administration as compared to one week, suggesting the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic profile of diazepam. Moreover, three days' withdrawal from repeated administration elicited anxiogenic behavior in the light/dark activity box. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP) (3 mg/kg), a 5-HT2C agonist, were monitored following withdrawal (three days) from two weeks of diazepam administration. Results showed that hypophagic as well as anxiogenic-like effects of m-CPP were not different from repeated saline or repeated diazepam-injected animals. Administration of m-CPP increased 5-HT metabolism in repeated saline as well as repeated diazepam-injected animals. However, m-CPP-induced increases in 5-HT metabolism were greater in repeated diazepam-injected animals. Results are discussed in the context of the role of 5-HT2C receptors in the precipitation of withdrawal anxiety.

  7. Microbial and hydrodynamic characterization of a compost biofilter BTX compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, D.; Tahraoui, K. [Biotechnical Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Juteau, P. [Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]|[Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada); LeDuy, A. [Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The degradation of toxic aromatic compounds, such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) in gaseous effluents was studied in a modular biofilter. The reactor was made of two columns separated by a grid. Each column was filled with a mixture of a commercial composted chicken manure and peat moss blend. The effluent gas was prehumidified and the temperature of the bed was maintained around 23{degrees}C. The biofilter was operated at a superficial gas velocity ranging from 10 to 100 m{sup 3}m{sup -2}h{sup 1} and at BTX organic load up to 90 g m{sup -3}h{sup -1}. Special attention was paid to the influence of the superficial gas velocity and the organic load on the filter bed`s elimination capacity. The bed hydrodynamic was also studied in order to determine the gas phase dispersion parameter. The performance and operational criteria of the biofilter were analyzed on the basis of water activity and water content. Respiration (i.e. CO{sub 2} production and O{sub 2} consumption) of the filter bed throughout a biofiltration experiment was followed using a radio-respirometric test and a respirometer.

  8. Digital Image Speckle Correlation for the Quantification of the Cosmetic Treatment with Botulinum Toxin Type A (BTX-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Divya; Conkling, Nicole; Rafailovich, Miriam; Dagum, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The skin on the face is directly attached to the underlying muscles. Here, we successfully introduce a non-invasive, non-contact technique, Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC), to measure the precise magnitude and duration of facial muscle paralysis inflicted by BTX-A. Subjective evaluation by clinicians and patients fail to objectively quantify the direct effect and duration of BTX-A on the facial musculature. By using DISC, we can (a) Directly measure deformation field of the facial skin and determine the locus of facial muscular tension(b)Quantify and monitor muscular paralysis and subsequent re-innervation following injection; (c) Continuously correlate the appearance of wrinkles and muscular tension. Two sequential photographs of slight facial motion (frowning, raising eyebrows) are taken. DISC processes the images to produce a vector map of muscular displacement from which spatially resolved information is obtained regarding facial tension. DISC can track the ability of different muscle groups to contract and can be used to predict the site of injection, quantify muscle paralysis and the rate of recovery following BOTOX injection.

  9. Short-Term Effects of Combined Serial Casting and Botulinum Toxin Injection for Spastic Equinus in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong-Wook; Yoo, Jun Ki; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Won Hyuk; Song, Sang Hyuk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that combination therapy of serial cast and botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection can further enhance the effects of a BTX-A injection in ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have an equinus foot. Materials and Methods Children in group A (30 legs of 21 children) received a serial casting application after an injection of BTX-A, and children in group B (25 legs of 17 children) received only a BTX-A injection. Assessments...

  10. Effect of repeated subcutaneous injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) on inflammation linked to hypoxia in adipose tissue graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisi, G; Barberi, L; Ceccaccio, L; Cuomo, R; Sisti, A; Castagna, A; Zerini, I; Brandi, C; Grimaldi, L; D'Aniello, C

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this study was to assess the effect of repeated subcutaneous injections of CO2 on adipose tissue graft survival in immunosuppressed female nude mice. The authors designed an experimental study using volume measures, histopathological analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance of fat graft. The effect of repeated subcutaneous injection of CO2 is not yet investigated Approximately 0.5 ml of human fat were transplanted in a group of female nude mice. The mice were treated with 3 injections of 80 µl each carbon dioxide (total 240 µl) for 7 weeks. Initially, in vivo measurements were conducted and subsequently a comprehensive histopathological analysis was performed. The presence of inflammation was graded absent to minimal in animals treated with CO2 while a minimal to moderate grade was assigned to the control group. CO2 injection enhances the inflammatory response of the implanted tissue and reduces the reabsorption rate. The treatment may improve the graft survival in a more prolonged time-frame.

  11. An electromyography guided botulinum toxin injection is effective treatment for objective tinnitus as an office procedure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Çadallı Tatar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with palatal myoclonus may suffer from pulsatile tinnitus stemming from involuntary contractions of tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini muscles. Botulinum toxin (BTX injection to these muscles is effective in resolving pulsatile tinnitus symptom. We present a case of pulsatile tinnitus who was effectively treated with BTX injection under an electromyography guidance as an office procedure.

  12. Role of Botulinum Toxin Type-A (BTX-A) in the Management of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verma, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    .... Newer methods were tried in search of permanent cure or long-lasting pain relief. The purpose of this paper is to present the review of the literature regarding the use of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX...

  13. A Low Cost Metal-Free Vascular Access Mini-Port for Artifact Free Imaging and Repeated Injections in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Small injection ports for mice are increasingly used for drug testing or when administering contrast agents. Commercially available mini-ports are expensive single-use items that cause imaging-artifacts. We developed and tested an artifact-free, low-cost, vascular access mini-port (VAMP for mice.Leakage testing of the VAMP was conducted with high speed bolus injections of different contrast agents. VAMP-induced artifacts were assessed using a micro-CT and a small animal MRI (9.4T scanner ex vivo. Repeated contrast administration was performed in vivo.With the VAMP there was no evidence of leakage with repeated punctures, high speed bolus contrast injections, and drawing of blood samples. In contrast to the tested commercially available ports, the VAMP did not cause artifacts with MRI or CT imaging.The VAMP is an alternative to commercially available mini-ports and has useful applications in animal research involving imaging procedures and contrast agent testing.

  14. Survival of the recombinant Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain BTX in in vitro rumen incubations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, M A; Whitehead, T R; Rasmussen, M A

    1997-06-01

    The survival of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain BTX under rumen-simulating conditions was studied. Strain BTX is a recombinant variant of strain 5482 engineered for the production of high levels of xylanase, an enzyme important in the degradation of hemicellulose. Strain BTX was not inhibited by compounds present in rumen fluid and it grew well in media containing rumen fluid (up to 75%) or high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (total concentration, 100 mmol l-1). The ability of strain BTX to compete with other microorganisms under rumen-like conditions was studied in in vitro incubations of rumen contents. These experiments employed a consecutive batch culture (CBC) system consisting of alfalfa suspended in a rum flid buffer inoculated with blended rumen contents and maintained by transfers (10%, v/v) at 48 h intervals. CBC cultures contained a diversity of microbial morphotypes and accumulated fermentation products in rumen-like proportions. WHen added alone, the numbers of BTX cells were maintained for only a few hours, and then declined precipitously until undetectable after 48 h. If CBC cultures were also supplemented with chondroitin sulphate (a mucopolysaccharide used by Bact. thetaiotaomicron), strain BTX grew and the pattern of its population generally followed that of the total population of ruminal bacteria in these cultures. When transferred into fresh CBC cultures containing chondroitin sulphate, BTX was again able to grow and increase in numbers, but to a diminished degree. Although BTX was able to survive and maintain itself in chondroitin sulphate supplemented cultures, this was at a very low level (10(5) ml-1). The potential for manipulation of rumen function by inoculation with recombinant bacteria is discussed.

  15. [Occupational exposure-associated hematological and immunologic manifestations to the benzene-toluene-xylene (Btx) mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-García, Luis Cuauhtémoc; González-Bonilla, César Raúl; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; Pérez-Lucio, Carlos; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Despite, the idea promoted to study occupational exposure to benzene and its mixture with toluene and xylene (BTX) because it appears to determine its toxicity and probably the production of additive effects, it persists interest to recognizing its hematological and immunotoxic effects. The fact that exposure to a sole substance in the occupational field is infrequent. Available contributions that analyze these implications are scarce, with contradictory results, and in their majority are limited to the fraction of benzene. Epidemiologic studies that have evaluated occupational exposure to any of the BTX fractions have been based on personal monitoring, while others have characterized this heterogeneously and are accompanied by weaker proposals. The conformation of specific methods to stimulate occupational exposure to the BTX mixture would contribute to its homogenization and allow for a more integral view in terms of determining BTX exposure. On the other hand, the application of BTX exposure biomarkers has been questioned in studies contemplating the specific biological effects of reference-associated chronic exposure. Analysis of the hematological and immunologic manifestations associated BTX mixture is based on information that is unclear, controversial, or even speculative to date.

  16. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Gallego; F. X. Roca; X. Guardino; M. G. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Draiger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 μg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 μg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air.

  17. Combination of repeated single-session percutaneous ethanol injection and transarterial chemoembolisation compared to repeated single-session percutaneous ethanol injection in patients with non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne Dettmer; Susanne Krusche; Sonja Merkesdal; Michael Galanski; Michael P Manns; Joerg S Bleck; Timm D Kirchhoff; Michael Gebel; Lars Zender; Nisar P Malek; Bernhard Panning; Ajay Chavan; Herbert Rosenthal; Stefan Kubicka

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the treatment effect of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for patients with advanced,non-resectable HCC compared with combination of transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and repeated single-session PEI, repeated single-session PEI alone,repeated TACE alone, or best supportive care.METHODS: All patients who received PEI treatment during the study period were included and stratified to one of the following treatment modalities according to physical status and tumor extent: combination of TACE and repeated single-session PEI, repeated single-session PEI alone, repeated TACE alone, or best supportive care. Prognostic value of clinical parameters including Okuda-classification, presence of portal vein thrombosis,presence of ascites, number of tumors, maximum tumor diameter, and serum cholinesterase (CHE), as well as Child-Pugh stage, α-fetoprotein (AFP), fever, incidence of complications were assessed and compared between the groups. Survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate regression analyses.RESULTS: The 1- and 3-year survival of all patients was 73% and 47%. In the subgroup analyses, the combination of TACE and PEI (1) was associated with a longer survival (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 90%, 52%,and 43%) compared to PEI treatment alone (2) (1-, 3-,5-year survival:65%, 50%, and 37%). Secondary PEI after initial stratification to TACE (3) yielded comparable results (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 91%, 40%, and 30%)while PEI after stratification to best supportive care (4)was associated with decreased survival (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 50%, 23%, 12%). Apart from the chosen treatment modalities, predictors for better survival were tumor number (n<5), tumor size (<5cm), no ascites before PEI, and stable serum cholinesterase after PEI (P<0.05). The mortality within 2 wk after PEI was 2.8%(n=3). There were 24 (8.9%) major complications after PEI including segmental liver infarction, focal liver necrosis, and liver abscess. All

  18. Pharmacokinetics of metadoxine for injection after repeated doses in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yuan; KANG Zi-sheng; LIU Yan; LI Tian-yun; XIAO Yong-hong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Alcohol-induced liver disease is one of the main epidemic problems nowadays. Metadoxine is a pyridoxine-pyrrolidone carboxylate with significant scavenging property. Metadoxine is able to accelerate the elimination of alcohol from the blood and tissues, help restore the functional structure of the liver and relieve neuro-psychological disorders associated with alcohol intoxication.1-3 The purpose of the study was to assay the pharmacokinetics of domestic metadoxine after repeated doses.

  19. Performance of BTX degraders under substrate versatility conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyekkal, Shihabudeen M; Rene, Eldon R; Philip, Ligy; Swaminathan, T

    2004-06-18

    A microbial consortium acclimatized with benzene, toluene or xylene (BTX) was employed to study the degradation pattern of these compounds individually under aerobic conditions. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the adaptability of the enriched cultures under substrate versatility conditions. The bio-kinetic parameters obtained under substrate versatility conditions were compared with those of a single substrate condition. Similar degradation patterns were observed for all the substrates with inhibition occurring at higher concentration (approximately 150 mg/L for benzene and xylene, and approximately 200 mg/L for toluene). Toluene degradation was highest, followed by benzene and xylene in the aqueous phase. Adaptation to a more toxic compound like benzene and xylene improved the utilization of toluene. On the other hand, microbes grown on a less toxic compound (toluene) grew at a lower rate in the presence of more toxic compounds. Suitable kinetic parameters such as micro(max) (maximum specific growth rate per hour), Ks (half saturation constant, mg/L), and KI (threshold substrate inhibition constant, mg/L) were determined using Haldane and Levenspiel substrate inhibition models. The Haldane equation seems to be an adequate expression for the system. The degradation behavior of pollutants in the gas phase was also evaluated using a toluene acclimatized biotrickling filter operated in continuous mode. The biotrickling filter acclimatized with toluene could degrade benzene and xylene with a lower elimination capacity. But, the system could recover its original efficiency quite fast even after a prolonged shock loading. The degradation was better for toluene, followed by benzene and xylene.

  20. The effect of repeated intramuscular alfentanil injections on experimental pain and abuse liability indices in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, David Andrew; Smith, Michael T; Bigelow, George E; Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vatem; Strain, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli after repeated opioid exposures, has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. However, there is no accepted, prospective model of OIH after repeated opioid exposures currently available in humans. This study assessed a potential prospective OIH model. Double-blind intramuscular injections of a short-acting opioid (alfentanil 15 mcg/kg; N=8) were compared to active placebo (diphenhydramine 25 mg; N=3) on cold and pressure pain testing and standard abuse liability measures in eight 10-hour sessions (1 injection/session) over 4 to 5 weeks in healthy, pain-free males. Decreases from session baseline pain threshold (PThr) and tolerance (PTol) were calculated to represent hyperalgesia, and were assessed both within and across sessions. Mean decreases in cold PTol were seen in the alfentanil group at 180 minutes (-3.8 s, ±26.5) and 480 minutes (-1.63 s, ±31.5) after drug administration. There was a trend for differences between conditions on cold PThr hyperalgesia but not for pressure PThr. Alfentanil participants had greater mean ratings on Liking and High visual analog scales at peak effects (30 min), but these scores did not change across sessions. Repeated alfentanil exposures over 4 to 5 weeks resulted in within session decreases in cold pain tolerance from baseline but these differences were not substantially different from diphenhydramine controls. The results did not support the phenomenon of OIH in this model, although definitive conclusions regarding the existence of OIH in humans likely requires a larger sample size or an alternative model.

  1. Comparison of lidocaine injection, botulinum toxin injection, and dry needling to trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, A; Kaya, A; Ardicoglu, O; Ozgocmen, S; Zengin, F Ozkurt; Bayik, Y

    2005-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common causes of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Several methods have been recommended for the inactivation of trigger points (TrP). This prospective, single-blind study was proposed to compare TrP injection with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) to dry needling and lidocaine injection in MPS. Eighty-seven trigger points (cervical and/or periscapular regions) in 23 female and six male patients with MPS were treated and randomly assigned to three groups: lidocaine injection (n=10, 32 TrP), dry needling (n=10, 33 TrP), and BTX-A injection (n=9, 22 TrP). Clinical assessment including cervical range of motion, TrP pain pressure threshold (PPT), pain scores (PS), and visual analog scales for pain, fatigue, and work disability were evaluated at entry and the end of the 4th week. Additionally, depression and anxiety were evaluated with the Hamilton depression and anxiety rating scales, and quality of life was assessed using the Nottingham health profile (NHP). The subjects were also asked to describe side effects. INJECTION PROCEDURE: One milliliter of 0.5% lidocaine was administered to each TrP in the lidocaine injection group, 10-20 IU of BTX-A to each TrP in the BTX-A group, and dry needling to each TrP in the last group, followed by stretching of the muscle groups involved. The patients were instructed to continue their home exercise programs. Pain pressure thresholds and PS significantly improved in all three groups. In the lidocaine group, PPT values were significantly higher than in the dry needle group, and PS were significantly lower than in both the BTX-A and dry needle groups. In all, visual analog scores significantly decreased in the lidocaine injection and BTX-A groups and did not significantly change in the dry needle group. Disturbance during the injection procedure was lowest in the lidocaine injection group. Quality of life scores assessed by NHP significantly improved in the lidocaine and BTX-A groups but not

  2. Desensitization of B-adrenergic receptors following repeated injections of 2-substituted-4-phenylquinolines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhaider, A.A.

    1986-03-05

    In a previous work, they synthesized some new 2-substituted-4-phenylquinoline derivatives which demonstrated potent antidepressant activities as revealed by their antagonism to the uptake of /sup 3/(H)-norepinephrine and /sup 3/(H)-serotonin into brain synaptosomal preparation. Also, these compounds have demonstrated less anticholinergic, antihistamine and cardiovascular effects as compared to imipramine in animal models. In this present work, the chronic effects of some of these compounds on the sensitivity of the noradrenergic cyclic-AMP generating system on rat brain cortex has been conducted by the daily injection of 20 mg/kg i.p. for a period of three weeks. Imipramine and trazodone were utilized as standards, representing typical and atypical antidepressants, respectively. Acute treatment (single dose 20 mg/kg) and subchronic treatment (20 mg/kg for 10 days) produced no significant desensitization of the B-adrenoceptors. However, chronic treatment with the compounds significantly decreased isoprenaline-induced increase in c-AMP in the cortex which suggests desensitization of B-adrenoceptors. This effect coupled with the previous findings point to a potential rule of these compounds as suitable antidepressant candidates.

  3. AB204. Repeated intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A injections are still effective for patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity secondary to spinal cord injury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Yang, Xinghua; Zeng, Jingwen; Huang, Maping; Liu, Qiuling; Huang, Jiebing; Huang, Tianhai; Xie, Keji; Jiang, Chonghe

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess effective outcomes following repeated treatment with intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Methods Patients with NDO secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) were enrolled. Botulinum toxin type A 200 U detrusor injections by a rigid cystoscope were repeated. Primary outcomes were urodynamic variables including maximum detrusor pressure during first involuntary detrusor contraction (Pdetmax IDC) filling cystometry, detrusor compliance (DC). Secondary outcomes were improvement of the patient’s quality of life (QoL) measured by Incontinence-Specific Quality-of-Life Instrument (I-QoL), the validated short forms of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7). Related adverse events were recorded. Results From 2012 to 2014, 159 injections were performed in 52 patients (44 male, 8 female). The mean age was 36.67 years. The maximum number of repeated injections was five. BC increased from (4.03–7.45) to (6.96–10.86) mL/cmH2O, Pdetmax in bladder storage decreased from (42.80–79.52) to (26.40–43.33) cmH2O, respectively. The I-QoL, UDI-6 and IIQ-7 showed a consistent improvement after repeated injections. Conclusions Repeated intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A injections remain improve QoL in patients with NDO secondary to SCI.

  4. Repeated injections of energy in the first 600 ms of the giant flare of SGR 1806-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Toshio; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Takei, Yasuhiro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Saito, Yoshifumi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takashima, Takeshi; Mukai, Toshifumi; Noda, Hirotomo; Murakami, Toshio; Watanabe, Kyoko; Muraki, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2005-04-28

    The massive flare of 27 December 2004 from the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1806-20, a possible magnetar, saturated almost all gamma-ray detectors, meaning that the profile of the pulse was poorly characterized. An accurate profile is essential to determine physically what was happening at the source. Here we report the unsaturated gamma-ray profile for the first 600 ms of the flare, with a time resolution of 5.48 ms. The peak of the profile (of the order of 10(7) photons cm(-2) s(-1)) was reached approximately 50 ms after the onset of the flare, and was then followed by a gradual decrease with superposed oscillatory modulations possibly representing repeated energy injections with approximately 60-ms intervals. The implied total energy is comparable to the stored magnetic energy in a magnetar (approximately 10(47) erg) based on the dipole magnetic field intensity (approximately 10(15) G), suggesting either that the energy release mechanism was extremely efficient or that the interior magnetic field is much stronger than the external dipole field.

  5. Safety Evaluation of EXPAREL (DepoFoam Bupivacaine Administered by Repeated Subcutaneous Injection in Rabbits and Dogs: Species Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M. Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available EXPAREL (bupivacaine extended-release liposome injection, DepoFoam bupivacaine, is in development for prolonged postsurgical analgesia. Repeat-dose toxicity studies were conducted in rabbits and dogs to compare the potential local and systemic toxicities of EXPAREL and bupivacaine HCl (Bsol, and the reversibility of any effects. Dogs tolerated much larger doses than rabbits. EXPAREL-related minimal-to-moderate granulomatous inflammation was noted at the injection sites. In recovery animals, the granulomatous inflammation was observed less frequently and was characterized by an increased number of multinucleated giant cells. These effects were considered a normal response to liposomes and nonadverse. Rabbits are more sensitive than dogs. In rabbits, convulsions were noted with EXPAREL and more frequently with Bsol; a NOAEL was not identified. In dogs, EXPAREL was well tolerated (NOAEL > 30 mg/kg/dose. The cumulative exposure of EXPAREL in these studies is well in excess of the proposed maximum single-dose exposure that is intended in humans.

  6. Risk of sensitization in healthy adults following repeated administration of rdESAT-6 skin test reagent by the Mantoux injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N;

    2009-01-01

    1 open clinical trial was to assess the sensitization risk and safety of repeated administration of rdESAT-6 reagent in 31 healthy adult volunteers. Three groups of volunteers received two fixed doses of 0.1 microg rdESAT-6 28, 56 or 112 days apart, respectively. After the second injection......Limited specificity of the tuberculin skin test incited the development of the intradermal Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific rdESAT-6 skin test. Animal studies have shown, however, that there is a possible risk of sensitization when repeated injections of rdESAT-6 are given. The aim of this phase...

  7. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Wan, Yajuan; Yan, Xiao

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O(3) production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO(x) formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L(-1) in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst after 150-h reactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Injection Timing on Medical Abortion Efficacy and Repeat Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Weaver, Mark A; Louie, Karmen S; Tan, Yi-Ling; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Aranguré-Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Lugo-Hernández, Elba M; Sanhueza, Patricio; Goldberg, Alisa B; Culwell, Kelly R; Kaplan, Clair; Memmel, Lisa; Sonalkar, Sarita; Jamshidi, Roxanne; Winikoff, Beverly

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of timing of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection on medical abortion outcome and risk of repeat pregnancy within the subsequent 6 months. In a multinational randomized trial, we assigned women undergoing medical abortion who wanted depot medroxyprogesterone acetate to administration either with mifepristone (Quickstart group) or after the abortion (Afterstart group). We ascertained abortion outcome, pregnancies, and contraception use over 7 months. From August 2013 to March 2015, we enrolled 461 participants with pregnancy durations of 75 days or less. Of participants included in the abortion outcome analyses, 14 of 220 (6.4%) and 12 of 226 (5.3%) in the Quickstart and Afterstart groups, respectively, had surgery to complete the abortion; the upper 90% confidence limit on this difference was 4.9%, within our prestipulated 5% noninferiority margin. Ongoing pregnancy after initial abortion treatment was significantly more common in the Quickstart group (8/220 [3.6%]) than in the Afterstart group (2/226 [0.9%]); the difference was 2.7% (90% confidence interval 0.4-5.6%). By 6 months, 5 of 213 (2.3%) and 7 of 217 (3.2%) in the Quickstart and Afterstart groups, respectively, became pregnant (exact log-rank test, P=.64). Use of highly effective contraceptives was significantly more common in the Quickstart group at 31 days (P<.001), but no difference was apparent at 6 months. The Quickstart group was significantly more satisfied with group assignment. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate administration with mifepristone did not appreciably increase the risk of surgery after medical abortion but did increase the risk of ongoing pregnancy. It enhanced patient satisfaction, but we found no evidence that it decreased 6-month risk of repeat pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01902485.

  9. Effective local anesthesia for onabotulinumtoxin A injections to treat hyperhidrosis associated with traumatic amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lucy L; Sargen, Michael R.; Chen, Suephy C.; Arbiser, Jack L.; Pollack, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections are an effective treatment for controlling hyperhidrosis at sites of amputation. Hyperesthesia associated with amputated limbs is a major barrier to performing this procedure under local anesthesia. Objective: To present a novel method for improving local anesthesia with BTX-A injections. Methods & Results: A 29-year-old military veteran with a below-the-knee amputation of his right leg was suf...

  10. Application of BTX-A for the Treatment of Facial Wrinkles and Neck Wrinkles:262 cases Report%应用BTX-A治疗面颈部皱纹262例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱倩; 黄巡

    2006-01-01

    目的:应用BTX-A治疗面颈部皱纹,观察其效果.方法:用生理盐水2~3ml,稀释BTX-A 100U,多点注射治疗额纹,眉间纹,鱼尾纹,鼻背纹,口周纹及颈阔肌纹.结果:共262例患者,治疗有效率达100%.结论:BTX-A注射用于面颈部皱纹治疗,操作方法简单、损伤小、安全、有效.

  11. Tachyphylaxis associated with repeated epidural injections of lidocaine is not related to changes in distribution or the rate of elimination from the epidural space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, T.; Simonsen, L.; Scott, N.B.; Henriksen, J.H.; Kehlet, H. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-08-01

    The relationship between tachyphylaxis (measured as a decrease in the rate of regression of sensory levels of analgesia) during repeated epidural injections of lidocaine and both the distribution of lidocaine within the epidural space (as measured by spread of simultaneous injection of the tracer technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA)) and elimination of lidocaine from the epidural space (as measured by serum concentrations of lidocaine) was investigated in 18 patients undergoing minor surgery during lumbar epidural analgesia. Twelve patients received four injections of 20 mL of 2% lidocaine at 2-hr intervals. Epidural distribution was assessed by injection of 99mTc-DTPA diluted in saline on the preoperative day and diluted in an equal volume of 2% lidocaine on the morning before surgery and again after the fourth injection of lidocaine 6 hr later. The distribution of 99mTc-DTPA in the epidural space was unchanged during the three measurements despite significant tachyphylaxis in both sensory analgesia and motor blockade (11 of 12 patients had sensory analgesia 2 hr after the first injection in contrast to only 3 of 12 patients during the third injection). In another six patients 20 mL of 2% lidocaine were injected three times at 2-hr intervals before surgery, with measurements of serum concentrations of lidocaine after the first and last injections. Despite tachyphylaxis (no patient had sensory analgesia 2 hr after the third injection), there was no difference in the rate of disappearance of lidocaine from the epidural space as assessed by plasma lidocaine concentration curves during the first and third injection (0.5 +/- 0.1 and 0.3 +/- 0.04 microgram.mL-1.min-1, respectively).

  12. Effects of botulinum toxin A injection and exercise on the growth of juvenile rat gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Ming; Stott, N Susan; Smith, Heather K

    2002-10-01

    Botulinum toxin A (Btx) injections and supervised exercise are often used concurrently to treat calf muscle spasticity in children. This study has analyzed the early effects of Btx-induced paralysis and increased activity by voluntary wheel running on cell growth-related processes in juvenile rat gastrocnemius muscle. Btx injection at 29 days of age prevented the normal increases in wet mass (50%) and fiber cross-sectional area (34%) seen by 36 days of age in control rats. Btx-injected vs. contralateral muscles had 22% fewer myonuclei per fiber length but greater than twofold the number of MyoD-positive nuclei at 36 days of age. The accretion of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled newly produced myonuclei did not differ between limbs. Voluntary exercise during the 7 days increased the mass (18%) and fiber size (23%) of Btx-injected and contralateral muscles but did not affect any other variable. Thus Btx injection and exercise had early effects on muscle and fiber size without consistently associated changes in myonuclear production or number. This suggests the presence of noncontractile activity-dependent, growth-promoting cytoplasmic events in juvenile muscle.

  13. Optical waveguide BTX gas sensor based on polyacrylate resin thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Razak; Yimit, Abliz; Ablat, Hayrensa; Mahmut, Mamtimin; Itoh, Kiminori

    2009-07-01

    An optical sensor sensitive to BTX has been developed by spin coating a thin film of polyacrylate resin onto a tin- diffused glass optical waveguide. A pair of prism coupler was employed for optical coupling matched with diiodomethane (CH2l2). The guided wave transmits in waveguide layer and passes through the film as an evanescent wave. Polyacrylate film has a strong capacity of absorbing oil gases. The film is stable in N2 but benzene exposure at room temperature can result in rapid and reversible changes of transmittance (7) and refractive index (n1) of this film. It has been demonstrated that the sensor containing a 10 mm boardand about a hundred nanometers thick resin film can detect lower than 8 ppm BTX.

  14. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xing [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu Tianle, E-mail: zhutl@buaa.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Wan Yajuan; Yan Xiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O{sub 3} production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO{sub x} formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L{sup -1} in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after 150-h reactions.

  15. Long-term facial improvement after repeated BoNT-A injections and mirror biofeedback exercises for chronic facial synkinesis: a case-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrini, Silvia; Comelli, Mario; Dall'angelo, Anna; Togni, Rossella; Cecini, Miriam; Pavese, Chiara; Dalla Toffola, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Only few studies have considered the effects of the combined treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections and biofeedback (BFB) rehabilitation in the recovery of postparetic facial synkinesis (PPFS). To explore the presence of a persistent improvement in facial function out of the pharmacological effect of BoNT-A in subjects with established PPFS, after repeated sessions of BoNT-A injections combined with an educational facial training program using mirror biofeedback (BFB) exercises. Secondary objective was to investigate the trend of the presumed persistent improvement. Case-series study. Outpatient Clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit. Twenty-seven patients (22 females; mean age 45±16 years) affected by an established peripheral facial palsy, treated with a minimum of three BoNT-A injections in association with mirror BFB rehabilitation. The interval between consecutive BoNT-A injections was at least five months. At baseline and before every BoNT-A injection+mirror BFB session (when the effect of the previous BoNT-A injection had vanished), patients were assessed with the Italian version of Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SB). The statistical analysis considered SB composite and partial scores before each treatment session compared to the baseline scores. A significant improvement of the SB composite and partial scores was observed until the fourth session. Considering the "Symmetry of Voluntary Movement" partial score, the main improvement was observed in the muscles of the lower part of the face. In a chronic stage of postparetic facial synkinesis, patients may benefit from a combined therapy with repeated BoNT-A injections and an educational facial training program with mirror BFB exercises, gaining an improvement of the facial function up to the fourth session. This improvement reflects the acquired ability to use facial muscle correctly. It doesn't involve the injected muscles but those trained with mirror biofeedback exercises

  16. BTX degradation and dynamic parameters interaction in a 50-L biofilter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahraoui, K.; Rho, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.; Samson, R. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    A composted peat moss and chicken manure blend was used to degrade benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in a 50-L laboratory-scale biofilter. Temperature, moisture content, and oxygen consumption rate of the filter material were examined for 2 weeks. The biofilter was operated with two superficial gas velocities and an inlet BTX concentration ranging between 1,974 and 3,611 mg m{sup {minus}3}. The elimination capacity (EC) for the whole bed reached a maximum value of 82.0 g m{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1}, with a BTX load of 91.8 g m{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1}. The moisture content of the filter material varied from 53.6 to 31.5 wt% and 62.5 to 65.0 wt% at a height of 15 and 86 cm, respectively. The EC of each section of the biofilter was affected by the moisture content through the bed.

  17. Comparative study of efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin a injections and subcutaneous curettage in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Leelavathy Budamakuntla; Eswari Loganathan; Anju George; B N Revanth; Sankeerth, V; Sacchidananda Aradhya Sarvjnamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis is a chronic distressing disorder affecting both the sexes. When the condition is refractory to conservative management, we should go for more promising therapies like intradermal botulinum toxin A (BtxA) injections in the axilla, and surgical therapies like subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and duration of action of intradermal BtxA injections in one axilla and...

  18. Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin a Injections and Subcutaneous Curettage in the Treatment of Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Budamakuntla, Leelavathy; Loganathan, Eswari; George, Anju; Revanth, BN; Sankeerth, V; Sarvjnamurthy, Sacchidananda Aradhya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis is a chronic distressing disorder affecting both the sexes. When the condition is refractory to conservative management, we should go for more promising therapies like intradermal botulinum toxin A (BtxA) injections in the axilla, and surgical therapies like subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and duration of action of intradermal BtxA injections in one axilla and...

  19. Electrokinetic sample injection for high-sensitivity CZE (part 2): improving the quantitative repeatability and application of electrokinetic supercharging-CZE to the detection of atmospheric electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongqi; Koshimidzu, Eiji; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2009-10-01

    Electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) is defined as a technique that combines electrokinetic sample injection with transient ITP. Quantitative repeatability of EKS-CZE and the other CE methods using electrokinetic sample injection process is usually inferior in comparison with the CE methods using hydrodynamic or hydrostatic injection. This is due to some effects, such as the temperature change and the convection of the sample solution in the reservoir, as well as the change of the distance between an electrode and a capillary end (D(ec)). In particular, we have found that the D(ec) change might most seriously affect the repeatability, especially when the electrode is a thin Pt wire that could be unintentionally bent during sampling. By using a Teflon spacer to fix D(ec) to 1.1 mm, the RSD of peak area (n=5) was decreased from 20 to 3.4% in EKS-CZE for several metal cations. This D(ec) dependence of the sample amount injected was supported by computer simulation using CFD-ACE+ software. The improved repeatability (down to 5.1% at n=5, averaged RSD for Co(2+), Li(+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+)) was also experimentally attained by increasing the D(ec) to ca. 20 mm, which was also effective to obtain high sensitivity. Since the temperature and the convection effects on the repeatability are comparatively small in a proper laboratory environment, these effects were estimated from the EKS-CZE experiments using conditions such as warming and agitating the sample solution during EKS process. Finally, EKS-CZE was applied to the detection of ions from atmospheric electrolytes in high-purity water exposed to ambient air for 2 h. The microgram per liter levels of anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, formate, acetate and lactate) and cations (ammonium, calcium, sodium and magnesium) could be detected using conventional UV detector.

  20. Botulinum Toxin Injection for Internal Rotation Contractures in Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy. A Minimum 5-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnisveld, Bouke J; van Wijlen-Hempel, Marie S; Hogendoorn, Simone; de Boer, Kees S; Malessy, Martijn J A; Keurentjes, J Christiaan; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    Brachial plexus birth palsy is frequently associated with internal rotation contractures of the shoulder as a result of muscle imbalance. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection in the subscapular (SC) muscle on external rotation and the need for tendon transfer for external rotation of the shoulder. A prospective comparative study was performed including 15 consecutive patients treated with BTX-A and a historic control group of 67 patients with mean age 30 months (SD 10). The BTX-A injection (2 IU/kg body weight) was performed immediately following MRI under general anesthesia in the SC muscle. Passive external rotation, the need for tendon transfer surgery, glenohumeral deformity, and muscle degeneration were evaluated. The hazard ratio for no relapse of internal rotation contracture after BTX-A injection compared with no BTX-A injection was calculated. In the BTX-A group, the passive external rotation in adduction increased from -1 degree (95% CI, -10 to 8) to 32 degrees (95% CI, 17-46) at 3 months and 6 patients were indicated for surgery compared with a decline from -2 degrees (95% CI, -7 to 3) to -11 degrees (95% CI, -17 to -6) in the control group with 66 indications for surgery. At 5 years of follow-up, 10 patients in the BTX-A group were indicated for surgery with a hazard ratio of 4.0 (95% CI, 1.9 to 8.4). BTX-A injection in the SC muscle of brachial plexus birth palsy patients can reduce internal rotation contractures and subsequently the need for tendon transfer surgery. At 5 years of follow-up a relapse was seen in 67% of the patients treated with BTX-A. Because at MRI less SC degeneration was found in the good responders on BTX-A treatment, this group seems to be the best target group. Further research is needed on patient selection for BTX-A injection including glenohumeral deformity, SC degeneration, as well as doses of BTX-A to be used. Level II-prospective comparative study.

  1. Comparison of BTX Profiles and Their Mutagenicity Assessment at Two Sites of Agra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyoma Singla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the concentrations of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs, namely, acronym for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX were assessed because of their role in the tropospheric chemistry. Two representative sites, a roadside and a petrol pump, were chosen for sample collection. VOCs were collected using SKC-activated charcoal tubes and SKC personal sampler and characterized by gas chromatograph using flame ionization detector. Among BTX, benzene had the highest concentration. At the roadside, mean concentration of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene, and p-xylene were 14.7 ± 2.4 μgm−3, 8.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, 2.1 ± 0.8 μgm−3, and 5.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, respectively. At the petrol pump, the mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene and p-xylene were 19.5 ± 3.7 μgm−3, 12.9 ± 1.1 μgm−3, 3.6 ± 0.5 μgm−3 and 11.1 ± 1.5 μgm−3, respectively, and were numerically higher by a fraction of 2. Monthly variation of BTX showed maximum concentration in winter. Inter-species ratios and inter-species correlation indicated traffic as the major source of BTX. Extracts of samples were positive in both Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation suggesting the presence of direct mutagens in ambient air that can cause both frame-shift and base-pair mutation. The mutagenic response was greater for TA100 than TA98 suggesting greater activity for base-pair mutagenicity than frame-shift mutagenicity and was found to be statistically significant.

  2. Ganglion Cell Complex Evaluation in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration after Repeated Intravitreal Injections of Ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Perdicchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To detect the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab injections on GCC in patients with wet AMD. Methods. 32 wet AMD eyes were selected and submitted at three ranibizumab injections. RTVue-OCT GCC and MM5 protocol were performed before treatment and twenty days after each injection. Results. At baseline mean GCC thickness was 93.9 ± 18.5 μm. Twenty days after each intravitreal injection it was, respectively, 85.8 ± 10.1, 86.5 ± 9.3, and 91.1 ± 11.5 μm, without statistical significance. A significant improvement in visual acuity (P = 0.031 and a reduction of mean foveal (P = 0.001 and macular thickness (P = 0.001 were observed. Conclusion. The clinical results confirm therapeutic efficacy of intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in wet AMD. A contemporary not statistically significant reduction of GCC thickness suggests that the loading phase of ranibizumab does not have any toxic effects on ganglion cell complex.

  3. Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Neurography for Diagnosis of Piriformis Muscle Syndrome and Verification of the Effect After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hea Eun; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sungjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a controversial neuromuscular disorder that is presumed to involve compression neuropathy of the sciatic nerve at the level of the piriformis muscle. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection into the piriformis muscle is widely used as a treatment aimed at relieving sciatic nerve compression. In 2 patients with PMS, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) was taken before and after BTX-A injection. The first MRN was performed as a diagnostic tool, and the ...

  4. Potential benefits for caregivers of stroke survivors receiving BTX-A and exercise for upper extremity spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia C; Aycock, Dawn M; Reiss, Aimee; Tanner, Dee; Shenvi, Neeta V; Easley, Kirk A; Wolf, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    To explore possible extended benefits to caregivers of stroke survivors receiving a treatment of onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A) or saline with a structured exercise program. A comparative, prospective, companion study using a nonrandom sample of 16 caregivers of stroke survivors enrolled in a pilot clinical trial comparing BTX-A or saline and exercise for upper extremity spasticity. The caregiver measures were depressive symptoms, care demands, family conflict surrounding stroke recovery, and mental and physical health status. There were no statistically significant differences between caregiver groups. Caregivers of stroke survivors who received BTX-A had a greater change in depressive symptoms that may reflect a clinically important change. Estimates of effect sizes between the groups, controlling for baseline values, indicate a trend for moderate to large effects (last evaluation) for fewer depressive symptoms (d = 0.52) and less caregiver burden (d = 0.77 time, 0.85 difficulty) for caregivers of the BTX-A group. Receiving BTX-A did not alter caregiving demands or depressive symptoms compared to those receiving saline. Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to better understand the interdependence of stroke survivors and caregivers on the health of each. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  5. Growth effects of botulinum toxin type A injected unilaterally into the masseter muscle of developing rats%咬肌单侧注射A型肉毒毒素对大鼠下颌骨生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chanyoung PARK; Kitae PARK; Jiyeon KIM

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) on mandible skeletal development by inducing muscle hypofunction. Methods:Four-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into three groups:Group 1 animals served as controls and were injected with saline; Group 2 animals were injected unilateral y with BTX-A (the contralateral side was injected with saline);and Group 3 animals were injected bilateral y with BTX-A. In Group 2, the saline-injected side was designated the control side (Group 2-1), whereas the BTX-A-injected side was designated the experimental side (Group 2-2). After four weeks, the animals were sacrificed, dry skulls were prepared, and mandibles were measured. Results: In the unilateral group, the experimental side (Group 2-2) had reduced di-mensions for al mandible measurements compared with the control side (Group 2-1), suggesting a local effect of BTX-A on mandible growth, likely due to muscle reduction. Conclusions:Localized BTX-A injection induced a change in craniofacial growth, and the skeletal effect was unilateral despite both sides of the mandible functioning as one unit.%通过诱导肌肉功能衰退,评估 A 型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)对下颌骨生长发育的影响。

  6. Highly selective BTX from catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignin over supported mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadly, A M; Zeid, I F; Yehia, F Z; Rabie, A M; Aboualala, M M; Park, Sang-Eon

    2016-10-01

    The post synthesis of Al(3+) or Zr(4+) substituted MCM-48 framework with controlled acidity is challenging because the functional groups exhibiting acidity often jeopardize the framework integrity. Herein, we report the post-synthesis of two hierarchically porous MCM-48 composed of either aluminum (Al(3+)) or zirconium (Zr(4+)) clusters with high throughput. All prepared catalysts have been characterized by HR-TEM, XRD, IR, N2-adsorption, NH3-TPD, TGA and MAS NMR. They exhibit BET surface areas of 597 and 1112m(2)g(-1) for 8.4% Al/MCM-48 and 2.9% Zr/MCM-48, respectively. XRD analysis reveals that the hierarchical porosity of parental MCM-48 is reserved even after incorporation of Al(3+)or Zr(4+). Zr/MCM-48 catalysts are demonstrate a superior performance versus that of Al/MCM-48 and MCM-48 because of the mild (ZrO2) or nil (SiO2) Lewis acidity contributed from Zr-μ2-O group as well as smaller pore sizes suitable for the restriction of unwanted side reactions. The reaction conditions which were affecting the catalytic pyrolysis and final products were gas flow rate, pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst to lignin ratio. A total of 49% of BTX product were obtained over 2.9% Zr/MCM-48 at 600°C. The Lewis acid character was the governing factor which helps in pyrolysis and directly affects the BTX formation.

  7. Effect of Atmospheric Interfering Absorption on Measurement of BTX by DOAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-min Peng; Pin-hua Xie; Hai-yang Li; Ying-hua Zhang; Jun-de Wang; Wen-qing Liu

    2008-01-01

    It was reported on the elimination of interfering absorption of BTX. the absorption of O2 includes different absorption bands, which change differently when the partial pressure of oxygen is varied. These cause the nonlinear absorption of O2 and the observed band shape to vary with the column density of O2. The absorption ratios of molecular absorption in each of the Herzberg bands and dimer absorptions, as well as the contribution to the correction error of molecular absorption, are studied based on the characteristic of these absorption bands. The optimized way to eliminate the interfering absorption is obtained in the end and the effectiveness of using interpolation proposed by Volkamer et al. to remove 02 absorption is proved again. As to O3 and SO2, the effect of the thermal effect of characteristic spectra on the elimination error of their absorption is studied. Solutions to these problems are discussed and demonstrated together with methods to optimize the interpolation of spectra. As a sample application, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of BTX are carried out. Results show a low detection limit and the good correlation with point instruments are achieved. All these prove the feasibility of using spectral interpolation to improve the accuracy of DOAS measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons for practical purposes.

  8. Intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin a reduces tear production in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Anna M; Leyngold, Ilya M; D'Anna, Sam; Eghrari, Allen O; Emmert, Dave G; Grant, Michael P; Merbs, Shannath L

    2013-01-01

    To develop an animal model and investigate the dose-dependent effect of an intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on tear production. In a volume of 0.1-ml, 0.625-, 1.25-, or 2.5-U BTX-A was injected transconjunctivally in the superolateral lobe of the lacrimal gland of adult New Zealand white female rabbits. In the contralateral lacrimal gland, 0.1 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride was injected. Prior to injection and at 1-week postinjection, photographs were taken to evaluate pre- and postoperative eyelid position. Fluorescein and Rose Bengal stain were used to evaluate the corneal surface, and Schirmer test was used to assess tear production. Glands injected with the intermediate (1.25 U) and the highest (2.5 U) doses of BTX-A displayed a statistically significant decrease in tear production (p = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively) compared with the contralateral saline-injected glands at 1 week. No corneal pathologic factors from excessive dryness were observed following the injection. While postinjection ptosis was observed (p = 0.025), no difference was seen between BTX-A and saline-injected eyes. In rabbits, intraglandular injection of BTX-A resulted in decreased tear production at 1 week. No additional reduction in tear production was seen with a BTX-A dose greater than 1.25 U, suggesting glandular receptor saturation at this dose. Despite suppression of tear production, no corneal pathologic factors were observed. Further studies are needed to refine this animal model with the ultimate goal of determining optimum delivery route and concentration to reduction in tear production while minimizing side effects in patients.

  9. Effects of repeated injection of kisspeptin-10 on the initiation of egg-laying in juvenile quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingdong; Huang, Yanbing; Xiao, Yunqi; Wu, Jing; Qian, Fuyu; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2012-10-01

    The kisspeptin (Kp) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the onset of reproduction in mammals. To investigate the effects of Kp on the initiation of egg laying in birds, juvenile female quail were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 300μl saline (control, Con), or 10nmol (low dosage, L) or 100nmol (high dosage, H) kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) dissolved in 300μl saline for 3 weeks. The ratio of egg laying of quail in the L and H groups was notably increased compared to that of the Con group (Pquail by regulating the activities of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  10. Toxicity assessment of repeated intravenous injections of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid peptide conjugated CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available You-Wei Wang, Kai Yang, Hong Tang, Dan Chen, Yun-Long Bai Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Nanotechnology-based near-infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs have many excellent optical properties, such as high fluorescence intensity, good fluorescence stability, and strong tissue-penetrating ability. Integrin αvß3 is highly and specifically expressed in tumor angiogenic vessel endothelial cells of almost all carcinomas. Recent studies have shown that NIR QDs linked to peptides containing the arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD sequence (NIR QDs-RGD can specifically target integrin αvß3 expressed in endothelial cells of tumor angiogenic vessels in vivo, and they offer great potential for early cancer diagnosis, in vivo tumor imaging, and tumor individualized therapy. However, the toxicity profile of NIR QDs-RGD has not been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of NIR QDs-RGD when intravenously administered to mice singly and repeatedly at the dose required for successful tumor imaging in vivo.Materials and methods: A NIR QDs-RGD probe was prepared by linking NIR QDs with the maximum emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800 to the RGD peptide (QD800-RGD. QD800-RGD was intravenously injected to BALB/C mice once or twice (200 pmol equivalent of QD800 for each injection. phosphate-buffered saline solution was used as control. Fourteen days postinjection, toxicity tests were performed, including complete blood count (white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocytes, and neutrophils and serum biochemical analysis (total protein, albumin, albumin/globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen. The coefficients of liver, spleen, kidney, and lung weight to body weight were measured, as well as their oxidation and antioxidation indicators, including

  11. Design of Injection Mold for Repeater Panel%复读机面盖注塑模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋育华; 胡琪; 付鹏

    2012-01-01

    The structure characteristics of plastic part of repeater panel was analyzed. The design methods for combined molding parts and side core-pulling mechanism of the mold were expounded. The practical production proves that the actions of core-pulling and demoulding are steady and reliable, the pin-point gate can satisfy the appearance requirement of the plastic part, and the quality of the plastic part can meet the technical requirements.%分析了复读机面盖塑件的结构特点,阐述了该模具组合式成型零件及侧抽芯机构的设计方法.经生产实践证明:该模具的抽芯及脱模动作均平稳可靠,点浇口保证了塑件的外观要求,塑件质量可以满足技术要求.

  12. Intravesical botulinum toxin A injections plus hydrodistension can reduce nerve growth factor production and control bladder pain in interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Tzu; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA in bladder tissue and the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) treatment in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). A total of 19 patients with IC were treated with 100 U or 200 U of intravesical BTX-A injections followed by cystoscopic hydrodistension 2 weeks later. Bladder mucosa biopsies were performed before BTX-A injection and immediately after hydrodilation and in 12 controls. The NGF mRNA and protein levels in bladder tissues were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry studies to determine differences in NGF expression between patients with IC before and after BTX-A treatment and compare with controls. At 3 months, 14 patients had symptomatic improvement (responders) and 5 did not (nonresponders). The NGF mRNA levels at baseline in the overall IC patient group were significantly greater than those in the controls (0.65 +/- 0.33 versus 0.42 +/- 0.25, P = 0.046). At 2 weeks after BTX-A treatment, the NGF mRNA levels had decreased to 0.47 +/- 0.23 (P = 0.002, compared with baseline) and were no longer significantly different from those of the controls. The NGF mRNA levels decreased significantly in responders and were significantly decreased after BTX-A in 11 patients with a visual analog pain scale reduction of 2 or more. The immunoreactivity study of bladder tissue from patients with IC showed greater NGF density at baseline compared with controls, but the difference was no longer significant after successful BTX-A treatment. Intravesical BTX-A injections plus hydrodistension reduce bladder pain in patients with IC. The NGF levels in the bladder tissue were significantly increased in patients with IC and decreased to normal level after treatment in responders.

  13. Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) pollution in ambient air: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deole, Sarika; Phadke, K M; Kumar, Animesh

    2004-01-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in presence of sunlight and oxides of nitrogen in atmosphere are considered as precursors for ozone production at the ground level. Concentration of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) in ambient air was measured near seven traffic junctions in the city of Nagpur. Air samples were collected using Organic Vapour Sampler and analyzed by Gas Chromatograph equipped with Flame Ionization Detector (FID). Benzene concentration was found to be in the range 9.3 to 28.7 microg/m3, Toluene 3.26 to 21.0 microg/m3 and Xylene 4.9 to 15.0 microg/m3. These values are lower than those found in Metropolitan cities like Mumbai.

  14. Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring using a Sparse Seismic Array: Pre-Injection Assessment of Repeatability at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, L. A.; White, D.; Roberts, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquistore is a deep saline geological storage project. An estimated 2000 tonnes/day of CO2 will be captured and injected at approximately 3200m - 3350m into a sandstone reservoir. CO2 injection is expected to create a measurable change in the seismic properties within the reservoir. Our goal is to utilize a sparse seismic array to improve cost effectiveness and time-lapse SNR by improved repeatability. A permanent surface seismic array has been deployed at the Aquistore CO2 storage site comprising 630 vertical-component geophones deployed at a depth of 20m over a 2.5 x 2.5 km grid. Receiver lines are spaced at intervals of 144m, with an in-line geophone spacing of 72m and with geophones along adjacent lines staggered by 32m in the in-line direction. To assess the repeatability of seismic data acquired using this sparse seismic array, two 3D seismic surveys were conducted prior to the start of CO2 injection. The baseline survey was acquired in March, 2012 with a subsequent monitor survey in April, 2013. Sources consisted of 1kg dynamite shots detonated at 15m depth over a 3 x 3 km grid, with 12 shot lines spaced at 288m and 144m in-line spacing. The permanent receiver array provided for 100% collocated receiver positions, while 90% of the shot points of the repeat survey were placed within 2m of the shots of the baseline survey. These elements of the survey design serve to reduce the non-repeatability that may be related to acquisition effects and seasonal variations. Before processing, the datasets were matched so that the number of common shots and receivers was 256 and 599 respectively which results in a nominal fold of 40. Our preliminary approach of 3D time-lapse processing was to process each vintage separately while applying identical flows with the same parameters (e.g. mutes and time gates) to the repeat dataset. The normalized root-mean-square (nRMS) of the difference of the two data sets was used as the metric for repeatability in assessing the similarity

  15. Pipe inspection using the BTX-II. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  16. Analysis on repeated injection of marine diesel engine and its application%船舶柴油机重复喷射分析及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏安; 吴桂涛; 闫耀光

    2012-01-01

    建立相应的物理、数学模型,通过分析船舶柴油机喷射时前进波与反射波关系,了解产生重复喷射的机理,以及影响船舶柴油机产生重复喷射的因素,旨在为船员在管理维护柴油机时提供理论依据.%Appropriate physical and mathematical models were established,and the repeat injection mechanism and its influencing factors were obtained through analyzing the relationship between progressive wave and reflected wave while marine diesel engine was in jetting.The analysis can give theoretical basis for crews in management and maintenance for the diesel engine.

  17. Successful Treatment of Hemifacial Myokymia and Dystonia Associated to Linear Scleroderma “En Coup de Sabre” with Repeated Botox Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Cañas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear scleroderma “en coup de sabre” (LSCS is a form of localized scleroderma presents as band-like sclerotic lesions of the frontoparietal area. It has been reported in association with diverse neurological manifestations like seizures, migraine, neuromyotonia, dystonia and abnormalities in MRI and CT studies as cerebral atrophy, white matter lesions, intraparenchymal calcification, meningeocortical alterations, and skull atrophy. We describe a patient with LSCS associated with two abnormal movements: permanent myokimia of right masseter muscle and recurrent spasmodic retraction of right cigomatic and depressor labii inferioris muscles. He was initially treated with methotrexate and steroids without response, so later on he underwent repeated Botox injections with remarkable improvement.

  18. A live birth of activated one-day-old unfertilized oocyte for a patient who experienced repeatedly near-total fertilization failure after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qun; CHEN Xi; LI Yang; ZHANG Xiao-hong; LIANG Rong; ZHAO Yong-ping; WEI Li-hui; SHEN Huan

    2012-01-01

    Total or near-total fertilization failure after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a rare event,but it occurs repeatedly because of sperm defects in activating oocyte.The case presents a successful pregnancy and live birth after calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) activation on one-day-old unfertilized oocytes in a patient whose husband suffered oligoasthenoteratozoospermia,and who had experienced repeated near-total fertilization failure after ICSI.In the second ICSI cycle,only one oocyte was fertilized while nine were unfertilized.Oocyte activation with A23187 were performed on the one-day-old unfertilized oocytes after ICSI and resulted in fertilization and embryo transfer.A clinical pregnancy was achieved and a healthy baby was born.To our knowledge,this is the first reported case of a healthy birth after oocyte activation on the one-day-old unfertilized oocyte.This indicates that “rescue oocyte activation” on one-day-old unfertilized oocytes after ICSI may be helpful for preventing total or near-total fertilization failure after ICSI.

  19. Effect of botulinum toxin type A injection into human masseter muscle on stimulated parotid saliva flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J S; Kim, S T; Jeon, Y M; Choi, J H

    2009-04-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection into the masseter muscles is used to treat masseteric hypertrophy. No serious side effects of BTX-A have been reported, but patients sometimes complain of xerostomia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of injecting BTX-A into the masseter for the treatment of masseteric hypertrophy on the flow of saliva from the parotid gland. 34 volunteers enrolled in this study. A total of 25 units of BTX-A was injected into each side bilaterally at two points at the center of the lower third of the masseter muscle. Saliva was collected from the parotid gland over a period of 10 min to determine the flow rate for 18 weeks after injection. The flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by the collection time in minutes. There were no significant changes in the stimulated parotid saliva flow at 4, 8, 12 or 18 weeks compared with the baseline. Within this limited study, it can be concluded that BTX-A injection into the masseter does not cause any significant decrease in the production of saliva from the parotid gland.

  20. Different locomotor sensitization responses to repeated cocaine injections are associated with differential phosphorylation of GluA1 in the dorsomedial striatum of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myonghwan; Kim, Wonju; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Yoon, Bong-June

    2013-11-15

    Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants reflects neural adaptation, which might share a common mechanism with drug addiction. Outbred male rats show different locomotor sensitization responses to cocaine, and cocaine also produces varied addictive progress in humans. We investigated whether differences in the induction of sensitization would affect the long-term persistence of sensitized locomotor activity, and we sought to determine the molecular basis for the variability in sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that showed sensitized locomotor responses over 5 consecutive daily cocaine injections (SENS) had significantly lower initial locomotor responses to the 1st cocaine exposure than did rats that did not show locomotor sensitization (NONS). Furthermore, rats that underwent 1 month of cocaine withdrawal after 5 repeated cocaine injections also exhibited sensitized or non-sensitized locomotor responses to a challenge injection of cocaine (SENS-C or NONS-C, respectively). This variability was also related to the initial responsiveness to cocaine. We examined the level of phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropioniate receptor (AMPAR) in the dorsal striatum and found that there were significant differences between the sensitized rats and the non-sensitized rats. pGluA1-Ser831 was increased in the SENS rats during the induction of locomotor sensitization, and pGluA1-Ser845 was increased in the SENS-C rats during the expression of locomotor sensitization. These phosphorylation changes were observed in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of adult rats but not in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of adults. Our findings suggest that differential phosphorylation of AMPAR might be an important mechanism that contributes to the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adult rats.

  1. High-dose botulinum toxin type A local injection therapy for axillary hyperhidrosis%大剂量A型肉毒毒素局部注射治疗腋部多汗症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 宋军; 李虎; 鲁元刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨大剂量肉毒毒素治疗腋部多汗症的长期疗效和重复治疗的疗效.方法 92例患者随机分为两组:小剂量组为每侧腋部皮内注射生理盐水稀释的A型肉毒毒素50U;大剂量组为每侧腋部皮内注射生理盐水稀释的A型肉毒毒素200U;随访3~29个月,观察两组并发症,并建立两组等级资料,经χ2 检验,评价两组患者疗效差异.结果 两组疗效进行对照分析,经过统计学处理分析,认为对于腋部多汗症的患者,小剂量与大剂量的BTXA治疗方法的疗效间隔时间,差异有统计学意义.结论 大剂量A型肉毒毒素能够显著延长腋部多汗症复发间隔时间.%Objective Evaluate the long-term effectiveness of high-dose botulinum toxin therapy in axillary hyperhidrosis, the response to repeated treatment, and the possible side effects. Methods Totally 92 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were randomly divided into two groups. One group were injected with low-dose botulinum toxin A( BTX-A ), 50 U was injected per axilla. Another group were injected with high-dose BTX-A. A total dose of 200 U of BTX-A was used per axilla. Patients were followed up for periods up to 29 months. To investigate the effect of two methods, we analyzed two ranked data by rank sum test and x2 test to judge the disparities of the therapeutic effect. Results The results showed that the relapse-free interval of two groups with axillary hyperhidrosis was significant difference through the statistical analysis. Conclusion High-dose BTX-A treatment is capable of prolonging the antihidrotic effect of intracutaneous.

  2. Botulinum toxin type-A injection to treat patients with intractable anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhen-Ning; He, Lei; Gao, Ge; Zhai, Qing; Yin, Zhi-Tao; Zeng, Xian-Dong

    2014-09-21

    To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injection to the puborectalis and external sphincter muscle in the treatment of patients with anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. This retrospective study included 31 patients suffering from anismus who were unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. Diagnosis was made by anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, surface electromyography of the pelvic floor muscle, and defecography. Patients were given botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection and pelvic floor biofeedback training. Follow-up was conducted before the paper was written. Improvement was evaluated using the chronic constipation scoring system. BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training achieved success in 24 patients, with 23 maintaining persistent satisfaction during a mean period of 8.4 mo. BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training seems to be successful for intractable anismus.

  3. A型肉毒毒素注射治疗卒中后上肢疼痛1例报道%Effect of Botulinum Toxin-A Injection on Upper Limb Pain after Stroke:A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山磊; 崔利华; 杨宇琦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection on upper limb pain after stroke. Methods A case with upper limb pain after stroke was reported. The symptom, the location and dosage of injection, and the prognosis were recorded. Results The pain relieved after injection, and disappeared 4 weeks after injection. Conclusion BTX-A injection is effective on upper limb pain after stroke.%目的:观察A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)注射治疗卒中后上肢疼痛的疗效。方法报道1例卒中后上肢疼痛患者的症状和体征,BTX-A注射的部位和剂量及预后。结果 BTX-A注射后患者上肢疼痛明显减轻,注射后4周时疼痛完全消失。结论 BTX-A注射对卒中后上肢疼痛有明显的治疗作用。

  4. Remote Effects of Local Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xinhua; Tang Xiaofu; Cui Liying

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the seventy and temporal profile of remote effects of botulinum toin type A, BTX-A (Botox from Allergan Inc.,USA and CBTX-A made by Lanzhou Biological Products Institute, China ) injected locally on neuromuscular transmission. Background Recently the local injection of BTX-A has been accepted as a breakthrough in the treatment of a variety of spasmodic disorders, and remote effects of BTX-A on the neuromuscular transmission are concemed. Methods Fourty patients who had enrolled in a prospective open study with Botox or CBTX-A for their movement disorders were studied, 18 cases with Botox and 22 cases with CBTX-A. SFEMG in the extensor digitorum communis muscle or tibialis anterior muscle was performed before and 2-3weeks, 5-8weeks, 4-5 months after injection of Botox or CBTX-A, totally 119 times. Results The significant increase of jitter was demonstrated 2-3weeks after injections in both groups and MCD was in direct proportion to dose of injections.Fiber density value increased at the same time or later and still existed until 4-5 months after injections. Conclusion There are subclinical effects on neuromuscular transmission of remote uninjected muscles after injections of Botox and CBTX A, which indicates that the toxin spread remotely from the site of injection.

  5. Intramural Injection with Botulinum Toxin Type A in Piglet Esophagus. The Influencer on Maximum Load and Elongation: A Dose Response Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebæk, Mark Bremholm; Qvist, Niels; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Rasmussen, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The treatment of esophageal atresia (OA) is challenging. The main goal is to achieve primary anastomosis. We have previously demonstrated in a pig model that intramural injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) resulted in significant elongation of the esophagus during tensioning until bursting point. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the influence of different amounts of intramural BTX-A on the stretch-tension characteristics and histological changes of the esophagus in piglets. Materials and Methods A total of 52 piglets were randomized to four groups receiving 2, 4, or 8 units/kg of BTX-A or isotonic saline (placebo). After a 1-hour of rest the esophagus was harvested and subjected to a stretch-tension test and histological examination to assess changes in the density of presynaptic vesicles in the nerve cells. Results Overall, 9 of the 52 animals were excluded from analysis due to problems with the stretch-tension test or death from anesthesia. The maximum loads were higher in the BTX-A groups (2 units/kg: +2.1 N; 4 units/kg: +1.3 N; 8 units/kg: +1.9 N) than the placebo (p = 0.046). There were no significant differences in percentage elongation, or histology. Conclusions This study demonstrated that injection of 2 units/kg BTX-A into a nonanastomosed esophageal wall resulted in a modest increase in the maximum load achieved before bursting; this may be due to the muscle-relaxant effect of BTX-A. BTX-A injection produced no significant effects on elongation or esophageal histology. The clinical usefulness of BTX-A in treatment of OA is still unclear. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Botox produces functional weakness in non-injected muscles adjacent to the target muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraskavitch, M; Leonard, T; Herzog, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum type-A (BTX-A) neurotoxin exerts a paralytic effect on muscles and is used increasingly to treat a variety of muscle spasticity disorders. While its pathogenesis for muscle-induced weakness has been well elucidated, the functional effects of BTX-A administration are incomplete. Specifically, weakness as a function of muscle length and stimulation frequency has only been investigated qualitatively in a few muscles and the possible effect of the toxin on non-target muscles, although considered possible based on laboratory experiments, has not been studied widely and the functional implications remain unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the functional implications of BTX-A on force production and possible weakness of a target muscle and a non-injected neighbouring muscle. The cat soleus was chosen as the target muscle and was injected with 3.2-3.5U of BTX-A/kg in one hind limb, while the soleus of the other hind limb served as a non-injected control. Force-length properties within and exceeding the functional range of motion were determined at frequencies of stimulation of 10, 30 and 50Hz. Force-length properties of the adjacent non-injected plantaris were also determined in the experimental and contralateral hind limb. Four weeks following BTX-A injections, peak soleus forces were decreased by 30% (50Hz), 29% (30Hz) and 29% (10Hz) and peak plantaris forces were decreased by 11% (50Hz), 16% (30Hz) and 16% (10Hz), in the experimental compared to the contralateral hind limb. Absolute BTX-associated force loss was significantly different at all frequencies of stimulation and all lengths for the soleus, while in the plantaris there was a significant force loss across long (> or = -4mm) but not short muscle lengths. Decreases in peak force were independent of the stimulation frequency. We concluded from the results of this study that BTX-A injection in the target muscle caused a measurable effect on force production and that force

  7. Development of an ion mobility spectrometer with UV ionization source to detect ketones and BTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Guo, Jingran; Ou, Guangli; Lei, Yu; Wang, Xiaohao

    2014-11-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an attractive material analysis technology for developing a miniaturized volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on-site monitoring sensor. Having simple instrumentation, IMS is especially suitable when portability and sensitivity are required. In this work, we designed an ion mobility spectrometer with UV ionization. The geometric parameters of the UV-IMS were optimized based on a numerical simulation. The simulation results demonstrated that the drift electric field in the drift region was approximately homogenous and in the reaction region had an ion focusing effect, which could improve the sensitivity and resolving power of the IMS. The UV-IMS has been constructed and used to detect VOCs, such as acetone, benzene, toluene and m-xylene (BTX). The resolution of these substance measured from the UV-IMS in the atmospheric conditions are about 30 and the limit of detection (LOD) is low to ppmv. The ion mobility module and electric circuit are integrated in a main PCB, which can facilitate mass production and miniaturization. The present UV-IMS is expected to become a tool of choice for the on-site monitoring for VOCs.

  8. Volatilization of monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, and xylenes; BTX) from gasoline: effect of the ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Jóice; Fedrizzi, Francieli; Rodrigues Finotti, Alexandra; Echevenguá Teixeira, Cláudia; do Nascimento Filho, Irajá

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of present study was to assess the evaporation profile of monoaromatic compounds, namely, benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) from gasoline-ethanol-blend fuels. The vapors from two river sand columns contaminated with gasoline and gasoline-ethanol were monitored for 77 d. Standards mixtures (batch tests) of benzene, toluene, and xylenes with different ethanol contents were also analyzed for evaporation rates studies. The instrumental analysis was performed via gas chromatography. The concentration of benzene in the vapor phase of the gasoline-ethanol column was decreased by 89.09%, considering the entire experimental period, whereas the toluene and xylenes concentrations were increased by 239.34 and 251.78%, respectively. In the batch tests, the benzene concentration in the vapor phase varied from 0.4 to 0.9 mg/L for ethanol concentrations (v/v) of 5 and 10%, respectively. For ethanol concentrations higher than 10%, no important changes in the benzene concentration were observed. The toluene exponentially increases between 20 and 30% ethanol concentration. and the maximum concentration of xylenes was observed when the ethanol concentration was 20% (v/v). These results suggest that the benzene evaporation behavior is preferentially affected by the interactions among ethanol and other aromatic compounds rather than the ethanol concentration itself. The evaporation behaviors of toluene and xylenes are directly dependent on the ethanol content.

  9. Comparison of intradermal injection with iontophoresis of abobotulinum toxin A for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Zartab, Hamed; Fanian, Ferial; Noorian, Negin; Sadr, Bardia; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Firooz, Alireza

    2014-08-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BTX-A) injection is the treatment of choice for idiopathic axillary hyperhidrosis (IAH) refractory to conventional treatments. This study compared the efficacy of BTX-A injection and iontophoresis for treatment of IAH in a randomized controlled trial. In eleven patients with the diagnosis of IAH, one axilla was randomly treated with injections of 1.5 mL (250 MU) of BTX-A, and the other side was treated with BTX-A administered by iontophoresis. The amount of sweating, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, pain, and patient satisfaction on both axilla were compared with baseline levels, and also between both sides 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after treatment. The injection side had significantly less sweat production than the iontophoresis side 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after treatment (84%, 76%, and 50% vs. 73%, 22%, and 32%, respectively). The response to iontophoresis was more stable than that to injection. Participants' pain perception during the procedure score was significantly less on the iontophoresis side compared with the injection side (15.0 vs. 20.0, p BTX-A, though iontophoresis can also be considered a non-invasive and painless method in some patients.

  10. WPŁYW OBECNOŚCI WĘGLOWODORÓW AROMATYCZNYCH (BTX W ŚCIEKACH KOMUNALNYCH NA PROCES BIOLOGICZNEJ DEFOSFATACJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mrowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of biological dephosphatation under conditions of the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTX in the concentration of 1.0 to 5.3 mg/L has been investigated. As the research material synthetic wastewater, municipal wastewater and the wastewater enriched by supernatant sludge were used. Phosphorus removal efficiency in wastewater treatment process with BTX ranged from 36.4 to 86.3% while, in case of control samples from 22.5 to 83.8%. The estimated average values of dephosphatation efficiency amounted to 72.0% and 67.4% for wastewater treatment with BTX and wastewater treatment without hydrocarbons respectively. The analysis of phosphorus removal efficiency shows that for the lower values of phosphorus concentration in raw wastewater the higher efficiency of phosphorus removal in the samples with BTX were achieved.

  11. Predictors of Response to Intradetrusor Botulinum Toxin-A Injections in Patients with Idiopathic Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate whether there are any demographic or urodynamic differences in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (I-OAB that respond and do not respond to intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A. Methods. This represents a secondary analysis of data collected from an investigator initiated randomized trial designed to evaluate clinical differences in outcomes for 100 versus 150 U BTX-A in patients with I-OAB. Preinjection demographic and urodynamic data were collected. Patients were evaluated 12 weeks after injection and were determined to be responders or nonresponders as defined by our criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between groups. Results. In patients with overactive bladder without incontinence (OAB-Dry, there were no variables that could be used to predict response to BTX-A. On univariate analysis, younger patients with overactive bladder with incontinence (OAB-Wet were more likely to respond to BTX-A than older patients. However, this relationship was no longer statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. We were unable to identify any preinjection demographic or urodynamic parameters that could aid in predicting which patients will achieve clinical response to BTX-A. Future studies are necessary to further evaluate this question.

  12. Evidences of Protective Potentials of Microdoses of Ultra-High Diluted Arsenic Trioxide in Mice Receiving Repeated Injections of Arsenic Trioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathikrit Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine if microdoses of ultra-high diluted arsenic trioxide (a potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album 200C, diluted 10-400 times have hepatoprotective potentials in mice subjected to repeated injections of arsenic trioxide. Arsenic intoxicated mice were divided into: (i those receiving Arsenicum Album-200C daily, (ii those receiving the same dose of diluted succussed alcohol (Alc 200C and (iii another group receiving neither drug nor succussed alcohol. Two other control groups were also maintained: one fed normal diet only and the other receiving normal diet and Alc-200C. Toxicity biomarkers like aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione reductase, catalase, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione contents were periodically assayed keeping the observer “blinded”. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases of liver tissues were made at day 90 and 120. Blood glucose, hemoglobin, estradiol and testosterone contents were also studied. Compared to controls, Arsenicum Album-200C fed mice showed positive modulations of all parameters studied, thereby providing evidence of protective potentials of the homeopathic drug against chronic arsenic poisoning.

  13. The effect of botulinum toxin A (Botox) injections used to treat limb spasticity on speech patterns in children with dysarthria and cerebral palsy: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Raymond D; Meilahn, Jill R

    2017-05-19

    Botulinum toxin A (Btx-A) injections are used to treat limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) resulting in improved gross and fine motor control. This treatment has also been reported to have additional functional effects, but the effect of treatment on speech has not been reported. This report presents results of longitudinal speech evaluation of two children with CP given injections of Btx-A for treatment of limb spasticity. Speech evaluations were accomplished at baseline (date of injections) and 4- and 10-weeks post-injections. Improvements in production of consonants, loudness control, and syllables produced per breath were found. Parental survey also suggested improvements in subjects' speech production and willingness to speak outside the testing situation. Future larger studies are warranted to assess the nature of the changes observed related to Btx-A.

  14. Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin a Injections and Subcutaneous Curettage in the Treatment of Axillary Hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budamakuntla, Leelavathy; Loganathan, Eswari; George, Anju; Revanth, B N; Sankeerth, V; Sarvjnamurthy, Sacchidananda Aradhya

    2017-01-01

    Primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis is a chronic distressing disorder affecting both the sexes. When the condition is refractory to conservative management, we should go for more promising therapies like intradermal botulinum toxin A (BtxA) injections in the axilla, and surgical therapies like subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and duration of action of intradermal BtxA injections in one axilla and subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands in the other axilla of the same patient with axillary hyperhidrosis. Twenty patients (40 axillae) received intradermal BtxA injections on the right side (20 axillae) and underwent tumescent subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands on the left side (20 axillae). Sweat production rate was measured using gravimetry analyses at baseline and at 3 months after the procedure. Subjective analyses were done using hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS) score at baseline, at 3(rd) and 6(th) month after the procedure. At 3 months post-treatment, the resting sweat rate in the toxin group improved by 80.32% versus 79.79% in the subcutaneous curettage method (P = 0.21). Exercise-induced sweat rate in the toxin group improved by 88.76% versus 88.8% in the subcutaneous curettage group (P = 0.9). There was a significant difference in the HDSS score after treatment with both the modalities. There were no adverse events with BtxA treatment compared to very minor adverse events with the surgical method. Both intradermal BtxA injections and tumescent subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands had a significant decrease in the sweat rates with no significant difference between the two modalities. Hence, in resource poor settings where affordability of BtxA injection is a constraint, subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands can be preferred which has been found equally effective with no or minimal adverse events.

  15. A highly sensitive BTX sensor based on electrochemically derived wall connected TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, K. [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Lu, Chia-Wei [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ho, Mon-Shu [Department of Physics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Bhattacharyya, P., E-mail: pb_etc_besu@yahoo.com [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemically synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array for sensing benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) with enhanced sensitivity at relatively low temperature is reported. • Structural characterizations (XRD, FESEM, and AFM), have revealed that variation of the H{sub 2}O concentrations in mixed electrolyte comprising ethylene glycol and ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F + EG) resulted in the formation of four distinct TiO{sub 2} nanoforms. • Photo luminescence spectra (PL spectra) analysis has revealed distinctly different stoichiometry of the four anodized sample. • Among the various nanoforms, the wall connected TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has been found to be the most efficient one for BTX sensing in the concentration range 20–400 ppm at relatively lower operating temperature (50–200 °C). • Among the three target species, benzene was found to offer the highest response magnitude followed by toluene and xylene at all the concentrations. - Abstract: This paper concerns development of electrochemically synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube array for sensing the carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) with enhanced sensitivity achievable at relatively low temperature. Structural characterizations (XRD, FESEM), revealed that variation of the H{sub 2}O concentrations (1%, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, and 100% by volume) in mixed electrolyte, comprising of ethylene glycol (EG) and ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F), resulted in the formation of six distinctly different TiO{sub 2} nanoforms. Photo luminescence spectra (PL spectra) analysis authenticated different stoichiometry of these six samples. Besides, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out to investigate the defect states. The XPS study enables to correlate the oxygen vacancy concentration with the anodization parameters. Among the various nanoforms, the wall connected TiO{sub 2} nanotube array was found to be the most efficient one for BTX

  16. Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Neurography for Diagnosis of Piriformis Muscle Syndrome and Verification of the Effect After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hea Eun; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sungjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a controversial neuromuscular disorder that is presumed to involve compression neuropathy of the sciatic nerve at the level of the piriformis muscle. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection into the piriformis muscle is widely used as a treatment aimed at relieving sciatic nerve compression. In 2 patients with PMS, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) was taken before and after BTX-A injection. The first MRN was performed as a diagnostic tool, and the second to identify the effect of the treatment. Signal change of the sciatic nerve under the hypertrophied piriformis muscle was confirmed by MRN. In follow-up MRN performed after BTX-A injection into the piriformis muscle, changes of the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle were noticed as well as improvement of clinical symptoms. MRN is a useful tool to add certainty of diagnosis and verify the effect of treatment in PMS. PMID:26402805

  17. Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Neurography for Diagnosis of Piriformis Muscle Syndrome and Verification of the Effect After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection: Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hea Eun; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sungjun

    2015-09-01

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a controversial neuromuscular disorder that is presumed to involve compression neuropathy of the sciatic nerve at the level of the piriformis muscle. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection into the piriformis muscle is widely used as a treatment aimed at relieving sciatic nerve compression. In 2 patients with PMS, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) was taken before and after BTX-A injection. The first MRN was performed as a diagnostic tool, and the second to identify the effect of the treatment. Signal change of the sciatic nerve under the hypertrophied piriformis muscle was confirmed by MRN. In follow-up MRN performed after BTX-A injection into the piriformis muscle, changes of the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle were noticed as well as improvement of clinical symptoms. MRN is a useful tool to add certainty of diagnosis and verify the effect of treatment in PMS.

  18. BTX production by in-situ contact reforming of low-temperature tar from coal with zeolite-derived catalysts; Zeolite kei shokubai wo mochiita sekitan teion tar no sesshoku kaishitsu ni yoru BTX no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, T.; Fuda, K.; Murakami, K.; Kyo, M.; Hosoya, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-28

    On BTX production process from low-temperature tar obtained by pyrolysis of coal, the effect of exchanged metallic species and reaction temperature were studied using metallic ion-exchanged Y-zeolite as catalyst. In experiment, three kinds of coals with different produced tar structures such as Taiheiyo and PSOC-830 sub-bituminous coals and Loy Yang brown coal were used. Y-zeolite ion-exchanged with metal chloride aqueous solution was used as catalyst. Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and In{sup 3+} were used as metal ions to be exchanged. The experiment was conducted by heating a pyrolysis section up to 600{degree}C for one hour after preheating a contact reforming section up to a certain proper temperature. As a result, the Ni system catalyst was effective for BTX production from aromatic-abundant tar, while the Zn system one from lower aromatic tar. In general, relatively high yields of toluene and xylene were obtained at lower temperature, while those of benzene at higher temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Clinical Investigation of PRP Combined with BTX-A in the Treatment of Aging Face%富含血小板血浆联合A型肉毒素治疗面部老化的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋涛

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察富含血小板血浆联合A型肉毒素治疗面部老化的临床效果。方法:选择120例面部自然老化并光老化的患者。给予富含血小板血浆2ml全面部真皮浅层分点式注射,对于前额、眼周及眉间的动态性皱纹给予衡力A型肉毒素每点2~3U,总量不超过50U的肌肉注射。结果:面部皮肤整体改善有效率(不包括毛细血管扩张症状):患者评价为83.3%,医生评价为88.7%。结论:富含血小板血浆联合A型肉毒素治疗面部老化疗效确切,有较高的满意率。%Objective To observe the clinic effect of platelet rich plasma(PRP)combined with BTX-A in treatment of aging face. Methods Choosing 120 cases with natural aging and light aging face. All cases were treated with 2ml PRP in dermal layer of whole face by point type injection,meanwhile,with 2~3U each point and total no more than 50U of BTX-A in on forehead,eyes around and glabella with dynamic wrinkles. Results effective rate of the aging face overall improvement(not including telangiectasis)was as follows:83.3% from patients’ evaluation and 88.7% from doctors’ evaluation. Conclusion The treatment of aging face with PRP combined with BTX-A is efficient and safe,with relatively high satisfaction degree.

  20. Tachyphylaxis associated with repeated epidural injections of lidocaine is not related to changes in distribution or the rate of elimination from the epidural space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Simonsen, L; Scott, N B

    1989-01-01

    technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [99mTc-DTPA]) and elimination of lidocaine from the epidural space (as measured by serum concentrations of lidocaine) was investigated in 18 patients undergoing minor surgery during lumbar epidural analgesia. Twelve patients received four injections of 20 mL of 2......% lidocaine at 2-hr intervals. Epidural distribution was assessed by injection of 99mTc-DTPA diluted in saline on the preoperative day and diluted in an equal volume of 2% lidocaine on the morning before surgery and again after the fourth injection of lidocaine 6 hr later. The distribution of 99m......L of 2% lidocaine were injected three times at 2-hr intervals before surgery, with measurements of serum concentrations of lidocaine after the first and last injections. Despite tachyphylaxis (no patient had sensory analgesia 2 hr after the third injection), there was no difference in the rate...

  1. Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX in Service Station Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Edokpolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ at 50% (CEXP50 and 95% (CEXP95 exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

  2. Survey of Modified Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Cooper Oxide Nanoparticles-Containing Modified Clinoptilolite Efficiency for Polluted Air BTX Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah Rostami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives:Benzene, toluene and Xylenes (BTX are organic pollutants, which are mainly associated with oil and its derivatives. BTX is environmental contaminants and considered harmful to human health. Application of surface absorbents such as zeolite is one of several methods for the removal of these compounds. In this study, BTX compounds' removal efficiencies were investigated and compared by using clinoptilolite type zeolite and zeolite with copper oxide nanoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this study, the modified zeolite by hydrochloric acid in the grain size 1-2 mm and modified zeolite with nano particle of copper oxide were used.  Artificially- Contaminated Air flow was used continuously .To determine BTX concentrations, samplings were done by charcoal tube in current input and output. The concentrations of contaminants were determined by gas chromatography with FID detector.Results: Removal efficiency of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and o-xylene by clinoptilolite were 78.3%, 62.1%, 32.2% 32.15% and 18.8%, respectively. For the clinoptilolite containing copper oxide nano particles efficiency were 25.42%, 35.65%, 36.33%, 33.24% and 29.39%, respectively. Average removal efficiency of BTX compounds observed when the zeolite without nanoparticles used (43.31% was more than zeolite with nanoparticles (32%. The results showed that the concentration of CO2 in the outlet air of the zeolite-containing nanoparticle (550 ppm was more than the zeolite without nanoparticle (525 ppm.Conclusion: Results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although the removal efficiency of benzene and toluene can be reduced. The results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although can be reduced removal efficiency of benzene and toluene, which may be due to occupying or blocking of the pollution absorption sites by the nanoparticles on the

  3. Removal of BTX Compounds in air by total catalytic oxidation promoted by catalysts based on SiO2(1-x)Cu x

    OpenAIRE

    Balzer,Rosana; Drago,Valderez; Schreiner,Wido H.; Probst,Luiz F. D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the emissions of organic compounds, such as BTX (benzene, toluene and xylenes), due to their toxicity and adverse effects on the environment. In this regard, catalysts (SiO2(1-x)Cu x) were developed which exhibit high catalytic activity for converting BTX compounds to CO2 and H2O, and which do not require the use of solvents and materials detrimental to the environment, with low production cost and good reproducibility. Cu (from copper(II) nitrate) was load...

  4. Tachyphylaxis associated with repeated epidural injections of lidocaine is not related to changes in distribution or the rate of elimination from the epidural space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Simonsen, L; Scott, N B

    1989-01-01

    technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [99mTc-DTPA]) and elimination of lidocaine from the epidural space (as measured by serum concentrations of lidocaine) was investigated in 18 patients undergoing minor surgery during lumbar epidural analgesia. Twelve patients received four injections of 20 mL of 2......% lidocaine at 2-hr intervals. Epidural distribution was assessed by injection of 99mTc-DTPA diluted in saline on the preoperative day and diluted in an equal volume of 2% lidocaine on the morning before surgery and again after the fourth injection of lidocaine 6 hr later. The distribution of 99mTc-DTPA...

  5. Neurophysiological changes induced by the botulinum toxin type A injection in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascarelli, Flaminia; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Bisozzi, Eleonora; Castelli, Enrico; Santilli, Valter

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been widely used in the management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy in order to reduce hypertonicity and improve functional outcomes enhancing motor skill development. The botulinum toxin injection seems to interact with intrafusal and extrafusal fibers producing a reduction of hypertone both through synaptic blockade and inhibition of stretch reflex loop and these changes may influence not only the spinal cord but also the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of our study was to determine the neurophysiological changes induced by the BTX-A through an evaluation of cortical somatosensory Evoked Potential (SEP) and Soleus H wave, that is the index of excitability of stretch reflex loop. Eighteen children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), aged between 5 and 12, were recruited at Children's Hospital "Bambino Gesù" of Rome. All children were evaluated with appropriate clinical scales before and 1 month after the BTX-A injection. Neurophysiological measurements were performed before, and 1 month after botulinum toxin injection through lower limb SEPs, M-wave and Soleus H wave recording. After the injection the results showed a statistically significant improvement both of clinical scales and the neurophysiological variables. These findings suggest that spasticity itself can be considered as a factor affecting the cortical SEPs. And even though it seems that BTX-A does not have any direct central effect on sensory pathways we suppose an indirect mechanism on modulation of afferent fibers Ia due to the modification induced by BTX-A to central loop reflex.

  6. Development and characterization of an enzyme-immunoassay with polyclonal antisera for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX); Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines Enzym-Immunoassays mit polyklonalen Antikoerpern fuer Benzol, Toluol und Xylole (BTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, K.; Knopp, D.; Niessner, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Hydrogeologie, Hydrochemie und Umweltanalytik

    1997-11-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of the volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, and xylenes has been developed with polyclonal antibodies. The limit of determination for the equal amount of the five analytes in water was 210 {mu}g/l with a center point value of 1.7 mg/l. The addition of 10% of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to the sample decreased the limit of determination of 80 {mu}g/l and the center point value to 540 {mu}g/l. The specificity of the polyclonal antibodies was investigated based on its cross-reactivity. The influence of increasing concentrations of organic solvents and humic acid on the sensitivity of the antibodies was studied. Water samples were analysed both with GC-FID and by an immunochemical method in order to evaluate the suitability of the assay for environmental analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Bestimmung von Benzol, Toluol und den drei Xylol-Isomeren (BTX) wird ein indirekter kompetitiver Enzym-Immunoassay auf der Basis von polyklonalen Antikoerpern beschrieben. Die Bestimmungsgrenze in Wasser liegt bei 210 {mu}g/l und der Testmittelpunkt der sigmoiden Kalibrierkurve bei 1,7 mg/l fuer ein aequivalentes Volumengemisch der fuenf Einzelverbindungen. Durch Loesemittelzusatz, zum Beispiel 10% Dimethylsulfoxid (DMSO), laesst sich die Bestimmungsgrenze auf 80 {mu}g/l und der Testmittelpunkt auf 540 {mu}g/l verringern. Die Spezifitaet der Antikoerper wurde durch Bestimmung von Kreuzreaktionen ermittelt. Weiterhin wurde der Einfluss unterschiedlicher Loesemittelgehalte und von Huminsaeure auf die Affinitaet der Antikoerper im Hinblick auf die Anwendung fuer Realproben untersucht. Um die Eignung des Tests fuer die Routineanalytik zu pruefen, wurde parallel zur immunochemischen Methode eine gaschromatographische Bestimmung BTX in Wasserproben durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  7. Intramural Injection with Botulinum Toxin Type A in Piglet Esophagus. The Influencer on Maximum Load and Elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Qvist, Niels; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of esophageal atresia (OA) is challenging. The main goal is to achieve primary anastomosis. We have previously demonstrated in a pig model that intramural injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) resulted in significant elongation of the esophagus during tensioning u...

  8. Muscle disuse caused by botulinum toxin injection leads to increased central gain of the stretch reflex in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Hultborn, Hans; Naslund-Koch, Lui

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (Btx) is used in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological patients to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in the central gain of the stretch reflex circuitry in response to botulinum toxin injection...

  9. The Effect of Intramural Botulinum Toxin Injections on the Elongation of the Piglet Oesophagus Is Time Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dibbern, Christian Bakholdt; Rose, Morten; Ellebæk, Mark Bremholm

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One in 4,000 infants is born with oesophageal atresia. Approximately 15% of these have a long gap oesophageal atresia, where primary anastomosis is difficult or impossible. Previous studies have shown an effect of intramural botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections on the elongation...

  10. The treatment of drooling by ultrasound-guided intraglandular injections of botulinum toxin type A into the salivary glands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Gabreëls, F.J.M.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to present the background, procedure, and technique of bilateral ultrasound-guided, single-dose injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX) into the salivary glands in patients with severe drooling. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial. METHODS: Initially, an in vitro stud

  11. Biodegradation of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) composites present in the petrochemical effluents industries; Biodegradacao dos compostos BTX (Benzeno, Tolueno e Xilenos) presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatti, Gheise; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Antonio Augusto Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The compounds BTX inside of the petrochemical effluent have presented a high potential of pollution, representing a serious risk to the environment and to the human. The great improvements in the field of biological treatment of liquid effluent were reached through the process using biofilm capable of degrading toxic compounds. The objective of this paper is to determine the degradation kinetics of BTX using biofilm. The experimental data were compared with two kinetic models, kinetic of first order and model of Michaelis-Menten. The kinetic parameters of BTX compounds were experimentally obtained in a bioreactor in batch with biomass immobilized in activated-carbon, being fed daily with solution of nutrients and BTX. For the kinetic models studied in this paper, the best performance was achieved with the model of Michaelis-Menten showing a good correlation coefficient for the three compounds. The biomass amount in these bioreactors was 49.18, 28.35 and 5.15 mg of SSV per gram of support for the toluene, benzene and o-xylene, respectively. The experimental tests showed that the biomass inside of bioreactor is capable to degrade all compounds in a time of approximately 300 minutes. (author)

  12. The change of substance P in neuropathic pain rats injected subcutaneous-ly by botulinum toxin type A%A型肉毒毒素对神经病理性疼痛模型大鼠P物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓英; 杨国栋; 潘万龙

    2015-01-01

    目的::研究A型肉毒毒素(botulinum toxin type A,BTX-A)对神经病理性疼痛模型大鼠P物质(substance P,SP)含量的影响。方法:5%福尔马林50μL皮下注射于大鼠额区及颞区,建立疼痛模型。 BTX-A组局部皮下注射10 U/kg BTX-A,同时设立生理盐水组及空白对照组,放射免疫法测定SP 含量。结果:生理盐水组SP 含量高于空白对照组( P<0.05), BTX-A组低于生理盐水组(P<0.05)。结论: BTX-A可能通过抑制感觉通路神经肽-SP的释放减轻神经病理性疼痛症状。%Objective:To detect the change of substance P in neuropathic pain rats injected subcutaneously by botulinum toxin type A. Methods:Besides control group,neuropathic pain rats triggered by 5 % formalin subcutaneously injected into frontal and tem-poral areas,then they had been respectively treated with 0. 9 % NaCl (n=10)and 10 U/kg BTX-A (n=10) for 6 days. All of groups were detected the content of substance P(SP) by radioimmunoassay. Results:The content of SP increased significantly in saline group than that in control group (P<0. 05),but decreased significantly in BTX-A groups than in saline group(P<0. 05). Conclusion:BTX-A could inhibit SP releasing from sensory pathways to relieve the symptoms of neuropathic pain.

  13. Single versus repeated tramadol injection in laparotomized albino rats: comparison of effects on hematology, serum biochemical parameters, and body weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ijeoma Udegbunam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the effects of single and repeated tramadol administration on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters of laparotomized rats. Laparotomized rats (n=18 were randomly divided into three equal groups. Normal saline was administered to the rats of group 1 (control. Tramadol (dosed at 10 mg/kg bwt was administered singly to the rats of group 2. The same dose of tramadol was administered repeatedly every 12 h up to 72 h to the rats of group 3. On day 3 and 10 post-laparotomy (PSL, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, total serum protein, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in the rats of group 2 were found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher than those obtained in group 1 and group 3. Mean weights of rats in group 1 and group 3 were significantly lower than those of the rats of group 2 PSL. This study showed that repeated tramadol administration lead to slower weight gain as well as marked decrease in biochemical and erythrocytic variables in rats. Therefore, single administration of tramadol PSL may suffice for analgesia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 316-320

  14. Angiotensin II's role in sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with repeated urocortin 1 injections into the basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip L; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Fitz, Stephanie D;

    2013-01-01

    into the BLA daily for 3 days. Five to seven days following the intra-BLA injections, we microinjected either the nonspecific A-II type 1 (AT1r) and 2 (AT2r) receptor antagonist saralasin, or the AT2r-selective antagonist PD123319 into the BLA prior to the NaLac challenge. The UCN/BLA-primed rats pre...

  15. Angiotensin II’s role in sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with repeated urocortin 1 injections into the basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Philip L.; Sajdyk, Tammy J.; Fitz, Stephanie D; Hale, Mathew W.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Shekhar, Anantha

    2013-01-01

    Rats treated with three daily urocortin 1 (UCN) injections into the basolateral amygdala (BLA; i.e., UCN/BLA-primed rats) develop prolonged anxiety-associated behavior and vulnerability to panic-like physiological responses (i.e., tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea) following intravenous infusions of 0.5 M sodium lactate (NaLac, an ordinarily mild interoceptive stressor). In these UCN-primed rats, the osmosensitive subfornical organ (SFO) may be a potential site that detects increases in...

  16. The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type a Injection in the Hamstring and Calf Muscles With and Without Serial Foot Casting in Gait Improvement in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsodini A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injection in the hamstring and calf muscles with and without ankle serial casting in the improvement of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP.Methods : This double-blind prospective clinical trial was performed on 25, 2 to 8-year-old children with hemiplegic or diplegic CP in Tehran, Iran in 2010. The participants were chosen by simple randomized sampling and were matched for age, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS and type of CP and were randomly divided into two groups: children in the first group (13 only received BTX-A injection, but the second group (12 received BTX-A and serial foot casting starting one week after the injection.Results : Comparison of the gross motor function, right and left knee spasticities and passive ROM of both knees between the two groups before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the injections were not statistically significant (P>0.1. Furthermore, comparison of the right and left ankle spasticities and passive ROM before the injections and in1 and 3-month follow-ups did not show a statistically significant difference (P>0.1, but the differences were significant in 6 and 12-month follow-ups (P<0.05.Conclusion: BTX-A injection with serial foot casting vs. BTX-A alone was more effective in decreasing spasticity and improving passive ROM in the ankle of children with CP, but such injections in the hamstrings were not useful in these regards.

  17. SBOTE study: extracorporeal shock wave therapy versus electrical stimulation after botulinum toxin type a injection for post-stroke spasticity-a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamato, Andrea; Notarnicola, Angela; Panza, Francesco; Ranieri, Maurizio; Micello, Maria Francesca; Manganotti, Paolo; Moretti, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca; Filoni, Serena; Fiore, Pietro

    2013-02-01

    Research is on-going to identify new methods of biostimulation to increase the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the treatment of spasticity. The Spasticity treated by Botulinum Toxin and ESWT (SBOTE) study is a prospective, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) given immediately after BTX-A injections compared with electrical stimulation (ES) given immediately after BTX-A therapy for the management of focal upper limb spasticity in stroke patients. ES was given for 30 min twice a day for 5 days starting at 5 Hz; ESWT was given once a day for 5 days. At study follow-up, patients treated with BTX-A injections and ESWT showed a statistically greater significance and continuous decrease of spasticity measure (modified Ashworth scale [MAS]: 1.37, 1.75 and 1.58 at 15, 30 and 90 days post-treatment, respectively), of spasms (spasm frequency scale [SFS]: 0.8 and 0.25 at 30 and 90 days post-treatment, respectively) and of pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]: 1.94 and 1.87 at 30 and 90 days, respectively) compared with patients treated with BTX-A injections and ES (MAS: 2.37, 2.18 and 2.18, respectively) (p < 0.05) (SFS: 1.5 and 1.06, respectively) (p < 0.05) (VAS: 2.44 and 2.69 respectively) (p < 0.05). ESWT enhances the effect of BTX-A to a greater extent than ES, probably by modulating rheology of the muscle and neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction.

  18. Effect of repeated intracoronary injection of bone marrow cells in patients with ischaemic heart failure the Danish stem cell study - congestive heart failure trial (DanCell-CHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, A.C.; Møller, Jacob Eifer; Thayssen, P.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that myocardial regeneration may be achieved by a single intracoronary bone marrow derived stem cell infusion in selected patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effect is uncertain in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure and it is not known whether...... repeated infusions would have additional positive effects. AIMS: To assess whether two treatments of intracoronary infusion of bone marrow stem cells, administered 4 months apart, could improve left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure. METHODS: The study......, NYHA class improved (pstem cell treatment in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  19. Kinematic aiming task: measuring functional changes in hand and arm movements after botulinum toxin-A injections in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rameckers, E.A.A.; Speth, L.A.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Vles, J.S.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe different aspects of a kinematic aiming task (KAT) as a quantitative way to assess changes in arm movements within 2 wks after botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injections in children with spastic hemiplegia. DESIGN: Intervention study randomized clinical trial; follow-up within 4 wks

  20. Kinematic aiming task: measuring functional changes in hand and arm movements after botulinum toxin-A injections in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rameckers, E.A.A.; Speth, L.A.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Vles, J.S.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe different aspects of a kinematic aiming task (KAT) as a quantitative way to assess changes in arm movements within 2 wks after botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injections in children with spastic hemiplegia. DESIGN: Intervention study randomized clinical trial; follow-up within 4 wks

  1. CT-guided injection of botulinic toxin for percutaneous therapy of piriformis muscle syndrome with preliminary MRI results about denervative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanucci, E.; Masala, S.; Sodani, G.; Varrucciu, V.; Romagnoli, A.; Squillaci, E.; Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a cause of sciatica, leg or buttock pain and disability. The pain is usually increased by muscular contraction, palpation or prolonged sitting. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the feasibility of CT-guided percutaneous botulinic toxin (BTX) injection for the purpose of PMS treatment. Thirty patients suffering from PMS, suspected with clinical and electrophysiological criteria, after imaging examinations excluding other causes of sciatic pain, resulted positive at the lidocaine test and were treated by intramuscular injection of BTX type A under CT guidance. The follow-up (12 months) was performed with clinical examination in all cases and with MR 3 months after the procedure in 9 patients to evaluate the denervative process entity of the treated muscle. In 26 cases relief of symptoms was obtained after 5-7 days. In 4 patients an insufficient relief of pain justified a second percutaneous treatment which was clinically successful. No complications or side effects were recorded after BTX injection. The MR examination showed a signal intensity change of the treated muscle in 7 patients due to the denervative process of PM, whereas in the remaining 2 cases only an atrophy of the treated muscle was detected. Larger series are necessary to confirm these MRI preliminary results. The CT-guided BTX injection in the PMS is an emergent and feasible technique that obtains an excellent local therapeutic effect without risk of imprecise inoculation. (orig.)

  2. Cell apoptosis and expression of ATP7A in brain of Atp7btx-J mice%Atp7btx-J小鼠脑组织细胞凋亡及ATP7A表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡璟; 焦先婷; 刘晓青; 余晓刚; 何振娟; 张拥军

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对Atp7btx-J小鼠脑组织不同部位细胞凋亡的分析,钙、铜含量的测定,以及铜转运ATP酶ATP7A表达的研究,初步探讨肝豆状核变性致神经系统损伤的作用机制.方法 分离20周龄Atp7btx-J小鼠大脑皮层、小脑、基底神经节及海马区脑组织,Hoechst染色后分析细胞凋亡情况,电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定钙、铜含量,Real-Time PCR检测不同部位ATP7A mRNA 的表达量.结果 与野生型小鼠相比,纯合型小鼠小脑及基底神经节区细胞凋亡最为显著(P<0.05),小脑、基底神经节及海马区的铜和钙含量明显升高(P<0.01),脑组织不同部位ATP7A mRNA表达下调,其中基底神经节和小脑部位ATP7A mRNA表达的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 肝豆状核变性致神经系统损伤是多因素共同作用的结果,铜在脑内特殊部位的异常蓄积是始动因素,钙介导的细胞凋亡是导致神经系统损伤的重要因素,ATP7A在脑内不能代偿性地协助排出大量蓄积的铜可能加剧了神经系统的损伤.%Objective To explore the mechanism of nervous system injury in Wilson's disease by analysis of cell apoptosis,determination of concentrations of Ca and Cu and detection of expression of ATP7A in different parts of brain tissues of Atp7btx-J mice.Methods The tissues of cerebral cortex,cerebellum,basal ganglia and hippocampus of Atp7btx-J mice aged 20 weeks were isolated,the cell apoptosis was analyzed after Hoechst staining,the concentrations of Ca and Cu were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,and the expression of ATP7A mRNA in different parts was detected by Real-Time PCR.Results Compared with wild type mice,the cell apoptosis in cerebellum and basal ganglia of homozygous mice was most significant (P < 0.05).The concentrations of Ca and Cu in cerebellum,basal ganglia and hippocampus of homozygous mice were significantly higher than those of wild type mice (P < 0.01).The

  3. Optimal and safe treatment of spider leg veins measuring less than 1.5 mm on skin type IV patients, using repeated low-fluence Nd:YAG laser pulses after polidocanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Hernández, Esteban; Royo, Josefina; Alcolea, Justo; Isarría, M Jose; Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Smarandache, Adriana; Trelles, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of micro-veins of less than 1.5 mm with laser and with chemical sclerosis is technically challenging because of their difficulty to remedy. Laser treatment is even more difficult when dark phototypes are involved.Three groups of 30 patients each, skin type IV, and vessels measuring less than 1.5 mm in diameter, were enrolled for two treatment sessions 8 weeks apart: group A, polidocanol (POL) micro-foam injection; group B, Nd:YAG laser alone; and group C, laser after POL injection. Repeated 8-Hz low-fluence pulses, moving the hand piece over a 3-cm vein segment with an average of five laser passes maximum and with a total time irradiation of 1 s were used. Sixteen weeks after the second treatment, statistically, degree of clearance after examining photographs and patients satisfaction index, plotted on a visual analogue scale and comparing results of all three groups, results were significantly better for group C (p<0.0001). No significant differences in complications were noticed between the three groups. Efficacy of combining POL and laser proved safe and satisfactory in 96 % of patients using low-fluence laser pulses with a total cumulative energy in the 3 cm venous segment, lower than that of conventional treatment. Very few and transient complications were observed. POL foam injection followed by laser pulses is safe and efficient for vein treatment in dark-skinned patients.

  4. Long-Term Real-Life Efficacy and Safety of Repeated Ozurdex® Injections and Factors Associated with Macular Edema Resolution after Retinal Vein Occlusion: The REMIDO 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Stéphan; Meyer, Franck; Guigou, Sébastien; Barthelemy, Tony; Gobert, Fréderic; Hajjar, Christian; Merite, Pierre-Yves; Parrat, Eric; Rouhette, Hervé; Matonti, Fréderic

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to study long-term real-life efficacy and safety of repeated Ozurdex® injections and factors associated with macular edema (ME) resolution after retinal vein occlusion. Patients with ME after retinal vein occlusion, receiving Ozurdex®, were included to assess the following endpoints: visual acuity and central retinal thickness, retreatment, number of injections, side effects and ME resolution. ME resolution was defined as permanent discontinuation of intravitreal injections (IVTs) for at least 6 months after the last IVT. A total of 94 eyes were included with an average of 2.6 IVTs (max 6 IVTs). 58.6% of patients gained ≥15 letters and 51.1% of patients showed ME resolution. Among the resolved patients, 64.6% were treatment-naïve, 60.4% had branch retinal vein occlusion, and 78.1% gained ≥15 letters. Ozurdex® seemed to be a valuable treatment which may allow to achieve long-term anatomical and functional improvements and ME resolution with a minimum number of IVTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  6. BTX AgilePulse(TM) system is an effective electroporation device for intramuscular and intradermal delivery of DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Hayk; Hovakimyan, Armine; Zagorski, Karen; Davtyan, Arpine; Petrushina, Irina; Agdashian, David; Murthy, Vidya; Cribbs, David H; Agadjanyan, Michael G; Ghochikyan, Anahit

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccines promote immune system activation in small animals and exhibit certain advantages when compared to conventional recombinant protein vaccines. However in clinical trials DNA vaccines are less effective in inducing potent immune responses due to the low delivery efficiency and expression of antigens. Currently, various delivery devices such as gene-guns, bioinjectors and electroporation systems are being used in order to increase the potency of DNA vaccines. However, the optimal delivery parameters are required and must be carefully set to obtain the highest levels of gene expression and strong immune responses in humans. The focus of this study was to optimize electroporation settings (voltage, pulse length, pulse intervals, and number of pulses), as well as the route of administration (intradermal vs. intramuscular) and dosage of the DNA epitope vaccine, AV-1959D, delivered by the BTX AgilePulse(TM) system. As a result, we have chosen the optimal settings for electroporation delivery using different routes of immunization with this vaccine, generating (i) robust antibody production to the B cell epitope (a small peptide, derived from β-amyloid), and (ii) strong cellular immune responses to Th epitopes (a small synthetic peptide and eleven peptides from various pathogens) incorporated into DNA vaccine platform.

  7. Pyrolysis of a fraction of waste polypropylene and polyethylene for the recovery of BTX aromatics using a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su-Hwa; Cho, Min-Hwan; Kang, Bo-Sung; Kim, Joo-Sik [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    Fractions of waste polypropylene and polyethylene were pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis plant under different conditions. In this study, the influence of the reaction temperature (650-750 C), the feed rate, and the kind of fluidizing medium on the product spectrum were investigated. Pyrolysis of the PP fraction produced oils up to 43 wt. % of the product. With respect to the PE fraction, the maximum oil yield was above 60 wt. % of the product. The target compound was BTX aromatics, whose amount in the oils reached 53 wt.% for the PP fraction and 32 wt. % for the PE fraction. It was shown that the PE fraction yielded a higher liquid product compared to the PP fraction, and that the concentration of aromatics in the oil increased at higher reaction temperatures for both the PP and PE fractions. A higher feed rate and the use of a gas product as the fluidizing medium were favored for the production of oils for both the PP and PE fractions. The oils that were obtained in the experiments almost had no metal and chlorine contents. The maximum heating value of the gas obtained in the experiments was about 50 MJ/kg. (author)

  8. Sebum Production Alteration after Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections for the Treatment of Forehead Rhytides: A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Dose-Comparative Clinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Peiru; Xi, Wenjing; Grassetti, Luca; Trisliana Perdanasari, Aurelia; Torresetti, Matteo; Feng, Shaoqing; Su, Weijie; Pu, Zheming; Zhang, Yan; Han, Sheng; Zhang, Yi Xin; Di Benedetto, Giovanni; Lazzeri, Davide

    2015-07-01

    Research has investigated the decrease in human skin sebum after the application of botulinum toxin. Few studies of the mechanism and objective assessments of this phenomenon have been conducted and the correlation between the sebum production and injection dosages or techniques remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the sebum regulation and its gradient around the injection site in patients who received intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for forehead rhytides, comparing two injection doses. Forty-two female volunteers with rhytides on the forehead region were randomly assigned to receive 10 or 20 units of BTX-A, which was administered in five standard injection sites. The baseline and post-treatment sebum production was measured using a Sebumeter. Treatment with BTX-A exhibited significant sebum alteration at the injection site of both groups, with a sebum gradient surrounding the injection point. The efficacy did not improve at higher injection doses, with the four-unit regimen generally not being more potent than the two-unit regimen. The sebum production recovered to normal levels at the 16 week follow-up for both treatment groups, indicating that a higher dosage (four units) did not result in a longer duration until relapse compared with the two-unit dose. We determined that the sebum production has a positive correlation with the distance away from the injection point. Intramuscular injection of BTX-A significantly reduces sebum production at the injection site but increases the sebum production of the surrounding skin at a radius of 2.5 cm at the 2, 4, and 8 week follow-ups. 2 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A mouse model of behavioral depression induced by repeated corticosterone injections%糖皮质激素注射建立小鼠行为抑郁症模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军波; 季丽莉; 金雪花; 王振宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究糖皮质激素注射小鼠抑郁症样情感行为变化.方法 C57/B6雄性小鼠18只随机分为3组,模型组以20 mkg剂量每日1次注射皮质酮,持续21 d,另有生理盐水对照组每日注射等剂量生理盐水21 d,空白对照组不做任何处置,观察小鼠体重变化,用敞箱实验及糖水消耗试验测定动物行为.结果 抑郁模型组小鼠代表焦虑行为的敞箱试验得分明显降低、反应快感行为的奖赏糖水消耗百分比明显降低.结论 糖皮质激素持续注射法可用于制作行为小鼠抑郁模型,以及探究抑郁症行为变化发病机制以及寻找更适合治疗抑郁症的药物.%Objective To explore depression-like Emotional behavioral induced by repeated corticosterone injection. Methods C57/B6 male mice were divided into 3 groups. The model group received repeated injections of vehicle and 20 mg/kg of corticosterone for 21 days, while the saline control group injected daily dose of saline solution for 21 days, blank control group without any treatment. Thenwe bserved the body weight change of mice, used open-field test and sugar consumption test to determine the behaviors of these animals. Results Compare with the control group, the mice showed reduced squares crossing in the open-field test which reflect anxiety behavior, and significantly reduced preference in sucrose preference test which was a reaction behavior of the reward. The mice model of depression had been established successfully. Conclusion Clucocorticosteroid continuous injection method can successfully establish a reliable mouse behavioral depression model, and can be used to further explore the pathogenesis behavioral variation of depression as well as looking for drugs in the treatment of depression

  10. [Effect of (2"R)-4'-O-tetrahydropyranyladriamycin, a new antitumor antibiotic, on the bone marrow function of rabbits. (2) Repeated intravenous injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, H; Kiyosaki, T; Shirai, M

    1986-02-01

    (2''R)-4'-O-Tetrahydropyranyladriamycin-HCl (THP), a new antitumor antibiotic, was intravenously injected to New Zealand White rabbits at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 6 weeks (3 courses) or at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day daily for the first 5 days of a 2-week course for 6 weeks (3 courses). The total dose was 7.5 mg/kg in both dosing schedules. The peripheral leucocyte and erythrocyte counts decreased. The leucocyte count decreased to 57% of the initial count on Day 3 in the first course and then increased gradually. The decrease was smaller in the divided dosing schedule than the single dosing. The nucleated cells, especially immatured myelocytes and erythroids reduced remarkably. Subsequently the matured myelocyte ratio in bone marrow cell constituents increased and the M/E ratio increased. These changes were observed on Day 3 and reverted by Day 9 in each course. The divided dosing schedule resulted in a higher nadir. All the changes in the peripheral blood and the bone marrow reverted even after the 3 course-treatment.

  11. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate. PMID:27869192

  12. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate.

  13. Accuracy of Ultrasound-Guided and Non-ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection Into Cadaver Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (US)-guided and non-US-guided botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into the salivary glands (parotid and submandibular glands) of cadavers. Methods Two rehabilitation physician injected dye into three sites in the salivary glands (two sites in the parotid gland and one site in the submandibular gland) on one side of each cadaver (one was injected on the right side, while the other was injected on the left side), using either a non-US-guided injection procedure based on superficial landmarks or a US-guided procedure. Orange dye was used for the US-guided procedure, and green dye was used for the blind procedure. Two physicians uninvolved with the injection procedures and who were blinded to the method of injection dissected the cadavers to identify whether the dye was accurately injected into each target site. Results The accuracies of the blind and US-guided injections into the parotid gland were 79.17% and 95.83%, respectively. In the submandibular gland, the accuracies of the blind and US-guided injections were 50.00% and 91.67%, respectively. The difference in accuracy between the two procedures was statistically significant only in the submandibular gland (p=0.025). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of US-guided and non-US-guided injections between the two physicians for the two sites in the parotid gland (p=0.278 and p=0.146, respectively). Conclusion US-guided BTX injection into the submandibular gland offers significantly greater accuracy over blind injection. For the treatment of drooling by injecting BTX into the submandibular gland, clinicians should consider using US guidance for improved accuracy. PMID:28289635

  14. Botulinum Toxin Injections for Simple Partial Motor Seizures Associated with Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intractable epilepsy with painful partial motor seizures is a relatively rare and difficult disorder to treat. We evaluated the usefulness of botulinum toxin to reduce ictal pain. Two patients received two or four botulinum toxin (BTX injections at one-to-two-month intervals. Patient 1 had painful seizures of the right arm and hand. Patient 2 had painful seizures involving the left foot and leg. Injections were discontinued after improved seizure control following resective surgery. Both patients received significant pain relief from the injections with analgesia lasting at least two months. Seizure severity was reduced, but seizure frequency and duration were unaffected. For these patients, BTX was effective in temporarily relieving pain associated with muscle contraction in simple partial motor seizures. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that modulation of motor end-organ feedback affects focal seizure generation. BTX is a safe and reversible treatment that should be considered as part of adjunctive therapy after failure to achieve control of painful partial motor seizures.

  15. 注射用右旋雷贝拉唑钠大鼠13周重复给药毒性研究%Study on Repeated Dose Toxicity of Dexrabeprazole Sodium Injection in Rats for 13 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴晓莉; 戴学栋; 郭峰; 胡建庭; 马玉奎

    2016-01-01

    taken the blood at ifrst and last injection for toxicokinetics. Results The rats in the dexrabeprazole sodium injection group at 80, 20 mg·kg-1 apperanced shortness of breath, unsteady gait, prone motionless and other symptoms. The levels of RBC,HGB,HCT in the dexrabeprazole sodium injection group at 80, 20 mg·kg-1 were significantly lower than those in vehicle control group at 13 weeks (P<0.05). The change of these parameters regained to normal at 4 weeks after withdrawal. The amount of small follicular in the thyroid gland increased at 13 weeks, and failed to fully recover at 4 weeks after the withdrawal.Conclusion Repeated administration of dexrabeprazole Sodium injection (80, 20 mg·kg-1) for 13 weeks could lead to abnormal indicators related erythrocyte and pathological lesions of thyroid in rats.

  16. Alteraciones hematológicas en trabajadores expuestos ocupacionalmente a mezcla de benceno- tolueno-xileno (BTX en una fábrica de pinturas Blood disorders among workers exposed to a mixture of benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX in a paint factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Haro-García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar las tres series celulares sanguíneas e identificar la presencia de hipocromía, macrocitosis, leucopenia, linfocitopenia y trombocitopenia en un grupo de trabajadores expuestos a la mezcla de benceno-tolueno-xileno (BTX. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal donde se incluyó a 97 trabajadores de una empresa de pinturas de México a los que se les realizó una biometría hemática convencional y les fue estimada la exposición a través de la dosis diaria potencial acumulada para vapores de BTX. Resultados. Del total de trabajadores, 19,6%, mostró macrocitosis, 18,6%, linfocitopenia, 10,3% hipocromía, 7,2% trombocitopenia y 5,2% leucopenia. La asociación cruda de macrocitosis con exposición a dosis alta de mezcla de BTX fue la única significativa (OR:3,6; IC95%: 1,08 - 13,9; p=0,02 y en la que se estructuró un modelo de regresión logística (OR:6,7; IC95%: 1,33 - 13,55; p:0,02 ajustada por edad, consumo de alcohol y tabaquismo. Conclusiones. Todos los componentes citohemáticos analizados mostraron cambios leves; que podrían estar asociados con la exposición a la mezcla de BTX. De ellos, la macrocitosis podría constituirse en una manifestación precoz que merece ser vigilada.Objectives. Evaluate the three blood cell series and identify the presence of hypochromia, macrocytosis, leucopenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia in a group of workers exposed to the mixture of benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study which included 97 workers from a paint factory in Mexico. The participants underwent conventional blood count and tests for potential cumulative daily dose of BTX fumes, to estimate exposure. Results. From the total of workers, 19.6% showed macrocytosis, 18.6%, lymphopenia, hypochromia 10.3%, 7.2% and 5.2% thrombocytopenia leukopenia. The crude association of macrocytosis with exposure to high doses of BTX mixture was the only with statistical significance (OR: 3.6, 95

  17. Biodegradação da fração BTX e etanol da gasolina comercial e da gasolina pura por microorganismos isolados de locais impactados

    OpenAIRE

    Daiana de Lima Morales

    2008-01-01

    A gasolina comercial é formada por uma mistura de diversos hidrocarbonetos sendo que a fração aromática, conhecida como os BTX, e apresenta risco potencial a saúde humana. A gasolina comercial brasileira contém 24% de etanol, este aditivo pode interferir na degradação destes compostos que são mais recalcitrantes e tóxicos. Devido a característica hidrofóbica da gasolina os biossurfactantes, podem aumentar a disponibilidade destes poluentes, possibilitando maior taxa de biodegradação. O objeti...

  18. Alteraciones hematológicas en trabajadores expuestos ocupacionalmente a mezcla de Benceno-Tolueno-Xileno (BTX) en una fábrica de pinturas

    OpenAIRE

    Haro García, Luis; Vélez Zamora, Nadia; Aguilar Madrid, Guadalupe; Guerrero Rivera, Susana; Sánchez Escalante, Vanessa; Sergio R Muñoz; Mezones Holguín, Edward; Juárez Pérez, Cuauhtémoc

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos. Evaluar las tres series celulares sanguíneas e identificar la presencia de hipocromía, macrocitosis, leucopenia, linfocitopenia y trombocitopenia en un grupo de trabajadores expuestos a la mezcla de benceno-tolueno-xileno (BTX). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal donde se incluyó a 97 trabajadores de una empresa de pinturas de México a los que se les realizó una biometría hemática convencional y les fue estimada la exposición a través de la dosis diaria potencial...

  19. The mechanism of inhibitory effect on parotid gland secretion with local injection of botulinum toxin type A in the rat%A型肉毒素对腮腺分泌功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文卫东; 袁芳; 侯一平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the mechanism of inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A)on parotid gland secretion.Methods Female Wistar rats(n=18)were randomly divided into saline injection group(n=6)and BTX-A injection group(n=12),respectively.0.1 ml of saline was injected into left parotid gland and 2.5 U of BTX-A injected into right parotid gland.Rats were sacrificed at day 7,12 and 35 post-injections respectively for morphology and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(VIP)immunoreactivity of parotid gland.Results Following BTX-A injection,some atrophic cells and reduction of number of VIP-immunoreactive(VIP-IR)fibers were found in gland and tube at day 7(P<0.05);at day 12,there was more obvious reduction of VIP-IR fibers around tube and vessels and atrophy of cells in BTX-A injection gland than saline injection gland(P<0.001);at day 35,the glandular cells and VIP-IR fibers were similar to saline injection group.Conclusions BTX-A is effective for temporary elimination of hyperfunctioning sialorrhea via inhibition of VIP release which plays a key role in modulation of parotid glands secretion.%目的 探讨大鼠腮腺注射A型肉毒素(botulinum toxin type A,BTX-A)后组织学和免疫变化的机制.方法 18只雌性Wistar大鼠分为A、B组.A组动物(n=6)右侧腮腺内注射0.1 ml的生理盐水;B组动物(n=12)右侧腮腺注射BTX-A(2.5 U/0.1 ml).两组动物分别在注射后第7、12、35天处死并行组织学及免疫组化观察.结果 A组、B组注射后第7天部分腺泡细胞轻度萎缩,血管活性肠肽免疫反应(vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreaction,VIP-IR)阳性纤维密度显著减低(n=4,P<0.05);12 d萎缩的腺泡细胞和腺管明显增多,VIP-IR阳性纤维密度减低更明显(n=4,P<0.001);35 d腺细胞和VIP-IR纤维密度与生理盐水组基本相同.结论 局部注射BTX-A可以导致大鼠腮腺腺泡细胞和腺管短时性萎缩,VIP-IR表达减少,提示BTX-A通过抑制调控腮腺

  20. Molecular characterization of tat gene and long terminal repeat region of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 detected among the injecting drug users (IDUs) of Manipur, India: identification of BC recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Ranajoy; Sengupta, Satarupa; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Chakrabarti, Sekhar

    2010-02-01

    The tat gene of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is responsible for the initiation and elongation of viral transcription through the LTR (long terminal repeat) transactivation process. Our study included structural and functional analyses of the tat gene and LTR region of 35 injecting drug users (IDUs) from Manipur (a north-eastern state in India and a potential source of HIV-1 recombinants) in order to search for the recombinants and variation in the transactivation process if any due to recombination. Analysis showed prevalence of subtype C with few BC recombinants for the tat gene showing identical recombination breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of the LTR region of those IDU strains showed strong resemblance to Indian subtype C forming a completely separate cluster from the other global C LTR sequences. The TAR element (transactivator response region) in all the LTR sequences was fairly conserved. Further study of the transactivation rate of the C and BC tat for the Manipur C LTR showed almost equal transactivity in both the cases. This is the first report of characterisation of tat gene and LTR region of HIV-1 samples among IDUs from north-eastern India.

  1. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  2. Aerogeles monolíticos de carbón como adsorbentes para la eliminación de compuestos orgánicos volátiles (BTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fairén-Jimenez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de la eliminación de varios compuestos orgánicos volatiles (COVs de fuente antropogénica -benceno, toluene y xilenos (BTX- mediante la utilización de materiales de carbón.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  4. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  5. 胃镜下胃壁注射A型肉毒毒素治疗单纯性肥胖的临床研究%Endoscopic gastric intramural injection of botulinum toxin A for treatment of obesity:A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 刘庆森; 刘文徽; 窦艳; 彭丽华; 杨云生; 孟科

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究胃镜下胃壁注射A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)治疗单纯性肥胖的减重疗效和安全性.方法 19例单纯性肥胖患者随机分为试验组Ⅰ(BTX-A 200 U)和试验组Ⅱ(BTX-A 300 U),胃镜下将药物注射于胃壁肌层共20个点,治疗前和治疗后1周、4周、12周分别对进食量、体重、BMI、腰围、臀围、胃固体排空时间、胃电图等进行随访.结果 两组患者治疗后进食量较治疗前明显减少(P<0.05);体重、BMI、腰围、臀围均明显减少(P<0.05);胃固体半排空时间明显延长(P<0.05),胃延迟相时间延长,但无统计学差异;胃电图各指标治疗前后无明显变化.无明显不良反应发生.结论 胃镜下注射BTX-A能减慢胃排空、减少进食量,安全有效地减轻体重.%Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin A injected into the gastric wall for the treatment of obesity. Methods 19 patients with simple obesity were randomized into 2 groups( group I, 200 U BTX-A and group II ,300 U BTX-A ).20 puncture sites were selected into the gastric wall. Food intake,body weight, BMI, waistline, hip circumference, gastric emptying time and electrogastrogram were recorded before injection and 1 week,4 weeks and 12 weeks after the treatment. Results All patients reported reduced food intake after the injection( P <0. 05 ). Body weight, BMI, waistline and hip circumference decreased after the treatment P < 0. 05 ). The semi-gastric solid emptying time were significant longer than before the treatment( P < 0. 05 ). There were no differences between the two groups. No clinically significant side effects were observed. Conclusions Endoscopic injection of BTX-A can be a safe choice for weight loss of obese patients by reducing food intake and delaying gastric emptying.

  6. Local injection of bortulinum toxin A at multiple points for decreasing the muscular tension of children with spastic cerebral palsy A comparative observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 70% children with cerebral palsy belong to the spastic one, and the increased muscular tension results in motor dysfunction and posture abnormality.OBJECTIVE: To observe the assistant effect of the local injection of BTX-A at multiple points in the rehabilitative treatment of spastic cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A comparative observation on the clinical efficacy.SETTINGS: Rehabilitation Center,Loufeng Hospital, Suzhou Industrial Park; Gansu Rehabilitation Center Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-nine children with cerebral palsy were selected from the outpatients and inpatients who accepted rehabilitative treatments in the Cerebral Palsy Treatment Center of Gansu Rehabilitation Center Hospital from April 2003 and October 2004. Inclusive criteria: ① Having high risk factors for brain injury before birth and within 1 month after birth, mainly manifested as central motor disorder and posture abnormality; ② Accompanied by increase of muscular tension in both lower limbs, appearing as tiptoes and scissors gaits while in standing position or walking; ③ Without fixed contracture of lower limb; ④ Had never been operated for lower limbs; ⑤ Had never been injected with BTX-A; ⑥ Clearly diagnosed to have spastic palsy. The enrolled children were not screened by disease conditions, course, age, etc., and informed consents were obtained from the parents of all the children. The children whose parents agreed to accept BTX-A treatment were taken as BTX-A treated group (n =45), and the others as control group (n = 24).METHODS: All the children accepted regular rehabilitative training after admission, 6 times a weeks,besides, those in the BTX-A treated group were given local injection of BTX-A at multiple points of target muscles, including bilateral adductor longus muscles, pectineal muscles, gastrocnemius muscles and soleus muscles. BTX-A was diluted with saline (5 U BTX-A in 0.1 mL), 3 - 4 U/kg for each piece of muscle. The number of injected sites

  7. Comparação entre injeção na coluna ("on-column" e headspace dinâmico na determinação de benzeno, tolueno e xilenos (BTX em amostras de água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobato Elaine A. A. F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of water samples containing volatile organic compounds has become an important task in analytical chemistry. Gas chromatography has been widely used for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in water. The headspace analysis shows as a principal characteristic the possibility of determination of the volatile components in drinking water. Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX are important compounds usually present in drinking water, from contamination by petroleum derivatives. Since they are toxic compounds even when present in low concentration levels, their determination is important in order to define the quality of the water. The sampling technique using headspace, coupled with gas chromatography as the separation method, showed to be suitable for BTX analysis in several samples at the mug/L (ppb level.

  8. BTX Monitoring Nearby Main Road Traffic in Guangzhou%广州市交通主干道空气中苯系物的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丛雷; 谢品华; 秦敏; 凌六一; 郑尼娜; 刘文彬; 黄祖照

    2012-01-01

    为了研究广州市道边空气中苯系物的污染状况,利用差分吸收光谱(DOAS)系统于2010年11~12月广州亚运会期间对广州市荔湾区黄沙大道道边空气中的苯系物(苯、甲苯、二甲苯等)及常规污染物NO2、O3等进行了监测.结果表明,在整个测量期间,苯系物在夜间显示了较高的浓度值,苯的平均浓度为15.9μg·m^-3、甲苯为61.3μg·m^-3、对-二甲苯为6.5μg·m^-3、间-二甲苯为16.9μg·m^-3、苯酚为0.88μg·m^-3.甲苯与苯的平均浓度与国内其他城市的平均水平较为接近,两者的比值变化范围在1.2~6.16.通过比对甲苯与苯的相关性,在整个测量期间内其相关系数为0.86,在浓度值较高时段,其相关系数达到0.985,表明在该区域苯与甲苯存在同源性;以甲苯为例,分析其与CO的相关性,相关系数为0.78,表明交通排放是苯、甲苯的一个主要来源.结合风速风向等气象数据的分析得出气象条件是影响苯系物污染物浓度水平的一个重要因子,并给出了可能的点污染源.%In order to study the levels of BTX(benzene,toluene,xylene,etc) nearby the main roads of Guangzhou from November 2010 to December 2010 during the Asian Games,BTX and conventional pollutants such as NO2,O3 in the air were monitored by the DOAS system nearby Huangsha Road,which is in the Liwan District of Guangzhou City.The results showed that,during the entire period,BTX showed a high concentration in the evening and the average concentrations of benzene,toluene,p-xylene,m-xylene and phenol were 15.9 μg·m^-3,61.3 μg·m^-3,6.5 μg·m^-3,16.9 μg·m^-3,0.88 μg·m^-3,respectively.The average concentrations of benzene and toluene were close to those in other cities,and the ratio of toluene to benzene was in range of 1.2-6.16.Throughout the monitoring period,the correlation coefficient of benzene and toluene was 0.86 and it rose to 0.985 during the high concentration period,indicating that they had the

  9. Comparação entre injeção na coluna ("on-column") e headspace dinâmico na determinação de benzeno, tolueno e xilenos (BTX) em amostras de água

    OpenAIRE

    Gobato Elaine A. A. F.; Lanças Fernando M.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of water samples containing volatile organic compounds has become an important task in analytical chemistry. Gas chromatography has been widely used for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in water. The headspace analysis shows as a principal characteristic the possibility of determination of the volatile components in drinking water. Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) are important compounds usually present in drinking water, from contamination by petroleum derivatives. Si...

  10. Study of Biodegradation BTX(benzene, toluene, xylene)By Contrasting Bioventing and Soil Vapor Extraction%气相抽提与生物通风技术对比研究微生物对苯、甲苯、对二甲苯(BTX)的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段云霞; 韩振为; 隋红; 李鑫钢

    2003-01-01

    土壤污染是比较广泛的一种污染.土壤中最严重的污染物是石油类物质的污染,其中苯系化合物(BTX)是最难降解的一类污染物,在治理土壤石油污染中,土壤原位修复中的土壤气相抽提法(SVE)是近年来国外常用的一种方法,随后与微生物降解相结合,产生了生物通风(BV)技术.本文通过实验计算出土壤中污染物BTX的去除作用,生物的降解率分别达到20%、34.4%和38.40%.

  11. Effect of repeated intracoronary injection of bone marrow cells in patients with ischaemic heart failure the Danish stem cell study--congestive heart failure trial (DanCell-CHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Møller, Jacob E; Thayssen, Per;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that myocardial regeneration may be achieved by a single intracoronary bone marrow derived stem cell infusion in selected patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effect is uncertain in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure and it is not known whether...... repeated infusions would have additional positive effects. AIMS: To assess whether two treatments of intracoronary infusion of bone marrow stem cells, administered 4 months apart, could improve left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure. METHODS: The study...... was prospective and non-randomised, comprising an observational baseline period of 4 months followed by an interventional period of 12 months. Intracoronary bone marrow cell infusion was performed at the end of the baseline period and repeated 4 months later. RESULTS: 32 patients were included. LV ejection...

  12. 胰岛素样生长因子-1抗体对注射A型肉毒毒素后运动终板功能恢复的影响%Effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 antibody on motor endplate function after botulinum toxin injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽珍; 靳令经; 潘有贵; 郑玉果; 管强; 郭艳; 聂志余

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨胰岛素样生长因子-1抗体(IGF-1Ab)对大鼠腓肠肌肌注A型肉毒毒素(Btx-A)后运动终板功能的影响. 方法 90只SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为4组,第1组为对照组,第2组为Btx-A组,第3、4组为抗体组(Ab 2 μg、Ab 20 μg组).第2、3、4组于大鼠右侧腓肠肌局部注射Btx-A 0.5 U(0.1 mL),第3天时第3、4组分别在同一位点注射IGF-1Ab 2 μg、20 μg(0.1 mL),动态测量大鼠腓肠肌肌力及乙酰胆碱酯酶染色阳性区平均吸光度值变化. 结果 注射Btx-A后,Btx-A组大鼠腓肠肌肌力由注射前12.34±0.16g降至7.70±0.90 g,其他各组肌力亦较注射前减退;第14、28、42、56、70天,IGF-1 Ab组(第3、4组)肌力较Btx-A组均减小,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且第42~70天第4组肌力低于第3组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);注射部位运动终板染色平均吸光度值演变呈相同趋势. 结论 IGF-1Ab可抑制Btx-A肌注后大鼠腓肠肌运动终板功能的恢复.%Objective To investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 antibody (IGF-1Ab) on motor endplate function after injection ofbotulinum toxin A (Btx-A).Methods The total 90 male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:control group,Btx-A group and 2 ug and 20 ug IGF-1Ab groups.In Btx-A and IGF-1Ab groups,a volume of 0.5 U (0.1 mL) Btx-A was intramuscularly injected into a site in the fight gastrocnemius muscle;on day 3,equal volumes (0.1 mL) of IGF-1Ab with a dosage of 2 ug and 20 ug were injected to the 2 ug and 20 ug IGF-1Ab groups respectively at the same site.The gastrocnemius muscle strength and the mean optical density (MOI) value of the positive reaction zone of acetylcholine esterase staining were evaluated at different time points.Results The gastrocnemius muscle strength increased from 12.34±0.16 g before injection to 7.70±0.90 g after injection in the Btx-A group;the gastrocnemius muscle strength decreased in other groups after injection of Btx-A;on day 14

  13. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  14. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  15. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  16. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  17. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  18. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  19. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  20. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  1. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  2. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  3. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  4. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  5. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  6. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  7. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  8. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  9. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  10. Distribution of the Toxin following Medial Rectus Muscular Injection of Botulinum Toxin Gel in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchang Chen; Guanghuan Mai; Xinping Yu; Huanyuan Yu; Heping Wu; Xiaoming Lin; Daming Deng; Ying Kang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the distribution of the toxin among individual muscles after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin gel.Methods: One eye of 7 New Zealand white rabbits was randomized into group A, and the contralateral eye was into group B. Eyes in group A received medial rectus intramuscular injection of 2.5 IU of 125I-BTX-A gel in 0.1 ml, and those in group B received equivalent amount of 125I-BTX-A solution by medial rectus intramuscular injection. Four rectus muscles and the levator palpebrae superioris were harvested and the radioactivity of muscles was measured 16 hours after the injection.Results: In group A, the radioactivity of per gram medial rectus was significantly higher than that of other muscles (P < 0.01), and there was no statistically significant difference in the radioactivity of per gram muscles among other muscles (P > 0.05). In group B, the radioactivity of per gram medial rectus and levator palpebrae superioris was significantly higher than that of other muscles respectively(P < 0.05), and the difference in the radioactivity of per gram muscles between medial rectus and levator palpebrae superioris was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The radioactivity of per gram medial rectus in group A was higher than that in group B (t=3.731 ,P=0.01), and there was no significant difference in the radioactivity of per gram muscles among other homonymous muscles (P > 0.05).Conclusion: The toxin dispersed principally in the injected muscle and the local concentration of the toxin was much high following intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin gel.

  11. Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finley Allen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A, which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont. Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX

  12. Age-related botulinum toxin effects on muscle fiber conduction velocity in non-injected muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Fiete; van Weerden, Tiemen W.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We studied systemic effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment on muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) and possible effects of age. Methods: MFCV was determined by an invasive EMG method in the biceps brachii muscle. Seventeen BTX treated patients and 58 controls were investigated. BTX

  13. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  14. 40Gbit/s-class-λ-tunable WDM/TDM-PON using λ-selectable B-Tx and 4 x M cyclic AWG router for flexible photonic aggregation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hirotaka; Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Tamaki, Shinya; Mizuno, Takayuki; Hashizume, Yasuaki; Yamada, Takashi; Ito, Mikitaka; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Shunji; Yoshimoto, Naoto

    2013-01-14

    This paper proposes a 40Gbit/s-class-λ-tunable WDM/TDM-PON for flexible photonic aggregation networks that achieves the aggregation of a large number of users using the DWBA algorithm without an L2-SW. It also clarifies the scalability of the proposed system in terms of the transmission distance and the number of users. A λ-switching transmission experiment was conducted using a newly developed 10Gbit/s x 4λ selectable B-Tx and 4 x 4 cyclic AWG router.

  15. 不同治疗方法对特殊TMD患者髁突运动轨迹的影响%Condylar movement trace in patients with temporomandibular disorder undergoing BTX-A or occlusal splint therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙丹; 俞律峰; 邹德荣

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过运用髁突轨迹描记仪来阐述咀嚼肌肌内注射肉毒杆菌毒素-A与咬合垫治疗伴有磨牙症TMD患者的髁突运动轨迹特征.方法 30名研究对象随机分为三组,BTX-A组进行双侧咬肌肌内注射BTX-A,咬合垫组进行咬合垫治疗,对照组进行双侧咬肌肌内注射安慰剂,对研究对象应用ARCUS digmaⅡ进行髁突轨迹描记,在治疗前、治疗后1个月、3个月及6个月分别记录每组双侧髁突的轨迹参数,运用SAS5.0软件进行统计分析.结果 下颌侧方运动过程中,BTX-A组患者的髁突运动轨迹在3个月时出现显著改变(P<0.05),咬合垫组在1个月时发生改变(P<0.05),但三组间无显著差异(P>0.05).前伸运动中,BTX-A组在治疗前后下颌运动明显改善(P<0.05),同时与其他两组相比效果显著(P<0.05),咬合垫组及安慰剂对照组在治疗1个月时,髁突运动也出现显著变化(P<0.05),但三组间无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 三组在治疗过程中均可改变髁突运动情况,各具特点.

  16. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  17. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  18. A型肉毒毒素注射配合康复功能训练对痉挛型偏瘫脑瘫患儿上肢运动功能疗效观察%Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Rehabilitation Functional Training on Upper Extremity Motor Function in Children with Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜华; 张惠佳; 阳伟红; 王益梅; 郭春光; 胡继红; 周平秋; 何金华; 段华林

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)注射治疗配合康复功能训练对痉挛型偏瘫脑瘫患儿上肢功能障碍的疗效.方法 60例痉挛型偏瘫型脑瘫患儿均接受BTX-A注射治疗,治疗后进行强制性诱导运动训练、物理疗法、肌电生物反馈治疗、作业治疗及家庭训练.在治疗前与治疗3个月后,分别用改良Ashworth痉挛量表(MAS)评定患侧上肢肌张力、关节量角器法测量患侧腕关节主动背伸角度、Peabody运动发育量表(PDMS-II)进行患侧手精细运动商(FMQ)的评估、日常生活活动能力(ADL)量表评估ADL能力以比较观察疗效.结果 治疗后患儿上述指标均较治疗前显著改善(P<0.001).结论 BTX-A注射治疗配合康复功能训练能明显降低痉挛型偏瘫型脑瘫患儿的上肢肌张力,改善关节活动范围,明显提高上肢运动功能.%Objective To observe the effect of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection combined with rehabilitation functional training on upper extremity motor function in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods 60 spastic hemiplegic CP children were treated with constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), physical therapy, electromyographic biofeedback stimulation therapy, occupational therapy, family-based training and so on after injected with BTX-A. The muscle tension of the hemiplegic upper extremity accessed by Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), the wrist angle of active dorsiextention motion by orthrometer, fine movement quotient (FMQ) by Pea-body developmental motor scale (PDMS- II), and activities of daily living (ADL) were performed to evaluate the effects before and 3 months after treatment. Results These outcomes were improved significantly after treatment (P<0.001). Conclusion BTX-A injection combined with rehabilitation functional training could rapidly reduce spasticity of the upper extremity, increase the range of motion, improve motor function of upper extremity in children with spastic

  19. Clinical Efficacy of Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection and Muscle Electricity Biofeedback Treatment for Patients with Spasticity in Lower Limb Muscles%彩超引导下肉毒毒素注射和肌电生物反馈治疗下肢肌肉痉挛的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华先; 丁旭东; 张贵斌; 黄瓅; 宋金辉; 洪艳; 王汉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection and muscle electricity biofeedback treatment for patients with spastici-ty in the lower limb muscles after cerebral infarction. Methods: Thirty-six patients with lower limb muscle Spasms after cerebral infarction were randomly divided into control group and the treatment group with 18 cases in the each group. The ultrasound-guided BTX-A injection was applied to the both groups whereas muscle electricity biofeedback treatment was performed additional to those in the treatment group after 24 hours. The outcome was assessed by modified Ash-worth scale (MAS). Results: The recovery of Muscle spasms in the electricity biofeedback treatment group was better than that in the control group. Conclusion: The ultrasound guided BTX-A injection and muscle electricity biofeedback treatment are effective for treatingt patients with lower limb muscle spasticity after cerebral infarction.%目的:观察采用彩超引导下注射A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)和肌电生物反馈治疗脑梗死后下肢肌肉痉挛的临床疗效.方法:选择36例脑梗死偏瘫后下肢肌肉痉挛患者,随机分成治疗组及对照组各18例.2组均对下肢痉挛肌群进行分点注射BTX-A,治疗组24 h后给予肌电生物反馈治疗6周,采用改良Ashworth评分(MAS)、步长、步速评估2组疗效.结果:治疗组治疗6周后MAS评分、步长、步速优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:采用彩超引导下多位点注射BTX-A结合肌电生物反馈治疗脑梗死后下肢肌肉痉挛有明显疗效.

  20. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  1. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  2. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  3. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  4. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  5. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  6. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  7. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  8. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  9. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  10. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  11. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  12. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  13. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  14. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  15. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  16. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  17. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  18. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  19. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  20. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  1. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  2. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  3. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  4. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  5. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  6. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  7. Effect of Baseline Spastic Hemiparesis on Recovery of Upper-Limb Function Following Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections and Postinjection Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Lin; Munin, Michael C.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Huber, Lynne M.; Weber, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether baseline hand spastic hemiparesis assessed by the Chedoke-McMaster Assessment influences functional improvement after botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections and postinjection therapy. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Outpatient spasticity clinic. Participants Participants (N = 14) with spastic hemiparesis divided into 2 groups: Chedoke-McMaster Assessment Hand-Higher Function (stage≥4, n = 5) and Chedoke-McMaster Assessment Hand-Lower Function (stage = 2 or 3, n = 9). Interventions Upper-limb BTX-A injections followed by 6 weeks of postinjection therapy. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were Motor Activity Log-28 and Motor Activity Log items. Secondary outcomes were Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Motor Activity Log-Self-Report, and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Measures were assessed at baseline (preinjection), 6 weeks, 9 weeks, and 12 weeks postinjection. Results Primary and secondary outcomes improved significantly over time in both groups. Although no significant differences in ARAT or MAS change scores were noted between groups, Chedoke-McMaster Assessment Hand-Higher Function group demonstrated greater change on Motor Activity Log-28 (P = .013) from baseline to 6 weeks and Motor Activity Log items (P = .006) from baseline to 12 weeks compared to Chedoke-McMaster Assessment Hand-Lower Function group. Conclusions BTX-A injections and postinjection therapy improved hand function and reduced spasticity for both Chedoke-McMaster Assessment Hand-Higher Function and Chedoke-McMaster Assessment Hand-Lower Function groups. Clinicians should expect to see larger gains for persons with less baseline impairment. PMID:19735772

  8. Correction of post-traumatic anterior open bite by injection of botulinum toxin type A into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle: case report

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic anterior open bite can occur as a result of broken balance among the masticatory muscles. The superior hyoid muscle group retracts the mandible downward and contributes to the anterior open bite. Denervation of the digastric muscle by injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can reduce the power of the digastric muscle and help to resolve the post-traumatic anterior open bite. A patient with a bilateral angle fracture had an anterior open bite even after undergoing three ope...

  9. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  10. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  11. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  12. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  13. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  14. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  15. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  16. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  17. Three-dimensional CT might be a potential evaluation modality in correction of asymmetrical masseter muscle hypertrophy by botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Yeon A; Ahn, Byeong Heon; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwon

    2016-01-01

    For correction of this asymmetrical hypertrophy, botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) injection is one of convenient treatment modalities. Unfortunately, physical examination of masseter muscle is not enough to estimate the exact volume of muscle hypertrophy difference. Two Koreans, male and female, of bilateral masseter hypertrophy with asymmetricity were evaluated. BTxA (NABOTA(®), Daewoong, Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea) was injected at master muscle site with total 50 U (25 U at each side) and volume change was evaluated with three-dimensional (3D) CT image analysis. Maximum reduction of masseter hypertrophy was recognized at 2-month follow-up and reduced muscle size started to restore after 3 months. Mean reduction of masseter muscle volume was 36% compared with baseline. More hypertrophied side of masseter muscle presented 42% of volume reduction at 2-month follow-up but less hypertrophied side of masseter muscle showed 30% of volume shrinkage. In conclusion, 3D CT image analysis might be the exact evaluation tool for correction of asymmetrical masseter hypertrophy by botulinum toxin injection.

  18. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  19. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  20. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  1. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  2. 应用A型肉毒素对称注射法在面部除皱的体会%Treatment of Face Wrinkles with Symmetrical Injection of Botulinum Toxin ( BTX - A)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽萍

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨A型肉毒素对称注射法在面部除皱中的应用优势.方法采用A型肉毒素以面中线为中轴对称注射面部皱纹,接受治疗的患者68例,其中额横纹、眉间纹、鱼尾纹62例,鼻唇沟纹、鼻背纹6例.结果68例患者面部动力性皱纹完全消失,有效率100%,无1例出现眉下垂、睑外翻、面部不对称等不良反应和并发症.结论A型肉毒素对称注射治疗面部动力性皱纹,操作方法简单、安全有效.

  3. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  4. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  5. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  6. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  7. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE B IN MOVEMENT DISORDERS AND AUTONOMIC SYMPTOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-hua Wan; Kevin Dat Vuong; Joseph Jankovic

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type B (BTX-B) in treatment of movement disorders including blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, hemifacial spasm, tremor, tics, and hypersecretory disorders such as sialorrhea and hyperhidrosis.Methods A retrospective study of BTX-B injections in treatment of 58 patients with various neurological disorders was performed. The mean follow-up time was 0.9 ± 0.8 years. Results of the first and last treatment of patients with at least 3injection sessions were compared.Results The response of 58 patients to a total of 157 BTX-B treatment sessions was analyzed. Of the 157 treatment sessions, 120 sessions (76.4%) resulted in moderate or marked improvement while 17 sessions (10.8%) had no response.The clinical benefits after BTX-B treatment lasted an average of 14 weeks. Of the 41 patients with at least 3 injection sessions (mean 10 ± 8.6), most patients needed increased dosage upon the last session compared to the first session. Nineteen patients (32.8%) with 27 sessions (17.2%) reported adverse effects with BTX-B treatment.Conclusios Though most patients require increased dosage to maintain effective response after repeated injections,BTX-B is an effective and safe treatment drug for a variety of movement disorders, as well as drooling and hyperhidrosis.

  8. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  9. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  11. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  12. Prolonging the duration of masseter muscle reduction by adjusting the masticatory movements after the treatment of masseter muscle hypertrophy with botulinum toxin type a injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiao; Xu, Hua; Dong, Jiasheng; Li, Qingfeng; Dai, Chuanchang

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is widely used for the clinical treatment of masseteric hypertrophy. Until now, few reports have discussed how to prolong the duration of its effectiveness. This study evaluated that purposely adjusting the masticatory movements is possible of postponing the masseter muscle rehypertrophy. Ninety-eight patients were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups, and 35 U BTX-A per side was injected into the masseters. The thickness and volume of the masticatory muscles were measured by ultrasound and computerized tomography, respectively. Patients in Group 1 were instructed to strengthen their masticatory effort during the denervated atrophic stage of the masseter (the interval was evaluated by real-time ultrasound monitoring), whereas patients in Group 2 were not given this instruction. When the masseter muscle began to recover, patients in both groups were instructed to reduce their chewing. The duration of the masseter muscle rehypertrophy was significantly prolonged in Group 1 patients. The thickness and the volume of the other masticatory muscles were significantly increased in Group 1 but were either slightly decreased or insignificantly different in Group 2. Purposely strengthening masticatory muscle movement during the denervated atrophic stage of the masseter can prolong the duration of masseter rehypertrophy.

  13. Treatment of focal hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A: long-term follow-up in 61 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnider, P; Moraru, E; Kittler, H; Binder, M; Kranz, G; Voller, B; Auff, E

    2001-08-01

    The blocking action of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) on cholinergically innervated sweat glands has been used successfully to treat patients with focal hyperhidrosis. To investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of intradermal injections of BTX-A. We performed an open-label study in 61 patients treated over a period of 3 years for axillary or palmar hyperhidrosis. A total dose of 400 mU BTX-A (Dysport) was injected into both axillae or 460 mU BTX-A (Dysport) into both palms. The injections were repeated after relapse. Objective quantification of sweat production was performed using digitized ninhydrin-stained sheets. Four weeks after BTX-A treatment the median reduction in sweat production was 71% compared with baseline (P production by the patients using a visual analogue scale (0, no sweating; 100, the most severe sweating) showed a significant reduction in both the axillary (P BTX-A in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis are as effective as first treatments.

  14. 自体脂肪移植联合A型肉毒毒素注射在面部年轻化治疗中的应用%Minimally invasive facial rejuvenation via autologous fat graft and botulinum toxin type A injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠志; 杨盼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the surgical method and curative effect of facial rejuvenation via autologous fat graft combined with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A)injection.Methods Fat granule were transplanted at fore-head,temporal,lacrimal groove or nasolabial region as soft tissue filler.While BTX-A was injected at frontal wrinkle,frown lines,radix nasi cross grain,crow′s feet and creases around the mouth for rhytidectomy,and in massester for lower facial recontour,at one week after fat graft.Results Totally 150 patients were treated by the operation mentioned above,and satisfactory outcome were obtained.Conclusion Autologous fat graft combined with BTX-A injection is safe and effective and it is an ideal cosmetic surgery for facial rejuvenation.%目的:探讨自体脂肪移植联合 A 型肉毒毒素注射在面部年轻化治疗中的应用。方法将获取的自体脂肪颗粒填充于额部、颞部凹陷及泪沟、鼻唇沟畸形,术后1周行 A 型肉毒毒素注射治疗额横纹、眉间纹、鼻根横纹、鱼尾纹、口周细纹等,麻痹肥大的咬肌以修饰下面部轮廓。结果共对150例求美者进行治疗,疗效满意。结论自体脂肪移植联合 A 型肉毒毒素注射安全、可靠,是一种理想的面部年轻化美容方法。

  15. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  16. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  17. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  18. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  19. Effect of Botulinum Toxin-A Injection on Central Facial Palsy Post Stroke%A型肉毒毒素矫正脑卒中后中枢性面瘫的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨远滨; 张京; 张静; 肖娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injected into the contralateral facial muscle on central facial palsy post stroke. Methods 30 stroke patients with moderate to severe central facial palsy were recruited (course of 3~10 months). They were divided into control group (n=15) and treatment group (n=15), who accepted facial training and BTX-A injection in addition, respec-tively. The bilateral deference of distance from angulus oris to the midline of the teeth(D1) and from the paropia to the angulus oris (D2) were measured before and 4 weeks after injection. Results The D1 and D2 both at resting and movement all decreased after injection in the treatment group, and decreased more than those in the control group. Conclusion BTX-A injection can further correct central facial palsy post stroke.%目的观察肉毒毒素健侧面肌注射矫正脑卒中后患者患侧中枢性面瘫的效果。方法30例脑卒中后中枢性面瘫的患者分为治疗组和对照组。对照组给予面肌运动训练,治疗组在此基础上,依据病情选择健侧面肌进行A型肉毒毒素注射。注射前、注射后4周测定嘴角至门齿中缝的双侧距离差(D1)、眼骨性外眦到嘴角的双侧距离差(D2)。结果治疗后,治疗组静态、动态D1、D2均较治疗前减小(P<0.05),且较对照组减小(P<0.05)。结论 A型肉毒毒素注射能进一步矫正中枢性面瘫。

  20. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  1. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  2. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  3. [Temporomandibular joint arthropathy in situ steroid injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagé, J; Gallucci, A; Arnaud, M; Chossegros, C; Foletti, J M

    2016-09-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) affect the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). TMDs most often result from occlusal and/or muscular disorders and are then called primary or idiopathic TMDs. Less frequently, TMDs are related to local (trauma, infection) or general (rheumatoid arthritis) causes and are then called secondary TMDs. A little known iatrogenic cause of secondary TDM is the osteoarthritis that may be induced by intra-articular cortisone injections. We report one case of condylar lysis that occurred after one single intra-articular cortisone injection. A 62-years-old woman consulted for a long-lasting TMD on the left side manifesting itself through pain and noise. She benefited one year before from an intra-articular injection of cortisone by her rheumatologist for repeated closed lock of her left TMJ. Physical examination showed limited mouth opening with deviation on the left side. Lateral movements on the right side were impossible. The panoramic X-ray showed a condylar lysis on the left side that was on the CT scan. MRI additionally showed an anteriorly displaced and severely reshaped disc and an articular inflammation without intra-articular effusion. TMJ osteoarthritis secondary to unique or repeated intra-articular steroid injections are little-known. They are clinically expressed as typical TMDs and characterized on X-rays by condylar lysis and inflammation. Intra-articular injections of steroids are not totally harmless and other treatments must be preferred. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. 彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素治疗慢性偏头痛%Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Under Color Ultrasound with Water Capsule Guidance for Treatment of Chronic Migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金辉; 丁旭东; 肖红琼; 黄瓅; 张贵斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素治疗慢性偏头痛的临床疗效和不良反应.方法:选取64例慢性偏头痛患者应用彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素进行颅周肌肉注射治疗,记录患者治疗前后偏头痛发作频率、持续时间、严重程度、止痛药使用情况及恢复状况,并行VAS、MIDAS及SF-36评分.结果:所有患者经彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素治疗后,慢性偏头痛发作频率、持续时间、严重程度均较治疗前明显下降(P<0.01),止痛药物的使用较治疗前减少(P<0.01),疗效可维持至少3月,且不良反应轻微.结论:彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素颅周肌肉注射治疗慢性偏头痛发作临床疗效显著,不良反应轻微,值得临床推广.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of local injection of botulinum toxin A( BTX-A) under color ultrasound with water capsule guidance in patients with chronic migraine(CM). Methods Sixty-four patients with CM were treated with BTX-A under color ultrasound and water capsule guidance. The frequency, duration and severity of CM, medication usage of painkiller as well as side effects in patients with CM were recorded by the use of questionnaire,and were compared before and 6 months after treatment. Results Compared with those before treatments,the frequency,duration and severity of CM in patients at 6 month after treatment of BTX-A under color ultrasound and water capsule guidance were reduced significantly(P <0.01) ,and so were the frequency of medication usage of painkiller and the side effects. The therapeutic effects could last for at least 3 months. Conclusion BTX-A under color ultrasound and water capsule guidance has therapeutic effects on CM with few side effects.

  5. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  6. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  7. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  8. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  9. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  10. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  11. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 17, 2013 Last Edited: February 22, 2017 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cg-infusion-sets,meds-bg-injectables,cg-injection-aids, In this section Treatment and Care Medication Insulin & ...

  12. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  13. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  14. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  15. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  16. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  17. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  18. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  19. FROZEN SHOULDER TREATMENT: TRIAMCENALONE OR METHYLPREDNISOLONE INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] and Methylprednisolone acetate [40mg] in 210 patients attending the Outpatient Department of Orthopedics of FAAMCH Barpeta with primary and secondary frozen shoulder. METHODS: A total number o f 210 patients with frozen shoulder who attended the Outpatient clinic of Orthopedics at FAAMCH from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015 were enrolled in our study. The diagnosis of frozen shoulder was made using the guidelines for shoulder complain issued by the Dutch C ollege of General Practitioners. Intra - articular injections of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] was used in 110 patients [ M ale - 50, female - 60] and 40mg Methylprednisolone was given to 100 patients [M ale - 35, female 65]. Injection was repeated every 3 weeks [ N o t more than 3 injections] by the posterior route. RESULTS: Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective in diabetic patients with frozen shoulder in comparison to Methyprednisolone acetate. Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective i n those patients presenting with severe grades of frozen shoulder and also these patients required lesser number of injections compared to Methylprednisolone acetate. However both Triamcinolone acatonide and Methyprednisolone were equally effective in prim ary frozen shoulder. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Triamcinolone acetonide and Methylprednisolone acetate are effective in the treatment of painful stiff shoulder; however injection Triamcinolone acetonide is a superior alternative in the treatment of diabe tics with frozen shoulder & resistant cases, with less number of injections.

  20. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  1. Botulinum toxin type a is a safe and effective treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis over 16 months: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, M; Lowe, N J; Kumar, C R; Hamm, H

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) (BOTOX) over 16 months in the treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis. A 16-month study with initial double-blind randomization to 50 U of BTX-A or placebo per axilla. After 4 months, participants could receive up to 3 further treatments with open-label BTX-A over 12 months. Fourteen dermatology or neurology clinics in Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Of 207 individuals aged between 17 and 74 years who had persistent bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis that interfered with daily activities, 174 (84%) completed the study. The baseline gravimetric assessment was a spontaneous sweat production of 50 mg or greater in each axilla prior to initial treatment. At week 4 after each treatment, the response rate of subjects who had at least a 50% reduction from baseline in axillary sweating, as measured by gravimetric assessment, was evaluated. Adverse events were spontaneously reported throughout the study, together with quality-of-life parameters and assessment of neutralizing antibodies to BTX-A. Over the 16-month period, 356 BTX-A treatments were given to 207 subjects. After placebo treatment, the response rate at week 4 was 34.7%. After the first, second, and third treatment with BTX-A, response rates at week 4 were 96.1%, 91.1%, and 83.3%, respectively. For subjects receiving more than 1 treatment, the mean duration between BTX-A treatments was approximately 7 months; however, 28% of subjects completed the study after only 1 BTX-A treatment. Subjects' satisfaction after treatments was consistently high, their quality of life improved, and there was a reduction in the impact of the disease on their lives. The safety profile of BTX-A after repeated treatments was excellent and no confirmed positive results for neutralizing antibodies to BTX-A occurred. Repeated intradermal injections of BTX-A over 16 months for treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis is safe and

  2. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  3. Injection of Botulinum toxin A into unilateral paraspinal muscles to establish scoliosis model in immature bipedal rats%A型肉毒毒素一侧椎旁肌注射建立双足直立鼠脊柱侧凸模型的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓龙; 周许辉; 刘洋; 田野; 东人; 袁文

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss the feasibility and efficacy of injection of Botulinum toxin A into unilateral paraspinal muscles to establish scoliosis model in immature bipedal rats. Methods: 56 4-week old female SD rats were divided into 7 groups randomly. All rats underwent amputations of forelimbs under anesthesia and were kept in height-regulated cages. Group A-F received different concentrations of BTX-A respectively (100U, 50U, 25U, 12.5U, 6.25U, 3.125U, all in 0.5ml). Group G only received an injection of same amount of normal saline. 2 weeks after injection, AP X-rays were obtained under anesthesia. The rats were cut off the skin on the back. Naked-eye observations were taken. Morphological changes of paravertebral muscles were detected under light microscope. Results: The rats were observed to be able to stand bipedally immediately after the amputations of forelimbs. After BTX-A injection, the rats in group A-D were all dead, while all rats in group E, F and G survived. 2 weeks after injection, AP X-rays showed that all survived rats had developed scoliosis in group E and F, and all curves had convex towards right side. The mean Cobb angle in group E was (41.9+3.4)° at 2 weeks after injection, and the mean Cobb angle in group F and G was (33.1±3.2)° and (2.9±6.8)° respectively. Naked-eye observations showed muscle atrophy on the convex side. The his-tological findings revealed the same as naked -eye observation. Those were not observed in group G.Conclusions: Scoliosis model can be created by 6.25U or 3.125U BTX-A injection in immature bipedal rats,which indicates that paravertebral muscle imbalance can induce scoliosis.%目的:探讨应用A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)建立双足直立鼠脊柱侧凸模型的可行性.方法:将56只4周龄雌性SD大鼠随机分为A、B、C、D、E、F、G组,每组8只.将所有大鼠截除双前肢,予高笼喂养,建立双足直立鼠模型,同时行全脊柱前后位X线片检查,剔除存在脊柱侧凸的

  4. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  5. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to ferric carboxymaltose injection, ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other ...

  6. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  7. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Karlsmark, Tonny;

    2012-01-01

    by repeated intramuscular injections of anabolic steroids. Conclusions: SEOs cause sclerosing lipogranulomatosis and its progression may lead to lifelong complications. Thorough radiologic evaluation is important to plan surgical revisions in active phases. Also antibiotics, steroids, and compression therapy......BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search...

  8. Autonomic function after botulinum toxin type A or B: a double-blind, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, R; Gross, R; Winzer, U F; Smalky, K A; Jankovic, J

    2005-09-13

    To compare autonomic effects of botulinum toxin (BTX), we randomized patients with cervical dystonia to receive either BTX-A or BTX-B in a double-blind manner. Efficacy and physiologic questionnaire measures of autonomic function were assessed at baseline and 2 weeks after injection. Patients treated with BTX-B had less saliva production (p BTX-A, but did not differ in other tests of autonomic functions.

  9. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  10. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...

  11. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.P. Acthar Gel® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

  12. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  13. Impact of Endoscopic Gastric Wall Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Appetite-related Hormones in Patients with Simple Obesity%内镜下胃壁注射A型肉毒杆菌毒素对单纯性肥胖患者食欲相关激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 刘庆森; 刘文徽; 窦艳; 彭丽华; 杨云生; 孟科

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become one of the major public health problems in China and developed countries. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can induce muscle paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junction. Aims: To investigate the impact of endoscopic gastric wall injection of BTX-A on weight loss and peripheral appetite-related hormones in patients with simple obesity. Methods: Twenty simple obesity patients were randomized into two groups and received endoscopic gastric wall injection of BTX-A 200 U and 300 U, respectively. Twenty puncture sites were selected at gastric antrum, body and fundus in each subject. Body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as fasting serum insulin, leptin and plasma motilin, peplide YY (PYY) , ghrelin levels were measured before and 4, 12 weeks after treatment. Results; Nineteen patients completed the 12 weeks follow up. After treatment, the body weight and BMI decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05), while no significant changes were found in serum insulin, leptin and plasma motilin levels. Significant decrease was found in plasma level of ghrelin 4 weeks after treatment and in plasma level of PYY 12 weeks after treatment (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in weight loss and 5 appetite-related hormones between the two treatment groups. No clinically significant side effects were observed. Conclusions: Endoscopic gastric wall injection of BTX-A is a safe and effective choice for weight loss in patients with simple obesity. Effect of BTX-A on weight loss might be related to the inhibition of ghrelin secretion in gastric fundus.%肥胖已成为我国以及发达国家面临的严重公共健康问题之一.A型肉毒杆菌毒素( BTX-A)可阻断神经肌肉接头处的胆碱能传递,使肌肉松弛.目的:探讨内镜下胃壁注射BTX-A治疗单纯性肥胖的减重效果及其对外周血食欲相关激素的影响.方法:20例单纯性肥胖患者随机分为两组,分别内镜下胃壁注射BTX

  14. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed...

  15. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  16. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin in treatment of anismus: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameh Hany Emile; Hossam Ayman Elfeki; Hosam Ghazy Elbanna; Mohamed Youssef; Waleed Thabet; Tito M Abd El-Hamed; Basem Said; Ahmed Lotfy

    2016-01-01

    deteriorated after 3 mo of the procedure. However, repeated injection may provide better sustained results with no additional morbidities. Further analysis of more patients is necessary to conclude the safety of BTX-A for the treatment of anismus.

  17. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  18. Treatment of esophageal stricture due to lichen planus with intralesional corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Aydin S; Yildiz, Hakan; Odemiş, Bülent; Sengül, Ayşegül

    2014-02-01

    Herein we presented a male patient with esophageal stricture due to lichen planus successfully treated with repeated injections of intralesional triamcinolone and review the current literature on esophageal lichen planus with special emphasis on its treatment.

  19. Intramural injection with botulinum toxin significantly elongates the pig esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Heidi Fhær; Jensen, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn; Rasmussen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of long-gap esophageal atresia (LGEA) is challenging. Methods which facilitate stretching of the esophageal pouches may allow primary anastomosis. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) blocks acetylcholine release in neuromuscular junctions, thereby causing muscle relaxation. We...

  20. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  1. Outcomes of intra-detrusor injections of botulinum toxin in patients with spina bifida: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascoet, Juliette; Manunta, Andrea; Brochard, Charlène; Arnaud, Alexis; Damphousse, Mireille; Menard, Hélène; Kerdraon, Jacques; Journel, Hubert; Bonan, Isabelle; Odent, Sylvie; Fremond, Benjamin; Siproudhis, Laurent; Gamé, Xavier; Peyronnet, Benoit

    2017-03-01

    Bladder management in spina bifida patients relies on clean intermittent catheterization and oral antimuscarinics with a significant failure rate. The efficacy of intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin has been confirmed in patients with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis but not in patients with myelomeningocele. To conduct a systematic review of current evidence regarding the efficacy of intra-detrusor injections of Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A) in spina bifida patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) refractory to antimuscarinics. A research has been conducted on Medline and Embase using the keywords: ("spina bifida" OR "myelomeningocele" OR "dysraphism") AND "toxin." The search strategy and studies selection were performed using the PICOS method according to the PRISMA statement. Twelve published series were included (n = 293 patients). All patients were spina bifida but this assumption is not supported by high level of evidence studies. There is no data available in adult patients. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:557-564, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  3. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  4. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  5. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  6. Modelagem matemática aplicando o método da média no volume e simulação numérica de colunas de leito fixo aplicadas à separação de compostos BTX e p-xileno

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Florianópolis, 2014. Nesta tese, através da aplicação do Método da Média no Volume, desenvolveu-se o modelo matemático de duas equações para descrever o processo de separação e isomerização do p-xileno, visando contribuir na predição de melhores condições de operação de coluna de leito fixo. Este modelo também foi aplicado na separação de compostos BTX. O modelo m...

  7. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  8. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of the ... any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  9. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lining of the spinal cord and brain) and visceral leishmaniasis (a parasitic disease that usually affects spleen, ... complex injection: fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, flushing, back pain with or without chest tightness, chest pain, shortness ...

  10. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  11. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  12. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  13. Effective method for drug injection into subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Park, Hanwook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-08-29

    Subcutaneous injection of drug solution is widely used for continuous and low dose drug treatment. Although the drug injections have been administered for a long time, challenges in the design of injection devices are still needed to minimize the variability, pain, or skin disorder by repeated drug injections. To avoid these adverse effects, systematic study on the effects of injection conditions should be conducted to improve the predictability of drug effect. Here, the effects of injection conditions on the drug permeation in tissues were investigated using X-ray imaging technique which provides real-time images of drug permeation with high spatial resolution. The shape and concentration distribution of the injected drug solution in the porcine subcutaneous and muscle tissues are visualized. Dynamic movements of the wetting front (WF) and temporal variations of water contents in the two tissues are quantitatively analyzed. Based on the quantitative analysis of the experimental data, the permeability of drug solution through the tissues are estimated according to permeation direction, injection speed, and tissue. The present results would be helpful for improving the performance of drug injection devices and for predicting the drug efficacy in tissues using biomedical simulation.

  14. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  15. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  16. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  17. Changes in Activity of the Same Thalamic Neurons to Repeated Nociception in Behaving Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yeowool; Cho, Jeiwon

    2015-01-01

    The sensory thalamus has been reported to play a key role in central pain sensory modulation and processing, but its response to repeated nociception at thalamic level is not well known. Current study investigated thalamic response to repeated nociception by recording and comparing the activity of the same thalamic neuron during the 1st and 2nd formalin injection induced nociception, with a week interval between injections, in awake and behaving mice. Behaviorally, the 2nd injection induced greater nociceptive responses than the 1st. Thalamic activity mirrored these behavioral changes with greater firing rate during the 2nd injection. Analysis of tonic and burst firing, characteristic firing pattern of thalamic neurons, revealed that tonic firing activity was potentiated while burst firing activity was not significantly changed by the 2nd injection relative to the 1st. Likewise, burst firing property changes, which has been consistently associated with different phases of nociception, were not induced by the 2nd injection. Overall, data suggest that repeated nociception potentiated responsiveness of thalamic neurons and confirmed that tonic firing transmits nociceptive signals.

  18. Multiple collagenase injections are safe for treatment of Dupuytren's contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendran, Varun K; Hentz, Vincent; Kenney, Deborah; Curtin, Catherine M

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old, right-hand-dominant man who had severe Dupuytren's disease with multiple cords and flexion contractures of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of both hands and underwent repeated collagenase injections for treatment. Collagenase has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of Dupuytren's contractures when administered as a single dose, but the results of multiple injections over a prolonged period are unknown. Antibodies to collagenase develop in all patients after several treatments, raising concerns about safety and efficacy as a result of sensitization from repeated exposures. The antibodies generated as a result of repeated exposure to collagenase could theoretically render it less effective with time and could also lead to immune reactions as severe as anaphylaxis. The authors present the case of a single patient who experienced continued correction of his contractures with only minor and self-limited adverse reactions after administration of 12 collagenase doses through 15 injections during a 4-year period. Over time, the injections continued to be effective at correcting metacarpophalangeal joint contractures, but less effective at correcting proximal interphalangeal joint contractures. The patient did eventually require a fasciectomy, but the safety and modest success of the repeated collagenase injections shows promise for a less invasive treatment with a better risk profile than open fasciectomy. Although further studies are needed, repeated administration of collagenase appears to be safe and modestly effective for severe Dupuytren's contractures, although a fasciectomy may ultimately be required in the most severe cases.

  19. Analysis of the repeatability of time-lapse 3d vsp multicomponent surveys, delhi field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mariana Fernandes de

    Delhi Field is a producing oil field located in northeastern Louisiana. In order to monitor the CO2 sweep efficiency, time-lapse 3D seismic data have been acquired in this area. Time-lapse studies are increasingly used to evaluate changes in the seismic response induced by the production of hydrocarbons or the injection of water, CO2 or steam into a reservoir. A 4D seismic signal is generated by a combination of production and injection effects within the reservoir as well as non-repeatability effects. In order to get reliable results from time-lapse seismic methods, it is important to distinguish the production and injection effects from the non-repeatability effects in the 4D seismic signal. Repeatability of 4D land seismic data is affected by several factors. The most significant of them are: source and receiver geometry inaccuracies, differences in seismic sources signatures, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. In this project, two 3D multicomponent VSP surveys acquired in Delhi Field were used to quantify the relative contribution of each factor that can affect the repeatability in land seismic data. The factors analyzed in this study were: source and receiver geometry inaccura- cies, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. This study showed that all these factors had a significant impact on the repeatability of the successive multicomponent VSP surveys in Delhi Field. This project also shows the advantages and disadvantages in the use of different repeata- bility metrics, normalized-root-mean-square (NRMS) difference and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) attribute, to evaluate the level of seismic repeatability between successive time-lapse seismic surveys. It is observed that NRMS difference is greatly influenced by time-shifts and that SDR attribute combined with the time-shift may give more distinct and representative repeatability information than the NRMS difference.

  20. Bleeding gastric varices: Results of endoscopic injection with cyanoacrylate at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phadet Noophun; Pradermchai Kongkam; Sutep Gonlachanvit; Rungsun Rerknimitr

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastric varices injection with cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding.METHODS: Twenty-four patients (15 males, 9 females) with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic treatment with cyanoacrylate injection. Successful hemostasis, rebleeding rate, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. Followed up endoscopy was performed and repeat cyanoacrylate injection was given until gastric varices were obliterated. RESULTS: Seventeen patients achieved definite hemostasis. Of these, 14 patients had primary success after initial endoscopic therapy. Ten patients developed recurrent bleeding. Repeated cyanoacrylate injection stopped rebleeding in three patients. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed to control rebleeding in one patient which occured after repeat endoscopic therapy. Six patients died (three from uncontrolled bleeding, two from sepsis, and one from mesenteric vein thrombosis). Minor complications occurred in 11 patients (six epigastric discomfort and five post injection ulcers). Cyanoacrylate embolism developed in two patients. One of these patients died from mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other had pulmonary embolism which resolved spontaneously. Advanced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were major risk factors for uncontrolled bleeding.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic treatment for bleeding gastric varices with cyanoacrylate injection is effective for immediate hemostasis. Repeat cyanoacrylate injection has a lower success rate than the initial injection.Cyanoacrylate embolism is not a common serious complication.

  1. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  2. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  3. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  4. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  5. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  7. Design and validation of a simulator for equine joint injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Victoria; Sinclair, Charlotte; Bolt, David M; Lowe, John; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Joint injections are commonly used in equine practice for diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders. Performing joint injections is hence an essential skill for equine practitioners. However, opportunities for veterinary students to practice this skill are often scarce in veterinary curricula. The aim of this study was to design and validate an equine joint injection simulator. We hypothesized that the simulator will enhance student ability and confidence in performing joint injections. The simulator was constructed around an equine forelimb skeleton with soft tissues rebuilt using building foam and rubber bands. An electrical circuit including a buzzer, a battery, wire wool in the joints, and a hypodermic needle at the end of the cable was incorporated. If the students placed the needle into the joint correctly, instant auditory feedback was provided by the buzzer. To validate the simulator, 45 veterinary students were allocated to three groups: cadaver limb, textbook, or simulator. Students' ability to perform joint injections was tested and students' opinions were evaluated with a questionnaire. The proportion of students performing a metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint injection correctly was significantly higher in the cadaver (93%) and simulator (76%) groups compared to the textbook group (50%). There was no significant difference between groups for performing a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection correctly. Students rated the learning experience with the cadaver and simulator group high and with the textbook group low. The joint injection simulator represents an affordable teaching aid that allows students to repeatedly practice this skill in their own time with immediate feedback.

  8. Efficacy of Ultrasound and Water Capsule-guided Local Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment on Patients with Facial Spasm%彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素注射治疗面肌痉挛的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪艳; 丁旭东; 肖红琼; 陈华先; 高荣萍; 汪伟; 张贵斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the efficacy of ultrasound and water capsule-guided local injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment on patients with facial spasm. Methods: Ninety-six cases of facial spasm were randomly divided into oral drug treatment group (A group) (48 cases) and ultrasound and water capsule-guided local injection of botulinum toxin type A treatment group (B group) (48 cases). Cohen, Acbert spasms strength grade scores in each cases with facial spasm were recorded. Therapeutic effect, duration, significant efficiency and muscle spasms strength were compared before and 6 months after treatment. Results:The muscle spasms strength showed no significant change in A group after the treatment. However, the muscle spasms strength was decreased significantly in B group after treatment (Pinjection of botulinum toxin type A treatment is a safe, effective, and simple treatment for patients with facial spasm.%目的:探讨彩超水囊引导下肉毒毒素注射治疗面肌痉挛的疗效.方法:面肌痉挛患者96例,随机分为A、B组各48例,A组给予口服药物6个月,B组给予彩超水囊引导下局部注射A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A).治疗前后分别采用Cohen、Acbert痉挛强度分级评估疗效,观察2组疗效、持续时间、显效率和治疗前后肌痉挛强度及变化情况.结果:A组治疗后肌痉挛强度变化无统计学差异,B组治疗后肌痉挛强度变化有显著性差异(P<0.01),且显效率高于A组(P<0.01).结论:彩超水囊引导下BTX-A注射治疗能显著降低面肌痉挛的肌张力,且安全、简单易行.

  9. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sperm must attach to the outside of the egg. Once attached, the sperm pushes through the outer layer to the inside ... in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ICSI, a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm the egg. ...

  10. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  11. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcohol wipe on your injection site. The insulin needs to go into the fat layer under the skin. Pinch the skin and put the needle in at a 45º angle. If your tissues are thick enough, you may be able to ...

  12. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  13. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  15. A型肉毒毒素治疗痉挛性斜颈的临床研究%Clinical study of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of spasmodic torticollis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 陈江君; 鲁雅琴; 杨奎; 刘宁

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)治疗痉挛性斜颈的效果.方法 对64例痉挛性斜颈患者在颈部肌肉多点注射BTX-A,分析评价其疗效.结果 痉挛性斜颈患者经BTX-A治疗后症状明显改善,BTX-A用量(120.37±25.26)U;注射点数(30.00±4.85)个;Tsui评分治疗前为(13.08±4.16)分,治疗后2周为(4.21±2.63)分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).完全缓解16例(25.0%),明显改善39例(60.9%),部分改善8例(12.5%),无效1例(1.6%),有效率85.9%(55/64);疗效维持时间为(16.86±4.57)周;重复治疗者复发症状减轻,治疗剂量下降,疗效仍良好.所有患者均未见严重不良反应.结论 BTX-A治疗痉挛性斜颈是一种安全有效、简便易行的治疗手段,可作为治疗痉挛性斜颈的首选药物.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of botulinum toxin type A(BTX-A)injection in the treatment of spasmodic torticollis.Methods Sixty-four patients with spasmodic torticollis underwent the treatment of intramuscular injection of BTX-A in neck muscles.As a result,the efficiency of BTX-A therapy could be evaluated successfully.Results Considerable improvement of symptoms for the spasmodic torticollis patients was observed with BTX-A treatment.The average dose of BTX-A was(120.37 ±25.26) U.Injection points were 30.00 ± 4.85.The Tsui scores before treatment were (13.08 ±4.16) scores,and 2 weeks after treatment were (4.21 ± 2.63) scores.The Tsui scores showed a significant reduction after BTX-A injections (P <0.01).After treatment complete remission rate was 25.0% (16/64),significant improvement rate was 60.9% (39/64),partial improvement rate was 12.5% (8/64),invalid rate was 1.6%(1/64) and efficient rate was 85.9% (55/64).Duration of effect was (16.86-4.57) weeks.Patients who received repeated injections also had good response,with symptoms improved and dosage of BTX-A reduced.No serious adverse events happened in treatments.Conclusion BTX-A therapy is simple and effective in the treatment of

  16. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  17. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  18. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  19. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  20. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  1. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  2. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  3. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  4. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  5. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  6. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets, view of the complete tank. First proton beam from the PS was injected into the SPS in 1976, at a beam momentum of 10 GeV/c. These kickers served until the end of 1979 and were replaced at the beginning of 1980 by stronger ones, in preparation for the SPS as a proton-antiproton collider. For this, transfer momentum from the PS to the SPS was raised to 26 GeV/c, so as to avoid acceleration of the dense p and pbar bunches through SPS transition energy. Bearded Roland Tröhler is at the left, Giacomo Busetta smiles at the right. See also 7502073X, 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, 162.

  7. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  8. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  9. Injection-induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  10. Application of Standardization for Initial Design of Plastic Injection Moulds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Low; Maria; Leng-Hwa; LEE; Kim-Seng

    2002-01-01

    Today, the time-to-market for plastic products ar e getting shorter, thus the lead-time for making the injection mould is decreasin g. There is potential in timesavings in the mould design stage because the design process that is repeatable for every mould design can be standardized. T he preliminary work of any final plastic injection mould design is to always pro vide an initial design of the mould assembly for product designers (customers) p rior to receiving the final product CAD data. Traditiona...

  11. Toxicity with intravenous injection of naphtha in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, N D; Smith, P J; Wilson, A

    1980-05-01

    Intravenous injection of charcoal lighter fluid (naphtha) in a suicidal attempt led to development of severe hemorrhagic pneumonitis in a 40-year-old individual. Presenting symptoms consisted of pleuritic chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and dyspnea; they appeared within 2 hours after injection. Development of roentgenographic changes lagged behind the clinical symptoms by several hours. Fever and leukocytosis were present despite the absence of demonstrable superimposed bacterial infection. The pathology seemed exclusively confined to the pulmonary system with no clinical or laboratory evidence of extrapulmonary involvement. Repeated clinical, radiographic, and pulmonary function evaluations over an 18-month follow-up period have shown complete resolution of pulmonary lesions without residual abnormalities.

  12. Introducing Bt Gene Into Maize With Ovary Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁群星; 谢友菊; 戴景瑞; 米景九; 李太元; 田颖川; 乔利亚; 莽克强; 刘宝兰; 王音; 冯平章

    1994-01-01

    It is reported here that Bt toxin gene has been successfully transferred into maize inbred line by ovary injection for the first time both at home and abroad. One transgenic plant (To) has been confirmed by Southern blotting and PCR test, and 71 progenies (T1) from T0 have been obtained through self-pollination. Of these 71 progenies, seven plants demonstrated positive results in the PCR test; four were used to feed Asian corn borer, and certain effect of insect-resistance was observed. The experiments on the ovary injection in Hainan Province have also been repeated, thus providing new chance to the application of genetic engineering to the maize improvement.

  13. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FI-AAS) -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    One of the advantages of the flow injection (FI) concept is that it is compatible with virtually all detection techniques. Being a versatile vehicle for enhancing the performance of the individual detection devices, the most spectacular results have possibly been obtained in conjunction with atomic...... the point of sample injection/introduction to the point of detection. Hence, in FI-fAAS this feature allows not only to obtain improved repeatability but also improved accuracy, and because the wash to sample ratio is high it permits the handling of samples with elevated salt contents - which...

  14. Two cases of Robertsonian translocations in oligozoospermic males and their consequences for pregnancies induced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert); F.J. Los; N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); M. Dhont; M.H. Pieters; J.O. van Hemel; P.A. in 't Veld

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo case histories are presented documenting structural chromosome abnormalities in infertile males. The abnormalities were detected only after application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was repeatedly unsuccessful or resulted in an abnormal preg

  15. Two cases of Robertsonian translocations in oligozoospermic males and their consequences for pregnancies induced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. In't Veld (Peter); R.F.A. Weber (Rob); F.J. Los; N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); M. Dhont; M.H.E.C. Pieters (Math H. E.); J.O.V. Hemel (Jan O. Van)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo case histories are presented documenting structural chromosome abnormalities in infertile males. The abnormalities were detected only after application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was repeatedly unsuccessful or resulted in an abnormal pregnancy. A mosaic Robertsonian t

  16. MR cartilage imaging in assessment of the regenerative power of autologous peripheral blood stem cell injection in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Limited good level of evidence showed that repeated intra-articular injections of autologous PBSC resulted in an improvement of the quality of articular cartilage repair and physical function as observed by MRI and clinical assessment.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Permeability of Coal in Supercritical CO2 and N2 Injection Under Stress and Strain Restricted Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIYAMA, Tamotsu; NISHIMOTO, Soshi; FUJIOKA, Masaji; XUE, Zique; MIYAZAWA, Daisuke; ISHIJIMA, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, the strain and stress constraint conditions were created in-laboratory and N2 and supercritical CO2 were injected repeatedly in a coal specimen for observation of the permeability, Vp...

  18. Two cases of Robertsonian translocations in oligozoospermic males and their consequences for pregnancies induced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert); F.J. Los; N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); M. Dhont; M.H. Pieters; J.O. van Hemel; P.A. in 't Veld

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo case histories are presented documenting structural chromosome abnormalities in infertile males. The abnormalities were detected only after application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was repeatedly unsuccessful or resulted in an abnormal preg

  19. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on ... painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts ...

  20. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  1. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline,

  2. Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Jae Sung; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yeon [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test ({rho} value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee.

  3. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  4. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  5. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chase, B. E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chaurize, S. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seiya, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pellico, W. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sullivan, T. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Triplett, A. K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  6. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  7. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  9. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  10. Refractory period of an excitable semiconductor laser with optical injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garbin, Bruno; Prati, Franco; Javaloyes, Julien; Tissoni, Giovanna; Barland, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Injection-locked semiconductor lasers can be brought to a neuron-like excitable regime when parameters are set close to the unlocking transition. Here we study experimentally the response of this system to repeated optical perturbations and observe the existence of a refractory period during which perturbations are not able to elicit an excitable response. The results are analyzed via simulations of a set of dynamical equations which reproduced adequately the experimental results.

  11. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  12. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  13. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  14. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  15. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  16. Ceftriaxone attenuates locomotor activity induced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Corley, Gladys; Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Langford, Dianne; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-11-27

    Ceftriaxone (CTX) decreases locomotor activation produced by initial cocaine exposure and attenuates development of behavioral sensitization produced by repeated cocaine exposure. An important question that has not yet been answered is whether or not CTX reduces behavioral sensitization to cocaine in cases in which the antibiotic is administered only during the period of cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure and precedes reintroduction to cocaine. We investigated this question using C57BL/6 mice. Mice pretreated with cocaine (15mg/kg×14 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15mg/kg) after 30 days of cocaine absence displayed sensitization of locomotor activity. For combination experiments, CTX injected during the 30 days of cocaine absence attenuated behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine challenge. In the case in which CTX was injected together with cocaine for 14 days, development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine challenge was also reduced. CTX attenuated the increase in locomotor activity produced by acute cocaine exposure; however, its efficacy was dependent on the dose of cocaine as inhibition was detected against 30mg/kg, but not 15mg/kg, of cocaine. These results from mice indicate that CTX attenuates locomotor activity produced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure and counters cocaine's locomotor activating properties in a paradigm in which the antibiotic is injected during the period of forced cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure.

  17. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures,......, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples.......This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures......, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since...

  18. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  19. Intra-tumor distribution of PEGylated liposome upon repeated injection: No possession by prior dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Abu Lila, Amr S; Nishio, Miho; Tanaka, Masao; Ando, Hidenori; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-12-28

    Liposomes have proven to be a viable means for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors. However, significant variability has been detected in their intra-tumor accumulation and distribution, resulting in compromised therapeutic outcomes. We recently examined the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of weekly sequentially administered oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposomes. In that study, the first and second doses of l-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes were distributed diversely and broadly within tumor tissues, resulting in a potent anti-tumor efficacy. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying such a diverse and broad liposome distribution. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of dosage interval on the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of "empty" PEGylated liposomes. Intra-tumor distribution of sequentially administered "empty" PEGylated liposomes was altered in a dosing interval-dependent manner. In addition, the intra-tumor distribution pattern was closely related to the chronological alteration of tumor blood flow as well as vascular permeability in the growing tumor tissue. These results suggest that the sequential administrations of PEGylated liposomes in well-spaced intervals might allow the distribution to different areas and enhance the total bulk accumulation within tumor tissue, resulting in better therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated payload. This study may provide useful information for a better design of therapeutic regimens involving multiple administrations of nanocarrier drug delivery systems.

  20. Epidural steroid injection for lumbar disc herniation in NFL athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, Aaron J; Richman, Daniel; Drakos, Mark; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie; Cammisa, Frank; Warren, Russell F

    2012-02-01

    To our knowledge, there is no published information on the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation in an athletic population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of epidural corticosteroid injection for treatment of lumbar disc herniation in a group of National Football League (NFL) players. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all NFL players who underwent an epidural steroid injection at our institution for incapacitating pain secondary to an acute lumbar disc herniation (confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging) from 2003 to 2010. Our primary outcome was success of the injection, defined as return to play. The secondary outcome of the study was to evaluate risk factors for failure of this treatment approach. Seventeen players had a total of 37 injections for 27 distinct lumbar disc herniation episodes from 2003 to 2010. The success rate of returning an athlete to play for a given episode of disc herniation was 89% (24 of 27 episodes) with an average loss of 2.8 practices (range = 0-12) and 0.6 games (range = 0-2) after the injection. Four players required a repeat injection for the same episode. Three of these four players ultimately failed conservative management and required surgical intervention. Risk factors for failing injection therapy included sequestration of the disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.01) and weakness on physical examination (P = 0.002). There were no complications reported. In this highly selective group of professional athletes, our results suggest that epidural steroid injections are a safe and effective therapeutic option in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation.

  1. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the

  2. Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide.

  3. Repeated administration of dopaminergic agents in the dorsal hippocampus and morphine-induced place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, M-R; Nasehi, M; Rostami, P; Rezayof, A; Fazli-Tabaei, S

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to investigate whether repeated intra-hippocampal CA1 (intra-CA1) administration of dopaminergic agents can affect morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Effects of repeated intra-CA1 injections of dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists on morphine-induced CPP in rats were investigated using an unbiased 3-day schedule of place conditioning. Animals receiving once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine (1-9 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg, s.c.) showed a significant place preference in a dose-dependent manner: the maximum response was observed with 3 mg/kg morphine. Three days' intra-CA1 injections of apomorphine (0.25-1 microg/rat) followed by 5 days free of the drug, significantly decreased morphine CPP (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c.). Moreover, pre-treatment with the highest dose of apomorphine (1 microg/rat) altered the effect of morphine to an aversive response. The morphine (1 and 3 mg/kg) CPP was also significantly decreased in animals that previously received three intra-CA1 injections of SKF 38393 (2-9 microg/rat), quinpirole (1-3 microg/rat) or sulpiride (1-3 microg/rat), and significantly increased in animals that had previously received three intra-CA1 injections of SCH 23390 (0.02 microg/rat). The 3-day pre-treatment with apomorphine, SKF 38393 or quinpirole reduced locomotor activity in the test session, while SCH 23390 and sulpiride did not have any influence on locomotor activity. It is concluded that repeated injections of DA receptor agents in the dorsal hippocampus, followed by 5 days free of the drugs, can affect morphine reward.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8-10, and 15-20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15-20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain.

  5. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  6. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  7. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  8. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  9. MOUSE ANTIBODY RESPONSE FOLLOWING REPETITIVE INJECTIONS OF GAMMA-IRRADIATED HUMAN PLACENTA COLLAGENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秉慈; MelvinSpira; 许增禄

    1994-01-01

    Injectable bovine collagen has been used clinically for years.But both the necessity of repeated injections to maintain corrections and the question of adverse allergic reactions developing from the use of a xenogenic collagen have been an area of serious concern.To overoome these adyerse effects,we have developed injectable collagen preparations from human placenta.Gamma irradiation was used for sterilization and crosslinking of the collagen.We observed the mouse immune respose to gamma-irradiated human placenta soluble and insoluble collagen follow-ing multiple injections.After six injections of these materials,no total IgG level increase was found,nor was anti-body specifically directed against human collagen found.Mouse antibody levels were also observed following Zyderm Ⅱ and Zyplast repetitive injections and follow-ing repetitive implantations of coated vicryl and chromic gut.No humoral immune response was found in this het-erologous type system.

  10. Occurrence of coring in insulin vials and possibility of rubber piece contamination by self-injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, T; Seino, H; Nozaki, S; Abe, R

    2001-06-01

    Coring is reported to occur because rubber pieces are shaved off from a rubber stopper when a needle is inserted into the rubber stopper of transfusion liquid formulation. We verified whether coring really occurs in insulin vials of self-injecting patients. We collected insulin cartridges from 30 hospitalized patients and used the primary injection (trial injection), the secondary injection and the cartridge remaining preparation as samples. We observed the rubber pieces using a microscope and measured the shape, number of pieces. The occurrence rate of coring was 73% for the primary injection, 47% for the secondary injection and 97% for the cartridge remaining preparation. The rubber pieces in the primary injection and the secondary injection which went through the needle are mostly in aggregate shape and the rubber pieces in the cartridge remaining preparation which did not go through the needle are mostly in needle-like shape. A number of small rubber pieces are found in both the primary injection and the secondary injection, indicating a high possibility that rubber pieces may be injected under subcutaneous tissue. The coring is considered to occur because needles are repeatedly inserted and rotated at the same spot. It is required to improve the structure to mount a needle to the pen-type injector in future. Coring is a very serious problem from the medical and pharmaceutical points of view. Further study should be made on the implication to latex allergy and lipodystrophy.

  11. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  12. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  13. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  14. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  15. A study on the effect of the duration of subcutaneous heparin injection on bruising and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaybak, Ayten; Khorshid, Leyla

    2008-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of injection duration on bruising and pain following the administration of the subcutaneous injection of heparin. Although different methods to prevent bruising and pain following the subcutaneous injection of heparin have been widely studied and described, the effect of injection duration on the occurrence of bruising and pain is little documented. This study was designed as within-subject, quasi-experimental research. The sample for the study consisted of 50 patients to whom subcutaneous heparin was administered. Heparin was injected over 10 seconds on the right abdominal site and 30 seconds on the left abdominal site. Injections areas were assessed for the presence of bruising at 48 and 72 hours after each injection. Dimensions of the bruising on the heparin applied areas were measured using transparent millimetric measuring paper. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure pain intensity and a stop-watch was used to time the pain period. Data were analysed using chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon signed ranks tests and correlation. The percentage of bruising occurrence was 64% with the injection of 10 seconds duration and 42% in the 30-second injection. It was determined that the size of the bruising was smaller in the 30-second injection. Pain intensity and pain period were statistically significantly lower for the 30-second injection than for the 10-second injection. It was determined that injection duration had an effect on bruising and pain following the subcutaneous administration of heparin. This study should be repeated on a larger sample. When administering subcutaneous heparin injections, it is important to extend the duration of the injection.

  16. Keratopathy and pachymetric changes after photorefractive keratectomy and vitrectomy with silicone oil injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, H; Vesti Nielsen, N

    2000-01-01

    We present a man who, after bilateral excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for high myopia in the right eye, had repeated retinal detachment surgery with lensectomy and injection of silicone oil. Visual acuity fluctuated in accordance with significant central corneal thickness diurnal...... variation. The case illustrates the possibility of PRK as a predisposing factor for keratopathy after retinal detachment surgery with silicone injection in an aphakic eye....

  17. Rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Cheol; Jang, Young Ho; Kim, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2009-09-01

    To test whether rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection. Randomized, prospective trial. Operating room in a university hospital. 150 ASA physical status I and II patients aged 18 to 60 years, undergoing general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to three groups. After undergoing anesthesia induction with thiopental sodium, then 5 seconds later receiving a rubber tourniquet applied to the mid-forearm to stop intravenous (IV) flow by gravity, the pretreatment drug was injected. The tourniquet was held for 15 seconds then released, and 1.0 mg/kg of 1% rocuronium was injected IV. Group C patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group L patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of preservative-free 1% lidocaine and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group R patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then rapidly injected with rocuronium within approximately one second (as quickly as possible). After injection of the patient with the study drug, a single anesthesiologist with no knowledge of the study protocol graded each patient's response as follows: 0 = no response; 1 = mild movement limited to the wrist only; 2 = moderate movement involving the elbow and shoulder; and 3 = severe movement involving more than one extremity. Group C had the most intense and frequent withdrawal response. The frequency and intensity of withdrawal movement was significantly less in Groups L and R than Group C. No significant difference in withdrawal response between Groups L and R was noted. Withdrawal response can be significantly reduced for rocuronium injection without lidocaine pretreatment, simply through rapid injection.

  18. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  19. Prime injections and quasipolarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Alberto Agustín-Aquino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $p$ be a prime number. Consider the injection\\[ \\iota:\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\to\\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}:x\\mapsto px, \\]and the elements $e^{u}.v:=(u,v\\in \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ and$e^{w}.r:=(w,r\\in \\mathbb{Z}/pn \\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$. Suppose that $e^{u}.v\\in\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ is seen as an automorphism of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$defined by $e^{u}.v(x=vx+u$; then $e^{u}.v$ is a \\emph{quasipolarity} if it is an involution without fixed points.In this brief note we give an explicit formula for the number of quasipolarities of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$ interms of the prime decomposition of $n$, and we prove sufficient conditions such that $(e^{w}.r\\circ \\iota=\\iota\\circ (e^{u}.v$, where $e^{w}.r$ and $e^{u}.v$ are quasipolarities.

  20. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  1. Repeated dose of ketamine effect to the rat hippocampus tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Okyay Karaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to determine the neurotoxic effect of repeated ketamine administration on brain tissue and if neurotoxic effect was present, whether this effect continued 16 days later using histological stereological method, a quantitative and objective method. Materials and Methods: Female rats were divided into three groups, each containing five rats. Rats in Group I were given 0.9% saline solution 4 times a day for 5 days. The rats in Groups II and III were given ketamine as intraperitoneal injections. Rats in Groups I and II were sacrificed on 5 th day while the ones in Group III on 21 st day. Cornu ammonis (CA and gyrus dentatus (GD regions in hippocampus tissue of rats were studied using optic fractionation method. Findings: There were significantly less number of cells in hippocampal CA and GD regions of rats from Groups II and III compared to the ones from Group I. Difference in cell number was also significantly higher in Group III than in Group II, but this difference was not as pronounced as the one between Groups III and I. Conclusion: Repeated ketamine doses caused neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus.

  2. Repeated dose pharmacokinetics of pancopride in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva, P; Costa, J; Pérez-Campos, A; Martínez-Tobed, A

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of pancopride after repeated oral dose administration of 20 mg pancopride in tablet form once a day for 5 d in 12 healthy male volunteers. Plasma levels were measured by HPLC using a solid phase extraction method and automated injection. The minimum quantification limit of pancopride in plasma was 2 ng mL-1. The maximum plasma concentration (mean +/- SD) after the first dose was 92.5 +/- 41.5 ng ML-1 and tmax was 1.7 +/- 0.9 h. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 14.3 +/- 6.9 h. The area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC) was 997 +/- 396 ng h mL-1. The maximum plasma concentration (mean +/- SD) at steady state (day 5) was 101.8 +/- 36.9 ng mL-1 and tmax was 2.2 +/- 1.2 h. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 16.3 +/- 2.7 h and the minimum plasma concentration (Cssmin) was 16.6 +/- 6.9 ng mL-1. The area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUCss tau) was 995 +/- 389 ng h mL-1. The average plasma concentration at steady state (Cssav) was 43.3 +/- 16.1 ng mL-1 and the experimental accumulation ratio (RAUC) was 1.34 +/- 0.19, whereas the mean theoretical value (R) was 1.40 +/- 0.29. The results obtained showed a good correlation between the experimental plasma levels and the expected values calculated using a repeated dose two-compartment model assessed by means of the Akaike value. It is concluded that the pharmacokinetics of pancopride are not modified after repeated dose administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  4. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications ...

  5. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  6. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  7. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  8. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  9. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  10. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  11. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  13. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  14. National Utilization Patterns of Steroid Injection and Operative Intervention for Treatment of Common Hand Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Erika D.; Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a population-level analysis of practice trends and probability of surgery based on the number of steroid injections for common hand conditions. Methods Patients at least 18 years old receiving injection or surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), trigger finger (TF), or De Quervain tenovaginitis (DQ) were identified for inclusion using the 2009–2013 Truven MarketScan databases. The number of injections performed was counted, and time between injection and operation was calculated for patients receiving both treatments. A multivariable logistic regression model was created to evaluate the odds of undergoing surgery based on the number of injections performed, controlling for patient age, sex, comorbidities, and insurance type. Results The study sample included 251,030 patients who underwent steroid injection or operative release for CTS (n=129,917), TF (n=102,778), and DQ (n=18,335). The majority of CTS patients were managed with immediate surgery (71%), whereas most patients with TF and DQ were managed initially with injection (74% and 84%, respectively). Among patients receiving both an injection and an operation, a single injection was the most common practice prior to surgery (69%, 58%, and 67% of patients with CTS, TF, and DQ, respectively). Multiple injections for DQ and TF were associated with relatively low predicted probability of surgery (17% and 26%, respectively, after 2 injections). However, the predicted probability of surgery after two injections was higher in patients with CTS (44%). Conclusions Given the associated probability of surgery after multiple injections for the three hand conditions examined, the practice of repeat injections should be critically examined to determine whether underuse or overuse is present and whether efficiency and resource utilization can be improved upon. Level of Evidence Level II (retrospective prognostic study) PMID:26774548

  15. DMA engine for repeating communication patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-09-21

    A parallel computer system is constructed as a network of interconnected compute nodes to operate a global message-passing application for performing communications across the network. Each of the compute nodes includes one or more individual processors with memories which run local instances of the global message-passing application operating at each compute node to carry out local processing operations independent of processing operations carried out at other compute nodes. Each compute node also includes a DMA engine constructed to interact with the application via Injection FIFO Metadata describing multiple Injection FIFOs where each Injection FIFO may containing an arbitrary number of message descriptors in order to process messages with a fixed processing overhead irrespective of the number of message descriptors included in the Injection FIFO.

  16. Hydrodynamic injection on electrophoresis microchips using an electronic micropipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ellen F M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo A; Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Rezende, Kariolanda C A; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2017-01-01

    Here we report for the first time the use of an electronic micropipette as hydrodynamic (HD) injector for microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices. The micropipette was directly coupled to a PDMS device, which had been fabricated in a simple cross format with two auxiliary channels for sample volume splitting. Sample flow during the injection procedure was controlled in automatic dispenser mode using a volume of 0.6µL. Channel width and device configuration were optimized and the best results were achieved using a simple cross layout containing two auxiliary channels with 300µm width for sample splitting. The performance of the HD injector was evaluated using a model mixture of high-mobility cationic species. The results obtained were compared to the data obtained via electrokinetic (EK) injection. Overall, the HD provided better analytical performance in terms of resolution and injection-to-injection repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for peak intensities were lower than 5% (n=10) when the micropipette was employed. In comparison with EK injection, the use of the proposed HD injector revealed an unbiased profile for a mixture containing K(+) and Li(+)(300 µmol L(-1) each) over various buffer concentrations. For EK injection, the peak areas decreased from 2.92 ± 0.20-0.72 ± 0.14Vs for K(+) and from 1.30 ± 0.10-0.38 ± 0.10Vs for Li(+) when the running buffer increased from 20 to 50mmolL(-1). For HD injection, the peak areas for K(+) and Li(+) exhibited average values of 2.48±0.07 and 2.10±0.06Vs, respectively. The limits of detection (LDs) for K(+), Na(+) and Li(+) ranged from 18 to 23µmolL(-1). HD injection through an electronic micropipette allows to automatically dispense a bias-free amount of sample inside microchannels with acceptable repeatability. The proposed approach also exhibited instrumental simplicity, portability and minimal microfabrication requirements.

  17. Non-clinical safety evaluation of single and repeated intramuscular administrations of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic in rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destexhe, Eric; Grosdidier, Emilie; Baudson, Nathalie; Forster, Roy; Gerard, Catherine; Garçon, Nathalie; Segal, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    The MAGE-A3 recombinant protein combined with AS15 immunostimulant (MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic) is under development by GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of lung cancer and melanoma. We performed non-clinical safety studies evaluating potential local and systemic toxic effects induced by MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic in rabbits (study 1) and cynomolgus monkeys (study 2). Animals were allocated to two groups to receive a single (rabbits) or 25 repeated (every 2 weeks) injections (monkeys) of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic (treatment groups) or saline (control groups). All rabbits were sacrificed 3 days post-injection and monkeys 3 days following last injection (3/5 per gender per group) or after a 3-month treatment-free period (2/5 per gender per group). Local and systemic reactions and MAGE-A3-specific immune responses (monkeys) were assessed. Macroscopic and microscopic (for rabbits, injection site only) post-mortem examinations were performed on all animals. No systemic toxicity or unscheduled mortalities were recorded. Single (rabbits) and repeated (monkeys; up to four times at the same site) injections were well tolerated. Following five to seven repeated injections, limb circumferences increased up to 26% (5 h post-injection), but returned to normal after 1-8 days. Three days after the last injection, enlargements of iliac, popliteal, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, and increased incidence or severity of mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates was observed in injected muscles of treated monkeys. No treatment-related macroscopic findings were recorded after the treatment-free period. MAGE-A3-specific antibody and T-cell responses were raised in all treated monkeys, confirming test item exposure. Single or repeated intramuscular injections of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic were well tolerated in rabbits and monkeys.

  18. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  19. Larger trinucleotide repeat size in the androgen receptor gene of infertile men with extremely severe oligozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrizio, P; Leonard, D G; Chen, K L; Hernandez-Ayup, S; Trounson, A O

    2001-01-01

    trinucleotide repeats are unstable and might either expand or contract between generations. If they expand, conception through the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), could result in the son of an

  20. Repeat endocarditis: analysis of risk factors based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, L; Park, L P; Nicholson, B P; Keiger, A J; Strahilevitz, J; Morris, A; Wray, D; Gordon, D; Delahaye, F; Edathodu, J; Miró, J M; Fernández-Hidalgo, N; Nacinovich, F M; Shahid, R; Woods, C W; Joyce, M J; Sexton, D J; Chu, V H

    2014-06-01

    Repeat episodes of infective endocarditis (IE) can occur in patients who survive an initial episode. We analysed risk factors and 1-year mortality of patients with repeat IE. We considered 1874 patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study between January 2000 and December 2006 (ICE-PCS) who had definite native or prosthetic valve IE and 1-year follow-up. Multivariable analysis was used to determine risk factors for repeat IE and 1-year mortality. Of 1874 patients, 1783 (95.2%) had single-episode IE and 91 (4.8%) had repeat IE: 74/91 (81%) with new infection and 17/91 (19%) with presumed relapse. On bivariate analysis, repeat IE was associated with haemodialysis (p 0.002), HIV (p 0.009), injection drug use (IDU) (p < 0.001), Staphylococcus aureus IE (p 0.003), healthcare acquisition (p 0.006) and previous IE before ICE enrolment (p 0.001). On adjusted analysis, independent risk factors were haemodialysis (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3), IDU (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.4), previous IE (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.1) and living in the North American region (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4). Patients with repeat IE had higher 1-year mortality than those with single-episode IE (p 0.003). Repeat IE is associated with IDU, previous IE and haemodialysis. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors in order to recognize patients who are at risk of repeat IE.

  1. LHC injection and dump protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Rossi, A; Wollmann, D

    2010-01-01

    The machine protection against fast failures including injection or dump kickers relies on fixed and movable devices. Results will be shown from the low-intensity beam commissioning of the moveable injection protection devices in the SPS to LHC transfer lines and downstream of the LHC injection kickers, and of the LHC dump protection elements in IR6. This paper is almost exclusively focussing on the issues arising during the 2009 commissioning. The implications of these results and a commissioning status report with the planning for 2010 will be addressed.

  2. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  3. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  4. The effects of injection of bovine vaccine into a human digit: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of needlestick injuries in farmers and veterinary surgeons is significant and the consequences of such an injection can be serious. Case presentation We report accidental injection of bovine vaccine into the base of the little finger. This resulted in increased pressure in the flexor sheath causing signs and symptoms of ischemia. Amputation of the digit was required despite repeated surgical debridement and decompression. Conclusion There have been previous reports of injection of oil-based vaccines into the human hand resulting in granulomatous inflammation or sterile abscess and causing morbidity and tissue loss. Self-injection with veterinary vaccines is an occupational hazard for farmers and veterinary surgeons. Injection of vaccine into a closed compartment such as the human finger can have serious sequelae including loss of the injected digit. These injuries are not to be underestimated. Early debridement and irrigation of the injected area with decompression is likely to give the best outcome. Frequent review is necessary after the first procedure because repeat operations may be required.

  5. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lower legs hoarseness difficulty breathing or swallowing redness, warmth, swelling, pain, or infection in the place where you injected the medication that does not heal within a few days red or bloody stools or diarrhea stomach pain slow ...

  6. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  7. Infliximab, Infliximab-dyyb Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infliximab and infliximab-dyyb injection are used to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in which the immune system ... has not improved when treated with other medications. Infliximab may also be used to relieve symptoms of ...

  8. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Pulmonary edema following intravenous injection of nonionic low-osmolar contrast medium - appearance on HRCT. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristedt, P.; Tylen, U. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary edema following i.v. contrast medium injection is a rare adverse reaction. We report on a 71-year-old woman who developed pulmonary edema following i.v. injection of iohexol during spiral CT of the thorax. She developed shortness of breath during the injection, and the first radiographic signs of pulmonary edema were visible on CT images 25 s after the onset of injection. On HRCT images 15 min later, marked edema was demonstrated in both lungs in a mosaic pattern of distribution. After appropriate therapy, the patient recovered without sequelae. A repeat CT 6 days later showed complete normalization. (orig.).

  10. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF HEPATIC-FIBROSIS INDUCED IN RATS BY MULTIPLE GALACTOSAMINE INJECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONKER, AM; DIJKHUIS, FWJ; HARDONK, MJ; MOERKERK, P; TENKATE, J

    Multiple injections of D-galactosamine induce liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rats. The purpose of this immunopathological study was to correlate inflammation and hepatic extracellular matrix remodeling after repeated administration of galactosamine. Rats were given 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and

  11. Novel mussel-inspired injectable self-healing hydrogel with anti-biofouling property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yan, Bin; Yang, Jingqi; Chen, Lingyun; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-02-18

    A novel mussel-inspired injectable hydrogel with self-healing and anti-biofouling capabilities is developed and it possesses great potential as a drug-delivery carrier. The hydrogel can heal autonomously from repeated structural damage and also effectively prevent non-specific cell attachment and biofilm formation.

  12. Stress-induced osteolysis of distal clavicle: imaging patterns and treatment using CT-guided injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopov, V.; Groshar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Fuchs, D. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Bar-Meir, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2001-02-01

    Osteolysis of distal clavicle (ODC) may occur in patients who experience repeated stress or microtrauma to the shoulder. This entity has clinical and radiological findings similar to post-traumatic ODC. We describe a case of successful treatment of stress-induced ODC with CT-guided injection of corticosteroid and anesthetic drug into the acromioclavicular joint. (orig.)

  13. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  14. Injectable Drug Eluting Elastomeric Polymer: A Novel Submucosal Injection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Richard T.; Palmer, Michael; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Abell, Thomas L.; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodegradable hydrogels can deliver therapeutic payloads with great potentials in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to yield improvements in efficacy and foster mucosal regeneration. Objective To assess the efficacy of an injectable drug eluting elastomeric polymer (iDEEP) as a submucosal injection material. Design Comparative study among 3 different solutions using material characterization tests, ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. Setting Academic hospital. Interventions 30 gastric submucosal cushions were achieved with saline (0.9%), sodium hyaluronate (0.4%), and iDEEP (n = 10) in ex vivo porcine stomachs. Four porcine gastric submucosal cushions were then performed in vivo using iDEEP. Main outcome measurements Maximum injection pressure, Rebamipide release rate, submucosal elevation duration, and assessment of in vivo efficacy by en bloc resection. Results No significant difference in injection pressures between iDEEP (28.9 ± 0.3 PSI) and sodium hyaluronate (29.5 ± 0.4 PSI, P > .05) was observed. iDEEP gels displayed a controlled release of Rebamipide up to 2 weeks in vitro. The elevation height of iDEEP (5.7 ± 0.5 mm) was higher than saline (2.8 ± 0.2 mm, P < .01) and SH (4.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < .05). All EMR procedures were successfully performed after injection of iDEEP, and a large gel cushion was noted after the resection procedure. Limitations Benchtop, ex vivo, and non-survival pig study. Conclusions A novel injection solution was evaluated for endoscopic resection. These results suggest that iDEEP may provide a significant step towards the realization of an ideal EMR and ESD injection material. PMID:22301346

  15. Subcutaneous injection-induced cellulites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kao-Chi; Huang, Po-Tsung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan

    2017-06-01

    In the hospice ward where patients are in the terminal stages of cancer, it is common practice to give them a subcutaneous injection of pain relievers to reduce their pain and make them more comfortable. Most of these patients are elderly and have low blood pressure or poor veins, which often makes it difficult to inject them because of the calcification at previous injection sites. Thus, subcutaneous injections are a convenient way to maintain analgesia and patient comfort. Our patient, a 73-year-old aboriginal woman, was diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis in March, 2004. While she was in the inpatient hospice ward, a subcutaneous injection site became infected and localized cellulitis developed. The patient's quality of life began to decline and her hospice stay was lengthened due to these complications. This case is offered as a reference case of subcutaneous injection complications encountered by elderly patients in hospice care. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  16. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E; Kaspar, Brian K; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-11-11

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen.

  17. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  18. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal guid

  19. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  20. 踝足矫形器联合肉毒毒素治疗痉挛型脑性瘫痪儿童尖足畸形的疗效观察%Ankle-foot orthosis combined with botulinum toxin type A injection in treating tip foot deformity in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周陶成; 童光磊; 张敏; 李司南; 易昕; 陈露露; 温祖芳; 康倩倩; 陈婧

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察踝足矫形器(A FO)联合A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)肌肉注射治疗痉挛型脑瘫患儿尖足的疗效.方法 痉挛型脑瘫患儿尖足畸形50例,采用随机数字表法将其分为对照组和观察组,每组25例,对照组患儿采用BTX-A肌肉注射与运动康复训练,观察组在对照组基础上加用AFO训练,与其运动康复训练同步.分别于治疗前、治疗后1、3和6个月,使用量角器测量踝关节的被动背屈角(APROM),改良Ashworth量表的评分(MAS)以及粗大运动功能量表(GMFM-88)的D区(站立)和E区(走跑跳)评分.结果 治疗前,观察组APROM、MAS和GMFM(D、E)分别为(109.25±12.38)°、(3.12±0.56)分和(55.32±11.23)分,与对照组[(107.11±13.44)°、(3.05±0.66)分和(56.21±10.81)分]比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组患儿的APROM、MAS和GMFM评分在治疗后1、3和6个月时与组内与治疗前比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后,观察组APROM、MAS和GMFM评分分别与对照组治疗比较,差异亦均有统计学意义(P<0.05).2组治疗后各时间点之间的评估指标比较,观察组差异均有统计学意义;对照组治疗后1个月与治疗后3个月比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗后3个月和治疗后6个月比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 AFO联合BTX-A疗法能进一步缓解痉挛型脑瘫患儿的下肢痉挛程度,减轻尖足异常姿势,维持时间更持久.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) combined with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection in treating tip foot deformity in children with cerebral palsy (CP).Methods Fifty CP children with tip foot deformity were selected and randomly divided into a control group and an observation group according to a random number table.Both groups were given BTX-A injection, and the observation group was additionally treated with AFO.All children were assessed before, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the treatment

  1. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  2. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  3. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  4. Mathematical modeling of BTX: biotransformation and transport in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriola, L M; Chen, Y M

    1995-06-01

    A two-dimensional compositional model is presented; this model describes the transport and biotransformation of organic contaminants in a variably saturated subsurface environment. Modeled processes included mass exchange between constituent phases (water, air, soil, and organisms), advective and dispersive fluxes in the water phase, diffusive flux in the air phase, and biotransformation and biomass production in the biophase. In this model, solute transfer across air/water and water/solid interfaces is modeled using equilibrium relationships. Rate-limited mass transfer between the water and biophases is described with a linear driving force expression. Microbial degradation and biomass net growth are modeled by Monod-type kinetics. Solute transport and microbial growth equations are solved using an iterative Galerkin finite element method with a variable time-weighting scheme. Coupled biophase mass balance equations for each component are solved with a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Model capabilities are illustrated with two-dimensional, cross-sectional simulations of natural bioattenuation. The influence of biotransformation processes on the transport and extent of a toluene plume is examined.

  5. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  6. Repeated Microsphere Delivery for Serial Measurement of Regional Blood Perfusion in the Chronically Instrumented, Conscious Canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlo R.; Okabe, Kazunori; Akiyama, Ichiro; Coull, Brent; Godleski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For chronic, repeated hemodynamic studies in conscious dogs, we designed and tested a chronically instrumented canine, microsphere delivery model. The goals of this study were to investigate the accuracy of repeated estimations of blood perfusion using fluorescent-labeled microspheres and to develop and validate a chronic preparation that permits consecutive estimations in the same conscious animal over an extended protocol. METHODS Via thoracotomy, 9 dogs were instrumented with left atrial appendage and aortic vascular access catheters connected to subcutaneous vascular access ports (VAPs). Four animals received 7 serial injections of 1.6 million 15μm microspheres (total: 11.2 million), and five animals received 8 serial injections of 2.25 million microspheres (total: 18 million) over the course of 11 or 18 weeks. RESULTS All catheters have remained bidirectionally patent during protocol for 14.9±0.8 (Mean±SEM) weeks. Sphere accumulation did not significantly alter global myocardial (p=0.69, p=0.25), renal (p=0.92, p=0.12), hepatic (p=0.84, p=0.32), or splenic (p=0.33, p=0.70) blood perfusion in either set of animals. CONCLUSIONS Catheters remained bidirectionally patent for months, did not interfere with the hemodynamic responses of the preparation, and allowed repeat percutaneous injection of microspheres and withdrawal of reference arterial blood from within conscious canines. Eight serial injections totaling 18 million microspheres over 18 weeks did not alter regional myocardial, hepatic, renal, or splenic blood flow. This dependable, chronic, percutaneous arterial access preparation provides a means for examining acute and long-term effects of pathophysiological, pharmaceutical, and environmental influences on regional arterial blood perfusion in conscious, large animals. PMID:17632127

  7. [The results of wet AMD treatment by intravitreal injections--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszko, Anna; Borucka, Anna I; Ulińska, Magdalena; Szaflik, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible, severe loss of vision in the developed countries. One of the modern methods of treatment in neovascular form of AMD are repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (Lucentis). Ranibizumab is a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all biologically active forms of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). The aim of the study was to analyze the results of intravitreal ranibizumab injections in wet AMD patients. There were 57 patients enrolled in the study. 87% of them avoided any loss of visual acuity and 47.3% gained at least one line at visual acuity chart. Authors conclude that treatment with repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab is effective in neovascular form of AMD.

  8. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  9. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  10. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  11. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  12. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  13. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  14. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  15. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  16. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  17. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  18. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  19. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  20. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  1. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  2. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  3. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  4. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  5. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  6. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  7. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  8. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  9. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  10. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  11. Recovery and biological activity of filgrastim after injection through silicone rubber catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J M; Sprentall-Nankervis, E; Potcova, C A; Cease, K B

    1995-01-15

    The recovery and biological activity of filgrastim after injection through a silicone rubber catheter were studied. Various volumes of filgrastim injection 300 micrograms/mL (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, 0.68, 0.85, and 1.0 mL) were injected through silicone rubber catheters and collected in glass vials to simulate intravenous bolus injections. The catheters were flushed with 3 mL of 5% dextrose injection before and after the injections. For some catheters, the procedure was repeated to simulate the administration of a second filgrastim dose through the same catheter. The theoretical filgrastim concentration in the expelled fluid was 16.1, 30.5, 43.6, 55.4, 66.2, or 75.0 micrograms/mL (corresponding to the filgrastim injection volumes). Filgrastim concentrations in expelled fluid were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and biological activity was measured with a mitogenic cell-culture assay. There was > or = 10% loss of filgrastim after the first injection when the injection volume was 0.17, 0.34, or 0.68 mL. Mean drug recovery after the second filgrastim injection exceeded that after the first for all six volumes and was > or = 90% for five volumes. The recovered filgrastim retained all of its activity. A > or = 10% loss of filgrastim occurred for three of six volumes after one injection through a silicon rubber catheter. Recovery was higher after a second injection through the same catheter. Biological activity was not affected.

  12. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  13. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical fuel ... on Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) facilities where the biodiesel can be ... Keywords: Diesel engine, Ester of Honge Oil (EHO), Common Rail Direct ..... emission of EHO was higher than those of the diesel under the same operating conditions.

  14. On Simple-Injective Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif

    2002-01-01

    A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.

  15. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  16. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  17. Repeated anticonvulsant testing: contingent tolerance to diazepam and clobazam in kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, E I

    1992-04-01

    The acute anticonvulsant efficacy of diazepam (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by repeated test injection in kindled rats subcutaneously implanted with diazepam-filled or empty silastic tubes for 3 weeks. Tolerance developed to acute test injections in both diazepam- and sham-implanted rats. Tolerance developed to a lesser extent in another group of diazepam-implanted rats which did not receive acute intermittent anticonvulsant tests. The hypothesis that contingent tolerance had developed to the anticonvulsant actions of benzodiazepines (diazepam, 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and clobazam, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in kindled rats given acute intermittent injections was investigated using a 'before-after' design. Significant contingent tolerance developed in rats which received intermittent benzodiazepine treatment before, but not after, amygdala stimulation. Tolerance developed to different extents depending on the seizure measure evaluated (forelimb clonus duration, amygdala afterdischarge duration, motor seizure latency and duration, and seizure stage). Contingent tolerance to both benzodiazepines developed at a similar rate. The findings suggest that contingent tolerance may contribute a sizeable component to the overall functional benzodiazepine tolerance measured in long-term anticonvulsant drug studies in kindled rats. Several questions regarding contingent tolerance phenomena are posed and the implications of these findings for studies using repeated anticonvulsant testing are discussed.

  18. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  19. Multilevel Botulinum Toxin A (Abobotulinum Toxin A Injections in Spastic Forms of Cerebral Palsy: Retrospective Analysis of 8 Russian Centers Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Klochkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contemporary application of Botulinum toxin A (BTA in cerebral palsy (CP implies multilevel injections both in on-label and off-label muscles. However, there is no single international opinion on the effective and safe dosages, target muscles, and intervals between the injections.Objective: Our aim was to analyze the Russian multicenter independent experience of single and repeated multilevel injections of Abobotulinum toxin А in patients with spastic forms of CP.Methods: 8 independent referral CP-centers (10 hospitals in different regions of Russia. Authors evaluated intervals between the injections, dosages of the BTA for the whole procedure, for the body mass, for the each muscle, and functional segment of the extremities.Results: 1872 protocols of effective BTA injections (1–14 repeated injections for 724 patients with spastic CP were included. The age of the patients was between 8 months to 17 years 4 months at the beginning of the treatment (with a mean of 3 years 10 months. Multilevel BTA injections were indicated for the majority (n = 634, 87.6% of the patients in all the centers. The medians of the dosages for the first BTA injection were between 30–31 U/kg (500 U, the repeated injections doses up to 45 U/kg (1000 U (in most centers. The median intervals between the repeated injections were 180–200 days in 484 (66.9% patients and 140–180 days in 157 (24.7% patients. In 2 centers, children with GMFCS IV–V were injected more often than others.Conclusion: Multilevel BTA injections were indicated for the most patients. The initial dose of Abobotulinum toxin A was 30–31 U/kg. The repeated injections dose could increase up to 40 U/kg. The repeated injections were done in 140–200 days after the previous injection.

  20. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  1. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  2. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  3. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  4. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  5. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  6. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  7. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  8. Use of polyglycerol (PG), instead of polyethylene glycol (PEG), prevents induction of the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon against long-circulating liposomes upon repeated administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Lila, Amr S; Nawata, Kosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    The accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon accounts for the rapid systemic clearance of PEGylated nanocarriers upon repeated administrations. IgM production against the polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating in PEGylated liposomes is now known to be responsible for such unexpected pharmacokinetical alterations. The ABC phenomenon poses a remarkable clinical challenge by reducing the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs and causing harmful effects due to the altered tissue distribution pattern of the drugs. In this study, we investigated the in vivo performance of liposomes modified with polyglycerol (PG) upon repeated injection, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of such liposomes when they encapsulated a cytotoxic agent, doxorubicin (DXR). Repeated injection of PEG-coated liposomes in rats induced the ABC phenomenon, while repeated injection of PG-coated liposomes did not. In addition, DXR-containing PG-coated liposomes showed antitumor activity that was superior to that of free DXR and similar to that of DXR-containing PEG-coated liposomes upon repeated administration. These results indicate that polyglycerol (PG) might represent a promising alternative to PEG via enhancing the in vivo performance of liposomes by not eliciting the ABC phenomenon upon repeated administration.

  9. Repeating pneumatic pipe-gun for plasma fueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniar, I. [State Technical University, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russia); Sudo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A pellet injector of the repeating pneumatic pipe-gun type has been designed for plasma fueling applications. Its use reduces the time for pellet formation by an {ital in situ} technique from 2 to 3 min to 2{endash}10 s. The basic idea of the proposed approach to pellet formation is to melt prefrozen solid fuel and to admit it through a porous unit into a barrel for refreezing. The injector provides for a continuous injection of an unlimited number of pellets. Over 250 hydrogen and deuterium pellets of 3 mm diameter and 3{endash}10 mm in length were accelerated to 1.2 km/s at a rate of 1 pellet per 10{endash}34 s by manually controlled injector operation. An automatically controlled multishot pellet injector ({gt}10 barrels) is capable of providing a continuous and reliable fueling of large fusion devices such as the large helical device and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. An efficient repeating signal detector to investigate earthquake swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoumal, Robert J.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Currie, Brian S.

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive earthquake swarms have been recognized as key signatures in fluid injection induced seismicity, precursors to volcanic eruptions, and slow slip events preceding megathrust earthquakes. We investigate earthquake swarms by developing a Repeating Signal Detector (RSD), a computationally efficient algorithm utilizing agglomerative clustering to identify similar waveforms buried in years of seismic recordings using a single seismometer. Instead of relying on existing earthquake catalogs of larger earthquakes, RSD identifies characteristic repetitive waveforms by rapidly identifying signals of interest above a low signal-to-noise ratio and then grouping based on spectral and time domain characteristics, resulting in dramatically shorter processing time than more exhaustive autocorrelation approaches. We investigate seismicity in four regions using RSD: (1) volcanic seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, California, (2) subduction-related seismicity in Oaxaca, Mexico, (3) induced seismicity in Central Alberta, Canada, and (4) induced seismicity in Harrison County, Ohio. In each case, RSD detects a similar or larger number of earthquakes than existing catalogs created using more time intensive methods. In Harrison County, RSD identifies 18 seismic sequences that correlate temporally and spatially to separate hydraulic fracturing operations, 15 of which were previously unreported. RSD utilizes a single seismometer for earthquake detection which enables seismicity to be quickly identified in poorly instrumented regions at the expense of relying on another method to locate the new detections. Due to the smaller computation overhead and success at distances up to ~50 km, RSD is well suited for real-time detection of low-magnitude earthquake swarms with permanent regional networks.

  11. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  12. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  13. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  14. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  15. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  16. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  17. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  18. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  19. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  20. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  1. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  2. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  3. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  4. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  5. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  6. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  7. Refractory strictures despite steroid injection after esophageal endoscopic resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Noboru; Ishihara, Ryu; Uedo, Noriya; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Matsuura, Noriko; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Hamada, Kenta; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although steroid injection prevents stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), some patients require repeated sessions of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). We investigated the risk for refractory stricture despite the administration of steroid injections to prevent stricture in patients undergoing esophageal ESD. Refractory stricture was defined as the requirement for more than three sessions of EBD to resolve the stricture. In addition, the safety of steroid injections was assessed based on the rate of complications. Patients and methods: We analyzed data from 127 consecutive patients who underwent esophageal ESD and had mucosal defects with a circumferential extent greater than three-quarters of the esophagus. To prevent stricture, steroid injection was performed. EBD was performed whenever a patient had symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The percentage of patients with a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was significantly higher in those with refractory stricture than in those without stricture (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, history of radiation therapy, tumor location, and tumor diameter showed that a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was an independent risk factor for refractory stricture (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.49 [95 %CI 1.91 – 15.84], P = 0.002). Major adverse events occurred in 3 patients (2.4 %): perforation during EBD in 2 patients and delayed perforation after EBD in 1 patient. The patient with delayed perforation underwent esophagectomy because of mediastinitis. Conclusions: A tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % is an independent risk factor for refractory stricture despite steroid injections. The development of more extensive interventions is warranted to prevent refractory stricture. PMID:27004256

  8. Electroacupuncture Reduces Hyperalgesia after Injections of Acidic Saline in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yung dos Santos Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle in rats produce a bilateral long-lasting hyperalgesia similar to fibromyalgia in humans. No previous study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on this acidic saline model. This study aimed to identify the effects of EA in the hyperalgesia produced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline. Methods. Rats were divided into four groups (n=6, each group: control, acupuncture, EA 15 Hz, and 100 Hz. Left gastrocnemius muscle was injected with 100 μL of pH 4.0 sterile saline twice five days apart. EA, acupuncture, or control therapy was daily administered (20 min for 5 consecutive days under anesthesia. Needles were placed in the St36 and Sp6 acupoints. The assessment of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, and motor performance was performed before injections and before and after the treatment performed on each day. The paw withdrawal threshold was tested using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and differences within the group Wilcoxon Matched Pairs. The latency and motor performance were tested for ANOVA parametric test for independent measures, and for differences in the group, we used t-test for paired samples. Post hoc Tukey test was used for multiple corrections. P values ​​less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Indicate that there was a significant reduction of mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency 24 hours following the second injection. Moreover, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly reversed by EA 15, 100 Hz, and acupuncture. Conclusions. The results suggest that EA high and low frequency as well as acupuncture are effective in reducing hyperalgesia in chronic muscle pain model.

  9. Patient-reported outcomes of parenteral somatostatin analogue injections in 195 patients with acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Christian J; Karavitaki, Niki; Störmann, Sylvère; Trainer, Peter J; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Droste, Michael; Korbonits, Márta; Feldmann, Berit; Zopf, Kathrin; Sanderson, Violet Fazal; Schwicker, David; Gelbaum, Dana; Haviv, Asi; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-acting somatostatin analogues delivered parenterally are the most widely used medical treatment in acromegaly. This patient-reported outcomes survey was designed to assess the impact of chronic injections on subjects with acromegaly. Methods The survey was conducted in nine pituitary centres in Germany, UK and The Netherlands. The questionnaire was developed by endocrinologists and covered aspects of acromegaly symptoms, injection-related manifestations, emotional and daily life impact, treatment satisfaction and unmet medical needs. Results In total, 195 patients participated, of which 112 (57%) were on octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) and 83 (43%) on lanreotide (Somatuline Depot). The majority (>70%) of patients reported acromegaly symptoms despite treatment. A total of 52% of patients reported that their symptoms worsen towards the end of the dosing interval. Administration site pain lasting up to a week following injection was the most frequently reported injection-related symptom (70% of patients). Other injection site reactions included nodules (38%), swelling (28%), bruising (16%), scar tissue (8%) and inflammation (7%). Injection burden was similar between octreotide and lanreotide. Only a minority of patients received injections at home (17%) and 5% were self-injecting. Over a third of patients indicated a feeling of loss of independence due to the injections, and 16% reported repeated work loss days. Despite the physical, emotional and daily life impact of injections, patients were satisfied with their treatment, yet reported that modifications that would offer major improvement over current care would be ‘avoiding injections’ and ‘better symptom control’. Conclusion Lifelong injections of long-acting somatostatin analogues have significant burden on the functioning, well-being and daily lives of patients with acromegaly. PMID:26744896

  10. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, C M; Chaurize, S J; Garcia, F G; Seiya, K; Pellico, W A; Sullivan, T M; Triplett, A K

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the total energy spread (99 persent energy spread) of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods - 1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, 2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and 3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of RF systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  11. Repeated Administration of Mercury Intensifies Brain Damage in Multiple Sclerosis through Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrizi, Farzad; Salimi, Ahmad; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Faizi, Mehrdad; Mehri, Freshteh; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Naderi, Nima; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the additive effect of mercury on the brain mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Experimental animals (female C57BL/6 mice) are divided into four groups (n = 8); control, Hg, EAE, EAE with Hg. EAE model of MS induced by injecting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Neurobehavioral alterations are recorded and then mice were sacrificed at day 28 and brain mitochondria were isolated and mitochondrial toxicity parameters including mitochondrial swelling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release were measured. Our results showed that repeated treatment of mercury following induction of EAE in mice significantly increased the neurobehavioral scores, as well as mitochondrial toxicity through ROS formation, mitochondrial swelling, collapse of MMP and cytochrome c release. Our findings proved that repeated exposure with mercury accelerates progression of MS through mitochondrial damage related to oxidative stress and finally apoptosis.

  12. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  13. Contact transcleral ciliary body photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits: effect of repeated treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisis, Spyridon K; Naoumidi, Irene I; Ginis, Harilaos S; Detorakis, Efstathios T; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the ciliary body (CB) morphology after four consecutive contact transcleral photodynamic treatments of the ciliary body (CB-PDT) with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits. Twenty-two pigmented rabbits underwent CB-PDT (study group), performed once (six rabbits) or repeated for up to four times (16 rabbits). Six additional rabbits received only laser treatment without photosensitizer administration (control group). CB-PDT was performed in one eye in rabbits of the study group, with the fellow eye serving as internal control. Verteporfin dosage was 1 mg kg(-1) as bolus injection and laser settings were 40 mW (600 microm core optical fiber) for 1.5 min per spot, for 10 spots. In repeated CB-PDT, treatments were performed in 4-day intervals. Daily IOP measurements were recorded. Histological studies were performed at selected time points. An IOP reduction, more sustained following repeated treatments, was detected in all treated eyes but not in fellow eyes or in the control group. On the average, the IOP was restored to pretreatment levels 4 days after the last treatment. No serious adverse events were observed and the CB architecture was intact at the end of the experiment. Repeated CB-PDT is safe and results in a short-term reduction of IOP. Induced CB alterations are reversible.

  14. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  15. Botulinum toxin in masticatory muscles of the adult rat induces bone loss at the condyle and alveolar regions of the mandible associated with a bone proliferation at a muscle enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kün-Darbois, Jean-Daniel; Libouban, Hélène; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    In man, botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is injected in masticatory muscles for several indications such as trismus, bruxism, or masseter hypertrophy. Bone changes in the mandible following BTX injections in adult animal have therefore became a subject of interest. The aim of this study was to analyze condylar and alveolar bone changes following BTX unilateral injections in masseter and temporal muscles in adult rats. Mature male rats (n = 15) were randomized into 2 groups: control (CTRL; n = 6) and BTX group (n= 9). Rats of the BTX group received a single injection of BTX into right masseter and temporal muscles. Rats of the CTRL group were similarly injected with saline solution. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after injections. Masticatory muscles examination and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were performed. A significant difference of weight was found between the 2 groups at weeks 2, 3 and 4 (p condylar areas in BTX rats. Decrease in bone volume reached -20% for right alveolar bone and -35% for right condylar bone. A hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the digastric muscle enthesis was found on every right hemimandible in the BTX group and none in the CTRL group. BTX injection in masticatory muscles leads to a significant and major mandible bone loss. These alterations can represent a risk factor for fractures in human. The occurrence of a hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the Mus Digastricus enthesis may constitute an etiological factor for tori.

  16. Tolerance in the anxiolytic profile following repeated administration of diazepam but not buspirone is associated with a decrease in the responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asma; Haleem, D J

    2007-12-01

    To understand the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-1A receptors in the treatment of anxiety and the development of tolerance to benzodiazepines the present study was designed to monitor the responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors following repeated administration of diazepam and buspirone. Results show that tolerance in the anxiolytic profile is produced following repeated administration (2 weeks) of diazepam (2 mg/kg) but not buspirone (0.5 mg/kg). The behavioral effects of 8-OH-DPAT at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg were monitored 3 days after repeated administration of saline or buspirone or diazepam. The results show that 8-OH-DPAT elicited forepaw treading was smaller in repeated diazepam but not repeated buspirone injected rats, while hyperlocomotive effects of 8-OH-DPAT were smaller in both repeated buspirone and repeated diazepam injected rats. The results suggest that postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptor-dependent responses were attenuated following long-term administration of diazepam but not buspirone. Role of 5-HT-1A receptors in the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam but not buspirone is discussed.

  17. Modèles animaux de perte osseuse bénigne et maligne utilisable pour l?évaluation de biomatériaux

    OpenAIRE

    Blouin, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Several animal models of bone loss were designed: the orchidectomized (ORX) and paralysed with botulinum toxin (BTX) rat model, the rat model injected with Walker cells inducing osteolytic metastases, the rat model injected with MAT-Ly-Lu cells inducing osteoblastic metastases. The combination of ORX and BTX had cumulative effects; it induced microarchitectural changes; a fast and severe bone loss due to a transient increase of bone remodeling. The ORX-BTX model was used for the implantation ...

  18. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Diamond Shamrock, of the specific...

  19. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... underground injection by Mosaic, of the specific restricted hazardous wastes identified in this exemption...

  20. Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M; Salato, José; Blevins, Meridith; Silva, Wilson; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Vermund, Sten H; Gaspar, Felisbela

    2016-11-01

    Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional 'vaccinations' (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare 'injection' behaviours across districts. Healers treated a median of eight patients in the past month (IQR: 4-15). About 75% conducted 'injections'. These healers 'injected' a median of four patients (IQR: 1-8), used a new razor a median of three times (IQR: 1-8), and almost never used gloves. Lifetime blood exposures among those who provided 'injections' during treatments were estimated to be 1758 over a healer's career. The majority of healers are exposed repeatedly to patient blood. Given the high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, and other blood-borne agents, specific healer practices are an occupational hazard and reuse of razors is risky for their clients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.