Sample records for repeals

  1. 25 CFR 18.111 - What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code?


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? 18... CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.111 What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? If a tribe repeals its tribal probate code: (a) The repeal will not become effective sooner than...

  2. 76 FR 9680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness...


    ... Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program (DFARS Case 2011... Competitiveness Demonstration Program. DATES: Effective Date: February 22, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT....S.C. 644 note). The repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program...

  3. Potential Impact of Repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act


    partners, homosexual , constitutionality, benefits, Don’t Ask Don’t Tell, gay , lesbian , Soldier 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...union of one man and one woman, to address personnel decisions relating to now openly serving gay and lesbian Soldiers. With recent attacks on the... gay , lesbian , Soldier Classification: Unclassified In the wake of the repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell

  4. Repealing Federal Health Reform: Economic and Employment Consequences for States.

    Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Brantley, Erin; Bruen, Brian


    Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans. Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity. Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the federal spending cuts. Findings and Conclusions: Repeal results in a $140 billion loss in federal funding for health care in 2019, leading to the loss of 2.6 million jobs (mostly in the private sector) that year across all states. A third of lost jobs are in health care, with the majority in other industries. If replacement policies are not in place, there will be a cumulative $1.5 trillion loss in gross state products and a $2.6 trillion reduction in business output from 2019 to 2023. States and health care providers will be particularly hard hit by the funding cuts.

  5. 75 FR 67970 - Notice of Inquiry; An Analysis of the European Union Repeal of the Liner Conference Block Exemption


    ... European Union's (``E.U.'') repeal of the liner block exemption from competition laws that took effect on... European Union of Regulation 1419/2006 (``Repeal''), on September 25, 2006, removed the previous block... 2006 (when the European Union announced its decision to terminate the block exemption for...

  6. Senate Republican leadership releases revised ACA repeal and replace bill

    Moore NS


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. Today, the Senate Republican leadership released a revised version of a bill to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA. The new bill draft includes an amendment sponsored by Sen. Cruz (R-TX that permits insurers to offer health insurance plans on the ACA exchanges that do not cover the ACA’s 10 essential health benefits (EHB as long as they offer at least one other plan that provides full coverage of EHB’s. The bill also includes more funding for opioid addiction and for state initiatives to reduce insurance premiums and additionally, some flexibility for state Medicaid funding in the event of a public health crisis. The bill must still receive a cost estimate from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO, which will include the impact of the bill on insurance coverage levels, expected out Monday. The ATS remains deeply concerned about the bill because under the Cruz proposal, insurance coverage costs …

  7. The rise of repeal: policy entrepreneurship and Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Neff, Christopher L; Edgell, Luke R


    We report on policy entrepreneurship by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) and how its legislative strategies used mini-windows of opportunity to shift Capitol Hill perspectives of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) from political plutonium to an emerging issue requiring a second look. Four phases in the legislative history of DADT are identified: radioactive, contested, emerging, and viable. In all, this article argues that SLDN's entrepreneurship focused on contesting congressional sensibilities to wait or defer on repeal, maintained that every discharge was damaging and transitioned toward a post-repeal mind set. Finally, we illustrate the importance of these transitions by comparing SLDN's 2004 estimated vote count for the introduction of the Military Readiness Enhancement Act with the final 2010 voting results on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act.

  8. The Comprehensive Review Working Group and Don't Ask, Don't Tell repeal at the Department of Defense.

    Lee, Jonathan L


    In February 2010, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Michael Mullen established the Comprehensive Review Working Group (CRWG) to conduct a comprehensive review of the issues associated with a repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT). Over the next 10 months, the CRWG undertook one of the most extensive studies of a personnel issue in the history of the U.S. military. This article describes the work and the findings of the CRWG (on which the author served) in the context of the activities within the Department of Defense (DoD) following President Obama's call for DADT repeal in his January 2010 State of the Union Address and leading up to the passage of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act in December 2010. It argues that the CRWG served a number of important functions in the DADT repeal process, particularly that it a) provided a rigorous, fact-based assessment of the impacts of repeal from which DoD senior leaders and Congress could base their views; b) developed a road map for a smooth and orderly implementation of repeal; and c) opened a conversation among military service members about what repeal would really mean to them. In doing so, the CRWG contributed to what has been a largely incident-free and successful transition to a post-DADT military.

  9. Ready or Not? Repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell


    gay men and lesbians are less able than heterosexuals to control their sexual or romantic urges” or that “acknowledged homosexuals very seldom...that it was his “personal belief that allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly would be the right thing to do.”3 These facts make a repeal of DADT...towards gays , violation of religious and moral beliefs, lack of respect for homosexual leaders, and the sharing of close quarters (such as foxholes

  10. A Holistic Approach to Repealing Don’t Ask Don’t Tell


    LGBT reception, the first of its kind at the White House, sharply contrasted from President Bush‟s position on homosexual issues . President Bush...never issued a LGBT proclamation during his presidential tenure. Pro-family groups criticized President Obama‟s homosexual political agenda as...the 2008 Presidential campaign. In anticipation of the repeal, senior civilian and military leaders should begin to review related issues regarding

  11. 76 FR 45689 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Repeal of the Final Rule and Withdrawal of the Finding of...


    ...; Repeal of the Final Rule and Withdrawal of the Finding of Primary Money Laundering Concern Against VEF... anti-money laundering provisions of the BSA, codified at 12 U.S.C. 1829b, 12 U.S.C. 1951-1959, and 31 U..., or type of account is of ``primary money laundering concern,'' to require domestic...

  12. Toward Complete Inclusion: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Military Service Members after Repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Aford, Brandon; Lee, Shawna J


    The 2010 repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) is one example of how U.S. public policy has shifted toward greater inclusion of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. The repeal of DADT reversed the practice of discharging LGB service members on the basis of sexual identity. LGB service members may now serve their country without fear of direct repercussions stemming from sexual identity. Though it is a statutory step toward parity, DADT repeal does not address a number of cultural and institutional inequities that continue to hinder full inclusion of sexual minority service members. Notably, as discussed in this article, DADT largely ignores issues facing the transgender population. This study examines remaining inequities and their ramifications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender service members and their families. The article concludes with practice and policy recommendations for culturally competent social work practice with military service members across the sexual identity spectrum.

  13. ‘The shouts of vanished crowds’: Literacy, Orality, and Popular Politics in the Campaign to Repeal the Act of Union in Ireland, 1840–48

    Huston Gilmore


    Full Text Available The movement to repeal the Act of Union that gathered steam in Ireland in the 1840s relied on the creation of a politicized reading public in a society in which a majority of the population was illiterate, and newspapers were expensive to purchase. This article seeks to examine the manner in which nationalist activists of the pre-Famine period relied on a developing and vibrant literary culture, which interacted on a day-to-day basis through the dissemination of newspapers in dedicated reading rooms in an increasingly literate and anglicized society. It seeks to draw attention to the interaction of literacy and orality, and the reliance of both the Loyal National Repeal Association and ‘Young Ireland’ on both a democratization of communication, and the establishment of ‘Repeal reading rooms’, which, it argues, were as close to a nationwide network of constitutional nationalist organizational infrastructure as had yet existed in Ireland.

  14. Support Plan for Implementation: Report of the Comprehensive Review of the Issues Associated with a Repeal of ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’


    joking and having a loud inappropriate conversation about gays and lesbians . The comments were directly related to their refusal to be naked related ...sought. to. “go. beyond. the. contextual. and. scholarly. analysis. of. the. issues. related . to. changes. in. Don’t. Ask,. Don’t. Tell. policy. and

  15. Socialized Risk and Privatized Profit: What Addictions Nurses Need to Know About the Potential Repeal of the Affordable Care Act.

    Fornili, Katherine S

    The aim of this column is to provide an overview of the positive impacts of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) on improved health care access, quality, and outcomes for individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), including opioid use disorders and opioid overdose deaths. Addictions nurses should be alerted to the serious, often lethal consequences that individuals with SUDs will experience if the ACA is repealed. Proposed legislation to reverse major provisions of the ACA include the American Health Care Act of 2017 (H. R. 1628), passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on May 4, 2017, and the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017 (H. R. 1628, Senate Amendment, June 26, 2017), which was made public just before this writing, amid much secrecy and lack of transparency. This column focuses on ACA-related Medicaid expansion and the impact that future cuts to Medicaid and other insurance coverage would have on individuals in need of SUD treatment. Finally, this column addresses the moral, ethical, and professional obligations of nurses and others involved in health care and health policy. Intensified advocacy efforts are required to ensure that recent ACA-related gains in insurance coverage and access to quality behavioral health treatment are not only preserved but also expanded. Access to health insurance coverage and health care, especially among vulnerable, high-risk populations, including those at elevated risk for opioid overdose and other SUD-related morbidity and mortality risks, is one of the most important social justice issues of our time.

  16. Support to the DoD Comprehensive Review Working Group Analyzing the Impact of Repealing ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’. Volume 1: Findings From the Surveys


    believe that tolerance is a much better way to achieve unit cohesion and discipline than perpetuating homophobia is.” “I believe repeal would cause...and assaults—straights harassing gays (e.g., homophobia , hate crimes, hazing) Impact will depend on individual characteristics of gay/lesbian

  17. Analysis of the carrot and stick policy of repeal of the sustainable growth rate formula: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Staats, Peter S; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A


    The Balanced Budget Act which became law in 1997 was designed to help stem the increasing in costs of healthcare. The Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula was incorporated into that law as a method of helping balance the budget through a complex formula tying reimbursement to the growth in the economy. Soon after its inception, the flawed nature of the formula, linking the balancing of the federal budget to physician professional fees was realized. Congress has provided multiple short-term fixes known as SGR patches over the years so as to avoid generally progressively larger negative corrections to professional reimbursement. The near annual SGR correction requirement has been compared to Groundhog Day in the legislative arena. Over the years, physician and other providers faced numerous looming, large cuts. Most recently, on April 1, 2015 physicians faced a 21.2% cut in provider payments. To the surprise of many, in April 2015 a bipartisan bicameral effort permanently repealed the Medicare SGR formula for controlling provider payment. The repeal of SGR means the temporary measures to override the growth rate formula will no longer dominate Medicare policy discussions and now the focus turns to continue payment reforms. The MACRA provides physicians and other health care professionals with stable fee update for 5 years and it follows with a new incentive program, termed the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) replacing and consolidating pre-existing incentive payment programs: meaningful use of electronic health records (EHR), physician quality reporting system, and the value-based payment modified. Thus, payments to clinicians will be subjected to adjustments based on participation in MIPS or other approved alternative payment mechanisms. This legislation also creates numerous other regulations. The MACRA has been criticized for providing insufficient statutory updates, enacting a flawed quality and performance improvement program associated with MIPS

  18. 约瑟芬.巴特勒与维多利亚时代废除《传染病法》运动%Josephine Butler and the Repeal Movement for the Contagious Diseases Acts in Victorian Era



    约瑟芬。巴特勒是维多利亚时代的女权运动先驱。为了废除针对社会下层女性的《传染病法》,她成立全国妇女协会并出任领导人,通过到处演讲、报刊发文、组织请愿等方式反对国家规范卖淫;她谴责《传染病法》违背道德、法律、歧视社会下层女性,主张提升女性的社会地位,为女性积极参与社会事务、争取男女平等提供了基础。%Josephine Butler was a pioneer in the feminist movement of the Victorian era.To repeal the Contagious Diseases Acts against the women of the lower classes, she founded and served as leader of the Ladies’ National Association for the Repeal for the Contagious Acts, against the state’ regulation of prostitution by the way of speaking everywhere, publishing essays on the press, spon-soring petitions the speech , etc.She condemned the Contagious Diseases Acts against morals and laws, discrimination for the women of the lower classes, while advocating to promotion of the social status of women .What she had done provided the basis for women to take part in social affairs and to fight for gender equality .

  19. Following the ACA Repeal-and-Replace Effort, Where Does the U.S. Stand on Insurance Coverage? Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--June 2017.

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira Z; Doty, Michelle M


    After Congress's failure to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, some policy leaders are calling for bipartisan approaches to address weaknesses in the law’s coverage expansions. To do this, policymakers will need data about trends in insurance coverage, reasons why people remain uninsured, and consumer perceptions of affordability. To examine U.S. trends in insurance coverage and the demographics of the remaining uninsured population, as well as affordability and satisfaction among adults with marketplace and Medicaid coverage. Analysis of the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March–June 2017 The uninsured rate among 19-to-64-year-old adults was 14 percent in 2017, or an estimated 27 million people, statistically unchanged from one year earlier. Uninsured rates ticked up significantly in three subgroups: 35-to-49-year-olds, adults with incomes of 400 percent of poverty or more (about $48,000 for an individual), and adults living in states that had not expanded Medicaid. Half of uninsured adults, or an estimated 13 million, are likely eligible for marketplace subsidies or the Medicaid expansion in their state. Four of 10 uninsured adults are unaware of the marketplaces. Adults in marketplace plans with incomes below 250 percent of poverty are much more likely to view their premiums as easy to afford compared with people with higher incomes. Policies to improve coverage include a federal commitment to supporting the marketplaces and the 2018 open enrollment period, expansion of Medicaid in 19 remaining states, and enhanced subsidies for people with incomes of 250 percent of poverty or more.

  20. 76 FR 74648 - Repeal of Regulations


    ... Enterprises as they may relate to the Banks' cooperative ownership structure; mission of providing liquidity... Resolution Funding Corporation (RefCorp) obligations of the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks), respectively... Banks and the Office of Finance (OF) (which acts as the Banks' fiscal agent) and certain functions...

  1. Bipartisan proposal calls for SGR repeal

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Washington Post (11/1, Carey reports a bipartisan group of legislators has agreed on a framework replacing the “problematic” Medicare payment formula in an attempt to end the annual Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR or “doc fix” debate. The current system is set to reduce Medicare physician payments by approximately 25% on Jan. 1 without Congressional intervention. Senate Finance Committee Chairman Max Baucus (D-MT and House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Dave Camp (R-MI introduced a draft proposal that would “encourage care management services for individuals with complex chronic care needs through the development of new payment codes for such services, as well as leverage physician-developed standard of care guidelines to avoid the unnecessary provision of services”. The Committees value your feedback on this proposal. Please submit written comments to the Finance SGR comments mailbox at and the Ways & Means SGR comments mailbox at by Tuesday, November 12, …

  2. 77 FR 65477 - Repeal of Regulations on Marriages


    ..., Marriage and divorce, Marriage laws. 0 Accordingly, under the authority of 22 U.S.C. 2651a, and because the... marriages. The Department is removing Part 52 because it is outdated and duplicative of other federal laws... or serve as witnesses to a marriage. The law authorizing consular officers to act in this...

  3. An Analysis of Opinion of the Impact of Don’t Ask Don’t Tell, Its Repeal, and the Proposed Plan to Implement the Repeal


    people are allowed to serve that these traits are stressed when they already are · focused on to begin with? I agree, but also amrealistic.enough to...34-·’•"~ff’ ~ •"•-•W, ’-A ’"’""A•-’""~W-’--’’’’""~~·•v,•A"" ’’’’«¥••• ., .. t·z·; :: 1;\\tfirstt~o. ~ >ink of it,as ~9~1d a fe~al~~~rvice,rnember wart to

  4. 75 FR 16666 - Liquor Dealer Recordkeeping and Registration, and Repeal of Certain Special (Occupational) Taxes


    ... alcoholic beverages, Caribbean Basin Initiative, Claims, Customs duties and inspection, Electronic funds..., Customs duties and inspection, Electronic funds transfers, Excise taxes, Imports, Labeling, Liquors... Part 17 Administrative practice and procedure, Claims, Cosmetics, Customs duties and inspection,...

  5. Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act


    Office (GAO) study of the costs and processes of ACA implementation, and a Medicare actuarial analysis of the impact of the ACA’s private insurance...86, available at 3 P.L. 113-46, 127 Stat. 558. For more analysis of the various legal and procedural considerations arising is updated periodically to reflect legislative and other developments . Background on the Affordable Care Act4 Among its many provisions, the ACA

  6. 75 FR 82567 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program


    ... Competitiveness Demonstration Program AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program, to meet the requirements of section 1335... (15 U.S.C. 644 note), the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program. In accordance with...

  7. 75 FR 42579 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens; Repeal of...


    ... visiting the Resource Room. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Wes Anderson, U.S. Department of Energy..., SW., Washington, DC 20585- 0121. Tel.: (202) 586-7335. E-mail: ....

  8. Repeal of the concealed weapons law and its impact on gun-related injuries and deaths.

    Ginwalla, Rashna; Rhee, Peter; Friese, Randall; Green, Donald J; Gries, Lynn; Joseph, Bellal; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Lubin, Dafney; O'Keeffe, Terence; Vercruysse, Gary; Wynne, Julie; Tang, Andrew


    Senate Bill 1108 (SB-1108) allows adult citizens to carry concealed weapons without a permit and without completion of a training course. It is unclear whether the law creates a "deterrent factor" to criminals or whether it escalates gun-related violence. We hypothesized that the enactment of SB-1108 resulted in an increase in gun-related injuries and deaths (GRIDs) in southern Arizona. We performed a retrospective cohort study spanning 24 months before (prelaw) and after (postlaw) SB-1108. We collected injury and death data and overall crime and accident trends. Injured patients were dichotomized based on whether their injuries were intentional (iGRIDs) or accidental (aGRIDs). The primary outcome was any GRID. To determine proportional differences in GRIDs between the two periods, we performed χ analyses. For each subgroup, we calculated relative risk (RR). The number of national and state background checks for firearms purchases increased in the postlaw period (national and state p guns had an 11% increased risk of being injured or killed by a firearm (p = 0.036) The proportion of iGRIDs to overall city violent crime remained the same during the two periods (9.74% prelaw vs. 10.36% postlaw; RR, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.17). However, in the postlaw period, the proportion of gun-related homicides increased by 27% after SB-1108 (RR, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.58). Both nationally and statewide, firearm purchases increased after the passage of SB-1108. Although the proportion of iGRIDs to overall city violent crime remained the same, the proportion of gun-related homicides increased. Liberalization of gun access is associated with an increase in fatalities from guns. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  9. Marine Corps Officer Attitudes Toward the Repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell


    national security issues, as well as ethical , moral, or religious teachings. Very little research of note actually incorporated information on military...moral relativism .” While this term has been defined in numerous ways, perhaps the best definition is provided by Stanford University’s Encyclopedia of...Philosophy, which states that “moral relativism is connected with a normative position about how we ought to think about or act towards those with

  10. Repealing Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: Addressing the Ripple Effects


    integration of homosexuals . The research will look at current societal opinions of allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the U.S. military... homosexuals . The research will look at current societal opinions of allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the U.S. military. Furthermore... Homosexuals in the U.S. Military”. 75 Wilber Scott and Sandra Carson Stanley. eds., Gays and Lesbians in the Military: Issues, Concerns, and Contrasts

  11. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy: Inevitable Repeal


    and people who hold negative attitudes about homosexuality believe that gays and lesbians should be allowed to serve openly in the military”.76 In...of the Debate on Homosexuals in the U.S. Military,” in Gays , and Lesbians in the Military: Issues, Concerns, and Contrasts, eds. Wilbur J. Scott and... Homosexuals into the Armed Forces: Racial and Gender Integration as a Point of Departure,” in Gays and Lesbians 25 in the Military: Issues

  12. Ready or Not Repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell


    and lesbians to serve openly would be the right thing to do.”4 The U.S., with its ban on open homosexuals , stands with 11 other countries, but this...abuse towards gays ; violation of religious and moral beliefs; lack of respect for homosexual leaders; and sharing of close quarters (such as foxholes...towards Gay and Lesbian Service Members,” Armed Forces & Society, published on-line 29 October 2009,

  13. One Year Out: An Assessment of DADT Repeal’s Impact on Military Readiness


    the entire LGBT community or only those lesbian, gay and bisexual service members who were directly identified in the DADT policy and law . Methods... LGBT law .” 131 To the extent that such a gag rule exists, either formally or informally, our results would be biased, according to this critique, by...Order from Top Brass for Gay Pride; Observance at Pentagon,” Washington Times, June 25, 2012. 21 “Early Consequences of Military LGBT Law ,” May 16

  14. Response to Letter Requesting the EPA Repeal the Alternative Fuels Exemption in the PSD Regulations

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. The Great Repeal Bill and the Charter of Fundamental Rights: not a promising start

    Sarmiento, Daniel


    On the day Brexit happens EU Law will be incorporated into the UK legal system, including the entirety of the Court of Justice’s case-law. This is a huge digestion of rules and judicial rulings, unprecedented in the way and speed in which it will take place. However, there is a piece of EU Law that will not be incorporated into UK Law. This is no ordinary or irrelevant piece. It is the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. It is another revealing sign of the impact that Brexit ...

  16. The Repeal of Section 28: It Ain't over 'til It's over

    Greenland, Katy; Nunney, Rosalind


    Section 28 (part of the Local Government Act of 1988) was a notorious piece of legislation that sought to prevent local education authorities in the UK from "promoting homosexuality". The effect of Section 28 was to create uncertainty and fear among teachers as to what was (and what was not) permitted in schools. Over time practitioners…

  17. Moral Blow to the Marine Corps: The Repeal of the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell Policy


    his authority to try and convert homosexuals or get involved in their sex life , any more than they would for a heterosexual. Two, homosexuals must dorms, college and high school gyms , professional sports locker rooms, / . poli~e and fire stations, and athletic dubs.ൣ This argument...Marines. A Marine cannot and should not be all things to society. Marines are the defenders of the Constitution and our way of life , not a social

  18. 29 CFR 500.3 - Effective date of the Act; transition period; repeal of the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act.


    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... Contractor Registration Act. (a) The provisions of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act are effective on April 14, 1983, and are codified in 29 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. (b) The Migrant...

  19. U.S. Navy Officer Attitudes on the Repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell


    this educational experience. You definitely made our time here at NPS much easier and less stressful for us. We would also like to thank our think the Navy needs to re- educate sailors about any aspect of the current policy with regards to homosexuals serving in the military? - Did...numctOt.s tn.l!’attves {not fUll DAOT) to makO ovoryono IQoJ" spoc :!ar and onl\\a:leo t1Mic cJvGfSl1y fly Sailors knOw Wtlcn Attlcan-Atnor.:an History Monll

  20. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Rawindaran Nair


    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  1. 77 FR 59747 - Repeal of the Final Rule Imposing Special Measures and Withdrawal of the Findings of Primary...


    ... Special Measures and Withdrawal of the Findings of Primary Money Laundering Concern Against Myanmar... Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank as Financial Institutions of Primary Money Laundering Concern... and 5316-5332, to promote the prevention, detection, and prosecution of money laundering and...

  2. Report of the Comprehensive Review of the Issues Associated with a Repeal of ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’


    word “dependent” is also defined by statute and is limited to the Service member’s “spouse” or dependent parents , unmarried children , or kids in a neighborhood with a gay family.”132 One Service member thought some parents might not want their children socializing with children ...from gay families.133 Others focused more generally on not wanting to deal with having to explain homosexuality to their children if they saw a gay or

  3. Past Informing Present: Parallels Between Racial Integration in the Armed Forces and Repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell


    that ― gay and lesbian service members be treated under the same general principles of military equal opportunity policy that applies to all service... homosexuals are a ―protected class‖ based solely on their sexual orientation when it comes to hate crimes, would it not stand to reason that gay ...Nakamaya, T. K. (1994). Defensive Discourse: Blacks and Gays in the U.S. Military. In W. J. Scott, & S. C. Stanley (Eds.), Gays and Lesbians in the

  4. Just Say No to NOTA: Why the Prohibition of Compensation for Human Transplant Organs in NOTA Should Be Repealed and a Regulated Market for Cadaver Organs Instituted.

    Williams, Kristy Lynn; Finley, Marisa; Rohack, J James


    The United States faces a shortage of organs for transplantation; thousands of individuals die each year while waiting for organs. The organ donation system relies on altruism because the National Organ Transplantation Act (NOTA) prohibits donors from receiving valuable consideration for organs to be used for transplantation. This paper contains a proposal for a regulated market for cadaveric organs as a mechanism to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. A regulated market for cadaveric organs is appropriate in the United States for the following reasons: (1) it is consistent with the numerous ways in which bodies. are currently treated as commodities; (2) it is unlikely to further disadvantage the poor; (3) it would not expose organ recipients to undue harm; (4) in the current organ transplantation system, everyone except the organ donor, benefits financially; (5) the prohibition in NOTA is inconsistent with laws permitting next of kin to recover for damage to the body of a deceased family member; (6) the protection of the dignitary interests of organs for donation is inconsistent with the current protections of the dignitary interests of human specimens; and (7) permitting a market for organs promotes the American values of autonomy and liberty.

  5. 为反贪贿,应废除贪墨罪死刑%Repeal the Capital Punishment for Corruption Crimes to Curb Corruption







    国家机械工业局文件国机管[2000]23号文"关于废止等226项机械行业标准的通知”中涉及无损检测标准的有两项,即 JB/T 4125-1985和JB/T 7913-1995.机械行业标准经过两年多的复审,目前已告结 束.部分无损检测标准的复审结果见表1.表1 ┏━━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━┓ ┃现行标准号┃标准名称┃被取代标准号┃现行标准号┃标准名称┃被取代标准号┃ ┣━━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━┫ ┃GB/T 3310-1999 ┃铜合金棒材超声波探伤┃GB/T 3310-1982 ┃ JB/T 9215-1999 ┃控制射线照相图象质量┃ ZBJ 04002-1987 ┃ ┃┃方法┃┃┃的方法┃┃ ┃ GB/T 9445-1999 ┃无损检测人员技术资格┃GB/T 9445-1988 ┃ JB/T 9216-1999 ┃控制渗透探伤材料质量┃ ZBJ 04003-1987 ┃ ┃┃鉴定通则┃┃┃的方法┃┃ ┃JB/T 4008-1999 ┃液浸式超声纵波直射探┃ JB/T 4008-1985 ┃ JB/T 9217-1999 ┃射线照相探伤方法┃ ZBJ 04004-1987 ┃ ┃┃伤方法┃┃ JB/T 9218-1999 ┃渗透探伤方法┃ ZBJ 04005-1987 ┃ ┃ JB/T 4009-1999 ┃接触式超声纵波直射探┃ JB/T 4009-1985 ┃ JB/T 9219-1999 ┃球墨铸铁超声声速测定┃ JB/Z 265-1986 ┃ ┃┃伤方法┃┃┃方法┃┃ ┃ JB/T 9020-1999 ┃大型锻造曲轴超声波检验┃ ZBJ 32004-1988 ┃ JB/T 9674-1999 ┃超声波探测瓷件内部缺陷┃ JB/Z 262-1986 ┃ ┃ JB/T 9212-1999 ┃常压钢质油缸焊缝超声┃ ZBE 98001-1988 ┃ JB/T 10061-1999 ┃A型脉冲反射式超声探┃ ZBY 230-1984 ┃ ┃┃波探伤┃┃┃伤仪通用技术条件┃┃ ┃ JB/T 9213-1999 ┃无损检测渗透检查┃ ZBH 24002-1989 ┃JB/T 10062-1999 ┃超声探伤用探头性能测┃ ZBY 231-1984 ┃ ┃┃A型对比试块┃┃┃试方法┃┃ ┃ JB/T 9214-1999 ┃A型脉冲反射式超声波┃ ZBJ 04001-1987 ┃ JB/T 10063-1999 ┃超声探伤用1号标准试┃ ZBY 232-1984 ┃ ┃┃系统工作性能测试方法┃┃┃块技术条件┃┃ ┗━━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━━━┛

  7. Support to the DoD Comprehensive Review Working Group Analyzing the Impact of Repealing ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’. Volume 2: Findings from the Qualitative Research Tasks


    One participant thought some parents might not want their children socializing with children from gay families because, “Families may say I don’t...won’t happen. I don’t want them around my children . My children’s grandmother is now homosexual . They see her but never sleep over her house...for me and my children . I read that a homosexual relationship has a 2-3 times greater rate of being dissolved. I usually don’t get to choose where I

  8. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph


    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  9. 78 FR 2939 - Adoption of Recommendations


    ... of the U.S.) (collecting criticism of Section 1500), available at . On the other hand... its historical opposition to the repeal of Section 1500 so long as such repeal was ``accompanied by a... regulated entities. \\4\\ See William J. Novak, Public-Private Governance: A Historical Introduction,...

  10. Workers Rights from Europe:The Impact of Brexit

    Ford, Michael D.


    A detailed advice for the TUC on the impact of Brexit on workers' rights. It considers the rights derived from EU law, the likely targets for repeal in the event of Brexit, the mechanics for repeal, the protection of rights under domestic law, and how EU law would apply post-Brexit

  11. White House

    ... Strong Again Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure Repeal and Replace Obamacare Standing Up For Our Law Enforcement Community Trade ... People Petitions Contact the White House Get Involved Obamacare: Share Your Story Getting Americans Back to Work ...

  12. WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases


    legislative vehicles to resolve this matter.67 Various 111th Congress bills would either repeal or amend § 211. H.R. 1103 ( Wexler ) and S. 1234 (Lieberman...the Treasury to issue regulations as were necessary to carry out the repeal within 30 days after enactment; and H.R. 1306 ( Wexler ) and S. 749 (Nelson...export credit guarantee authorization, see generally CRS Report RL33553, Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs, by Charles E. Hanrahan, at 8. 162

  13. Patterns of family interaction in South African interracial marriages.


    M.A. This study was prompted by the thousands of frustrated interracial couples who were either compelled to hide their relationships or leave South Africa in order to get married or live where interracial relationships and marriages were permitted. This pattern occurred during the apartheid era, before the repeal of the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act and Section 16 of the Immorality Act. After the repeal of these Acts, the number of interracial couples in South Africa increased as ind...

  14. 存与废:嫖宿幼女罪罪名设立之审视%Criminal Law Perspective of Xishui Case of Sleeping with Teenage Prostitutes Reserve or Repeal:Critical Analysis of the Crime of Sleeping with Teenage Prostitutes



    @@ 一、法条竞合条件下应依嫖宿幼女罪定罪 (一)嫖宿幼女罪的涵摄范围 根据第360条第2款的规定,嫖宿幼女罪,是指"嫖宿不满14周岁的幼女"的行为.由于这一罪状属于简单罪状,因而,要明确嫖宿幼女罪的涵摄范围,必须明确"嫖宿"的涵义.对于"嫖宿",刑法理论上主要有以下三种不同的理解:第一种观点认为,嫖宿,是指"行为人

  15. Decision of the Constitutional Review Division of the National Court of The Republic of Estonia : 30 September 1994 : review of the constitutionality of § 25(3) of the Property Law Enforcement Act to the extent that it sought to repeal § 30(2) of t


    Riigikohtu lahendi III-4/A-5/94 (Asjaõigusseaduse rakendamise seaduse § 25 lg. 3 Põhiseadusele vastavuse läbivaatamine Eesti NSV taluseaduse § 30 lg. 2 kehtetuks tunnistamise osas) tekst inglise keeles

  16. Decision of the Constitutional Review Division of the National Court of The Republic of Estonia : 30 September 1994 : review of the constitutionality of § 25(3) of the Property Law Enforcement Act to the extent that it sought to repeal § 30(2) of t


    Riigikohtu lahendi III-4/A-5/94 (Asjaõigusseaduse rakendamise seaduse § 25 lg. 3 Põhiseadusele vastavuse läbivaatamine Eesti NSV taluseaduse § 30 lg. 2 kehtetuks tunnistamise osas) tekst inglise keeles

  17. [Decree No. 1010 of 5 September 1989 approving Regulations on ordinary passports, travel documents, and travel papers for foreigners; repealing Decree No. 676 of 15 February 1966 of the Ministry of Justice and amending Decree No. 172 of 23 March 1977 of the Ministry of Foreign Relations].


    This Chilean decree approves regulations on passports and travel documents. It provides that Chilean nationals must obtain an ordinary passport in order to enter or leave the country. Ordinary passports can be issued to an individual or a family. Individual passports are valid for 10 years and can be renewed; family passports are valid for the same period unless the oldest child in the family reaches the age of 18, at which time the passports expire. Only families with 5 or fewer members may obtain a family passport. Persons requesting passports must present an identity card, obtain a certificate from the police, and pay a tax. The decree authorizes the Civil Registry to issue travel documents to foreigners whose country of nationality has no diplomatic relations with Chile or who are unable to provide their own passports. The documents can be used only to leave the country. The Civil Registry is also authorized to issue travel documents to stateless persons and refugees resident in Chile and to the children of foreigners temporarily in the country and the foreign-born children of Chilean nationals. These documents are valid for 2 years to enter and leave the country.

  18. The Danish tax on saturated fat: why it did not survive.

    Vallgårda, S; Holm, L; Jensen, J D


    Health promoters have repeatedly proposed using economic policy tools, taxes and subsidies, as a means of changing consumer behaviour. As the first country in the world, Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in 2011. It was repealed in 2012. In this paper, we present arguments and themes involved in the debates surrounding the introduction and the repeal. An analysis of parliamentary debates, expert reports and media coverage; key informant interviews; and a review of studies about the effects of the tax on consumer behaviour. A tax on saturated fat had been suggested by two expert committees and was introduced with a majority in parliament, as a part of a larger economic reform package. Many actors, including representatives from the food industry and nutrition researchers, opposed the tax both before and after its introduction, claiming that it harmed the economy and had no positive influence on health, rather the contrary. Few policy actors defended the tax. Public health had a prominent role in the politicians' arguments for introducing the tax but was barely mentioned in the debate about the repeal. Shortly after the repeal of the tax, research was published showing that consumption of saturated fat had declined in Denmark. The analysis indicates that the Danish tax on fat was introduced mainly to increase public revenue. As the tax had no strong proponents and many influential adversaries, it was repealed. New research indicates that the tax was effective in changing consumer behaviour.

  19. Producerea efectelor juridice ale actelor normative

    Ramona Delia POPESCU


    Full Text Available The normative act produces effects for a period of time until it is at an end – tempus regit actum. Publicity of acts constitutes a validity condition; no one could invoke the nemo censetur legem principle. Three main modalities entail the end of the effects: the act is at an end, falling into desuetude or repealed. There are also other cases, such as: a repealing of the legal basis; b ascertaining the unconstitutionality on the basis of article 147 par. (1 of the Constitution; c adoption of a law for the rejection of an ordinance; d issuance of a decision that declares unconstitutional the law for the approval of an ordinance; e inexistence and caducity of an ordinance; f repealing of the repealed norms of ordinances; g annulment of a normative administrative act; h promulgation of the law before the issuing of the decision by the Constitutional Court; i ending the effects of a governmental decision, following the removing of a company from the companies registry; j total replacement of the title and object of a regulation through the law for the approval of an ordinance. Accordingly, the cases of ending effects of normative acts are wider than the three main modalities, as well as the institution of ending legal effects of normative acts is broader than the institution of repealing of those acts.

  20. S. 2096: Canadian Free Trade Agreement Incentive Equalization Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States. One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, February 25, 1988


    It is the purpose of S. 2096 to conform the intent of the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement with the realities of the oil and natural gas market place in North America; and to provide parity between tax burdens and exploration and development incentives provided by the US and similar burdens and benefits conferred by Canada. The sections describe provisions for repealing the Windfall Profits Tax, improving tax treatment of geological, geophysical, and surface casing costs, eliminating net income limitation rule, reforming percentage depletion, repealing transfer rule, crediting marginal production, crediting crude oil and natural gas exploration and development, removing intangible drilling costs from the alternative minimum tax, establishing a procedure to implement a plan to decrease imports whenever foreign oil dependence exceeds 50%, and repealing the taxable income test for percentage depletion.

  1. Contextualizing the first-round failure of the AHCA: down but not out.

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Nicola, Greg N; Harvey, H Benjamin; Duszak, Richard; Silva, Ezequiel; Barr, Robert M; Klucznik, Richard P; Brook, Allan L; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah


    On 8 November 2016 the American electorate voted Donald Trump into the Presidency and a majority of Republicans into both houses of Congress. Since many Republicans ran for elected office on the promise to 'repeal and replace' Obamacare, this election result came with an expectation that campaign rhetoric would result in legislative action on healthcare. The American Health Care Act (AHCA) represented the Republican effort to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Key elements of the AHCA included modifications of Medicaid expansion, repeal of the individual mandate, replacement of ACA subsidies with tax credits, and a broadening of the opportunity to use healthcare savings accounts. Details of the bill and the political issues which ultimately impeded its passage are discussed here. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. 21 CFR 1308.43 - Initiation of proceedings for rulemaking.


    ... regulation issuable pursuant to the provisions of section 201 of the Act. (b) Petitions shall be submitted in quintuplicate to the Administrator. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the... initiate proceedings for the issuance (amendment or repeal) of a rule or regulation pursuant to section 201...

  3. 76 FR 78183 - Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13579


    ... modify or repeal a rule to increase the effectiveness of the regulatory program or lessen unnecessary...-enforcement functions in releasing an offender from a prison term imposed by a sentencing judge, setting... on the continued relevance and effectiveness of the Commission's rules. Interested...

  4. Sexualities and Schooling in England after Section 28: Measuring and Managing "At-Risk" Identities

    Ellis, Viv


    In England, Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988 came to be seen as a powerful symbol of the oppression of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young people and their teachers. This article offers a reflective critique of research I undertook just prior to the repeal of Section 28 by Tony Blair's Labour Government in 2003. My research tried to…

  5. 12 CFR 261.10 - Published information.


    ... and community affairs, monetary policy and reserve requirements, payments systems, and securities..., and statements of general policy; (5) Every amendment, revision, or repeal of the foregoing in... policy actions by the Federal Open Market Committee, an economic review of the year, and legislative...

  6. 78 FR 72640 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue


    ... Dialogue (Business Dialogue or Dialogue) as a bilateral forum to facilitate private sector business growth..., amending, enforcing, or repealing laws and regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq... International Trade Administration Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business...

  7. 75 FR 9834 - Approval and Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions...


    ..., installing ductwork, and other infrastructure and/or excavation work involving the same. No construction or... revisions contain new, amended, and repealed rules in Subchapter 7 (Permit, Construction, and Operation of... Subchapter 7 (Permit, Construction, and Operation of Air Contaminant Sources), the submittal revised ARM 17.8...

  8. 78 FR 13472 - Freedom of Information Act


    ...)(3)(iii), (b)(9), (b)(10)(xiv) and (xv), and by adding (b)(10)(xvi) to read as follows: Sec. 4.9 The... Printing Office, P.O. Box 979050, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000. * * * * * (b) * * * (3) * * * (iii) Transcripts... the public record; and (xvi) Every amendment, revision, substitute, or repeal of any of the...

  9. Leprosy and Social Environment

    S.G. Feenstra-Gols (Sabiena G.)


    textabstractParliament yesterday passed a private member’s bill to repeal the Lepers Act 1898 that segregated leprosy patients from society and their families. This is the first time a private bill has got through the House during the tenure of the present Awami Leagueled government. Ruling party la

  10. Indian NGO challenges penal code prohibition of "unnatural offences".

    Csete, Joanne


    On 7 December 2001, the Naz Foundation (India) Trust (NFIT), a non-governmental organization based in New Delhi, filed a petition in the Delhi High Court to repeal the "unnatural offences" section of the Indian Penal Code that criminalizes men who have sex with men.

  11. Safety regulation: the lessons of workplace safety rule management for managing the regulatory burden

    Hale, A.R.; Borys, D.; Adams, M.


    There is a strong political consensus in a number of countries that occupational safety and health regulation is stifling industrial innovation and development and is feeding a culture of damaging risk aversion and petty bureaucracy. In a number of countries this has led to proposals to repeal

  12. 75 FR 21197 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Implementation Plan Revision; State of New Jersey


    .... Roof Landings Sections 16.2(n), (o), and (p) are new provisions that New Jersey designed to minimize.... Section 16.7 Surface Coating and Graphic Arts Operations Offset Lithographic Printing and Letterpress... provisions, such as the repealed Open Market Emissions Trading Program, and to clarify the use of terms in...

  13. 77 FR 31880 - Operating Instructions for Implementing the Amendments to the Trade Act of 1974 Enacted by the...


    ... scope of the TAA program and increased benefit amounts, repealed the North American Free Trade Agreement... other countries with which the United States had trade agreements or treaties or where there was also a... Employment and Training Administration Operating Instructions for Implementing the Amendments to the...

  14. 77 FR 43742 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act


    ... novelty, as well as nonobviousness. The AIA also repeals the provisions pertaining to statutory invention... invention registrations. DATES: Comment Deadline Date: Written comments must be received on or before... following changes: The Office is proposing to add the definitions provided in the AIA to the rules...

  15. Extreme Prejudice. Dinesh D'Souza and the Coarsening of American Conservatism. Book Review.

    Berube, Michael


    In "The End of Racism" Dinesh D'Souza proposes a theory of rational discrimination based on the recognition that there are vast civilizational differences between black and white Americans and states a case for the repeal of the Civil Rights Act because it actually harms black prospects. (SLD)

  16. Big Dreams, Serious Implications: How the DREAM Act can Help America Meet its Workforce Demands

    Hermes, James


    This article describes how the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act will help undocumented students by: (1) establishing a path to legal status and eventually earn legal residency through two years of higher education or military service; and (2) repealing a provision of federal law that bars states from granting in-state…

  17. 40 CFR 52.1970 - Identification of plan.


    ... plan (OAR 340-27-005 through 340-27-030 (effective October 7, 1983), revisions to gasoline marketing... introduction (OAR 340-26-001) and repeal the field burning rules relating to tax credits (OAR 340-26-030). (i....655 as signed by the Governor on July 5, 1984. (C) Amendment to the field burning rule...

  18. Planning and acceptance of catenaries with reference to the High-Speed Energy TSI; Planung und Abnahme von Oberleitungen unter Bezugnahme auf die TSI ENE HGS

    Schnadhorst, Kai [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Essen (Germany); Tessun, Heinz [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)


    It was in May 2002 that the first-ever Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) of the ''energy'' subsystem with validity throughout the European Union was adopted. In March 2008, this was then repealed in conjunction with the adoption of a revised TSI. The new decision has brought fresh movement into this field. (orig.)

  19. Feeding the British

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar; Rich, Søren


    This paper traces the evolution of the international market for wheat, from an emerging market structure after the repeal of the corn laws to a mature market characterized by efficient arbitrage after the introduction of the transatlantic telegraph and the growth of trade. Efficiency is documented...

  20. 75 FR 67054 - Listing of Approved Drug Products Containing Dronabinol in Schedule III


    ..., irritability, mild agitation, anxiety, anger, insomnia, sleep EEG disturbances, nausea, decreased appetite, and... issues concerning which the person desires to be heard and the requestor's interest in the proceeding... factual evidence and expert opinion regarding the issues involved in the issuance, amendment or repeal...

  1. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  2. 75 FR 34706 - Information Collection; Comment Request


    ... Department of Defense Comprehensive Review Working Group (CRWG) is the working group the Secretary of Defense... CRWG is studying what impact, if any, repeal would have on military readiness, military effectiveness... Comprehensive Review Working Group, Crystal Mall 2, 1801 S. Bell St., Suite 409, Arlington, VA; or call...

  3. 75 FR 32749 - Information Collection; Comment Request


    ... on this information collection, please write to Col. Donna Alberto, DoD Comprehensive Review Working... Review Working Group (CRWG) is the working group the Secretary of Defense directed to examine the issues associated with a repeal of the law known as ``Don't Ask, Don't Tell.'' The CRWG is studying what impact,...

  4. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.


    This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

  5. The First Test: Madison’s Strategy, The Constitution, and the War of 1812


    nonintercourse only after either France or Britain first revoked its edicts against the United States.35 Far from securing neutral rights, this...face value France‟s repeal of its restrictive Berlin and Milan decrees as applied to the United States, whereas the British believed the supposed

  6. The Taxation of Income from Capital in the United States, 1980-86

    Don Fullerton; Marios Karayannis


    Tax rules have changed almost yearly in the United States since 1980. In particular, the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 reduced marginal tax rates and shortened depreciation lifetimes, while the Tax Reform Act of 1986 reduced marginal tax rates, repealed the investment tax credit, and lengthened depreciation lifetimes.

  7. Women in Combat: Issues for Congress


    retained and codified by means of the reenactment of Section 8549 of Title 10, U.S. Code which was repealed by P.L. 102-190, Section 531 for the Air...Force, and reenactment of the provisions of 10 U.S.C. Section 6015 prohibiting women from assignment to duty on aircraft engaged in combat missions

  8. 77 FR 33599 - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2012


    ... LGBT persons around the world. Because we repealed ``Don't Ask, Don't Tell,'' gay, lesbian, and... far we have come and how far we have yet to go, let us recall that the progress we have made is built on the words and deeds of ordinary Americans. Let us pay tribute to those who came before us, and...

  9. Leprosy and Social Environment

    S.G. Feenstra-Gols (Sabiena G.)


    textabstractParliament yesterday passed a private member’s bill to repeal the Lepers Act 1898 that segregated leprosy patients from society and their families. This is the first time a private bill has got through the House during the tenure of the present Awami Leagueled government. Ruling party

  10. 75 FR 42482 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request


    ...: Application for Extension of Time to File an Exempt Organization Return (Form-8868). Form: 8868. Abstract: 26...; Application of Repeal of 30 Percent Withholding by the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Abstract: The Internal Revenue... currently approved collection. Title: Notice 2006-107--Diversification Requirements for Qualified Defined...

  11. 78 FR 27065 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Control Techniques Guidelines...


    ... available control measures (RACM) as expeditiously as practicable. RACT, a subset of RACM, relates... Repealed. Emission Control publication]. System Efficiency. Sect .0915 Determination of 6/1/2008 5/9/2013... Combustion 7/15/2002 5/9/2013 [Insert citation of Turbines. publication]. Sect .1409 Stationary Internal 3/13...

  12. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O


    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  13. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie


    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  14. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard;


    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analysis....... METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study based on Danish healthcare registries, including data from the introduction of generic warfarin until the repeal (January 2011-April 2015). We followed Danish warfarin users over time and compared the rate of incident hospitalizations due to excessive...... anticoagulation (i.e. increased INR or any bleeding requiring hospitalization) in periods following a recent switch to generic warfarin to the rate in periods without a recent switch. RESULTS: We included 105 751 warfarin users, filling a total of 1 539 640 prescriptions for warfarin (2.5% for generic warfarin...

  15. Market power, affiliate transactions, and state regulation of public utility holding companies: Remembering the past, looking to the future

    Glazer, C.A.


    In examining the workings of the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and considering its possible repeal, it is best to go back to the original purposes of PUHCA and analyze whether those purposes are still relevant and, if so, whether the 1935 Act accomplished its goal. Indeed, one might ask, {open_quotes}Are the abuses which gave rise to PUHCA back in the 1930`s now eradicated such that outright repeal is warranted?{close_quotes} One is reminded of that old quote from Santayana, {open_quotes}Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.{close_quotes} There is not a more appropriate time to heed that saying than now. To lay the foundation, we need to step back in time and place ourselves in the shoes of the policy makers at the time that PUHCA was debated.


    Dan Constantin MÂȚĂ


    Full Text Available The final cessation of the legal effects of administrative acts can be achieved by annulment and revocation. Both are legal operations that lead to the termination of legal effects of administrative acts. A controversial issue is the one regarding the authorities that may exercise the right of revocation and annulment of an administrative act. As concerns normative administrative acts, the specific manner of termination of enforcement of such acts is to repeal them. On the relationship between repeal on the one hand and cancellation and revocation on the other hand, various contradictory opinions were voiced in the legal doctrine. An aspect with important implications in the administrative practice is the one concerning the possibility of invalidating a normative administrative act before its entering into force. Finally, the article deals with the notion of non-existent administrative acts, which has become a constitutional institution as concerns administrative normative acts.

  17. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    Vallgårda, Signild; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård


    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Health promoters have repeatedly proposed using economic policy tools, taxes and subsidies, as a means of changing consumer behaviour. As the first country in the world, Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in 2011. It was repealed in 2012. In this paper, we present...... on saturated fat had been suggested by two expert committees and was introduced with a majority in parliament, as a part of a larger economic reform package. Many actors, including representatives from the food industry and nutrition researchers, opposed the tax both before and after its introduction, claiming......, research was published showing that consumption of saturated fat had declined in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis indicates that the Danish tax on fat was introduced mainly to increase public revenue. As the tax had no strong proponents and many influential adversaries, it was repealed. New research...

  18. Protecting adolescents' right to seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases without parental consent: the Arizona experience with Senate Bill 1309.

    Goodwin, Kimberly D; Taylor, Melanie M; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Winscott, Michelle; Scanlon, Megan; Hodge, James G; Mickey, Tom; England, Bob


    In 2010, Senate Bill 1309 included language to repeal an existing Arizona law that enables minors younger than 18 years of age to seek diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) without parental consent. Numerous implications were identified that would have stemmed from parental consent provisions originally proffered in Senate Bill 1309. These implications included diminished access to essential health services among minors, exacerbated existing health disparities, increased health-care spending costs, and thwarted efforts to curb the spread of STDs. Lastly, minors would have been deprived of existing privacy protections concerning their STD-related medical information. This case study describes how collaborative advocacy efforts resulted in the successful amendment of Senate Bill 1309 to avert the negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes among adolescents stemming from the potential repeal of their existing legal right to seek STD treatment without parental consent.

  19. Implementation and Removal of an Affirmative-Action Quota: The Impact on Task Assignment and Workers' Skill Acquisition

    Nick Feltovich; Lata Gangadharan; Michael P. Kidd


    Both the United States and Canada have federal legislation that attempts to address employment inequities across specific target groups. The US has a long tradition of affirmative action, dating back to President Kennedy's 1961 Executive Order; Canada enacted its Employment Equity Act in 1986. Employment Equity/Affirmative Action policy has attracted significant controversy, with high profile court cases and the repeal of state/provincial legislation. Coate and Loury (1993) examine the theore...

  20. The Integration of Women into Combat Arms Units


    States has engaged in such a discussion over the right of homosexuals to serve openly in the military. The people voiced their overwhelming support...most recently demonstrated by the recent repeal of the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy, allowing homosexuals to serve openly in the military. American...contained females dressed for battle in the same manner as the Greek tales about the Amazons.ř A Chinese woman who is thought to have led many

  1. Navy and Marine Corps Officers’ Attitudes Toward the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy


    human rights, same-sex marriage, same-sex benefits, Personnel Policy, Gay Ban, Repeal of DADT, LGBT 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...does not always lead to a reduction in prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior. Focusing on Allport’s restrictive definition of prejudice... definitions used in applying the policy. As seen in Figure 1, Question 15 is perhaps the most interesting example of an attitudinal shift, with 79.1

  2. “Getting It Right”: The Birth of a New EU Common Fishery Policy?—Legislative and Legal Perspectives on the Annulling of the “Five Structural Failings”†

    Peter Ørebech


    Full Text Available This lex ferenda article examines EU efforts to change the criticized and now-repealed 2002 “top-down” management regulation with its discard system, vessel decommissioning, fishing effort management, and quota allocations. The 2013 regulation's objective is to remedy the Common Fisheries Policy's “five structural failings.” Unfortunately, the new regulations have failed to improve the situation. Political obstruction, lax enforcement, transitional costs, and the weight of the status quo hamper future amendments.

  3. Missile Defense: Opportunity to Refocus on Strengthening Acquisition Management


    defense operations, see the battle develop, and manage networked sensors and weapon systems. Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) A ground-based...However, this retest also failed in December 2010 due to the effects of vibration on the kill vehicle’s guidance system. As a result of these...the life cycle— research and development, procurement, military construction, GAO-13-432. 15Pub. L. No. 110-181, § 223(g), repealed by Pub. L. No

  4. Bankruptcy, medical insurance, and a law with unintended consequences.

    Koch, Thomas G


    Congress passed the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) in 1986, guaranteeing a standard of medical care to anyone who entered an emergency room. This guarantee made default a more reliable substitute for medical insurance. I construct a tractable structural model of the medical insurance market and find that repealing EMTALA would increase the fraction of the population with insurance while decreasing its price.

  5. Homosexuality and Personnel Security


    homosexual. In a later section of this essay , I point to the observations of scientists that heterosexual and homosexual are not exclusive categories...meaningless stimulus-events. Almost from the cradle, human beings acquire the skill to sort persons into classes based on gender, kinship , age, school...and sailors prior to the 1948 anti-segregation orders, Asian- Americans before the repeal of the exclusion acts, Mexican -Americans in California and

  6. Seeking to Adopt in Florida: Lesbian and Gay Parents Navigate the Legal Process

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Weber, Elizabeth R; Moyer, April M.; Shapiro, Julie


    Utilizing interview data from 22 lesbian and gay parents in Florida, the current exploratory study examined participants’ experiences navigating the legal and social service systems after the repeal of the Florida ban on gay adoption. Participants reported both positive and negative experiences in seeking out lawyers (e.g., some attorneys were accommodating and knowledgeable about gay adoption; others demonstrated discomfort about working with same-sex couples), working with social service ag...

  7. To the Right of Constructive Engagement: An Alternative Approach toward South Africa.


    relationship of the United States with the South African government. It was decided that a new approach was in order, and after several months focus more closely on our relationship with South Africa and the issue of apartheid. First, what has been the opinion of the American public...provide fresh drinking water, sanitation and roads. Laws prohibiting interracial sex and marriage have been repealed. Black labor unions are not only

  8. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Extract for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989


    Interest and Divi- dends Tax Compliance Act of 1983, and the Railroad Retirement Revenue Act of 1983. The first, the Social Security Amendments of 1983...Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act of 1983 repealed the withholding of taxes on interest and dividend income provided in TEFRA. The tax...Social Security Amendments of 1983.... Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act of 1983 101.7 -10.0 Railroad Retirement Revenue Act of 1983

  9. Moving Forward Vice "Straight" Ahead


    gays and lesbians from openly serving in the military was codified.11 The exclusionary law was premised on the reasoning that if openly homosexual ... gay or lesbian . Repealing the law will eliminate the possibility that service members could declare, truthfully or not, their homosexuality to...not homosexual orientation. There is the eventuality that gays and lesbians within the ranks will choose to reveal their sexuality at some point

  10. Does globalisation threaten a sustainable environmental protection?; Gefaehrdet die Globalisierung den nachhaltigen Umweltschutz?

    Ritter, K. [DELIWA Berufsvereinigung fuer das Energie- und Wasserfach e.V., Hannover (Germany)


    Social and environmental-orientated achievements and the knowledge of the last decades are repealed by globalisation. If inefficient national regulations are not replaced by international rules, our `Blue Planet` will be overstressed in the near future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Globalisierung setzt die sozialen und umweltbezogenen Errungenschaften und Erkenntnisse, die in den zurueckliegenden Dekaden erarbeitet wurden, ausser Kraft. Wenn es nicht gelingt, anstelle der wirkungslos gewordenen nationalen Regularien internationale Regeln zu setzen, wird unser `Blauer Planet` bald ueberfordert sein. (orig.)

  11. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief


    based primarily on immediate protection of the United States, its personnel, or citizens. Thus, it can be argued that Article II alone might not...September 8, 2014 H.J.Res. 125 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against ISIL Resolution Representative Adam Schiff September 16, 2014 H.J.Res... application of existing AUMFs, the repeal 6 H.J.Res. 125 states that the limitation does not apply

  12. Focus


    Personal Information Protection Law Under Legislative Procedure;China's Most Populous Province;New Marriage Law Brings New Trends;Beijing Repeals Regulations Governing Migrant Workers;A New Law to Regulate Electrical Junk in China;Highly-educated Jobless;Growing Up Alone;Internet Gambling Invades the Chinese Mainland;Dreams of Stardom;Chinese Smokers Consume1/3 of the World's Cigarettes.

  13. Restructuring Estate and Gift Taxes

    Sawyers, Roby B.


    Most observers agree that restructuring the current transfer tax system (encompassing the estate, gift and generation skipping transfer taxes) is warranted and appropriate. However, the debate in Congress and the press centers on exactly how the system should be changed. In this paper, I analyze and compare outright repeal of the transfer tax to two alternatives--significant modifications of the current transfer tax system and a tax on appreciation at death--and conclude that a combination of...

  14. Abuse of Rachel Carson and Misuse of DDT Science in the Service of Environmental Deregulation.

    Yang, Jingxiang; Ward, Michael D; Kahr, Bart


    Fake news?? The contact insecticide DDT has been reappraised as a safe, life-saving compound by special interest groups committed to repealing environmental regulations. It is shown in this essay how some specific toxicological data has been misused by those aiming to disingenuously influence public policy. Graphic: Pestroy, a DDT-laced coating marketed in 1946 by Sherwin-Williams Research Laboratories. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Épidémiologie de l'Intervention Militaire lors des Conférences Sanitaires Internationales

    Wulff Barreiro, Enrique


    International audience; Within the five decades (1851 - 1900) along which 10 international sanitary conferences were held, a measure of successful repeal of contagious was thought in terms of military intervention. The influence of the climate of cooperation inductive to the establishment of an international sanitary convention, paid much attention to the civil and military public health relations. Extensive discussions on exceptions regarding the military capacities offer a view of the disea...

  16. Efficient Use of Cogeneration and Fuel Diversification

    Kunickis M.


    Full Text Available Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand.

  17. No Time for Silence: An Urgent Need for Political Activism Among the Medical Community.

    Levinsohn, Erik; Weisenthal, Karrin; Wang, Priscilla; Shahu, Andi; Meizlish, Matthew; Robledo-Gil, Talia; Duffy, Eamon; Fox, Samara; Berk-Krauss, Juliana


    Despite being a major stakeholder in the U.S. health care system, the medical community has remained relatively mute in the debate over the future of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). If the ACA were repealed, tens of millions of Americans would be in danger of losing their insurance, resulting in a significant increase in mortality. Because misinformation about the ACA is rampant, it is imperative that health care providers explain to the public what exactly the ACA is and how repeal will affect patients. Traditionally, many in the medical community have abstained from political advocacy for multiple reasons, including compromising the doctor-patient relationship, financial incentives, lack of experience with activism due to an absence of training in that area, and fear of political retaliation. Encouragingly, there are indications that the medical community is beginning to become more vocal. Medical students are one example, having formed a grassroots response to repeal. However, students need more guidance and support from experienced mentors to most effectively serve as patient advocates. This is no time for silence: On this life-or-death issue, the medical community cannot afford to remain mute.

  18. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria.

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan


    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done.

  19. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan


    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done. PMID:25722776

  20. Healthcare reform and the next generation: United States medical student attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Kristin M Huntoon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over one year after passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, legislators, healthcare experts, physicians, and the general public continue to debate the implications of the law and its repeal. The PPACA will have a significant impact on future physicians, yet medical student perspectives on the legislation have not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate medical students' understanding of and attitudes toward healthcare reform and the PPACA including issues of quality, access and cost. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An anonymous electronic survey was sent to medical students at 10 medical schools (total of 6982 students between October-December 2010, with 1232 students responding and a response rate of 18%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Medical students' views and attitudes regarding the PPACA and related topics, measured with Likert scale and open response items. RESULTS: Of medical students surveyed, 94.8% agreed that the existing United States healthcare system needs to be reformed, 31.4% believed the PPACA will improve healthcare quality, while 20.9% disagreed and almost half (47.7% were unsure if quality will be improved. Two thirds (67.6% believed that the PPACA will increase access, 6.5% disagreed and the remaining 25.9% were unsure. With regard to containing healthcare costs, 45.4% of participants indicated that they are unsure if the provisions of the PPACA will do so. Overall, 80.1% of respondents indicated that they support the PPACA, and 78.3% also indicated that they did not feel that reform efforts had gone far enough. A majority of respondents (58.8% opposed repeal of the PPACA, while 15.0% supported repeal, and 26.1% were undecided. CONCLUSION: The overwhelming majority of medical students recognized healthcare reform is needed and expressed support for the PPACA but echoed concerns about whether it will address issues of quality or cost containment.

  1. European directive related to chocolate composition is unfair for the African cocoa planters

    Lebailly, Philippe; Ahouissou, Brice; Namé, M.


    Coming from the cocoa bean, chocolate is one of the most important sectors of the European food industry with sustained growth for many years and creating very high values in the food. Whether the cocoa bean is largely produced in the African countries (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Cameroon), its derivatives are mainly consumed in industrialized countries. After negotiation at EU level, since 23 June 2000, Directive 2000/36 has repealed Directive of 1973 and allows the use of other veg¬et...

  2. Referéndum y ciudadanía

    Alberto Aziz


    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the first experience of a referendum in Mexico, which was organized in the state of Chihuahua during 1997. The aim of this civic movement was to repeal an electoral reform that had been implemented without any consultation and with regressive features. The referendum could not be carried out because of a series of legal impedimenta that are analyzed in detail. The text analyzes the needs for democratic consolidation in a regional society that has already experienced government by an opposition party, and that does not want to lose the advantages of an incipient democratic system.

  3. An analysis of the Illinois Retail Rate Law and the Cook County waste-to-energy siting battles, 1987--2001

    Sendzik, Mark Edward


    The analysis explores the environmental justice impacts of the 1998 Illinois Retail Rate Law and Cook County waste-to-energy siting proposals on the Chicago metropolitan area. Particular attention is given to the dynamics of the grassroots environmental organizations which emerged to fight the siting proposals. The organizations are examined in the context of NIMBYism, the antitoxic movement, the environmental justice movement, and mainstream environmentalism. In addition, the underlying causes for the unintended consequences of the Retail Rate Law are analyzed against the backdrop of market and government failure. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with forty-one persons familiar with the battles over the Cook County siting proposals and the efforts to repeal the Retail Rate Law. The term "environmental justice" became controversial as siting opponents and supporters both appropriated the issue to support dueling positions on the proposed sitings. However, environmental justice did not play an instrumental role in repealing the Retail Rate Law or the siting proposals. Economic concerns led to the repeal of the legislation and demise of the original siting proposals. The circumstances of the siting battles and opposition groups raise questions about the future effectiveness of the environmental justice movement. A combination of market and government failure led to the unintended consequences from the retail Rate Law. Strategic maneuvering by state legislative leaders delayed the repeal of the legislation by several years. The resulting delay placed considerable cost on individuals, communities, corporations, and the State of Illinois. A bivariate analysis was conducted to examine whether the distribution patterns of ground level concentrations from the proposed facilities would have had a disproportionate distribution in lower-income and minority populations in the Chicago metropolitan area. The statistical analysis did discover evidence that


    Silvano A. Wueschner


    This paper examines the controversy arising out of Great Britain’s decision to implement the Stevenson plan. It examines, in particular, the role played by Herbert Hoover, both behind the scenes and in an effort to affect the repeal of the Stevenson scheme and at the same time to encourage and support the development of new sources of rubber under the control of American producers. During the period 1920-1922 rubber producing countries were confronted by the specter of overproduction. The exi...

  5. Transfer Pricing Principles VAT/GST v. Direct Taxation

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl


    In this paper the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive [1] are subject to a more detailed analysis, with a view to considering them in the light of the well-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax...... Directive). The EC VAT Directive is primarily a recasting of the Sixth EC VAT Directive. The recasting is not intended to make substantive amendments to the previous law (see recital 3 of the preamble to the Directive). Thus, according to Art. 411(2) of the EC VAT Directive, references to the repealed...

  6. 清水幾太郎における自然と人為(2) : 平和運動と転向



    After World War II Ikutao Shimizu actively participated in the pacifist movement, his goals were the removal of U.S. military bases from Japan, the repeal of the U.S. - Japan Security Treaty, and socialization of Japan. His efforts toward the attainment of his ideals were fraught with setbacks and with the movement against amendment of the U.S. - Japan Security Treaty in 1960, Shimizu finally became disillusioned with the Japan’s progressive parties, who seemed to set party interests above al...

  7. Measures of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China for Implementing the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights


    @@ The Measures of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China for Implementing the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights discussed and passed at the executive meeting of the General Administration of Customs (GAC) on Feb.17,2009 is hereby promulgated,which take effects on July 1,2009.The Measures of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China for Implementing the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights promulgated by No.114 Decree of the GAC on May 25,2004 shall be repealed simultaneously.

  8. The Accidental Change Agent: Using the Air Force in the Process of Social Change


    that “ homosexuality is incompatible with military service.”3 Arguments against integration of openly gay and lesbian soldiers echoed concerns about...about Gay Men and Lesbians Serving Without Restriction in the Military………………………………………………………………..56 2 American Public Support for Allowing Gay closely with military leaders and the Congress to repeal the 1993 law legislating the ban against gays and lesbians serving openly in the

  9. Legislation and applicable concepts to protected natural areas in Peru

    Pedro Solano


    Full Text Available There are 78 protected areas in Peru covering 22 million hectares corresponding almost 17 percent of national territory. This article reviews essential aspects of protected natural areas studying scopes, purposes, types, categories and levels such as: requirements for setting, amendment and repeal; activities allowed and forbidden within them; institutional management, among others. Finally, this work concludes with some brief thoughts on legal and institutional challenges of the Sistema Nacional de Áreas NaturalesProtegidas por el Estado (SINANPE (National System of State ProtectedNatural Areas.




    Full Text Available Adoption of the New Civil Code (NCC meant a "turning point" for the radical concept of the subjects participating in legal relations which, according to the Commercial Code (now repealed almost all provisions usually were traders. Currently, the Unification of Private Law, according to the monistic conception embraced by NCC there are a series of difficulties in the conceptual framework of "professionals", the "company" and, especially, the professional traders. Professional traders are individuals: the individual, authorized individual and family business. The legal status of the three categories of individuals falling into the category of professionals traders is regulated by Ordinance no. 44/2008, amended.

  11. Offenses of Human Trafficking in the European Union

    Ion Rusu


    Full Text Available Within this paper there were briefly examined the trafficking in persons offenses the two European normative acts, namely the Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA and the Directive 2011/36UE, which repealed the first instrument, and some aspects of legal content of offenses of the two acts. The innovation and interest elements are represented by the comparative examination and highlighted by the incriminations development, thus identifying new ways to prevent and combat them. The work can be useful to those practicing in this field and in the academic environment or to the European or Romanian legislator.

  12. Policy succession: the case for federal health planning in the 1990's.

    Mueller, K J


    Direct federal involvement in local health planning ended in 1986 with the repeal of the Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974. This article argues that planning has remained an important element in state and local public health activities, and that it will re-emerge as a national effort. Theories of policy succession are used to derive conditions for policy renewal that are satisfied by the current policy environment for health planning. The need for planning is obvious when issues related to health care delivery in rural areas are considered, and there are strong advocates of the need for planning.

  13. Solving the Sustainable Growth Rate formula conundrum continues steps toward cost savings and care improvements.

    Reschovsky, James D; Converse, Larisa; Rich, Eugene C


    Congress is again attempting to repeal the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula. The formula is a failed mechanism intended to constrain Medicare Part B physician spending by adjusting annual physician fee updates. Congress has averted formula-driven physician fee cuts each year beginning in 2003 by overriding the SGR, usually accompanied with last-minute disputes about how these overrides should be paid for. Last year Congress achieved bipartisan and bicameral agreement on legislation to replace the SGR—the SGR Repeal and Medicare Provider Payment Modernization Act of 2014, which we refer to as the "2014 SGR fix"—but was unable to find a way to pay for the legislation under current budget rules. Current congressional deliberations appear focused on how to pay for the fix, with wide consensus that the 2014 legislation should remain the basic model for reform. We describe key features of the 2014 SGR fix, place it in the context of both past and ongoing Medicare health policy, assess its strengths and weaknesses as a mechanism to foster improved care and lower costs in Medicare, and suggest further actions to ensure success in meeting these goals.

  14. Ogranichitel'nye mery ES v otnoshenii Rossii: pravovaja priroda i problema implementacii

    Voinikov V.


    Full Text Available The author proposes his take on the EU sanctions against Russia. He aims to understand the legal nature of the EU restrictions, the exact procedure of their implementation, revision, and repeal, as well as their judicial review. To this end, he proposes a system of sanction classification, analyses current EU legislation on the imposition and implementation of sanctions, as well as the case law on the sanction policy. The author also examines EU sanctions imposed on other countries and compares them to the Russian ones. He thus comes up with the following classification of sanctions against Russia: individual sanctions, those targeted at Crimea and Sevastopol, and anti-Russian economic sanctions. He concludes that the EU sanctions against Russia are inconsistent with the legal nature of restrictive measures, since they are a punishment rather than a policy tool. The author believes that in the current political conditions it may be difficult for the European Union to reach a unanimous agreement to repeal or prolong the sanctions. This article is inspired by the discussions that took place during the international conference “Russia and the EU: the Question of Trust” held in Luxembourg on November, 28—29 (2014.

  15. The EU Vs. Russia: Legal Nature and Implementation of the Union’s Restrictive Measures

    Voinikov Vadim


    Full Text Available The author proposes his take on the EU sanctions against Russia. He aims to understand the legal nature of the EU restrictions, the exact procedure of their implementation, revision, and repeal, as well as their judicial review. To this end, he proposes a system of sanction classification, analyses current EU legislation on the imposition and implementation of sanctions, as well as the case law on the sanction policy. The author also examines EU sanctions imposed on other countries and compares them to the Russian ones. He thus comes up with the following classification of sanctions against Russia: individual sanctions, those targeted at Crimea and Sevastopol, and anti-Russian economic sanctions. He concludes that the EU sanctions against Russia are inconsistent with the legal nature of restrictive measures, since they are a punishment rather than a policy tool. The author believes that in the current political conditions it may be difficult for the European Union to reach a unanimous agreement to repeal or prolong the sanctions. This article is inspired by the discussions that took place during the international conference “Russia and the EU: the Question of Trust” held in Luxembourg on November, 28—29 (2014.

  16. Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety (consequential amendments) Bill 1998. Explanatory memorandum



    The purpose of this Bill is to make consequential changes to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act 1987 (the ANSTO Act) and to provide for transitional arrangements to cover the operation of controlled facilities and the handling of radiation sources while applications for licences to cover these facilities and activities are being made under the proposed Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 (the ARPANS Act) For this purpose, the Bill: (a) repeals Parts VI and VII A of the ANSTO Act under which, respectively, the Safety Review Committee and the Nuclear Safety Bureau are established, as the functions of the Committee and Bureau will be transferred to the CEO of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, established under the ARPANS Act; (b) makes transitional arrangements for the transfer of the assets and liabilities of the Nuclear Safety Bureau to the Commonwealth, and confers on the CEO of ARPANSA the powers of the Director of the Nuclear Safety Bureau in relation to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation during the transitional period before the offenses provisions commence to operate under the ARPANS Act; (c) repeals the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978. That Act provides for the development and endorsement of Codes of Practice which will be undertaken under the auspices of ARPANSA; (d) provides that Commonwealth entities have a transition period of 6 months after the ARPANS Act commences to apply for a licence to authorize specified activities under that Act

  17. Senate health bill lacks 50 votes needed to proceed

    Moore NS


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (7/17, two additional Senators – Sen. Roberts (R-KS and Sen. Lee (R-NE joined Senators Paul (R-KY and Collins (R-ME in announcing their intention to vote “no” on the motion to proceed on considering the Senate ACA repeal and replace legislation – effectively blocking Senate consideration of the current Senate Republican health care bill. Senators Paul, Lee and Roberts opposed the bill for not going far enough, while Senator Collins expressed her concern the bill goes too far. With the 4 publicly announced NO votes – Senator Majority Leader Mitch McConnell does not have the 50 votes needed to begin debate on the bill, let alone assure final passage. Speculation now turns to what happens next. President Trump has tweeted his preference to let Obamacare fail as a way to force Democrats to negotiate new legislation. Senator McConnell has suggested a series of symbolic votes on full repeal with multi-year delay to work …

  18. A network evaluation of attitudes toward gays and lesbians among U.S. military cadets.

    Coronges, Kathryn A; Miller, Katherine A; Tamayo, Christina I; Ender, Morten G


    The U.S. military's ban on open homosexuality has become an increasingly salient issue since its implementation in 1993 and its repeal in 2011. The military is an organization with a unique professional and social organization. Evaluating military attitudes from a network perspective may offer insight into the role of formal and informal leadership in engendering attitudinal change and cultural tolerance around homosexuality. This study evaluates the role of network centrality and network exposure across formal (command networks) and informal (friendship and perceived leadership networks) structures on attitudes toward homosexuality in the military. This work analyzes survey data from a single cadet company within the U.S. Military Academy (n = 139) prior to the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell. Results indicate that popular students tend to show tolerance toward homosexuality, whereas those who hold command leadership positions are more likely to have personal and professional opposition to homosexuality. In addition, formal superior-subordinate relationships are somewhat more likely to suggest social contagion compared to informal leadership and friendship relationships. Recommendations offer guidance for training strategies particularly with respect to a military leaders and socialization. Future research should monitor these issues relative to the post-DADT environment.

  19. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter


    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  20. Fewer and better children: race, class, religion, and birth control reform in America.

    Wilde, Melissa J; Danielsen, Sabrina


    In the early 20th century, contraceptives were illegal and, for many, especially religious groups, taboo. But, in the span of just two years, between 1929 and 1931, many of the United States' most prominent religious groups pronounced contraceptives to be moral and began advocating for the laws restricting them to be repealed. Met with everything from support, to silence, to outright condemnation by other religious groups, these pronouncements and the debates they caused divided the American religious field by an issue of sex and gender for the first time. This article explains why America's religious groups took the positions they did at this crucial moment in history. In doing so, it demonstrates that the politics of sex and gender that divide American religion today is deeply rooted in century-old inequalities of race and class.

  1. The CLP Regulation: origin, scope and evolution

    Paola Di Prospero Fanghella


    Full Text Available The CLP Regulation implements in the EU the UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling applying the "building block approach", that is taking on board the hazard classes and categories which are close to the existing EU system in order to maintain the level of protection of human health and environment. This Regulation applies to all substances and mixtures placed on the market and besides to classification, packaging and labelling it provides for the notification of the classification and labelling of substances to the Classification & Labelling Inventory established by ECHA. It came into force on 20 January 2009 but a transitional period is foreseen until 1 June 2015 for the full application. At the end of this period the "substance" and "preparation" Directives (respectively 67/548/EEC and 99/45/EC will be repealed.

  2. Conflicts between religious or spiritual beliefs and pediatric care: informed refusal, exemptions, and public funding.


    Although respect for parents' decision-making authority is an important principle, pediatricians should report suspected cases of medical neglect, and the state should, at times, intervene to require medical treatment of children. Some parents' reasons for refusing medical treatment are based on their religious or spiritual beliefs. In cases in which treatment is likely to prevent death or serious disability or relieve severe pain, children's health and future autonomy should be protected. Because religious exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws do not equally protect all children and may harm some children by causing confusion about the duty to provide medical treatment, these exemptions should be repealed. Furthermore, public health care funds should not cover alternative unproven religious or spiritual healing practices. Such payments may inappropriately legitimize these practices as appropriate medical treatment.

  3. White coated healer or black coated executioner: health professionals and capital punishment.

    Rix, Keith J B


    In some countries and some jurisdictions health professionals are involved in the process of capital punishment. Their involvement raises difficult ethical issues and the more so with changing attitudes to, and growing support for, assisted suicide, greater respect for autonomy and more universal promotion of human rights, including those of prisoners. These issues are discussed in relation to the various stages of the capital punishment process from the investigation of a potential capital offence to the removal of executed prisoners' tissues and organs for transplantation. It is suggested that some of the ethical difficulties can be resolved, or at least ameliorated, by having regard to the three core concepts of medical ethics: autonomy, best interests and rights. But active involvement of health professionals in capital punishment, however justified ethically, runs the risk that 'reforms' will even more deeply entrench what remains of the death penalty, thus making it more resistant to complete repeal.

  4. Regulation (EU No 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use: an overview

    Carlo Petrini


    Full Text Available For the 28 member states of the European Union, Regulation (EU No 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which repeals Directive 2001/20/EC, represents a substantial innovation in the procedures for authorising clinical trials and for handling all the subsequent stages. It introduces a single authorisation that will be valid for all EU member states, as well as a single portal through which all data concerning all clinical trials performed throughout the EU will pass. The present article offers an overview of the general aspects of the new procedures. It does not address the specific issues involved, each of which merits separate examination.

  5. Regression away from the mean: Theory and examples.

    Schwarz, Wolf; Reike, Dennis


    Using a standard repeated measures model with arbitrary true score distribution and normal error variables, we present some fundamental closed-form results which explicitly indicate the conditions under which regression effects towards (RTM) and away from the mean are expected. Specifically, we show that for skewed and bimodal distributions many or even most cases will show a regression effect that is in expectation away from the mean, or that is not just towards but actually beyond the mean. We illustrate our results in quantitative detail with typical examples from experimental and biometric applications, which exhibit a clear regression away from the mean ('egression from the mean') signature. We aim not to repeal cautionary advice against potential RTM effects, but to present a balanced view of regression effects, based on a clear identification of the conditions governing the form that regression effects take in repeated measures designs. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Uranium in a changing South Africa


    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  7. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew


    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.

  8. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part I.

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie


    In November 2000, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued an ergonomics standard to prevent debilitating work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). It was rescinded by Congress within four months. We explore how this story unfolded over two decades of collaboration and conflict. Part I provides an overview of the historical context of the struggle for a standard, followed by interviews with key players from labor, academia and government. They provide a snapshot of the standard; discuss the prevalence of WMSDs in the context of changing work organization; give insight into the role of unions and of scientific debate within the context of rulemaking; and uncover the basis for the groundbreaking OSHA citations that laid the foundation for a standard. Part II interviews further explore the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s that led to repeal of the standard, discuss the impact of the struggle beyond the standard, and describe creative approaches for the future.

  9. Sterilization.

    Rioux, M H


    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  10. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a rejoinder.

    Rissel, Chris


    This paper challenges the conclusion of a recent paper by Walter et al. (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.029) reporting that despite numerous data limitations repealing the helmet legislation in Australia could not be justified. This conclusion is not warranted because of the limited time period used in their analysis and the lack of data beyond a few years before the introduction of legislation, the failure to adequately account for the effect of the phasing in of the legislation, the effect of the marked reduction in child cyclists, and the non-comparability of the pedestrian and cycling injuries and related lack of consideration of the severity of head injuries. The extent to which helmet legislation deters people from cycling is discussed.

  11. Death--whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill.

    Fraser, S I; Walters, J W


    In Australia and Oregon, USA, legislation to permit statutory sanctioned physician-assisted dying was enacted. However, opponents, many of whom held strong religious views, were successful with repeal in Australia. Similar opposition in Oregon was formidable, but ultimately lost in a 60-40% vote reaffirming physician-assisted dying. This paper examines the human dilemma which arises when technological advances in end-of-life medicine conflict with traditional and religious sanctity-of-life values. Society places high value on personal autonomy, particularly in the United States. We compare the potential for inherent contradictions and arbitrary decisions where patient autonomy is either permitted or forbidden. The broader implications for human experience resulting from new legislation in both Australia and Oregon are discussed. We conclude that allowing autonomy for the terminally ill, within circumscribed options, results in fewer ethical contradictions and greater preservation of dignity.

  12. Matrimonial Causes (Amendment) Act, 1986 (No. 15 of 1986), 31 December 1986.


    Among other things, this Act makes the following changes in the Matrimonial Causes Act (Chapter 48): a) it lowers the waiting period after a marriage has occurred before a petition of divorce can be presented to the Supreme Court to two years; b) it lowers the waiting period for obtaining a divorce on the ground of desertion to two years; c) it prohibits persons from claiming damages on account of adultery; d) it repeals provisions allowing a Court to order settlement of a wife's property by possession by or reversion to her spouse or children if a divorce or separation is granted by reason of the wife's adultery, desertion, or cruelty; and e) it provides that "the Matrimonial Causes Rules 1937, of England in so far as they are not inconsistent with this Act, shall apply to any proceedings under this Act."

  13. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    Lanoy, Maxime [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Tourin, Arnaud [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)


    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices.


    Rodica Diana APAN


    Full Text Available The analysis in the present study integrates the types of trading entities in order to clearly determine them. A first reference theme when setting-up a business is that of the legal personality it would take. The new Civil Code, acting as common law in the field of trading entities, determines the realignment and balancing of the regulations on types of business. Company Law 31 of 1990 preserves the types of trading entities with legal personality regulated here: general partnership, limited partnership, limited partnership by shares, limited liability company, joint-stock company. The simple partnership which can gain legal personality is widely regulated, and for the partnership are mainly preserved the landmarks drawn by the Commercial Code of 1886 that is presently repealed. In conclusion, the present study analyses and answers the question – who are the legal trading entities and what are the regulated types of business.

  15. One giant leap for mankind? A cost-utility analysis of abolishing the law of gravity.

    Cyr, Claude; Lanthier, Luc


    Canada's Neo Rhino Party, a joke political party created in 2006 as a successor to the Parti Rhinocéros, is planning a new regulation to repeal the law of gravity, which could have an important impact on diseases attributable to gravity on earth. We sought to estimate the number of quality-adjusted life-years that would be saved if the proposed regulation is passed and determine the cost-effectiveness of adapting Boris Volfson's antigravity machine for use on earth. We performed an economic analysis using a hidden Markov model. Our results suggest that a microgravity environment would save over 2 million quality-adjusted life-years. The cost for every quality-adjusted life-year saved is estimated to be $328. Microgravity is the solution to the health care crisis in Canada. In addition, using technological, statistical and medical jargon gives us the opportunity to defy the laws of physics, mathematics and medicine.

  16. Reflections on the Abolition of Exequatur in Family Law Cases Regarding the Exercise of the Right of Visitation

    Gabriela LUPŞAN


    Full Text Available The Council Regulation (EC No 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility, repealing Regulation (EC no. 1347/2000 includes, along with uniform rules settling conflicts of jurisdiction between Member States, also a number of rules to ensure the free movement within the EU area of judgments, of authentic instruments and agreements, establishing provisions on their recognition and enforcement in another Member State. In the present paper we analyze the abolishing of the exequatur, under the situation where the judgments, concerning the exercise the rights of visitation, were passed in another Member State.

  17. Reflections on the Abolition of Exequatur in the Cross-border Cases Regarding the Return of the Child

    Gabriela LUPŞAN


    Full Text Available Free circulation of judgments within the EU of the authentic instruments and agreements in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility is provided for in Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of the Council of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, repealing Regulation (EC no. 1347/2000. For two categories of judgments, this Regulation provides for the suppression of exequatur. In this article we intend to continue analyzing the suppression of the exequatur under the situation of judgments in family law matters, relating to the return of the child in the cross-border cases, on judgments passed in another Member State.


    Antonio Bolivar Botía


    Full Text Available A central issue to agree on education is, to say the French wording, “what is it that children should definitely learn during compulsory education?” .This question, simple but fundamental, has not always been the core of the educational reforms and possible agreements on education.  A favorable opportunity, which would have allowed overcoming looks homemade and interests, which could have represented the European Reference Framework (Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, around which articulate a core curriculum. Has been lost, as on other occasions, the opportunity.  However, as the output to the expected repeal of the LOMCE, can be nothing new alternative Act, perhaps the opportunity to retake it. The French case, which will follow up is a good example.

  19. A More Transparent System for Clinical Trials Data in Europe – Mind the Gaps!

    Minssen, Timo


    on medicinal products for human use” repealing Directive 2001/20/EC. As described in a press-release, the new law: “aims to remedy the shortcomings of the existing Clinical Trials Directive by setting up a uniform framework for the authorization of clinical trials by all the member states concerned...... with a given single assessment outcome. Simplified reporting procedures, and the possibility for the Commission to do checks, are among the law’s key innovations.” Moreover, and very importantly, the Regulation seeks to improve transparency by requiring pharmaceutical companies and academic researchers...... to publish the results of all their European clinical trials in a publicly-accessible EU database. In contrast to earlier stipulations which only obliged sponsors to publish the end-results of their clinical trials, the new law requires full clinical study reports to be published after a decision...

  20. Double unification of particles with fields and electricity with gravity in non-empty space of continuous complex energies

    Bulyzhenkov, Igor E.


    Non-empty space reading of Maxwell equations as local energy identities explains why a Coulomb field is carried rigidly by electrons in experiments. The analytical solution of the Poisson equation defines the sharp radial shape of charged elementary densities which are proportional to continuous densities of electric self-energy. Both Coulomb field and radial charge densities are free from energy divergences. Non-empty space of electrically charged mass-energy can be described by complex analytical densities resulting in real values for volume mass integrals and in imaginary values for volume charge integrals. Imaginary electric charges in the Newton gravitational law comply with real Coulomb forces. Unification of forces through complex charges rids them of radiation self-acceleration. Strong gravitational fields repeal probe bodies that might explainthe accelerated expansion of the dense Metagalaxy. Outward and inward spherical waves form the standing wave process within the radial carrier of complex energy.

  1. Rules regarding the health insurance premium tax credit. Final and temporary regulations.


    This document contains final and temporary regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010, the Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Repayment of Exchange Subsidy Overpayments Act of 2011, and the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act of 2011 and the 3% Withholding Repeal and Job Creation Act. These regulations affect individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit, and Exchanges that make qualified health plans available to individuals. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-104579-13) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.


    Dãnescu Tatiana


    Full Text Available Forestry plays a significant role in both our country’s and global economy. Any entity, in the present case, forest entity, must operate under specific legislation and its own status. In this respect, the conduct of activities within the entities should be based on appropriate national and/or international legislation that represents the base line in linking the entities’ interests with the objective requirements of economy. Thus, in establishing a legal framework to correspond to activity development of each type of society, a variety of regulations have been drafted along with repealing or modifying others. Currently, economic legislation comprises a wide range of regulations which are projected on the ways in which activity is developed within the forest entities and not only. Regulations in force, besides highlighting the forest entities’ interests, also include all precautions in the conduct of forestry activities in ungrounded ways and the emergence of some adverse events.

  3. Review of the Federal Mining Law. [German Federal Republic

    Weller, H.


    The Federal Mining Law is a codification of mining law in the Federal Republic of Germany. It contains 178 paragraphs covering all aspects of prospecting and mining of mineral raw materials and related activities. The new law is to replace the former regional mining laws as well as most of the former Federal and regional regulations. All in all, 104 laws and regulations are repealed in sections 174 and 175. Basic principles of the former mining laws have been adhered to, e.g. mineral reserves do not come under the proprietory rights of the land owner, preventive monitoring of operations by means of operation plans, cession of territory under mining law, and the regulations concerning mining and land ownership. However, there are new details in the Federal Mining Law, in particular with regard to concessions and mining damage; this is reflected in a more complicated legal language.

  4. The case to ban sugary food and drink from schools: these products are addictive, and kids will learn best without them.

    Thornley, S; Sundborn, G


    In New Zealand, schools have been a battleground as a setting to address the obesity epidemic, with successive governments enforcing, and then repealing laws to ban junk food from canteen menus. Just what is considered 'junk food' remains controversial, but recently sugar sweetened beverages have become a target of public health groups. The adverse health consequences of their intake have been the principal arguments to reduce their availability. Here, we argue that the advantages of reducing intake of sugar in schools are very likely to lead to educational and other social benefits. Indices of sugar intake have been associated with aggressive behaviour, attention deficit, dysphoria and suicidal thoughts in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies have also linked soft drink intake with impaired cognitive development. We believe that banning sugary drinks from schools will assist teachers and students to better achieve their learning goals, with a side effect of improving their health status.

  5. The politics of paranoia.

    Belkin, Aaron


    For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube.

  6. Challenges to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis.

    Linden, Ariel


    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is studied; the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series, and the intervention is expected to "interrupt" the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. The most common threat to validity is history-the possibility that some other event caused the observed effect in the time series. Although history limits the ability to draw causal inferences from single ITSA models, it can be controlled for by using a comparable control group to serve as the counterfactual. Time series data from 2 natural experiments (effect of Florida's 2000 repeal of its motorcycle helmet law on motorcycle fatalities and California's 1988 Proposition 99 to reduce cigarette sales) are used to illustrate how history biases results of single-group ITSA results-as opposed to when that group's results are contrasted to those of a comparable control group. In the first example, an external event occurring at the same time as the helmet repeal appeared to be the cause of a rise in motorcycle deaths, but was only revealed when Florida was contrasted with comparable control states. Conversely, in the second example, a decreasing trend in cigarette sales prior to the intervention raised question about a treatment effect attributed to Proposition 99, but was reinforced when California was contrasted with comparable control states. Results of single-group ITSA should be considered preliminary, and interpreted with caution, until a more robust study design can be implemented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Persistent threats to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis with a cross over design.

    Linden, Ariel


    The basic single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) design has been shown to be susceptible to the most common threat to validity-history-the possibility that some other event caused the observed effect in the time series. A single-group ITSA with a crossover design (in which the intervention is introduced and withdrawn 1 or more times) should be more robust. In this paper, we describe and empirically assess the susceptibility of this design to bias from history. Time series data from 2 natural experiments (the effect of multiple repeals and reinstatements of Louisiana's motorcycle helmet law on motorcycle fatalities and the association between the implementation and withdrawal of Gorbachev's antialcohol campaign with Russia's mortality crisis) are used to illustrate that history remains a threat to ITSA validity, even in a crossover design. Both empirical examples reveal that the single-group ITSA with a crossover design may be biased because of history. In the case of motorcycle fatalities, helmet laws appeared effective in reducing mortality (while repealing the law increased mortality), but when a control group was added, it was shown that this trend was similar in both groups. In the case of Gorbachev's antialcohol campaign, only when contrasting the results against those of a control group was the withdrawal of the campaign found to be the more likely culprit in explaining the Russian mortality crisis than the collapse of the Soviet Union. Even with a robust crossover design, single-group ITSA models remain susceptible to bias from history. Therefore, a comparable control group design should be included, whenever possible. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. La procréation assistée : conflit de paradigmes Medical assistance to procreation: a conflict of paradigms

    Carlo Flamigni


    Full Text Available La loi italienne qui réglemente l’accès aux techniques de procréation assistée a été adoptée en 2004 après un long débat. Ses dispositions principales dérivent d’une façon évidente et directe d’une inspiration catholique. Mais cette loi contient de nombreuses « passerelles » – pouvant permettre de contourner les règles les plus contraignantes – dont les plus importantes sont présentées dans l’article. La réaction la plus forte suite à l’approbation de la loi est venue du Parti radical italien qui a décidé d’organiser un référendum visant son abrogation totale. Ce sont finalement quatre référendums d’abrogation partielle qui ont été proposés aux Italiens les 12 et 13 juin 2005.The Italian law regulating access to techniques of medically assisted procreation was adopted in 2004 after long debate. Its main inspiration is from the Catholic. But this law contains numerous « bridges » making it possible to circumvent the most rigid rules, the most important of which are presented in the present article. The strongest reaction to this law has come from the Italian Radical Party which decided to organize a referendum for its repeal. Eventually four referendums calling for its partial repeal were proposed to Italians on June 12 and 13, 2005.

  9. Negocierea colectivă în sectorul bugetar

    Iulia BĂDOI


    Full Text Available In the context of a changing society, legislative changes have a significant impact on social dialogue between social partners. 2011 is a landmark year for the significant chan- ges that were brought to the field of labor law in Romania, reflected in the adoption of a new Labor Code and of the Law no. 62/2011 regarding social dialogue. By repealing five laws – Law no. 54/2003 regarding unions, Law no. 356/2001 on employers, Law no. 109/1997 on the organization and functio- ning of the Social and Economic Council, Law no. 130/1996 on collective employment contract, and Law no. 168/1999 on solving employment conflicts – Law no. 62/2011 sought to create a unified regu- latory framework for social dialogue in Romania. In addition, through subsequent amendments following the year 2011, Law no. 62/2011 repealed Government Decision no. 369/2009 on the establishment and functioning of the social dialogue committees at the level of central government and local administration. Even though the development and adoption of the Law on social dialogue were not made based on an impact study, the statistical tools can be a starting point to determine the influence of the new regulations on the success of collective bargaining. In light of the new provisions governing the labor relations, at the level of the Ministry of Interi- or there were collective bargaining that led to the conclusion in 2013 of a new collective agreement on the terms of labor relations. 

  10. Professionals and tax companies: analysis of Article 9 , § 3 doDecreto Law No. 406/68 against Complementary Law No. 116/03

    Michelle Portugal


    Full Text Available Analyzes the repeal of Article 9, paragraph 3 of Decree-Law No. 406/68, the qualinstituiu fixed taxation for companies that provide professional services, after the advent of Complementary Law No. 116 of 31 July 2003. presenteestudo we used the inductive method, performed by means of analysis of search bibliográficae regards the matter law. Points out the impossibility of manutençãodo the lump-sum taxation for professional service providers queestejam constituted as a company under the fence in right darepristinação Brazilian Positivo, as the Decree-Law No. 834/69 eposteriormente Complementary Law o 56/87, replaced in writing dosupracitado device, the number of services reached by fixed datributação benefit in order to make it compatible with their lists of serviçoinicialmente proposed by Decree-law 406/68. However, these diplomas legaisforam expressly repealed by Article 10 of Complementary Law No. 116 / 03.Aponta that the fact be made in the form of society is not aptoa criteria trigger disparities in the taxation of professional service providers, under penalty breach of the principle of equality. The research aims to contribute to aaplicação of Complementary Law No. 116/03, particularly as regards àtributação of professional societies, proposing some reflections on daspeculiaridades surrounding the issue, urging the debate on fixed datributação revocation, in order to seek to improve the interpretation that is damatéria now analyzed.

  11. The Impact of Location and Proximity on Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Green Electricity: The Case of West Virginia

    Nkansah, Kofi

    During the 2015 legislative session, West Virginia lawmakers passed a bill to repeal the Renewable and Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2009 (ARPS). Legislators stated concerns about ARPS's impacts on coal industry related jobs in the state as the major factor driving this repeal. However, no comprehensive study on public acceptance, opinions, or willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable/and or alternative sources of electricity within West Virginia was used to inform this repeal decision. As the state of West Virginia struggles to find the right path to expand its renewable energy portfolio, public acceptance of renewable electricity is crucial to establishing a viable market for these forms of energy and also ensure the long-term sustainability of any RPS policy that may be enacted in the future. This study sought to assess consumers' preferences, attitudes and WTP for renewable and alternative electricity in West Virginia. The monetary values that consumers placed on proximity as an attribute of a renewable and alternative electricity generation source were also estimated. Two counties in West Virginia were selected as study areas based on the types of electricity generation facility that already exist in each county -one county with coal-fired power plants (Monongalia County) and another with both a coal-fired power plant and a wind farm (Grant County). A forced choice experiment survey was used with attributes that varied in source of energy (wind versus natural gas), proximity of the generation source relative to the respondent's residence (near, moderate or far) and an additional premium per month on the electric bill (varying from 1 to 15). Respondents were asked to choose between generating 10% of the electricity supplied to them from wind or natural gas. Random samples of 1500 residents from each county were sent surveys and response rates were 27.0% (Monongalia) and 35.3% (Grant). A Mixed logit econometric models were used to analyze consumer

  12. Arguments for Sustaining the Need to Modify the Legal Status Regarding the Mutual Consent Settlement of Individual Labour Conflicts

    Lavinia ONICA CHIPEA


    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify and itemize the concrete way of intervention regarding the settlement of individual labor conflicts, in the Romanian legal system, through alternative ways. In full agreement with the previous Romanian legislation and with the examples provided by compared legislation, we consider necessary to establish a conciliation commission for each employer, whose main role will be trying to solve the dispute between the parties in a prior stage before notifying the competent court. It also emphasizes the appropriate legislative intervention in order to rethink the concepts of regulation contained in article 38 of the Labour Code and to increase the possibility of widespread use of mediation in individual labour disputes. The study also highlights the need to correct the legislative gap created by repealing Art. 76 of Law no. 168/1999 on the settlement of labor disputes, which was actually the only norm of labor law which expressly and directly referred to the amicable settlement procedure of individual labor conflicts. The formulated proposals may provide the legislator support in the course of perfecting, at the level of regulation, the process of specialization of labor jurisdiction in the Romanian legal system.

  13. Resister's logic: the anti-vaccination arguments of Alfred Russel Wallace and their role in the debates over compulsory vaccination in England, 1870-1907.

    Fichman, Martin; Keelan, Jennifer E


    In the 1880s, Alfred Russel Wallace, the celebrated co-discoverer of natural selection, launched himself into the centre of a politicised and polarised debate over the unpopular compulsory vaccination laws in England. Wallace never wavered in his belief that smallpox vaccination was useless and likely dangerous. Six years before his death, the anti-vaccinationists successfully secured a conscience clause that effectively dismantled the compulsory vaccination laws. Several other important Victorian scientists joined Wallace in the fight to repeal compulsory vaccination arguing that widely held views on the effectiveness of vaccination and evidence for immunity were inconclusive in the light of (then) contemporary standards of evidence. This article situates Wallace's anti-vaccination logic within the broader matrix of sociopolitical and cultural reform movements of the late Victorian era. Additionally it provides the first detailed analysis of his critique of vaccination science, in particular the role statistics played in his arguments. In this period, both pro-vaccinationists and anti-vaccinationists invested great efforts in collating and analysing statistical data sets that either supported or refuted the claims of vaccination's effectiveness. While each side presented 'controlled' case studies to support their assertions, without an unambiguous test to measure or demonstrate vaccination's effectiveness, the anti-vaccinationists continued to mount credible statistical critiques of vaccination science.

  14. Sensitive detection of p53 antibodies in a homogeneous fluorescence assay format

    Neuweiler, Hannes; Schulz, Andreas; Wolfrum, Juergen M.; Sauer, Markus


    Circulating p53 autoantibodies are found to be a universal and highly specific tumor marker for malignant diseases. Hence, sereological screening for p53 autoantibodies at low concentration levels has become increasingly relevant for early-stage and follow-up of tumor diagnostics. We developed a new method for the highly sensitive detection of p53 antibodies in a homogeneous fluorescence assay format. Short, linear peptide derived form antibody recognition sequences so human p53 were labeled with an oxazine dye. Hydrophobic interactions constrain a conformation, where the dye interacts selectively with a tryptophan residue in the peptide sequence. Subsequently, the fluorescence of the dye is quenched efficiently due to electron transfer from the indole derivative to the dye in the excited state. Specific antibody recognition induces a conformational change in the peptide structure, repealing the dye-tryptophan interaction. Consequently, a fluorescence increase upon antibody binding signals the binding event. The long-wavelength absorption and emission characteristics of the probe and the use of a red pulsed diode laser as excitation source in a confocal fluorescence microscopic set-up allows ultra sensitive antibody detection at the single-molecule level. The effectiveness of the probes are highlighted by the detection of individual p53 autoantibodies directly in serum dilutions of cancer patients.


    Abdul Razak  @  Abdulroya Panaemalae


    Full Text Available The work is trying to show how relevant the pondok education is with the philosophy of Islamic education itself. The research recognize that there are still many weaknesses that need to be changed in the education system of the pondok, so that they continue to stand and live to provide the religious spirit to every Muslim as has been proved before. Yet these benefits outweigh the weaknesses. It should not be repealed. It is important to find new formulas to empower this institution in line with the changes in time. It is something which has been proven to be good and useful to mankind, so there is no need to bother to change it. Although there are wooden frames and a roof that need to be replaced, and water wells that should be constructed to ensure the water flows, but again there is no need to destroy what has been strongly built. The good values of each item are fixed. It is also the role of pondok education in religious education that has played an effective role in order to form a noble personality and civilized humans in accordance with the Islamic principles.

  16. What will Donald Trump's presidency mean for health? A scorecard.

    McKee, Martin; Greer, Scott L; Stuckler, David


    US Presidents make their mark on health, for better or worse. Donald Trump campaigned on a populist platform to "make America great again". While the actual policies his administration will pursue-and the priority he will place on each of them-remain in many ways uncertain, both his statements and his nominations for key government posts suggest that his presidency could have profound implications for health. His proposal to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act with a "better reform", his stance on reproductive rights, and his approaches to other areas, such as science policy and climate change, coupled with his stated intention to put "America first" are creating anxiety and uncertainty about America's domestic health policies and its global leadership role in areas such as security and development. We propose criteria on which the global health community can judge the success or failure of a Trump presidency, based on a selection of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals that apply to health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resonance coupling in plasmonic nanomatryoshka homo- and heterodimers

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Pala, Nezih


    Here, we examine the electromagnetic (EM) energy coupling and hybridization of plasmon resonances between closely spaced concentric nanoshells known as "nanomatryoshka" (NM) units in symmetric and antisymmetric compositions using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis. Utilizing plasmon hybridization model, we calculated the energy level diagrams and verified that, in the symmetric dimer (in-phase mode in a homodimer), plasmonic bonding modes are dominant and tunable within the considered bandwidth. In contrast, in the antisymmetric dimer (out-of-phase mode in a heterodimer), due to the lack of the geometrical symmetry, new antibonding modes appear in the extinction profile, and this condition gives rise to repeal of dipolar field coupling. We also studied the extinction spectra and positions of the antibonding and bonding modes excited due to the energy coupling between silver and gold NM units in a heterodimer structure. Our analysis suggest abnormal shifts in the higher energy modes. We propose a method to analyze the behavior of multilayer concentric nanoshell particles in an antisymmetric orientation employing full dielectric function calculations and the Drude model based on interband transitions in metallic components. This study provides a method to predict the behavior of the higher energy plasmon resonant modes in entirely antisymmetric structures such as compositional heterodimers.

  18. [Euthanasia outside Europe].

    Julesz, Máté


    The passive form of euthanasia is legalized almost in every civilized country. Its active form is not a generally accepted legal institution. In Europe, active euthanasia is legalized only in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland. In Australia, the Act on the Rights of the Terminally Ill of 1995 legalized the institution of assisted suicide, which is not identical to active euthanasia. The difference lies in the fact that legalized active euthanasia means that the author of a murder is not punishable (under certain circumstances), whilst assisted suicide is not about murder, rather about suicide. In the first case, the patient is killed on his or her request by someone else. In the second case, the patient himself or herself executes the act of self-killing (by the assistance of a healthcare worker). In Australia, the institution of assisted suicide was repealed in 1997. Assisted suicide is legal in four USA member states: in Vermont, Washington, Montana and Oregon. In Uruguay, the active form of euthanasia has been legal since 1932.

  19. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Ellis Washington


    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  20. the Construction of Criminal Justice Case Guiding System of China%我国刑事司法案例指导制度的构建设想



    将中国刑事司法案例指导制度作为制定法的补充,对维护法的统一性、安定性,实现社会公平、正义具有重要的意义。文章分别就刑事司法指导性案例的遴选、刑事司法指导性案例的创制主体、刑事司法指导性案例的公布及备案、刑事司法指导性案例的适用和刑事司法指导性案例的废止与修改五个方面,提出粗略设想。%Criminal justice guiding system as a supplement should be constructed so as to give full scope to the positive role of the latter in criminal and judicial activities.This paper suggests ideas of the selection of criminal Justice guiding case,the principal part of creating criminal Justice guiding case,the promulgation and record of criminal Justice guiding case,the repeal and revision of criminal Justice guiding case.

  1. Statute of Limitations in Uruguay and the ethical-political essence of the left

    Ana Buriano


    Full Text Available This paper compares parties and citizen behavior in the referendum and plebiscite of 1989 and 2009 in Uruguay, concerning the derogation or repeal of articles of the amnesty law, as well as the unfinished epilogue of this process. This will allow us to observe a change in the axis-force that drives citizens' initiatives in the matter. While in 1989 the Frente Amplio (FA assumed and promoted the derogatory referendum, in 2009 the social organizations won the centrality of the scene. In that last year the negative position and subsequent support for the plebiscite campaign by the partisan left. Its virtual absence from the coalition generates doubts about the management of the demands concerning human rights and the ethical-doctrinal nature of the partisan left. Although in 2010 the FA tried to resume leadership, it was weakened by an internal dispute that resulted in contempt towards the legislative debate to neutralize the effects of the act. The civic, identity and perhaps political configuration of the XXI century Uruguay will depend on the resolution of this gap.

  2. Resonance coupling in plasmonic nanomatryoshka homo- and heterodimers

    Arash Ahmadivand


    Full Text Available Here, we examine the electromagnetic (EM energy coupling and hybridization of plasmon resonances between closely spaced concentric nanoshells known as “nanomatryoshka” (NM units in symmetric and antisymmetric compositions using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD analysis. Utilizing plasmon hybridization model, we calculated the energy level diagrams and verified that, in the symmetric dimer (in-phase mode in a homodimer, plasmonic bonding modes are dominant and tunable within the considered bandwidth. In contrast, in the antisymmetric dimer (out-of-phase mode in a heterodimer, due to the lack of the geometrical symmetry, new antibonding modes appear in the extinction profile, and this condition gives rise to repeal of dipolar field coupling. We also studied the extinction spectra and positions of the antibonding and bonding modes excited due to the energy coupling between silver and gold NM units in a heterodimer structure. Our analysis suggest abnormal shifts in the higher energy modes. We propose a method to analyze the behavior of multilayer concentric nanoshell particles in an antisymmetric orientation employing full dielectric function calculations and the Drude model based on interband transitions in metallic components. This study provides a method to predict the behavior of the higher energy plasmon resonant modes in entirely antisymmetric structures such as compositional heterodimers.

  3. A Standardized Procedure for a Pre-evaluation of the IED Instance

    Panepinto, Deborah; Ruffino, Barbara; Zanetti, Mariachiara; Genon, Giuseppe


    This study presents a procedure, called EICS (Enterprise IPPC Compatibility Study) aimed at evaluating, by means of the calculation of three indexes, the compliance of the processes performed in an industrial plant with the guidelines provided by BREFs (BAT References) Documents. In fact, according to European Directive 2010/75/EU (concerning the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control and repealing European Directive 2008/01/EC), industrial plants must require authorizations to the competent authority stating the conformity of their activity, in order to obtain this conformity they are advised to Best Available Technologies (BAT). The aim of the BATs is to avoid or minimize the impact of an industrial activity on the environment through the prevention of the atmospheric emissions, wastewater discharge and energetic consumption, and the correct waste management thus improving the efficiency of the plant. The procedure shown in the present paper has been tested on several types of industrial plant (cement plants, secondary smelt foundries, paper-mill, and automotive industries as regards their paint lines). In this paper, the application of EICS method to a cement plant is presented: the obtained results highlight a good correlation between the index values and the real situation of the plant.

  4. Results of the Utah-Arizona stage-by-stage migrations

    Ellis, D.H.; Mellon, C.; Kinloch, M.; Dolbeare, T.; Ossi, D.P.


    In an effort to find a safer means of teaching cranes new migration routes, each year (in 1998 and 1999) we transported a group of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) stage-by-stage, in a horse trailer, with stops for brief flights at about 30-km intervals, along a 1300-1400-km fall migration route from Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (Fish Springs) in west-central Utah to the vicinity of Gila Bend, Arizona. Thereafter, we released them into a wild flock of sandhill cranes. All stage-by-stage birds were hand-reared with both a plastic crane decoy (to encourage them to roost in water) and a costume-draped humanoid form (called a scare-eagle and used for its namesake purpose). When these 2 teaching aids were placed in water, our cranes readily roosted nearby. All but 4 of our cranes proved cooperative (i.e., catchable at each of the ca 25-36 stops) during the migration. All were efficiently released into a wild flock and experienced good survival. The stage-by-stage method proved to be a safe means of transporting cranes south and giving them experience along the route. Some cranes apparently learned their route from the limited experience afforded by releasing them at intervals, and the 1999 cranes have made repealed migrations to or near our chosen northern terminus. However, after 1 winter in our chosen area, the birds have moved elsewhere to winter.

  5. MACRA 2.0: are you ready for MIPS?

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ansari, Sameer A; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Nicola, Gregory N


    The annual cost of healthcare delivery in the USA now exceeds US$3 trillion. Fee for service methodology is often implicated as a cause of this exceedingly high figure. The Affordable Care Act created the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) to pilot test value based alternative payments for reimbursing physician services. In 2015, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) was passed into law. MACRA has dramatic implications for all US based healthcare providers. MACRA permanently repealed the Medicare Sustainable Growth Rate so as to stabilize physician part B Medicare payments, consolidated pre-existing federal performance programs into the Merit based Incentive Payments System (MIPS), and legislatively mandated new approaches to paying clinicians. Neurointerventionalists will predominantly participate in MIPS. MIPS unifies, updates, and streamlines previously existing federal performance programs, thereby reducing onerous redundancies and overall administrative burden, while consolidating performance based payment adjustments. While MIPS may be perceived as a straightforward continuation of fee for service methodology with performance modifiers, MIPS is better viewed as a stepping stone toward eventually adopting alternative payment models in later years. In October 2016, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released a final rule for MACRA implementation, providing greater clarity regarding 2017 requirements. The final rule provides a range of options for easing MIPS reporting requirements in the first performance year. Nonetheless, taking the newly offered 'minimum possible' approach toward meeting the requirements will still have negative consequences for providers.

  6. The role played by stakeholders in the public debate that brought Italy out of the club of nuclear energy producers.

    Cantone, Marie Claire; Sturloni, Giancarlo; Brunelli, Giancarlo


    In 1964, Italy was the fourth largest world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactors, second in Europe only to United Kingdom. In subsequent years, various controversial political events contributed towards drastically slowing down the development of the Italian national nuclear program. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, which caused a public outcry all over Europe, had particularly serious repercussions in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted to repeal three laws promoting the installation of nuclear power plants (NPP) on Italian soil and allowing the National Institute for Electrical Energy (ENEL) to participate in the construction of NPP's abroad. This work analyzes the reasons for that decision and the communication strategies of the stakeholders that took part in the public debate on nuclear energy during the weeks following the Chernobyl accident. Drawing from the methodologies used in media studies, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of two leading Italian newspapers was performed. The results reveal that a variety of stakeholders, upholding different values and interests, took part in the debate. There being no tradition of a public dialogue and participation in Italy, the debate was polarized to a "yes/no choice," which eventually caused Italy to abandon the production of nuclear power for civilian use.

  7. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    Nirwono, Muttaqin Margo; Choi, Kwang Sik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  8. The Workforce Task Force report: clinical implications for neurology.

    Freeman, William D; Vatz, Kenneth A; Griggs, Robert C; Pedley, Timothy


    The American Academy of Neurology Workforce Task Force (WFTF) report predicts a future shortfall of neurologists in the United States. The WFTF data also suggest that for most states, the current demand for neurologist services already exceeds the supply, and by 2025 the demand for neurologists will be even higher. This future demand is fueled by the aging of the US population, the higher health care utilization rates of neurologic services, and by a greater number of patients gaining access to the health care system due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Uncertainties in health care delivery and patient access exist due to looming concerns about further Medicare reimbursement cuts. This uncertainty is set against a backdrop of Congressional volatility on a variety of issues, including the repeal of the sustainable growth rate for physician reimbursement. The impact of these US health care changes on the neurology workforce, future increasing demands, reimbursement, and alternative health care delivery models including accountable care organizations, nonphysician providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants, and teleneurology for both stroke and general neurology are discussed. The data lead to the conclusion that neurologists will need to play an even larger role in caring for the aging US population by 2025. We propose solutions to increase the availability of neurologic services in the future and provide other ways of meeting the anticipated increased demand for neurologic care.

  9. 浅评列斐伏尔的异化理论%Simple comment on Henri Lefebvre's dissimilation theory



    列斐伏尔通过解释马克思的异化观点来阐述自己的异化理论,他认为异化是全面的,无所不在,并进而揭示了异化的根源就在人的本质中,与生俱来,个人无法从中得以解脱。异化的消除就是“总体的人”的确立,要造出“总体的人”就要开展总体的行动。%Henri Lefebvre related his own dissimilation theory through explaining Marx's dissimilation theory. He thought dissimilation was general, and repealed the root of dissimilation had been included into the mankind essence since the birth of a man and the man himself can't relieve from it. The relief of dissimilation was the establishment of "a general man", and at the same time a general move must be taken.

  10. Microfluidics co-culture systems for studying tooth innervation

    Pierfrancesco ePagella


    Full Text Available Innervation plays a key role in the development and homeostasis of organs and tissues of the orofacial complex. Among these structures, teeth are peculiar organs as they are not innervated until later stages of development. Furthermore, the implication of neurons in tooth initiation, morphogenesis and differentiation is still controversial. Co-cultures constitute a valuable method to investigate and manipulate the interactions of nerve fibres with their target organs in a controlled and isolated environment. Conventional co-cultures between neurons and their target tissues have already been performed, but these cultures do not offer optimal conditions that are closely mimicking the in vivo situation. Indeed, specific cell populations require different culture media in order to preserve their physiological properties. In this study we evaluate the usefulness of a microfluidics system for co-culturing mouse trigeminal ganglia and developing teeth. This device allows the application of specific media for the appropriate development of both neuronal and dental tissues. The results show that mouse trigeminal ganglia and teeth survive for long culture periods in this microfluidics system, and that teeth maintain the attractive or repulsive effect on trigeminal neurites that has been observed in vivo. Neurites are repealed when co-cultured with embryonic tooth germs, while postnatal teeth exert an attractive effect to trigeminal ganglia-derived neurons.In conclusion, microfluidics system devices provide a valuable tool for studying the behaviour of neurons during the development of orofacial tissues and organs, faithfully imitating the in vivo situation.

  11. Valoración médico legal de las secuelas neuro-sicológicas post trauma cráneo-encefálico

    Franz Vega Zúñiga


    Full Text Available Los traumatismos craneoencefálicos son producidos principalmente en accidentes de la ruta y en accidentes laborales, implicando una importante derogación por parte de los entes aseguradores y del Estado. Un alto porcentaje de las indemnizaciones que se pagan se hacen con base en el cálculo de la Incapacidad Funcional Permanente que establece el experto perito médico forense, quien debe fundamentar su criterio pericial en métodos científicos y objetivos, descartando estados anteriores y simulaciones, tan frecuentes en nuestro medio.The head injury are produced mainly in accidents of the route and in labor accidents, implying an important repeal on the part of the entities insurers and of the State. A high percentage of the compensations that they are paid is made with base in the calculation of the Permanent Functional Inability that the expert forensic medical settles down who should base his expert approach in scientific and objective methods, discarding previous states and simulations, so frequent in our means.

  12. Why do so many Americans oppose the Affordable Care Act?

    Dalen, James E; Waterbrook, Keith; Alpert, Joseph S


    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed by a Democratic Congress and signed into law by a Democratic president in 2010. Republican congressmen, governors, and Republican candidates have consistently opposed the ACA and have vowed to repeal it. Polls have consistently shown that it is supported by care. Yet Medicare, a mandatory insurance for seniors administered by the federal government since 1965, is overwhelmingly approved by the American public. The opposition to a government role in health care is based on the fact that that the vast majority of our citizens do not trust their government. Republicans are much less trusting of the federal government and much less supportive of a government role in health care than Democrats. The overwhelmingly negative TV ads against the ACA by the Republican candidates in the elections of 2012 and 2014 have had a major impact on Americans' views of the ACA. More than 60% of Americans have stated that most of what they know about the ACA came from watching TV. Opposition to a government role in health care and to mandatory health insurance makes it unlikely that the US will be able to insure that all of its citizens have ongoing access to health care in the near future.

  13. On a Cognitive Model of Semiosis

    Konderak Piotr


    Full Text Available What is the class of possible semiotic systems? What kinds of systems could count as such systems? The human mind is naturally considered the prototypical semiotic system. During years of research in semiotics the class has been broadened to include i.e. living systems (Zlatev, 2002 like animals, or even plants (Krampen, 1992. It is suggested in the literature on artificial intelligence that artificial agents are typical examples of symbol-processing entities. It also seems that (at least some semiotic processes are in fact cognitive processes. In consequence, it is natural to ask the question about the relation between semiotic studies and research on artificial cognitive systems within cognitive science. Consequently, my main question concerns the problem of inclusion or exclusion from the semiotic spectrum at least some artificial (computational systems. I would like to consider some arguments against the possibility of artificial semiotic systems and I will try to repeal them. Then I will present an existing natural-language using agent of the SNePS system and interpret it in terms of Peircean theory of signs. I would like also to show that some properties of semiotic systems in Peircean sense could be also found in a discussed artificial system. Finally, I will have some remarks on the status of semiotics in general.

  14. Comparison of Survival and Safety Requirements in European Union for Recreational Craft Inspections. A Spanish Case Study

    J. Torralbo


    Full Text Available Statistical data shows that a large number of maritime accidents are related to recreational craft. For instance, in Spain, more than fifty percent of the emergencies are related to pleasure boats at sea. Recreational craft marketed in the EU must comply with harmonized technical safety and environmental requirements defined by Directive 94/25/EC, as amended in 2003. On 28 December 2013, the new recreational craft directive 2013/53/EU was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. EU Member States have until 18 January 2016 to amend their national legislation and transpose the new directive. The current directive 94/25/EC as amended by directive 2003/44/EC will be repealed on 18 January 2016, after the full application of the new text. Although this directive, there is not a clear coordination and equivalence among the EU countries according to the survival and safety equipment compulsory for recreational crafts. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the types of survey / inspections to be carried in pleasure craft (non-commercial use, periodicity and required safety equipment in some member states of the European Union. A case study of Spain is presented. From the results obtained, we can make clear that in the European Union there is a lack of coordination in this area and indicate the need to unify a common pattern in inspections and survival and safety requirements of recreational boats in the EU.

  15. Nature of selenium sub-monolayer effect on the oxygen electro-reduction reaction activity of Ru(0001)

    Stolbov, Sergey


    I present here the results of the first principles studies of the adsorption energetics of the intermediates of the oxygen electro-reduction reaction (ORR) on the Se modified Ru(0001) surface. The calculations were performed for the 1/3 ML and 1/6 ML coverage of Se, as well as for the clean Ru(0001) as a reference. The binding energies of O and OH on Ru(0001) are found to decrease significantly upon the presence of the Se and this effect to be increasing with the Se coverage. The Se surface modification is found not to change Ru LDOS noticeably. However, Se atoms accept electronic charge from the surface and thus become negatively charged. As a result, they repeal electrostatically the adsorbed negatively charged O and OH intermediates, and this way reduce their binding energies. This effect provide an alternative way of tuning reactivity of the catalyst surfaces. Since for the Ru case, reduction of the O and OH binding energies makes ORR energetically favorable, Se modification dramatically improve the ORR r...

  16. Propuneri de revizuire a regimului constituțional al ordonanțelor de urgență

    Emil BOC


    Full Text Available Emergency ordinances are one of the most controversial issues in our political and constitutional system as the current constitutional stipulations are not able to stop the Governments’ abusive practice of passing this type of ordinances. During the 25 years of existence of the present Constitution, 2,850 emergency ordinances have been issued, an average of one emergency ordinance every three days. The exaggerated number of emergency ordinances affects the quality, the stability and the predictability of the legislative process, as well as the relation between the legislative power and the executive power. When revising the Constitution in 2003, new stipulations regarding the use of emergency ordinances have been introduced in order to limit the Governments’ discretionary practice, but they proved to be insufficient. Since the real emergency situations already have legislative solutions, on the occasion of a new revision of the Constitution, the emergency ordinances should either be removed from the Constitution (in correlation with the extension of the legal legislative delegation during the parliamentary sessions and the revision of the organic laws regime or they should be maintained, subject to repeal if they are not converted into law within 60 days from their adoption (as in the Italian model. We support, with arguments, the first option of constitutional reform.

  17. Eco-transformation of steel industry in China: from the perspective of industrial ecology and circular economy

    LI Su-qin; CANG Da-qiang; LUO Shi-mei; ZHU Fang


    Recently the behavior of human has resulted in the deterioration of global ecological environment, and global warming and environmental pollution have caused the occurrence of extreme events frequently If we repeal the reckless environmental overkill, civilization will enter a vicious circle of decline and lose even the strength and vitality to live in harmony with the environment. At present, China is in a ,special period of rapid economic development. Some enterprises focus on short-term pro[its and don't formulate long-term strategies. For example, with the rapid expansion of the steel industry, some serious problems have emerged. Based on principles of industrial ecology and the concept of circular economy; to develop a new development model, taking a new road to industrialization is very necessary Re-examining the current steel enterprises, this paper proposes the new methods of the integration of material, energy mtegration, water system integration and sharing of information and facilities. Through ecologicahzation of technology system and industrial structure and product structure adjustment, the eco-transformation of the modern steel industry will be gradually achieved in China.


    Janice Traflet


    Full Text Available This paper examines the complex factors facilitating the rise of high frequency trading (HFT from a historical perspective. Over the course of several decades, various stock market regulations and reforms, championed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, created room for HFT to develop and flourish. While advancements in technology initially may appear to be the primary cause of HFT, in fact, HFT could not exist (or at least, not to the extent it does today if certain rules and older ways of doing business on the exchanges were still in place, and if other regulations did not support its existence. This paper identifies multiple factors contributing to the eventual rise of HFT: decimalization, the decline of the specialist system, market fragmentation, rate deregulation, the repeal of the uptick rule, demutualization of the stock exchanges, and the institution of Regulation National Market System [NMS]. Moreover, it seeks to position these developments within the broader context of long-standing aims and themes embraced by the SEC.


    Dr Jephias Mapuva


    Full Text Available The dynamic and controversial nature of Zimbabwean politics has manifested itself through several undemocratic practices, including restrictive legislation which sought to diminish participatory spaces and/or curtail civil liberties. Corruption, gross human rights violations and arbitrary decision-making processes have created a rift between citizens and the state. This has further created space for the establishment of pro-democracy civil society movements which have sought to mobilise citizens towards the restoration of democracy. The desire to cling to power by the ruling elites has seen the enactment of restrictive legislation that seeks to curtail and impinge on civil liberties and restrict the political landscape in favour of the ruling elites. Key legislative framework presented in this paper is within the areas of media and access to information, individual rights and freedoms, as well as legislation pertaining to the conduct of elections. In some cases, colonial legislation that politicians claimed to have repealed was reincarnated, as the post-colonial dispensation asserted its authority over its defenceless people.

  20. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald


    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless.

  1. Identification of Photosynthesis-Associated C4 Candidate Genes through Comparative Leaf Gradient Transcriptome in Multiple Lineages of C3 and C4 Species.

    Ding, Zehong; Weissmann, Sarit; Wang, Minghui; Du, Baijuan; Huang, Lei; Wang, Lin; Tu, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Silin; Myers, Christopher; Brutnell, Thomas P; Sun, Qi; Li, Pinghua


    Leaves of C4 crops usually have higher radiation, water and nitrogen use efficiencies compared to the C3 species. Engineering C4 traits into C3 crops has been proposed as one of the most promising ways to repeal the biomass yield ceiling. To better understand the function of C4 photosynthesis, and to identify candidate genes that are associated with the C4 pathways, a comparative transcription network analysis was conducted on leaf developmental gradients of three C4 species including maize, green foxtail and sorghum and one C3 species, rice. By combining the methods of gene co-expression and differentially co-expression networks, we identified a total of 128 C4 specific genes. Besides the classic C4 shuttle genes, a new set of genes associated with light reaction, starch and sucrose metabolism, metabolites transportation, as well as transcription regulation, were identified as involved in C4 photosynthesis. These findings will provide important insights into the differential gene regulation between C3 and C4 species, and a good genetic resource for establishing C4 pathways in C3 crops.

  2. Identification of Photosynthesis-Associated C4 Candidate Genes through Comparative Leaf Gradient Transcriptome in Multiple Lineages of C3 and C4 Species.

    Zehong Ding

    Full Text Available Leaves of C4 crops usually have higher radiation, water and nitrogen use efficiencies compared to the C3 species. Engineering C4 traits into C3 crops has been proposed as one of the most promising ways to repeal the biomass yield ceiling. To better understand the function of C4 photosynthesis, and to identify candidate genes that are associated with the C4 pathways, a comparative transcription network analysis was conducted on leaf developmental gradients of three C4 species including maize, green foxtail and sorghum and one C3 species, rice. By combining the methods of gene co-expression and differentially co-expression networks, we identified a total of 128 C4 specific genes. Besides the classic C4 shuttle genes, a new set of genes associated with light reaction, starch and sucrose metabolism, metabolites transportation, as well as transcription regulation, were identified as involved in C4 photosynthesis. These findings will provide important insights into the differential gene regulation between C3 and C4 species, and a good genetic resource for establishing C4 pathways in C3 crops.

  3. From exclusion to acceptance: a case history of homosexuality in the U.S. Court of Military Appeals.

    Wilson-Buford, Kellie


    Policing the legality and normalcy of service members' sexual lives was a contentious process for military courts throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s that resulted in the inconsistent enforcement of the homosexual exclusion policy. Military personnel of all ranks and occupations harbored a variety of attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality that challenged the legitimacy and uniformity of the military's legal assault on sexual deviance. Over half of the active duty personnel originally accused of homosexual tendencies received either sentence reductions or sentence reversals as a result of this highly contested process by which official military policy was translated into practice via courts-martial. Paradoxically, the very policies that discriminated against alleged homosexual service members generated legal avenues through which gays and lesbians exercised their rights to due process, and, ultimately, their rights as American citizens embodied in the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. Rather than being an ideologically homophobic monolith, the Cold War American military rocked with contestation over an exclusion policy that attempted--unsuccessfully--to eliminate all gay and lesbian service members.

  4. Irom Chanu Sharmila and the Movement against Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA

    Aparajita Sharma


    Full Text Available This paper, through the narratives of activists and Meira Paibis reiterates the slogan—repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA, which is draconian and anti-people in spirit. The atroci- ty, which has been meted out on the people of Manipur because of this Act, is a profound viola- tion of human rights. Rape, mindless killings, kidnapping, fake encounters have been normalised by virtue of this Act. The youths have been badly affected due to the conflict emerging out of this Act which treats people in Manipur as ‘objects’ against the imagined boundaries of the Indian na- tion-state for security from the neighbouring nations. In this process, the lived experiences of the people have been pushed to the periphery against the massive motive of the state to protect bor- ders and the imagined nation, which is a direct offshoot of the legacy of colonialism in India. The paper has tried to capture the history of Manipur on a capsule to concretise the struggle of Irom Sharmila and the ‘hopes’ she gives to the people of Manipur for ‘peace’ and ‘justice’. Alongside, it makes a humble attempt to describe the ‘life’ of Irom Sharmila. In addition, it describes the rage of Manipuris, which have given rise to insurgency asking for ‘freedom’ through various platforms.

  5. How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from a Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization.

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi


    Regulatory entry barriers to hospital service markets, namely Certificate of Need (CON) regulations, are enforced in many US states. Policy makers in other states are considering reinstating CON policies in tandem with service expansions mandated under the Affordable Care Act. Although previous studies examined the volume effects of CON, demand responses to actual entry into local hospital markets are not well understood. In this paper, we empirically examine the demand-augmenting, demand-redistribution, and risk-allocation effects of hospital entry by studying the cardiac revascularization markets in Pennsylvania, a state in which dynamic market entry occurred after repeal of CON in 1996. Results from interrupted time-series analyses indicate demand-augmenting effects for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and business-stealing effects for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures: high entrant market share mitigated the declining incidence of CABG, but it had no significant effect on the rising trend in PCI use, among patients with coronary artery disease. We further find evidence that entry by new cardiac surgery centers tended to sort high-severity patients into the more invasive CABG procedure and low-severity patients into the less invasive PCI procedures. These findings underscore the importance of considering market-level strategic responses by hospitals when regulatory barriers are rescinded.

  6. What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?

    Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Cerdá, Magdalena; Villaveces, Andrés; Galea, Sandro


    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed studies exploring the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries/deaths. We restricted our search to studies published from 1950 to 2014. Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths. Laws restricting the purchase of (e.g., background checks) and access to (e.g., safer storage) firearms are also associated with lower rates of intimate partner homicides and firearm unintentional deaths in children, respectively. Limitations of studies include challenges inherent to their ecological design, their execution, and the lack of robustness of findings to model specifications. High quality research on the association between the implementation or repeal of firearm legislation (rather than the evaluation of existing laws) and firearm injuries would lead to a better understanding of what interventions are likely to work given local contexts. This information is key to move this field forward and for the development of effective policies that may counteract the burden that firearm injuries pose on populations.

  7. The impact of the EU general data protection regulation on scientific research.

    Chassang, Gauthier


    The use of personal data is critical to ensure quality and reliability in scientific research. The new Regulation [European Union (EU)] 2016/679 of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data [general data protection regulation (GDPR)], repealing Directive 95/46/EC, strengthens and harmonises the rules for protecting individuals' privacy rights and freedoms within and, under certain conditions, outside the EU territory. This new and historic legal milestone both prolongs and updates the EU acquis of the previous Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR fixes both general rules applying to any kind of personal data processing and specific rules applying to the processing of special categories of personal data such as health data taking place in the context of scientific research, this including clinical and translational research areas. This article aims to provide an overview of the new rules to consider where scientific projects include the processing of personal health data, genetic data or biometric data and other kinds of sensitive information whose use is strictly regulated by the GDPR in order to give the main key facts to researchers to adapt their practices and ensure compliance to the EU law to be enforced in May 2018.

  8. Trump proposes initial healthcare agenda

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. On Friday, November 11, President-elect Trump proposed a healthcare agenda on his website (1. Yesterday, November 12, he gave an interview on 60 Minutes clarifying his positions (2. Trump said that he wanted to focus on healthcare and has proposed to: •Repeal all of the Affordable Care Act; •Allow the sale of health insurance across state lines; •Make the purchase of health insurance fully tax deductible; •Expand access to the health savings accounts;•Increase price transparency; •Block grant Medicaid; •Lower entrance barriers to new producers of drugs. In his 60 Minutes interview Trump reiterated that two provisions of the ACA – prohibition of pre-existing conditions exclusion and ability for adult children to stay on parents insurance plans until age 26 – have his support (2. Other aspects of the ACA that might receive his support were not discussed. On the Department of Veterans’ Affairs ...

  9. Medi-Cal blamed for poor care in lawsuit

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Several sources are reporting a lawsuit filed in California alleging poor care in the state’s Medicaid program, Medi-Cal (1. The suit alleges that Medi-Cal failed to pay doctors enough to provide proper care. The suit was filed by five Latino residents on behalf of California’s 13 million lower-income residents, more than half of them Latinos. The suit alleges that "…California has created a separate and unequal system of health care, one for the insurance program with the largest proportion of Latinos (Medi-Cal, and one for the other principal insurance plans, whose recipients are disproportionately white.” The state budget includes $107 billion in state and federal funding for Medi-Cal this year, but the spending is not enough to restore reimbursement cuts made during the Great Recession of 2008. A proposal in the U.S. Senate to repeal the Affordable Health Care law (ACA, Obamacare could drastically reduce funding for Medicare and the …

  10. Hollow plasma channel for positron plasma wakefield acceleration

    W. D. Kimura


    Full Text Available Plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA has demonstrated the ability to produce very high gradients to accelerate electrons and positrons. In PWFA, a drive bunch of charged particles passes through a uniform plasma, thereby generating a wakefield that accelerates a witness bunch traveling behind the drive bunch. This process works well for electrons, but much less so for positrons due to the positive charge attracting rather than repealing the plasma electrons, which leads to reduced acceleration gradient, halo formation, and emittance growth. This problem can be alleviated by having the positron beam travel through a hollow plasma channel. Presented are modeling results for producing 10–100 cm long hollow plasma channels suitable for positron PWFA. These channels are created utilizing laser-induced gas breakdown in hydrogen gas. The results show that hollow channels with plasma densities of order 10^{16}  cm^{-3} and inner channel radii of order 20  μm are possible using currently available terawatt-level lasers. At these densities and radii, preliminary positron PWFA modeling indicates that longitudinal electric fields on axis can exceed 3  GV/m.

  11. On the economics of the Russian oil sector

    Khartukov, E. M. [International Center for Petroleum Business Studies, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The effects of political changes in the 1990s, particularly the hasty privatization of the oil industry, the all-out price liberalization and the radical transformation of the oil sector`s taxation regime in Russia were examined. Details of the various tax regimes - excise duties on crude oil (introduced in 1992), contributions for mineral reserves replacement (1993), royalties on extracted and exported hydrocarbons (1992), investment fund deductions (1992, repealed in 1994), and the general tax on profits, introduced at 32 per cent in 1992, raised to 38 per cent in 1994,- were provided. As a result of this multitude of taxes, this core sector of Russia`s economy has turned into the main tax-paying, but hardly profitable, business. It survives on marginal, and at times even negative, after-tax returns. According to official taxation data, in 1994 the after-tax profitability of the country`s oil producing industry dropped to seven per cent, compared to 50 per cent enjoyed by Russian crude producers at the beginning of 1992. Downstream refinery margins have been equally low. Since the beginning of liberalization they have rarely exceeded five per cent and often dropped to one per cent. In an effort to save the industry, the government finally provided tax relief by removing export duties for Russian oil products effective December 1, 1995.

  12. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia


    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating).

  13. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona


    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  14. Moving across boundaries: migration in South Africa, 1950-2000.

    Reed, Holly E


    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government's suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans.

  15. Cadastro Ambiental Rural: uma análise da nova ferramenta para regularização ambiental no Brasil

    Sarita Soraia de Alcântara Laudares


    Full Text Available The enactment of Law No. 12.651/12, known as the New Brazilian Forest Code for repealing the Code of 1965 and laying out the native vegetation of the country, led discussions and divided opinions as to the environmental adequacy of rural properties. This article aims at gathering and analyzing technical information available in the literature about the new system of environmental regulation, the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR. The new law requires environmental regulation to those who need access to rural credit. Legalization of properties in relation to the Forest Code is crucial to their full activity, both from environmental and credit point of view. However, the replacement of the notarial system by the electronic registration creates a scenario of legal instability, as a new instrument still undergoing adoption, and so far with no clear definition for their effective and practical applicability. It is expected that the system will be less bureaucratic for being a technical and specialized procedure carried out by the environmental agency itself.


    Alin Sorin NICOLESCU


    Full Text Available With the entry into force of the New Criminal Code, the offenses of road safety on public roads have been repealed from the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 95/2002 and inserted into the contents of the normative document. At the time of the transition, the legislator has chosen to amend certain aspects relating to the existing criminal incriminations of antisocial deeds in direct connection with the road domain. The regulation of the offense for putting into circulation or driving an unlisted vehicle contained in the provisions of article 334 of the New Criminal Code has a correspondent in Article 85 of the GEO no. 195/2002 on the circulation on public roads. The deeds incriminated by the provisions referred to in Article 334 par. (1, (2, (3 and (4 have the content almost identical with the previous settlement thereof, with differences under the aspect of the sanctioning regime. Also, regarding the content, the only difference which is meant to better clarify the incrimination conditions refers to the requirement that the vehicle or the tram not to be registered or recorded according to the law. During the study, we shall try to present a series of theoretical aspects and judicial practice regarding the committing of such crimes.

  17. The New Legal Regime on Minority Shareholder Protection in Albania

    Jonida Rustemaj


    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by the new Albanian Company Law on minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not familiar to the Albanian legal system. I was motivated to write a paper on minority shareholders protection in order to emphasize the new regime and instruments of protection granted by the new laws. A matter which concerns investors and especially foreign ones is the protection of minority shareholders. This paper discusses the instruments of protection of minority shareholders bringing the novelties of the newly introduced laws because of the unclear regime under the repealed law using the analytical and comparative method. Few rights which were known by the former Albanian company law were usually compromised, but under the law in force, minorities are much more protected.Does the new law strengthen the position of such category of shareholders? What are the rights of minority shareholders conferred by the law? These and other questions will be addressed herein.

  18. Updates: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components.


    During routine testing of civilian applicants for U.S. military service, the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 in 2011 was the second lowest of any year since 1990. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Army, HIV-1 seroprevalences were higher during 2008 to 2011 than in recent prior years. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Army National Guard, HIV-1 seroprevalences have slightly declined or remained relatively stable for at least ten years. In the reserve components of most service branches, it is difficult to discern long-term trends because of instability of seroprevalences in the relatively small numbers of reserve component members tested each year. Monitoring of HIV-1 seroprevalences can help target and focus prevention initiatives. The recent repeal of the Don't Ask Don't Tell policy has created opportunities for prevention messages targeted to men who have sex with men.

  19. On the relation between moral, legal and evaluative justifications of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

    Lohmann, Georg


    In Germany the question whether to uphold or repeal the judicial prohibition on Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is being debated from quite different standpoints. This paper differentiates the major arguments according to their reasons as a) moral, b) evaluative (i.e. cultural/religious), and c) legal. The arguments for and against PGD can be divided by content into three groups: arguments relating to the status of the embryo, focusing on individual actions in the implementation of PGD, and relating to the foreseeable or probable consequences of PGD. In Germany, from a legal perspective, the status of the embryo does not permit the intervention of PGD; from a purely moral perspective, a prohibition on PGD does not appear defensible. It remains an open question, however, whether the moral argument permitting PGD should be restricted for evaluative (cultural) reasons. The paper discusses the species-ethical reasons, for which Jurgen Habermas sees worrisome consequences in the wake of PGD to the extent that we comprehend it as the forerunner of a 'positive eugenics'. It would so disrupt the natural preconditions of our universal morality. The question of whether to prohibit or allow PGD is not merely a question of simple moral and/or legal arguments, but demands a choice between evaluative, moral and (still to be specified) species-ethical arguments, and the question remains open.

  20. The Global Politics of Gay Rights: The Straining Relations between the West and Africa

    Hakeem Onapajo


    Full Text Available This article analyses the contemporary global politics of gay rights as it relates to the straining relations between the Western powers and many African states that oppose sexual minorities’ rights. While the West (with emphasis on the United States, EU, and Britain advocates for the protection of gay rights in the world, Africa provides the largest concentration of states opposed to them. Therefore, there has been rising tension between both regions. This became more apparent after Nigeria and Uganda, respectively, signed their anti-gay bills into law in January and February 2014. In response to this, the Western powers decided to take some punitive measures, especially imposition of sanctions, against the countries to pressurise them to repeal their laws. In an unusual manner, the African states are radically determined to go ahead with their anti-gay laws in open defiance to the demands of the Western powers. This development, which is informed by a number of factors, shows a rather new pattern of behaviour by African states in global politics.

  1. [Financial and economic sustainability of public spending on health care by local governments: an analysis of data from municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi


    Brazil's Unified National Health System is financed according to a model known as fiscal federalism, the fund-sharing rules of the Social Security Budget, Ministry of Health norms, and Constitutional Amendment 29 (EC-29), which links Federal, State, and municipal resources to health. This article discusses the sustainability of public spending on health at the municipal level. Twenty-one municipalities were studied, using municipal budget data. From 1996 to 2006, total current per capita revenues increased by 280% above the accumulated inflation and Gross Domestic Product, varying by size of municipality, which also defined the composition of the municipal budgets. Meanwhile, the budget comprising the basis for EC-29 increased less (178%), thus placing limits on the municipal share of health spending. The results observed in these municipalities are believed to reflect the reality in thousands of other Brazilian municipalities, thus jeopardizing the capacity for municipal investment in health, especially beginning in 2008. The situation may become even worse, considering the repeal of the so-called Bank Transaction Tax (CPMF), Bills of Law 306/08 and 233/08 (currently under review in the National Congress), and the world recession stemming from the U.S. financial crisis.

  2. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Marcus, Donald M


    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident.

  3. Genotype comparisons of strains of Candida albicans from patients with cutaneous candidiasis and vaginal candidiasis

    SHE Xiao-dong; WANG Xue-jun; FU Mei-hua; SHEN Yong-nian; LIU Wei-da


    Background It is uncertain whether genotypes of Candida albicans (C. Albicans) are associated with colonizing body locations or variant conditions of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are significant associations between strain genotypes and body sites of infection and to determine the potential pathogenesis of cutaneous candidiasis at multiple locations.Methods A total of 151 strains of C. Albicans were isolated from 74 infant patients with cutaneous candidiasis and 61 female patients with vaginal candidiasis. Patients were grouped according to the body sites and underlying conditions of infection. Genolypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 25S rDNA and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ALT repeals digested with EcoRI and Clal.Results Ten genotypes were detected. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies between the two groups. However, we found no clear association between genotypes and the sites of cutaneous infection or the underlying conditions of vaginal candidiasis (VVC). In addition, strains of C. Albicans from multiple cutaneous locations of the same patient had identical genotypes.Conclusions Populations of C. Albicans from patients with cutaneous and vaginal candidiasis were genetically different. However, the lack of genetic difference between strains from different body sites with cutaneous infections or from different underlying conditions for VVC suggests no evidence of genotype selection for different skin surfaces or patients with different underlying conditions for VVC.

  4. European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) policy statement 12.1: Recommendations on medical physics education and training in Europe 2014.

    Caruana, C J; Christofides, S; Hartmann, G H


    In 2010, EFOMP issued Policy Statement No. 12: "The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations" to be applied to education and training in Medical Physics within the context of the developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from the Bologna Declaration and with a view to facilitate the free movement of Medical Physics professionals within Europe. Concurrently, new recommendations regarding qualifications frameworks were published by the European Parliament and Council which introduced new terminology and a new qualifications framework - the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning. In addition, a new European directive involving the medical use of ionizing radiations and set to replace previous directives in this area was in the process of development. This has now been realized as Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 which has repealed directive 97/43/Euratom. In this regard, a new document was developed in the context of the EC financed project "European Guidelines on the Medical Physics Expert" and published as RP174. Among other items, these guidelines refer to the mission statement, key activities, qualification framework and curricula for the specialty areas of Medical Physics relating to radiological devices and protection from ionizing radiation. These developments have made necessary an update of PS12; this policy statement provides the necessary update.

  5. Deformation of nanostructures on polymer molds during soft UV nanoimprint lithography

    Gilles, Sandra; Offenhaeusser, Andreas; Mayer, Dirk [Institute of Bio and Nanosystems, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Diez, Mar; Lensen, Marga C, E-mail: [DWI e.V. and Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)


    Soft nanoimprint lithography (soft NIL) relies on a mechanical deformation of a resist by a patterned polymer used as a mold. Here, we report on the investigation of the nanopattern fidelity of the high pressure imprint process based on a perfluorinated polyether (PFPE) soft mold material. The perfluorinated polyether material was found to be well suited to transfer the mold pattern into the resist by a direct imprinting process at low cost. Moderate deformations of the polymer mold structures occurring during the high pressure imprint are systematically studied. Features of decreased size are found to be more sensitive to pattern distortions. An optimized pattern design with increased structure density and constant pattern ratio is developed to minimize deformation effects. Imprints performed on the basis of these design rules result in reduced deformations and repeal their size dependence. The improved pattern transfer, especially for small structural elements, turns the direct and cost-effective soft UV-NIL into an interesting technique also for patterning tasks in the lower nanometer range.

  6. Transfer Pricing Principles VAT/GST v. Direct Taxation

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl


    In this paper the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive [1] are subject to a more detailed analysis, with a view to considering them in the light of the well-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax...... Convention, [2] including an examination of whether it is appropriate to base transfer pricing rules on the same principles in the two different areas of tax law. [1] Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the common system of value added tax, OJ L 347 of 11 December 2006, pp. 1-118 (EC VAT...... Directive). The EC VAT Directive is primarily a recasting of the Sixth EC VAT Directive. The recasting is not intended to make substantive amendments to the previous law (see recital 3 of the preamble to the Directive). Thus, according to Art. 411(2) of the EC VAT Directive, references to the repealed...

  7. Are gay and lesbian people fading into the history of bioethics?

    Murphy, Timothy F


    In many ways, we live in propitious times for gay and lesbian people. In 1996, the Supreme Court struck down Colorado law prohibiting any kind of protected status based on sexual orientation. In 2003, the Supreme Court held that states may not criminalize sexual conduct between consenting adults of the same sex in private, so long as no money changes hands. In 2010, the Congress repealed the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy that excluded openly gay men and lesbians from military service. In 2013, the Supreme Court struck down key elements of the Defense of Marriage Act that prohibited any federal recognition of same-sex marriage. Most states do not allow same-sex marriage, but more and more states are joining the fold. Likewise, most U.S. states do not forbid discrimination based on sexual orientation, but the number that does is increasing. Arguably, no other social minority has made as much legal progress in so short a time. Despite these advances, the story of gay and lesbian people and the law is not yet finished, and the meaning of homosexuality for bioethics is still being written too. Concerns about gay and lesbian people remain important to bioethics in key domains, especially in seeing to the conferral of optimal health care benefits and in sorting through the priorities and social effects of research. Progress in these domains still involves lifting certain burdens of medical and social misjudgments about same-sex attraction. © 2014 by The Hastings Center.


    Benone PUŞCÃ


    Full Text Available The principle of separation of powers appeared in the extent to which it felt the need to establish the constitutional regime. The symbiosis idea of democracy with the principle of separation of powers in state under the representative regime is explained by the fact that some doctrines, at the end of the century XVIII, have finally managed to subordinate the idea of Montesquieu in only one principle, namely, the principle of separation of powers. Moreover, Montesquieu was considered the father of this principle, and he claimed that the representative regime without separation of powers could lead to tyranny. Under the tradition, legislative power is granted to the Parliament. Therefore, the Parliament makes the laws for a long period or even forever, improves or repeals the existing ones.This feature of the Parliament results of both classic doctrine and from some constitutions, such as that of Romania, which in art. 61 (1 shows that the “Parliament is the supreme representative body of the Romanian people and the sole legislative authority of the country”. Under the second power, the executive one, the concept is related to the implementation of laws on individual cases. Executive power has in view the existence of two bodies: The Head of State and the Government, with clear and specific tasks set by the Constitution of Romania. Under the judiciary power, the courts punish crimes and judges litigations between private people.

  9. Reduction of fossil fuel emissions in the USA: a holistic approach towards policy formulation

    Bandyopadhyay, G.; Bagheri, F.; Mann, M. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks (United States)


    In the United States, the response of the federal government to the global initiative of reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} has been limited. With the Kyoto Protocol having entered into force in February 2005, there will be renewed international pressure on the United States for action. Concurrently, the US economy, growing modestly, is characterized by large current account and budget deficits. This situation calls for garnering additional revenue through repealing of the recent tax cuts. An option available is to impose a modest carbon tax. The rationale of such a tax is that it would address the twin objectives of additional revenue and reduction of emissions. In this paper, the impact of a hypothetical carbon tax imposed in a revenue-neutral context on 2001 household incomes is analyzed primarily to ascertain its progressivity. Progressivity of any tax is strongly associated with its political acceptability. The incidence of the hypothetical carbon tax is computed across the income quintiles. It is observed that only the households in the highest income quintile and the lowest income quintile are impacted by the tax. It is found that this tax is weakly regressive in the US context. (author)

  10. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    Stephen Blake


    Full Text Available Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  11. Terrorism in South Africa.

    MacFarlane, Campbell


    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  12. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report).

    Ferrario, Daniele; Rabbit, Richard R


    On June 12, 2009, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation concerning the placement on the market and use of biocidal products, which, when it enters into force on January 1, 2013, will repeal and replace Directive 98/8/EC. The main reason for the revision of the current Directive was to promote best practices for environmental and human health protection, along with implementation of current developments in safety testing in order to create safer biocides. Moreover, the proposed Regulation aims to take into consideration the newest legislation on chemicals. This article evaluates the proposed Regulation in comparison to Directive 98/8/EC. Although the new proposal requires the sharing of vertebrate animal test data, both for product authorization and for newly developed active substances, it misses - in contrast to REACH - the opportunity to recognize the accelerating development of alternative approaches to animal testing, most recently with new momentum provided by "Toxicity Testing for the 21st Century", and to support the evolution of toxicology towards a new approach to testing. The new methods promise not only to decrease animal pain and suffering, but also to provide faster results and better prediction for human risk assessment compared to traditional methods. Unfortunately, methods mandated for human risk assessment in the proposal are still mainly based on traditional animal study extrapolation. We put forward and discuss possible alternative strategies, such as in vitro testing, integrated testing strategies, toxicokinetics, "omics", systems biology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, all of which could be more encouraged by the proposal. Current opportunities to improve our tools for biocide risk assessment are discussed, delineating advantages, limitations, and development needs. It is suggested to open the proposed Regulation to alternative approaches that are based on human biology more than on extrapolation from animals

  13. From the Dog Whistle to the Dog Scream: The Republican Party's (AbUse of Discriminatory speech in Electoral Campaigns and Party Politics

    Luiza-Maria Filimon


    Full Text Available The 2016 U.S. presidential election can be described as nostalgic. On one hand, there was the fond remembrance of the Clinton administration characterized by a period of economic prosperity which overshadowed the more disastrous aftermath of various policies (the crime bill, the welfare reform, the Defense of Marriage Act, the repeal of the 1933 Glass-Steagall Act, etc.. On the other, the 2016 election brought to the surface a dormant longing for a privileged past rooted in open discrimination, inequality, segregation, and white supremacy, echoed by Donald Trump’s campaign. The Republican candidate had won the party’s nomination by openly and devoutly proselytizing against minority groups that allegedly threaten the fabric, integrity, and security of the United States. The more ethnic stereotypical caricatures and outright lies he employed in his speeches, the more successful his primary campaign was and the more he unnerved the Republican establishment, the general electorate, and the media. Yet Donald Trump’s campaign was not innovative by any means. Instead, as this study will argue, Trump’s electoral success during the primary elections can be in part attributed to the Republican Party’s decades-long history of strategic racism that has been instrumental in grooming the party’s base into Donald Trump’s supporters. In order to showcase that Trump’s ascendancy to the top of the Republican primary election was not a political accident, but a natural progression of decades-old officially sanctioned electoral policies, the study analyzes the origins behind the “dog whistle” practice, based on the model of strategic racism advanced by Ian Haney López. In conducting this research, I provide examples from U.S. public officials – past and present – and also highlight the role of the media in the propagation and cultivation of dog whistle politics.

  14. Lifetime extension of nuclear power plants. Exclusive competence of the Bundestag?; Laufzeitverlaengerung fuer Kernkraftwerke. Entscheidung zwischen Bundestag und Bundesrat?

    Scholz, Rupert [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Politik und oeffentliches Recht


    With the Act on the structured phase-out of the utilisation of nuclear energy for the commercial generation of electricity (Gesetz zur geordneten Beendigung der Kernenergienutzung zur gewerblichen Erzeugung von Elektrizitaet) of 22 April 2002 (Federal Gazette I p. 1351), the ''nuclear power phase-out'' was implemented into law. Ever since then, section 7 (1a) of the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz - AtG) has provided that the authorisation to operate a nuclear power plant expires once the electricity volume for the respective installation as listed in Appendix 3, column 2 or the electricity volume derived from transfers has been produced. The coalition treaty of the current government factions provides for extending the operating periods of nuclear power plants. To this end, paragraphs 1a to 1d of section 7 AtG could be repealed, thus restoring the legal status prevailing prior to the ''phase-out''. As an alternative it would be conceivable to increase the values set forth in Appendix 3 for the energy volume quantity of a given installation accordingly. Both alternatives require an amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, over which the Deutsche Bundestag has exclusive competence. This is stated in the Grundgesetz (Constitution). Such a amendment would not require the consent of the Bundesrat, since the administrative tasks assigned to the Federal States (Laender) on behalf of the Federal Government pursuant to sec. 7, 24 (2) AtG would not be changing in a qualitative sense. Consequently, it would not constitute interference with the administrative powers of the Federal States from an organizational or procedural point of view. The quantitative change in the tasks to be performed by the Federal States on behalf of the Federal Government that would accompany an extension of the operating periods would not lead to a right of consent on the part of the Bundesrat pursuant to Art. 87c of the Grundgesetz. (orig.)

  15. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    Hadi, Sibte


    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam.

  16. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana


    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  17. What's at Stake in U.S. Health Reform: A Guide to the Affordable Care Act and Value-Based Care.

    Rambur, Betty A


    The U.S. presidential election of 2016 accentuated the divided perspectives on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as Obamacare. The perspectives included a pledge from then candidate Donald J. Trump to "repeal and replace on day one"; Republican congressional leaders' more temperate suggestions in the first weeks of the Trump administration to "repair" the Affordable Care Act (ACA); and President Trump's February 5, 2017 statement-16 days after inauguration-that a Republican replacement for the ACA may not be ready until late 2017 or 2018. The swirling rhetoric, media attention, and the dizzying rate of U.S. health and payment reforms both within and outside of the ACA makes it difficult for nurses, both United States and globally, to discern which health policy issues are grounded in the ACA and which aspects reflect payer-driven "volume to value" reimbursement changes. Moreover, popular and controversial elements of the ACA-for example, the clause that prohibits insurance carriers to deny coverage to those with preexisting health conditions and the more controversial individual mandate that bears Supreme Court support as a constitutional provision-are paired in ways that might be unclear to those unfamiliar with nuances of insurance rate determination. To support nurses' capacity to maximize their impact on health policy, this overview distills the 906-page ACA into major themes and describes payment reform legislation and initiatives that are external to the ACA. Understanding the political and societal forces that affect health care policy and delivery is necessary for nurses to effectively lead and advocate for the best interests of their patients.

  18. An Embarrassment of Riches or a Profusion of Confusion? An Evaluation of the Continued Existence of the Civil Union Act of 2006 in the Light of Prospective Domestic Partnerships Legislation in South Africa

    B Smith


    Full Text Available As it stands, South African family law currently holds that the Marriage Act 25 of 1961 applies exclusively to the solemnisation of heterosexual civil marriages while same-sex couples have no choice but to formalise their relationships in terms of the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006. In addition, the legal position is complicated by the fact that the latter Act not only allows both heterosexual and homosexual couples to conclude a civil union, but also provides that a civil union may take the form of either a marriage or a civil partnership, both of which enjoy the same legal recognition as, and give rise to the same legal consequences, as a civil marriage under the Marriage Act.In January 2008, a draft Domestic Partnerships Bill saw the light of day, the potential enactment of which casts significant doubt as to whether the prevailing framework should be retained. With this potential development in mind, this paper considers the desirability of maintaining the "separate but equal" status quo by: (a comparing the South African Law Reform Commission's pre-Civil Union Act proposals with the approach eventually adopted by the legislature; (b comparing and contrasting the post-Civil Union Act position in South Africa with that of an established and well-ordered jurisdiction such as the Netherlands and, in the light hereof, considering the cases for and against repealing the Civil Union Act; and (c by considering the desirability and practicality of the civil partnership's potential co-existence with the Domestic Partnerships Bill (as modified in accordance with a recent study. A proposal is made that could provide a less complex and better streamlined family law dispensation in South Africa.

  19. Effect of peat characteristics on P, N and DOC mobilization from re-wetted peat soils - a laboratory column study for the impacts of restoration on forestry-drained peatlands

    Koskinen, Markku; Kaila, Annu; Asam, Zaki; Uusitalo, Risto; Smolander, Aino; Kiikkilä, Oili; Sarkkola, Sakari; Kitunen, Veikko; Fritze, Hannu; Nousiainen, Hannu; Tervahauta, Arja; Xiao, Liwen; Nieminen, Mika


    Peatlands are an integral part of the hydrological cycle in the boreal and temperate zones, providing ecosystem services such as water filtering. From the mid to late 1900's, over 15 ha of peatlands and wetlands were drained for forestry in the temperate and boreal zones, causing deterioration of biodiversity and loss of ecosystem services. They are now being restored in order to reverse this development. Restoration of pealands has been found to cause leaching of DOC and nutrients after water level rise and expansion of reducing conditions in the peat. A molar ratio between redox-sensitive Fe and P in the peat of < 10 has been previously suggested as a limit value indicating risk of high P export. The ratio, however, does not predict the level of P release well when the value is < 10. It has also been suggested that redox-sensitive Fe is involved in the export of DOC via consumption of protons during reduction reactions of Fe, which reduces the soil positive charge and makes the DOC molecules more electronegative, which makes them repeal each other. An incubation experiment was conducted to study factors affecting P, N and DOC release from inundated peat from forestry-drained peatlands of several fertility classes. It was discovered that in addition to Fe, a high ratio of Al to P in the peat reduces P export under reducing conditions. High peat Fe content was also found to predict high DOC export, suggesting that minerotrophic sites are susceptible to post-restoration DOC leaching due to the Fe in their peat. Microbial biomass and mineralization potential of the peat were not found to be important for the export of DOC or P. High NO3 content in the peat predicted high export of NH4 under reducing conditions.

  20. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.


    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  1. Algunas consecuencias del régimen de transición contemplado en el derogado artículo 40 del Decreto 1220 de 2005

    Andrés Gómez Rey


    Full Text Available El presente artículo de reflexión desea exponer cómo los regímenes de transición del licenciamiento ambiental colombiano han traído como consecuencia dificultades sobre la evaluación, el seguimiento y el control de las ac- tividades que impactan los recursos naturales y por ende sobre el ejercicio de derechos colectivos. Para mostrarlo se utilizará el contenido del artículo 40 del derogado De- creto 1220 de 2005 para así ver: a cómo algunas acciones adoptadas en pro y defensa del ambiente, por las entida- des que componen el Sistema Nacional Ambiental, posi- blemente comprendan conflictos de competencia, que al ser resueltos hagan nugatorias las decisiones de al menos una de las enfrentadas, y b la utilización de las compe- tencias diferenciadas (sin conflicto, las cuales tendrán como consecuencia la nugación del derecho real de uso precario (Devis, 1944 que sobre los recursos naturales se otorga a los particulares a través de las diversas autoriza- ciones administrativas ambientales. AbstractTo show how transition regimes of Colombian envi- ronmental licensing carry difficulties out on assessment, following and activities control and their impact on nat- ural resources over exercise of these collective rights are addressed in this reflection paper. The content of repealed Article 40, Decree No. 1220 dated 2005 is used to show a the actions taken within Environmental National System defending and caring of environment, making possible to figure out conflict of competences and once resolved, renders nugatory the decisions by at least one of the par- ties involved and b different competences use, which will have as a consequence the ineffectiveness real use of nat- ural resources right (Devis, 1944, throughout different environmental administrative authorizations granted to individuals. 

  2. Las unidades ambientales homogéneas como herramienta para la ordenación territorial y la caracterización de litorales áridos / Use of Homogeneous Environmental Management Units as a Tool for Land-Use Planning and Characterization of Arid Coasts

    Javier Camino Dorta


    Full Text Available En Canarias, en las últimas dos décadas se ha generalizado en la actividad de ordenación territorial el empleo de las denominadas unidades de diagnóstico, que fueron reguladas en 1995 por el Decreto 35/95 de Evaluación Ambiental (hoy derogado. Las unidades ambientales homogéneas se han convertido en una herramienta del planificador. La validez de las mismas, los problemas y ventajas que ofrecen en la práctica, es analizada en este artículo de cara a la ordenación y gestión litorales. Desde la praxis se valora la eficacia de esta metodología en las costas orientales de Canarias y su posible extrapolación a otros territorios continentales, comprobando su validez y eficacia en las cercanas costas saharianas y su espacio litoral.In the Canary Islands, the use of so-called diagnostic units, has been widespread in the activity of land usein the last two decades. These diagnostic units were regulated in 1995 by Decree 35/95 of Environmental Assessment (now repealed. Homogenous environmental management units have become a tool for planners. Their validity, problems and advantages are analyzed in this paper for coastal planning and management. In practice, effectiveness of this methodology on the eastern coasts of the Canary Islands and its possible extrapolation to other mainland regions is assessed by checking its validity and effectiveness in nearby Saharan coasts and coastal areas.

  3. Evolution of US Health Care Reform.

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A


    Major health policy creation or changes, including governmental and private policies affecting health care delivery are based on health care reform(s). Health care reform has been a global issue over the years and the United States has seen proposals for multiple reforms over the years. A successful, health care proposal in the United States with involvement of the federal government was the short-lived establishment of the first system of national medical care in the South. In the 20th century, the United States was influenced by progressivism leading to the initiation of efforts to achieve universal coverage, supported by a Republican presidential candidate, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, included a publicly funded health care program while drafting provisions to Social Security legislation, which was eliminated from the final legislation. Subsequently, multiple proposals were introduced, starting in 1949 with President Harry S Truman who proposed universal health care; the proposal by Lyndon B. Johnson with Social Security Act in 1965 which created Medicare and Medicaid; proposals by Ted Kennedy and President Richard Nixon that promoted variations of universal health care. presidential candidate Jimmy Carter also proposed universal health care. This was followed by an effort by President Bill Clinton and headed by first lady Hillary Clinton in 1993, but was not enacted into law. Finally, the election of President Barack Obama and control of both houses of Congress by the Democrats led to the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), often referred to as "ObamaCare" was signed into law in March 2010. Since then, the ACA, or Obamacare, has become a centerpiece of political campaigning. The Republicans now control the presidency and both houses of Congress and are attempting to repeal and replace the ACA. Key words: Health care reform, Affordable Care Act (ACA), Obamacare, Medicare, Medicaid, American Health Care Act.

  4. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133



    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  5. Order on programmes of assistance favouring emigrants, 15 January 1988.


    This Order sets forth programs of assistance containing the following categories of aid: 1) aid for elderly emigrants who are Spanish or in the process of recovering Spanish citizenship and are ill and incapable of working; 2) aid to cover the extraordinary costs related to emigration or the return of Spanish emigrant workers and their families who are in a state of need; 3) aid to facilitate the integration into the workplace of returned Spanish emigrants who are unemployed; 4) aid for emigrant centers, associations, and federations helping Spanish emigrants; 5) aid to organizations to improve the assistance and hospital and cultural activities that they provide to Spanish emigrants; 6) aid to organizations that promote professional and occupational orientation and training to facilitate the professional promotion and insertion in the workplace of Spanish emigrant workers; 7) aid to Spanish emigrants and their families resident abroad who have special abilities and wish to pursue higher education and lack the means to do so in Spain; 8) aid to young Spanish emigrants resident abroad to promote their participation in cultural, sociocultural, artistic, and youth activities; 9) aid to promote the social integration of foreign workers in Spain; and 10) aid to programs involving the exchange of young workers within the European Economic Community. Further provisions of the Order deal with beneficiaries of aid, documentation required, and applications, among other things. This Order repeals provisions of an Order of 30 January 1987 (Boletin Oficial del Estado, No. 42, 18 February 1987, pp. 4952-4964) on the same topic in so far as those provisions are in conflict with the provisions of this Order.

  6. The Functioning of Ombudsman (Public Protector in South Africa: Redress and Checks and Balances?

    Moses MONTESH


    Full Text Available The fi rst South African Ombudsman appointed in 1979 in terms of the Advocate-General Act 118 of 1979, as amended by Advocate-General Amendment Act 55 of 1983, was known as the Advocate-General. The need for this of fi ce was apparent after the facts about the Information Scandal had come to light. The of fi ce of the Advocate-General could be compared to that of the Special Prosecutor of the United States, which was also instituted in similar fashion in the wake of the Watergate scandal. The primary reason for the creation of the of fi ce of the Advocate-General was to maintain honest public administration and orderly government. This of fi ce was replaced by the Ombudsman in 1983 after amending the Advocate General Act by the Ombudsman Act of 1983. Then in 1994 the Constitution Act 108 of 1996 repealed the Interim Constitution Act 200 of 1993 and paved the way for the promulgation of the Public Protector Act 23 of 1994 which made provision for the establishment of the of fi ce and the governing principles of the Public Protector. In view of the above brief explanation, this article seeks to unravel evolution of the Ombudsman in South Africa, the challenges affecting the functioning of the Public Protector including the “independence” of the of fi ce as well as the duplication of functions with other agencies. One case study will be used, namely, the controversial “Arms Deal Joint Investigation” as well a comparative study will be done with the Parliamentary Ombudsman of Sweden.




    Full Text Available The contract is the very heart of the Civil Code, and it is in fact also the cornerstone of any society, as without it relations and rapport amongst citizens could not occur nor unfold, and as such it is presently considered an effective legal instrument for organizing the behavior of all members of society. The importance of contracts, the extent of contractual freedoms, the rapports that contracts entertain with laws, norms and other regulations and the means to properly frame and limit the State’s intervention in the economy all hinge on the evolution of society and it’s general ideological proclivity. The contract acts as the mirror of all this and it comes as no surprise that a society that has shortly left an organization based on the tenants of communism still bears the full weight of this ideology when it comes to contracts. In the framework of the New Civil Code, the contract is viewed as based on a series of principles which are carefully drawn and well established in the general consciousness. As such, altering these principles would naturally cause important concern and uncertainty between the Parties to the Contract. Therefore, when times require repealing from a principle, this should be implemented with the greatest prudence by the legislature. This paper contains a summary of the guiding principles of contracts from the provisions of the New Civil Code. For the first time in our legal history, these provisions regulate the two most fundamental principles of contracts; contractual freedom and good faith, which is why the author chose to insist on these new regulations

  8. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    As states have gained experience with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) policies, many have made significant revisions to existing programs. In 2015 and 2016, seven states raised and extended their final RPS targets, while another state enacted a new RPS policy (Barbose 2016b). Interest in expanding and strengthening state RPS programs may continue, while efforts like recent proposals in many states to repeal or freeze existing RPS policies may also persist. In either context, questions about the potential costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS programs are usually central to the decision-making process. This report follows on previous analyses that have focused on the historical costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing state RPS programs (Heeter et al. 2014; Wiser et al. 2016a). This report examines RPS outcomes prospectively, considering both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. The goal of this work is to provide a consistent and independent analytical methodology for that examination. This analysis relies on National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to estimate changes to the U.S. electric power sector across a number of scenarios and sensitivity cases, focusing on the 2015–2050 timeframe. Based on those modeled results, we evaluate the costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy contributing to RPS compliance using the suite of methods employed in a number of recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): a report examining retrospective benefits and impacts of RPS programs (Wiser et al. 2016a), the Wind Vision report (DOE 2015), the On the Path to SunShot report focusing on environmental benefits (Wiser et al. 2016b), and the Hydropower Vision report (DOE 2016).

  9. Social capacity building towards flood risk resilience in England: The impact of shifts in risk governance

    Begg, C.; Walker, G.


    CapHaz-Net - capacity building for natural hazards in Europe: towards more resilient societies - sees efforts to reduce vulnerability to natural hazards as a social endeavor. One of the findings from this project is the importance of as well as the advantages and pitfalls of participation within the natural hazard management process. Although participation is seen to be important it is still only a small part of the overall management process. However, as European societies see shifts in risk governance from the state to the local level, how are these participation processes likely to change? This paper takes these findings and looks at England as a case study. This case study focuses on the Big Society which promises to be the change that will remedy what Prime Minister David Cameron sees as a broken society. The idea has been put into practice through the Localism Act. The Act seeks not to totally repeal state control but to make decision-making processes more democratic. This includes less bureaucracy for local government to deal with and more space for innovation when dealing with local issues and support for volunteers, mutuals, co-ops, charities and social enterprises to get involved in decision-making and provision of services. But how is this shift going to be everything that it promises to be? And, what does this shift mean for flood risk management? Moreover, how are local people engaged to become involved in shaping the decisions that affect them? By conducting interviews with key stakeholders, this research aims at gaining an understanding of forms of participation that exist in the British context and the public reaction to such opportunities. In turn, this research aims to understand the boundaries of localism in regards to the delivery of flood risk management.

  10. AIDS and the law: opportunities and limitations.

    Kirby, M


    Laws can only partially succeed in modifying behavior, especially with regard to sex, drug use, and other human pleasures. Effective and just laws to slow the spread of AIDS must therefore be based upon a thorough knowledge of the issues, not upon ignorance, fear, political expediency, or to meet the emotional demands of an often ignorant general population. Good laws, like good ethics, are founded in good data. The most effective response to the AIDS epidemic is neither prohibition nor punishment of individual behavior, but laws designed to truly affect human behavior and shape a society in which the spread of HIV is minimized. Central to an appropriate legislative response is the imperative of protecting the basic rights of individuals infected with HIV. An example of an enlightened, rational, and nondiscriminatory approach to checking the spread of HIV/AIDS while guaranteeing individual freedoms and rights is found in a report commissioned for the State Government of New South Wales. The following measures are recommended to bring state laws into harmony with the national HIV/AIDS strategy: decriminalize brothels, set regulations and public health standards for sex workers, cover sex workers under the Industrial Relations Act, ensure the privacy of HIV/AIDS patients and improve their redress against discrimination in the workplace, repeal laws which make it illegal to possess and administer drugs to oneself, investigate the therapeutic use of marijuana as a prescribed treatment for HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses, abandon compulsory testing for HIV in prisons, make condoms available to prisoners and sexually active children, establish a Natural Death Act to allow terminally ill patients to die with dignity, and give legal status to permanent relationships between homosexual couples.

  11. The Adult Educator of Immigrants as an Intercultural Consultant

    Athina A. Sipitanou


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Inspired by this multi-cultural situation in Greece and the need of immigrants for participation in adult education, this article examines an aspect of the Adult Educator who has to develop intercultural techniques in the frame of his role in order to become an Intercultural consultant. Therefore the aim of this study is to examine specific characteristics that define the Adult Educator as an Intercultural Consultant. In this way, the Adult Educator contributes to the smooth functioning of educational and thus socialization process in a multinational class. Approach: We present some statements that are likely to occur during an educational program when the student group is culturally different. In particular we focus on situations that are perceived as challenges by the Adult Educator and also recommend practices and guidelines for facing them. Results: The challenges that the Educator has to repeal, expressed in the student group, from the Educator to group and from the group to Educator. The description of possible situations shows up lingering stereotypes, negative attitudes, difficulties in interpreting multicultural communication styles and conflict. Combining practices which the Educator could apply in similar situations, we end up proposing the revision of views through acquaintance with the “other” culture, empathy, promote parity of relationships, humor and cultivating a climate of cooperation. Conclusion: Consequently the Adult Educator as an Intercultural Consultant can adjust the presence of immigrant student in the classroom and contribute to redefining experiences and perceptions of both-culturally diverse learners and the Educator.

  12. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy.

    Nackerud, L; Springer, A; Larrison, C; Issac, A


    This article describes and analyzes the Clinton Administration's decision to end the almost automatic acceptance of Cubans as political refugees to the US. The decision came after the Balsero Crisis in July 1994 after many people stormed embassies and diplomatic residences in Havana, Cuba, demanding asylum and complaining about impoverished living conditions. Riots erupted. The May 2, 1995, policy ended the indefinite detention of over 28,000 Cubans in safe haven camps, repealed the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, restricted travel to Cuba, halted monetary remittances to Cuba, equalized the number of annual visas from Cuba, and legalized the return of Cubans adrift at sea. The goals were to solve the immediate migration crisis created by Cubans detained at Guantanamo Bay, to implement controls of future waves of Cuban asylum seekers, and to oppose Castro with economic and political initiatives. The economic embargo during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s devastated the Cuban economy and led to its alliance with the USSR. Each of the four waves of migration was distinctive in composition and reasons for migrating. By the mid-1990s, Cuba was no longer a threat, Soviet interests in Cuba had declined, and the policy was hoped to bring about the collapse of Castro and promotion of democracy. The 1994 resolution ended the contradictory and preferential treatment of Cubans. It also ended the selectivity of the US in admitting those from countries the US was directly opposed to. The permanence of the embargo due to legislation in 1996 is a push factor for mass migrations.

  13. Impasse of the 21st century accountants: Need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike


    Full Text Available Ethical uprising, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body is an issue of concern that need to be uphold due to the succession of corporate scandals that took place in Nigeria and the world over, thereby undermining the image of the accountancy profession. These corporate scandals in no doubt challenged the credibility of financial statements, auditing and corporate governance practices for which accountants are directly linked with. In this paper, we examined the impasse of the 21st century accountants and the need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Several impasses facing the 21st century accountants were identified such as expectation gap (resulting to loss of public confidence in the profession, falsifying financial statements and engaging in ‘negative accounting’ among others. Questionnaire was administered to three (3 classes of respondents (investors, auditors and accounting regulatory bodies and the data obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The study found that the impasse facing the 21st century accountants can be repealed via ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Owing to the above findings, we proposed that the accounting regulatory bodies and the government should sanction accountants and firms engaged in unscrupulous accounting practices as well as revoking the licenses of professional accountants that precipitate such actions. As a matter of fact, seminars and workshop on issues relating to ethics and accounting guidelines should be organized for professional accountants. Also, code of professional conducts should be strictly enforced on all professional accountants by the regulatory body. It is our candid believe that if these recommendations are fully implemented, it will go a long

  14. A Historical Overview of the Regulation of Market Abuse in South Africa

    Howard Chitimira


    Full Text Available In an early attempt to combat market abuse in the South African financial markets, legislation such as the Companies Act, the Financial Markets Control Act and the Stock Exchanges Control Act were enacted. However, these Acts failed to effectively curb market abuse activities that were allegedly rife in the financial markets. Consequently, the Insider Trading Act was enacted and came into effect on 17 January 1999. While the introduction of the Insider Trading Act brought some confidence in the financial markets, market abuse activities were still not extinguished. The provisions of the Insider Trading Act were to some extent inadequate and ineffectively implemented. Eventually, the Securities Services Act was enacted to repeal all the flawed provisions of the Insider Trading Act. Notwithstanding these efforts on the part of the legislature, more may still need to be done to increase the number of convictions and settlements in cases involving market abuse in South Africa. It is against this background that a historical overview analysis of the regulation of market abuse is carried out in this article to expose the flaws that were previously embedded in the South African market abuse laws prior to 2004. This is done to raise awareness of the situation on the part of the relevant stakeholders, as they consider whether such flaws were adequately resolved or subsequently re-introduced under the Securities Services Act and the Financial Markets Act. To this end, the article firstly discusses the historical development and regulation of market manipulation prior to 2004. Secondly, the regulation and enforcement of insider trading legislation prior to 2004 are examined. Moreover, where possible, certain flaws of the previous market abuse laws that were re-incorporated into the current South African market abuse legislation are isolated and recommendations are made in that regard.

  15. Competition and dental services.

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R


    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market.

  16. Centralized HIV Program Oversight: An Investigation of a Case Series of New HIV Infections among US Army Soldiers, 2012 to 2013.

    Pacha, Laura A; Hakre, Shilpa; Myles, Otha; Sanders-Buell, Eric E; Scoville, Stephanie L; Kijak, Gustavo H; Price, Michael W; Mody, Rupal M; Liu, Ying; Miller, Shana L; Pham, Phuc T; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Peel, Sheila A; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Cersovsky, Steven B; Scott, Paul T


    Centralized HIV program oversight and repeal of the Department of Defense policy "Don't Ask Don't Tell" permitted characterization of HIV transmission among soldiers assigned to a large US Army base continental United States from 2012 to 2013. An investigation of a greater than expected number of new HIV infections among soldiers was initiated to characterize transmission and identify opportunities to disrupt transmission and deliver services.All soldiers who were assigned to the base at the time of their first positive HIV test and who had their first positive HIV test in 2012 or in the first 6 months of 2013 and who had a clinical genotype available for analysis were eligible for inclusion in the investigation.All patients (n = 19) were men; most were black (52%) and less than 30 years old (64%). Fifteen of the 19 patients participated in in-depth interviews. Eighty percent were men who have sex with men who reported multiple sex partners having met through social and electronic networks. All were subtype B infections. Significant knowledge gaps and barriers to accessing testing and care in the military healthcare system were identified. Most (58%) belonged to transmission networks involving other soldiers.This investigation represents an important step forward in on-going efforts to develop a comprehensive understanding of transmission networks in the Army that can inform delivery of best practices combination prevention services. The Army is developing plans to directly engage individuals in key affected populations most at risk for HIV infection to identify and address unmet needs and expand delivery and uptake of prevention services. Further investigation is underway and will determine whether these findings are generalizable to the Army.

  17. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia.

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael


    The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists were performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general, the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified.

  18. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.


    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori

  19. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH


    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV including the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. The plants for planting pathway is considered the most important one and rated as likely, with medium uncertainty. TSWV, reported in many Member States, has one of the widest host range for plant viruses and has three widely distributed thrips vector species in the risk assessment area. For countries falling under the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII legislation, the probability of establishment is rated as very likely, with low uncertainty. For Finland and Sweden, protected zone under the 2000/29/EC Annex IB legislation, the probability of establishment is rated unlikely to moderately likely. Spread can occur through the activity of thrips vectors and through trade of infected hosts. The probability of spread in Member States under Annex IIAII provisions is evaluated as likely, with low uncertainty. In Finland and Sweden, spread is rated as unlikely to moderately likely, with medium uncertainty. Since TSWV may cause both yield and quality losses in a wide range of hosts, a major impact is predictable in the absence of appropriate control measures, with medium uncertainty. The risk reduction options evaluated by the Panel are those addressing either the sanitary status of the propagation material (including the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII and Annex IB, statutory certification system and the use of voluntary industry standards or those addressing the control of TSWV epidemic development through actions directed at the virus or at its vectors (including cultural methods to reduce crop infestation and chemical or biological control of thrips vectors. Limitations of the current measures and the potential consequences of repealing the current legislation are discussed.

  20. Redeployment of a conserved gene regulatory network during Aedes aegypti development.

    Suryamohan, Kushal; Hanson, Casey; Andrews, Emily; Sinha, Saurabh; Scheel, Molly Duman; Halfon, Marc S


    Changes in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) underlie the evolution of morphological novelty and developmental system drift. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the dengue and Zika vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have substantially similar nervous system morphology. Nevertheless, they show significant divergence in a set of genes co-expressed in the midline of the Drosophila central nervous system, including the master regulator single minded and downstream genes including short gastrulation, Star, and NetrinA. In contrast to Drosophila, we find that midline expression of these genes is either absent or severely diminished in A. aegypti. Instead, they are co-expressed in the lateral nervous system. This suggests that in A. aegypti this "midline GRN" has been redeployed to a new location while lost from its previous site of activity. In order to characterize the relevant GRNs, we employed the SCRMshaw method we previously developed to identify transcriptional cis-regulatory modules in both species. Analysis of these regulatory sequences in transgenic Drosophila suggests that the altered gene expression observed in A. aegypti is the result of trans-dependent redeployment of the GRN, potentially stemming from cis-mediated changes in the expression of sim and other as-yet unidentified regulators. Our results illustrate a novel "repeal, replace, and redeploy" mode of evolution in which a conserved GRN acquires a different function at a new site while its original function is co-opted by a different GRN. This represents a striking example of developmental system drift in which the dramatic shift in gene expression does not result in gross morphological changes, but in more subtle differences in development and function of the late embryonic nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health policies on dialysis modality selection: a nationwide population cohort study.

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu


    In Taiwan, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis are fully accessible to patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the usage of PD is considered low in Taiwan. Since 2005, 4 major policies have been implemented by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, namely a multidisciplinary predialysis care programme and usage increasing the PD incidence as a key performance indicator (KPI) for hospital accreditation, both of which were implemented in 2006; reimbursement of the glucose-free dialysate, icodextrin that was implemented in 2007; and insurance reimbursement for renting automated PD machines that was implemented in 2008. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between the PD promotional policies and the actual PD selection rates. We analysed data within the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2006 to 2013, focusing on the PD incidence in relation to the timings of the 4 PD promotional policies; then we stratified the results according to age, sex and the presence of diabetes mellitus. From 2006 to 2013, 115 565 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean (SD) age of patients on PD was 54.6 (15.7) years. During the time frame in which the 4 PD promotional policies were implemented, the PD incidence increased from 12.8% in 2006 to 15.1% in 2009. The PD incidence started to decline in 2010 (13.8%) when the hospital accreditation policy was repealed. The 3 remaining policies were weakly associated with the PD incidence. The observational analysis determined that the patients' ages, sexes and diabetes mellitus incidence rates were relatively stable from 2006 to 2013. Of the 4 health policies intended to promote PD usage, using increasing the PD incidence as a KPI for hospital accreditation had the strongest association with the PD incidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Reproductive rights on firmer ground with prochoice White House, Congress. Special report -- abortion and the 1992 elections.


    After 12 years, the US citizens elected a pro-choice president and preserved the already pro-choice Congress even though new people constitute 25% of the House of Representatives. The Congress gained even more pro-choice members. The abortion issue played an important secondary role (preceded by the economy) in the national elections, but was more important at the state level in many states. For example, voters overwhelmingly chose to preserve access to legal abortion in Arizona (69.31%) and Maryland (62.38%). In addition, 4 new women Senators and a Senator-elect from Colorado publicly proclaimed their pro-choice stance. The states of Missouri, North Carolina, and North Dakota elected pro-choice governors resulting in 30 pro-choice US governors and 20 antiabortion governors. President-elect Clinton can unilaterally repeal 2 of Bush's executive orders: the gag rule and the ban on fetal tissue transplantation research. He will need Congress' support to renew the Title X family planning program, to grant public funding for medically necessary abortions for poor women again, and the pass of the Freedom of Choice Act. Congress and the new president face the obstacle of convincing the public of the damage to basic rights done by the Supreme Court as evidenced by abortion rulings. They also need to lead the pro-choice groups to begin concentrating on how to prevent unwanted pregnancies so as to reduce the number of abortions and the needs of all women who want and need access to safe abortion. The Republican party's great hostility toward abortion and its intolerance for a variety of beliefs and life styles alienated most US citizens. Recent political losses are motivating the Republican party to reorganize but it depends on the moderates' ability and willingness to reclaim the party.

  3. The New Legal Regime On Minority Shareholder Protection In Albania

    Jonida Rustemaj


    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by  the new Albanian Company Law on  minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not  familiar  to  the Albanian  legal  system. I  was motivated  to   write  a  paper on   minority   shareholders protection  in  order to  emphasize  the new regime  and instruments of protection granted by the new laws. A matter which concerns investors and especially foreign ones is the protection of minority  shareholders. This paper discusses the instruments  of  protection  of  minority   shareholders bringing the novelties of the newly introduced laws because of  the unclear regime under the repealed law using the analytical and comparative method. Few rights which  were known by the former Albanian company law were usually compromised, but  under the law in  force, minorities are much more protected. Does the new law strengthen the position of such category of   shareholders?   What  are   the   rights   of   minority shareholders  conferred  by  the  law?  These  and other questions will be addressed herein.

  4. 论海洋石油开发油污事故赔偿责任限制%The Pollution Compensation Liability Limitation in the Development of Marine Oil

    李遐桢; 甄增水


    There is the rationality of the existence on oil pollution accident liability limitation in the develop-ment of offshore oil. However, offshore oil development facilities do not belong to the ship, provisions of liabil-ity limitation on ship oil pollution can't be applied. Under this circumstances of determining the amount of oil spillage, we might as well take " the amount of oil spillage " as standard to liability limitation; Otherwise, "accident system" is suitable. After gulf of Mexico oil pollution accident in the U. S, Some people consider the repeal of liability limitation, but limitation of liability is still adhered, under the background of gradually im-prove in the liability limitation, we should realize the socialization relief of the highly dangerous liability by the insurance system.%海洋石油开发油污事故责任限制仍有存在的合理性。但是,海洋石油开发设施不属于船舶,船舶油污责任限制的规定对其不能适用。在能够确定溢油量的情况下,不妨采取“溢油量”标准确定海洋石油开发油污事故的最终责任限额;否则,适用“事故制”方式确定。美国墨西哥湾油污事故后,废止责任限制的呼声很高,然而责任限制仍得以坚持,在责任限额逐步提高的背景下,应通过保险制度实现高度危险责任的社会化救济。

  5. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    Chou, C H [department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and National Center for Theoretical Sciences (South), Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Hu, B L; Subasi, Y, E-mail: [Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that

  6. Compulsory licensing and the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    Saslow, E L


    One cannot look at the high prevalence and persistent, dramatic spread of HIV in developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, without also examining economic and public health systems. Recent developments in South Africa have highlighted an emerging controversy surrounding the issue of access to essential medicines and drug pricing. Sparked by a South African amendment, Article 15(C) of the Medicines and Related Substances Act 101, passed in 1997, that would allow the South African Minister of Health to provide less expensive generic forms of essential medicines, including anti-HIV therapies, to South Africa, law- and policymakers as well as activists have been taking sides in a complicated debate that mixes important health issues with international trade law, patent protection, economic incentives, and United States domestic law. Threatened by what could be a weakening of patent protection, pharmaceutical firms in the United States, South Africa, and Europe have generally opposed the efforts of the South African government to allow production of such generic products, claiming that the 1997 amendment violates international trade law, particularly the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. AIDS activists and consumer advocates generally support the efforts of the South African government, claiming that international law is flexible in cases of national emergency. Lobbied by the pharmaceutical industry, United States government officials have proposed bilateral trade sanctions in an effort to pressure South Africa to repeal the 1997 amendment. These issues are reviewed in this report. Relevant provisions of Article 15(C) and the TRIPS Agreement are available on the Internet or from the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR).

  7. Smoke Extract Impairs Adenosine Wound Healing. Implications of Smoke-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species

    Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Zhang, Hui; Castellanos, Glenda; O’Malley, Jennifer K.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Horacio; Kharbanda, Kusum; Sisson, Joseph H.; Wyatt, Todd A.


    Adenosine concentrations are elevated in the lungs of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, where it balances between tissue repair and excessive airway remodeling. We previously demonstrated that the activation of the adenosine A2A receptor promotes epithelial wound closure. However, the mechanism by which adenosine-mediated wound healing occurs after cigarette smoke exposure has not been investigated. The present study investigates whether cigarette smoke exposure alters adenosine-mediated reparative properties via its ability to induce a shift in the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Using an in vitro wounding model, bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract, were wounded, and were then stimulated with either 10 μM adenosine or the specific A2A receptor agonist, 5′-(N-cyclopropyl)–carboxamido–adenosine (CPCA; 10 μM), and assessed for wound closure. In a subset of experiments, bronchial epithelial cells were infected with adenovirus vectors encoding human superoxide dismutase and/or catalase or control vector. In the presence of 5% smoke extract, significant delay was evident in both adenosine-mediated and CPCA-mediated wound closure. However, cells pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a nonspecific antioxidant, reversed smoke extract–mediated inhibition. We found that cells overexpressing mitochondrial catalase repealed the smoke extract inhibition of CPCA-stimulated wound closure, whereas superoxide dismutase overexpression exerted no effect. Kinase experiments revealed that smoke extract significantly reduced the A2A-mediated activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate–dependent protein kinase. However, pretreatment with NAC reversed this effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that cigarette smoke exposure impairs A2A-stimulated wound repair via a reactive oxygen species–dependent mechanism, thereby providing a better understanding of adenosine signaling that may direct the development of

  8. Coverage of abortion controversial in both public and private plans.

    Sollom, T


    repeal this prohibition.

  9. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    Bowers, M.A.


    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  10. Efficient Use of Cogeneration and Fuel Diversification

    Kunickis, M.; Balodis, M.; Sarma, U.; Cers, A.; Linkevics, O.


    Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand. In this paper, the authors attempt to assess the potential conflicts between policy political objectives to increase the share of high-efficiency co-generation and renewable energy sources (RES), based on the example of Riga district heating system (DHS). If a new heat source using biomass is built on the right bank of Riga DHS to increase the share of RES, the society could overpay for additional heat production capacities, such as a decrease in the loading of existing generating units, thereby contributing to an inefficient use of existing capacity. As a result, the following negative consequences may arise: 1) a decrease in primary energy savings (PES) from high-efficiency cogeneration in Riga DHS, 2) an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Baltic region, 3) the worsening security situation of electricity supply in the Latvian power system, 4) an increase in the electricity market price in the Lithuanian and Latvian price areas of Nord Pool power exchange. Within the framework of the research, calculations of PES and GHG emission volumes have been performed for the existing situation and for the situation with heat source, using biomass. The effect of construction of biomass heat source on power capacity balances and Nord Pool electricity prices has been evaluated.

  11. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  12. Implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive: Opportunities and Challenges

    Zīgurs, A.; Sarma, U.


    Discussions in Latvia are ongoing regarding the optimum solution to implementing Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC (Directive 2012/27/EU). Without a doubt, increased energy efficiency contributes significantly to energy supply security, competitive performance, increased quality of life, reduced energy dependence and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, Directive 2012/27/EU should be implemented with careful planning, evaluating every aspect of the process. This study analyses a scenario, where a significant fraction of target energy efficiency is achieved by obliging energy utilities to implement user-end energy efficiency measures. With implementation of this scheme towards energy end-use savings, user payments for energy should be reduced; on the other hand, these measures will require considerable investment. The energy efficiency obligation scheme stipulates that these investments must be paid by energy utilities; however, they will actually be covered by users, because the source of energy utilities' income is user payments for energy. Thus, expenses on such measures will be included in energy prices and service tariffs. The authors analyse the ways to achieve a balance between user gains from energy end-use savings and increased energy prices and tariffs as a result of obligations imposed upon energy utilities. Similarly, the suitability of the current regulatory regime for effective implementation of Directive 2012/27/EU is analysed in the energy supply sectors, where supply tariffs are regulated.

  13. Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model.

    Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R


    How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ensuring Appropriate Care for LGBT Veterans in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Sharpe, Virginia Ashby; Uchendu, Uchenna S


    Within health care systems, negative perceptions of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons have often translated into denial of services, denial of visitation rights to same-sex partners, reluctance on the part of LGBT patients to share personal information, and failure of workers to assess and recognize the unique health care needs of these patients. Other bureaucratic forms of exclusion have included documents, forms, and policies that fail to acknowledge a patient's valued relationships because of, for example, a narrow definition of "spouse," "parent," or "family." Bureaucratic exclusion has taken a particularly prominent form in the U.S. military. Until its repeal and termination in 2011, the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy had for eighteen years barred openly gay men and lesbians from serving in the military. Among the effects of DADT is a dearth of information about the number and needs of LGBT service members who transition to the Veterans Health Administration for health care at the end of their military service. The long-standing social stigma against LGBT persons, the silence mandated by DADT, and the often unrecognized bias built into the fabric of bureaucratic systems make the task of creating a welcoming culture in the VHA urgent and challenging. The VHA has accepted a commitment to that task. Its Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2013 through 2018 stipulates that "[v]eterans will receive timely, high quality, personalized, safe, effective and equitable health care irrespective of geography, gender, race, age, culture or sexual orientation." To achieve this goal, the VHA undertook a number of coordinated initiatives to create an environment and culture that is informed, welcoming, positive, and empowering for the LGBT veterans and families whom the agency serves.

  15. Does the U.S. biofuels mandate increase the price at the pump?

    Bolotin, Stephen R.

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 created a federal mandate for blending conventional biofuels like corn-based ethanol and advanced biofuels like biodiesel and renewable gasoline into the United States transportation fuel supply. The RFS established yearly blending standards for the obligated parties--refiners and importers of petroleum products--that increase progressively until reaching a high of 36 billion gallons by 2022. Each ethanol-equivalent gallon of biofuel blended is assigned a unique Renewable Identification Number (RIN) through the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Moderated Transaction System (EMTS). At year's close, obligated parties must submit their allotted RIN obligations to the EPA to demonstrate compliance. In the case of under-compliance or over-compliance, RINs can be traded between obligated parties freely through the EMTS or carried over for use in the next year. It follows, then, that a RIN carries a market value reflective of the cost of complying with RFS regulations. Indeed, most biofuels cost more than their fossil-based equivalents. When the price of a corn ethanol RIN went from 2-3 cents each in 2012 to nearly $1.50 in July of 2013 due to a perceived shortage in corn ethanol RINs, obligated parties faced the prospect of multimillion-dollar compliance cost increases. Arguing that RFS makes fuel significantly more expensive for consumers, petroleum companies have begun to advocate for the full repeal of the RFS, winning over some allies in Congress. The future of this program is uncertain. In an attempt to quantify the concerns of RFS critics, this thesis estimated the effect that RIN prices have on the wholesale cost of diesel fuel. Using daily price data from January 2011 through August of 2013 on RINs and crude oil, I specified twelve OLS regression models that predict the passthrough of the diesel RIN price to wholesale diesel price. My statistical analysis

  16. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Edmore Mutekwe


    backgrounds lack the cultural capital cherished in university as conducive for educational success. The study thus recommends that the South African LiEP policy needs to be repealed so that it spells out unequivocally the LOLT especially in institutions of higher learning.

  17. Self-Transendence and the Limitness of Self-Transendence--Analyse the Reasons of Human General Lonelyness in Le Petit Prince%自我超越及超越的有限性--探析《小王子》中人类普遍孤独的原因



      圣埃克絮佩里的《小王子》揭露了一个荒诞虚无的现实世界,生活在这个世界的人们都是孤独的,即使作为叙述者的“我”与纯真的小王子也不例外。主体对对象的依托意识与两者事实上相分离的矛盾以及人类本能的对物理世界及他人的超越意识和超越的有限性的矛盾使人类陷入彻底的孤独中。那么,“孤独”是否作为人类生存状态的本质而存在,《小王子》虽以童话的形式刻画了“狐狸”这一智者的形象,但文章最后“绵羊到底有没有吃掉花儿”这一疑问的未完成性又以困惑的形态消解了人的乐观与理性。%Le Petit Prince of Antoine de Saint-Exupery repealed an absurd and nothingness world, where people are lonely, even“I”as narrator of the novel and the innocent prince are no exception. Subject relies on object and in fact they separate from each other, human instinctively surmount physical world and other people, but transcendence is limited, resulted in people’s exhaustive loneliness. so, is loneliness exist as the essence of human’ s living state or not? Le Petit Prince depicts a fox as a sage in fairy-tales form, but at last there is a question whether the sheep on earth ate the flower or not, dispelled the mortal optimism and rationality.

  18. Love and sex in the Swedish media.

    Boethius, C G


    the 1960s. Young people in Sweden are not totally protected from exposure to negative sexual protrayals. Pornography is common. In 1970, following the parliamentary repeal of an old law prohibiting pornography, mass produced pornography began to appear in Sweden. A broad based campaign against pornography lead to the passage in 1980 of a law prohibiting child pornography. Currently, legislation is being considered which would regulate sexual violence in films, tapes, and television and control the printing of sadistic pornographic pictures. In line with past traditions, Swedes believe it is possible to maintain an open attitude about sexual matters while prohibiting the portrayal of sexual exploitation and sexual violence.

  19. 从种族隔离到社会融合:南非《文化促进法案》变迁钩沉%From Apartheid To Social Cohesion:An Introduction to the Culture Promotion Act of South Africa



    南非1969年颁布《国家文化促进法案》,该法案历经2次修改,于1983年被《文化促进法案》替代。迄今为止,《文化促进法案》又历经3次修改,并受到了其他文化法律的影响。《文化促进法案》与《国家文化促进法案》在文化范围、培育对象、实施主体上均有明显不同。《文化促进法案》立法目的是促进南非文化的保存、发展、培养和拓广,主要在国家和省两个层面上实施。在省层面上,以西开普省为例,文化促进活动主要是通过制定《西开普文化委员会和文化组织法案》、设立西开普文化委员会、开展文化促进活动等加以实现。%In South Africa,the National Culture Promotion Act was enacted in 1969 which was followed by two amendments.Besides,the Culture Promotion Act was issued in 1983,while at the same time the National Cul-ture Promotion was repealed.The Culture Promotion Act and the National Culture Promotion Act are distinct at scope of culture,the communities they fostered,and the implementation subjects.The main aim of the Culture Promotion Act is for the preservation,development,cultivation and extension of the national culture in South Africa with the im-plementation on national and provincial levels respectively.The course of the cultural development of Western Cape Province is primarily conducted by Western Cape Cultural Commission,establishing Cultural Councils Act,and carry-ing out culture promotion activities.

  20. Distance is no hurdle: Reforming the family violence exception to better protect immigrant women in rural, regional and remote communities

    Khanh Hoang


    Full Text Available After careful consideration consistent with COPE guidelines, the editorial staff has concluded that there is no case of plagiarism associated with this article. (10th August, 2016 The editors have received allegations that the paper references arguments and evidence without attribution to pre-existing literature, and that it exhibits stylistic similarities to other sources on the same topic. The editors are currently conducting an investigation under the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE guidelines to confirm or refute the allegations. (29th June, 2016 This article considers the impact of migration laws on immigrant women in rural, regional and remote communities (RRR communities who are victims of family violence. The Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth (‘the Regulations’ includes a ‘family violence exception’ that allows for the grant of permanent residency to women who hold a temporary partner visa in circumstances where the relationship with the Australian sponsor has broken down due to family violence. However, the Regulations impose strict procedural and evidentiary requirements for making a family violence claim. These laws disproportionately impact those in RRR communities by failing to account for their isolation, lack of access to services and particular vulnerabilities. As a result, immigrant women in RRR communities are restricted in their ability to access the family violence exception. This article calls for reform of the Regulations to address the locational disadvantages faced by immigrant women in RRR communities. Building on the work of the Australian Law Reform Commission, it argues for the repeal of the provisions governing evidentiary requirements for ‘non-judicially determined’ claims of family violence. In its place, it is suggested that there should be no restrictions on the types of evidence that can be provided. In addition, all non-judicially determined family violence claims would be referred to an

  1. Wes Jackson. In nature's way.


    The opinions and a biographical sketch of Wes Jackson, the founder of the Land Institute, are presented. The land Institute near Salina, Kansas is a nonprofit organization devoted to sustainable agriculture. Opinions are provided on the relationship of the Land Institute to sustainable agriculture, the definition of sustainability, the feasibility of replication of his work, his ideas about the destruction wreaked by the plow vs. the sword, technology and population growth, the future farmer, and the speed with which modern science has destroyed the ozone layer. Sustainable agriculture is using the prairie to provide answers to how agriculture can work with nature; the approach will take longer but will sustain both agriculture and people for another 10,000 years. The system runs on sunlight and recycles all materials and is based on the principles of ecosystems, which have been around for hundreds of years. Agricultural technology is based on a fossil fuel intensive infrastructure and is "parachuted into Third World countries." "Corn - the gift of the gods has been the killer of this continent." 50% of the topsoil has been lost, and soil is more important than oil. Advances in biotechnology are seen as the "human cleverness" approach; the preference is for an ecological approach first. Biotechnology tells how to "spin wheels faster," but it also generates more waste. The future farmer is more like the 19th century British naturalist. A projection is that 1st the oil is used up, then the natural gas, and when nuclear power is embraced, Murphy's Law must be repealed. It is important to understand the "we can'ts". Realization of limits will direct energy to the sun's potential and recycling and the flow of energy. Descartes' notion of correctable ignorance must be repudiated. Our knowledge-based world has led to acid rain, global warming, the ozone hole, and Chernobyl. It took just 25 years for chlorofluorocarbons to destroy the ozone layer. A philosophical shift in


    Silvano A. Wueschner


    Full Text Available This paper examines the controversy arising out of Great Britain’s decision to implement the Stevenson plan. It examines, in particular, the role played by Herbert Hoover, both behind the scenes and in an effort to affect the repeal of the Stevenson scheme and at the same time to encourage and support the development of new sources of rubber under the control of American producers. During the period 1920-1922 rubber producing countries were confronted by the specter of overproduction. The existence of even a short term oversupply coupled with the business slump, a reaction from the war, led to a decline in the price of rubber. British producers succeeded in inducing the British Colonial authorities to support a scheme whereby rubber exports would be regulated in order to bring about an increase in the price of rubber. This plan, developed by the Stevenson Committee, called for a small minimum tax on all exports. Moreover, it soughtto limit production by establishing a quota based on the actual production of rubber during the 1919-1920 growing season. A progressive tax was applied to exports beyond standard production. American reaction to the scheme was varied. Secretary of Commerce Hoover, while publicly stating that the price of rubber had been low and was supportive of efforts to regulate production, behind the scenes showed a great deal of concern about the actions of the British government in regulating a commodity of which the United States was the single largest consumer. He was also linked, by some, to the idea that Great Britain sought to pay its war debt to the United States through the application of this tax. Much was made in American newspapers and the British press about Hoover’s criticism of British rubber restrictions. He was not opposed to regulating the supply of rubber, but only to the involvement of a government in the process, especially when it affected American producers and consumers. In response he proposed a scheme

  3. Research on PTSD prevalence in OEF/OIF Veterans: expanding investigation of demographic variables

    Lynnette A. Averill


    Full Text Available Background: A series of recent articles has reported on well-designed studies examining base rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD screenings within the Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan conflict/Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq conflict (OEF/OIF military population. Although these studies have a number of strengths, this line of research points out several key areas in need of further examination. Objective: Many OEF/OIF Veterans do not use available Veterans Affairs (VA services, especially mental health care. This highlights the need to understand the differences between those who use and do not use the VA, especially as research with pre-OEF/OIF Veterans suggests that these two groups differ in significant ways. The high rates of PTSD-related concerns in non-VA users also points to a need to understand whether—and where—Veterans are seeking care outside the VA and the accessibility of evidence-based, trauma-focused treatments in the community and private sectors. Careful examination of relationship status is also paramount as little research has examined relationship status or other relationship context issues. Social support, especially from a spouse, can buffer the development of PTSD; however, relationship discord has the potential to greatly exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. Furthermore, given the additional risk factors for sexual minority Veterans to be exposed to trauma, the 2011 repeal of the US Military “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy, and the emergence of the VA as likely the largest health care provider for sexual minority Veterans, it will be critically important to study the trauma and mental health experiences of this group. Conclusions: Studies that examine prevalence rates of PTSD in the returning cohort contribute significantly to our understanding of the US OEF/OIF military population. Further study of PTSD in relation to demographic variables such as VA and non-VA use, relationship status, and sexual

  4. Small-scale hydro-electric scheme in Roches, Switzerland; Projet de concession. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Roches

    Hausmann, M.


    The small hydropower plant (SHPP) project 'PCH Roches' is planned to be built in Roches, a small village located in the Jura region of the canton of Bern. The goal of this undertaking is to reactivate a site with hydro potential of the river Birs on a section that was already well exploited by some ancient SHPP (since 1953 or probably even earlier). Several modifications were performed on this plant over the years; not all contributed positively on its production figures. Following a transfer of the water rights in 1987, claims became loud against the owner to perform maintenance on the river banks and to modify the weir such that a free passage for the fishes will be granted. Those issues contributed to inflate a conflict which ended in the repeal of the water rights and a total plant shut down in 2001. The new project plans to reuse the existing pen stock and to carry out some refurbishing activities to grant security and better performance. The weir and the intake structure are also redesigned such that the water storage can be somewhat raised for normal operation; a weir gate will however allow to better discharge the river in flood situations. A new turbine house will be erected at the current location where the tail water pen stock rejoins the river. Hence, the existing old turbine house will be obsolete and the upper and lower pen stock sections are to be linked with each other. Limited by the existing pen stock size, the new plant is expected to produce some 50 kW power and 362,000 kWh/year. This represents an increase in energy generation of around 200% compared with the ancient SHPP. Gross head is 5.38 m, net head 4.12 m with a turbine flow of at least 1.6 m{sup 3}/s. The expected energy sales price applicable to this project reaches about 0.17 CHF/kWh as per the current tariffs set by the grid owner. This project calls for the building of a state-of-the-art SHPP. It will avoid the total dismantling of the existing works to take place and allow

  5. A new approach of mapping soils in the Alps - Challenges of deriving soil information and creating soil maps for sustainable land use. An example from South Tyrol (Italy)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian E.; Geitner, Clemens


    Nowadays sustainable land use management is gaining importance because intensive land use leads to increasing soil degradation. Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps sustainable land use management is important, as topography limits land use. Therefore, a database containing detailed information of soil characteristics is required. However, information of soil properties is far from being comprehensive. The project "ReBo - Terrain classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, aims at developing a methodical framework of how to obtain soil data. The approach combines geomorphometric analysis and soil mapping to generate modern soil maps at medium-scale in a time and cost efficient way. In this study the open source GRASS GIS extension module r.geomorphon (Jasciewicz and Stepinski, 2013) is used to derive topographically homogeneous landform units out of high resolution DTMs on scale 1:5.000. Furthermore, for terrain segmentation and classification we additionally use medium-scale data sets (geology, parent material, land use etc.). As the Alps are characterized by a great variety of topography, parent material, wide range of moisture regimes etc. getting reliable soil data is difficult. Additionally, geomorphic activity (debris flow, landslide etc.) leads to natural disturbances. Thus, soil properties are highly diverse and largely scale dependent. Furthermore, getting soil information of anthropogenically influenced soils is an added challenge. Due to intensive cultivation techniques the natural link between the soil forming factors is often repealed. In South Tyrol we find the largest pome producing area in Europe. Normally, the annual precipitation is not enough for intensive orcharding. Thus, irrigation strategies are in use. However, as knowledge about the small scaled heterogeneous soil properties is mostly lacking, overwatering and modifications of the

  6. Vital Directions for Health and Health Care: Priorities From a National Academy of Medicine Initiative.

    Dzau, Victor J; McClellan, Mark B; McGinnis, J Michael; Burke, Sheila P; Coye, Molly J; Diaz, Angela; Daschle, Thomas A; Frist, William H; Gaines, Martha; Hamburg, Margaret A; Henney, Jane E; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Leavitt, Michael O; Parker, Ruth M; Sandy, Lewis G; Schaeffer, Leonard D; Steele, Glenn D; Thompson, Pamela; Zerhouni, Elias


    Recent discussion has focused on questions related to the repeal and replacement of portions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). However, issues central to the future of health and health care in the United States transcend the ACA provisions receiving the greatest attention. Initiatives directed to certain strategic and infrastructure priorities are vital to achieve better health at lower cost. To review the most salient health challenges and opportunities facing the United States, to identify practical and achievable priorities essential to health progress, and to present policy initiatives critical to the nation's health and fiscal integrity. Qualitative synthesis of 19 National Academy of Medicine-commissioned white papers, with supplemental review and analysis of publicly available data and published research findings. The US health system faces major challenges. Health care costs remain high at $3.2 trillion spent annually, of which an estimated 30% is related to waste, inefficiencies, and excessive prices; health disparities are persistent and worsening; and the health and financial burdens of chronic illness and disability are straining families and communities. Concurrently, promising opportunities and knowledge to achieve change exist. Across the 19 discussion papers examined, 8 crosscutting policy directions were identified as vital to the nation's health and fiscal future, including 4 action priorities and 4 essential infrastructure needs. The action priorities-pay for value, empower people, activate communities, and connect care-recurred across the articles as direct and strategic opportunities to advance a more efficient, equitable, and patient- and community-focused health system. The essential infrastructure needs-measure what matters most, modernize skills, accelerate real-world evidence, and advance science-were the most commonly cited foundational elements to ensure progress. The action priorities and essential infrastructure needs represent major

  7. 大正时期日本町村自治的民主化变迁%Machimura Autonomy's Democratization Changes in Taisyo Japan



    Modern machimura autonomy system formed in Meiji Japan was conservative.In Taisyo era,in the vigorous development of the Democratic wave,machimura autonomy system also carried out a series of democratic reforms.With the repeal of the grade elecrotal system and the realization of men's ordinary election,more people participated in machimura autonomy;The abolition of superior supervisory authority county and the relaxation of national and prefectural supervision expanded machimura autonomy;The law of fiscal burden of compulsory education fees and the formation of independent tax,to some extent,alleviated the financial burdern of Machimura.However,semi-feudal landlords had no fundamental changes in modern Japan,so democratization of machimura autunomy was just a blip,with the start of the impact of the world economic crisis and external aggression,the Japanese domestic regime became fascist,machimura autonomy was eventually incorporated into the fascist wartime control and towards extintion.%近代日本在明治时期所形成的町村自治制度,具有极大的保守性。进入到大正时期后,在蓬勃发展的民主浪潮中,町村自治制度也进行了一系列的民主化改革。等级选举制的废止和男子普通选举的实现,使更多人参与到町村自治中;上级监督机关郡的废止和国家及府县监督的缓和,扩大了町村的自治权;义务教育费国库负担法的出台和独立税的形成,一定程度上缓解了町村的财政负担。但是,在半封建的地主制没有根本改变的近代日本,町村自治的民主化终不过是昙花一现,随着世界经济危机的冲击和对外侵略战争的开始,日本国内政权法西斯化,町村自治也最终被纳入到法西斯的战时统制中而走向消亡。

  8. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Kirisci, K


    rights. Europe in return has tightened legislation and procedures to differentiate economically motivated refugees from authentic political asylum seekers. Further research is needed to investigate refugee problems. Further refugees may come due to the promotion of a Black Sea Cooperation Region and easier crossings of borders to the former Soviet Republics. Ethnic Turks in Moldavia or Romania or Bulgaria may leave due to unrest. Factors affecting asylum seekers are improvements in Turkey's human rights record, repeal of bans of the Kurdish language, completion of the South Eastern Development Project, and the European government policy on asylum.

  9. Act No. 18.802, of 23 May 1989, [amending the Civil Code and the Commercial Code and Act 16.618].


    In 1989, Chile passed an Act which amended its Civil Code to change the legal status of married women. The amendments repealed the following provisions: 1) that a nondivorced married woman must keep her husband's domicile, 2) that a woman with parental authority cannot remarry unless a court appoints a guardian for the child, 3) that marital authority gives a husband legal rights over a wife's person and property, 4) that a wife need her husband's permission to enter into financial transactions or act as a guardian, 5) that a wife needs a court order or her husband's authorization to administer gifts or inheritances she received under condition that her husband not have administrative power over them, 6) that a wife's adultery results in loss of all control and profit from communal property, 7) that a wife needs her husband's permission to administer an estate or the approval of a judge to continue to administer her late husband's estate if she remarried, 8) that a married woman has diminished legal capacity, and 9) that a husband is responsible for the conduct of his wife. In addition, the Act replaced language stating that a wife owes her husband obedience and a husband owes a wife protection with language stating that each spouse owes each other respect and protection. Wives are given the unrestricted right to work, the right (shared with husbands) to discipline and educate children, the right (shared with husbands) to support after divorce regardless of fault, the right to parental authority, and the right to manage their children's property. Wives no longer have to live wherever their husbands choose. In cases of divorce, a judge will order irrevocable separation of community property and give physical custody of all minor children (boys and girls) to the wife. The position of surviving spouses in regard to inheritance is improved. Real estate brought to a marriage by a wife or received by either spouse as a gift or inheritance is no longer considered

  10. OPTIMASI PROSES EKSTRAKSI PEKTIN DAMI BUAH NANGKA (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk Optimizing of Pectin Extraction Process from Jackfruit Rags (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk

    I Nengah Kencana Putra


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum  condition  on extraction process of jackfruit rags pectin. The experiment was designed by Randomized Block Design (RBD within 3 x 3 factorial experiment. The first factorwas pH of solvent consisted of 3 levels: 1.5, 2.5, and 3,5. The second factor was ratio of jackfruit rags to solvent, con-sisted of 3 levels: 1:5, 1:6 and 1:7. Results repealed that the solvent pH effected significantly yield, total ash, equivalentweigh and anhydrogalacturonic acid content of pectin produced. The optimum conditions for jackfruit rags pectin extraction were: the pH of extracting solvent was 1.5, and the ratio of jackfruit rags to solvent was 1:5. Those condi- tions gave the yield of 4.45 %, produced pectin having total ash (2.82 %, equivalent  weigh (3,022.24 g/eqi, methoxylcontent (8.16 %, and anhydrogalacturonic acid content (88.01 %. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kondisi optimal pada proses ekstraksi pektin dami buah nangka. Rancanganpenelitian  yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak �elompok (RA� dengan pola percobaan faktorial  3 x 3. Faktorpertama adalah pH cairan pengekstrak yang terdiri dari 3 taraf: pH 1,5; 2,5 dan 3,5. Faktor kedua adalah perbandingandami buah nangka dengan cairan pengekstrak yang terdiri dari 3 taraf: 1:5, 1:6 dan 1:7. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pH cairan pengekstrak berpengaruh nyata terhadap rendemen, kadar abu, berat ekivalen dan kadar asam anhidrogalak- turonat. Kondisi optimal untuk ekstraksi pektin dami buah nangka adalah: cairan pengekstrak pH 1,5, dengan perband- ingan dami nangka dan cairan pengekstrak 1:5. Kondisi ini menghasilkan rendemen 4,54 %, serta pektin dengan kara- kteristik: kadar abu 2,82 %, berat ekivalen 3.022,24 g/eki, kadar metoksil 8,16 % dan kadar asam anhidrogalakturonat88,01 %.

  11. Analyzing 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    Kutzner, R. D.; Quedenau, J.; Kuik, F.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmale, J.


    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. In addition, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects. Anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, and the dominant natural emission source is wildfires. Despite the adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union (EU). Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM with a diameter smaller 10 µm and 2.5 µm, respectively). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the EU in 2005 and 2015, respectively, `black smoke' (BS), a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 µg/m3 from 1995 and 8 µg/m³ from 1998. In 2004, many measurements were stopped, with the repeal of the regulations. In most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. We present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include, among others, urban background, traffic and rural. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 28 stations. Further, we calculated trends in BC concentrations for 13 stations with at least 10 years of data, for median concentrations, as well as 5th percentile (background) and 95th percentile (peak episodes). Preliminary results suggest that concentrations have generally declined, with a larger trend at traffic stations compared to urban

  12. Reforming of the Judicial System of Kosovo based on the Law no. 03/L-199 on Courts and its challenges

    Dr.Sc. Azem Hajdari


    Full Text Available Law no. 03/L-199 on Courts1 represents a law of significant importance which regulates the organisation, functioning and jurisdiction of courts of the Republic of Kosovo. This law has made numerous reforms in the judicial system of the country. It has set the bases of a modern and sustainable judicial system. In fact the Law on Courts in addition to having changed the judiciary of Kosovo in the aspect of organisation, it has opened the paths in the aspect of ensuring an efficient functioning thereof. Moreover, this law has repealed the application of the Law of former SAP of Kosovo on Regular Courts which in some aspects did not correspond to the trends of contemporary developments in this field. Law on Courts in its solutions embeds the bases of an independent and impartial justice, further on being multiethnic, non-discriminatory, efficient and in principle having an advanced approach of the opportunity for the public opinion to follow the judicial activities. Consequently, within this work, the background of the development of judicial system in Kosovo shall be discussed, some aspects of its reforming and challenges currently the judicial system of the country faces. In the course of preparation of this work, legal-historical method has been applied, the dogmatic method too, method of comparison and the method of analysis and synthesis. Through the legal-historical method, the manner of organisation and activity of the judicial system in Kosovo has been reflected covering the time of Turkish rule up to 2013 basing it on the laws and the Albanian customary law. The dogmatic method has helped on reflecting the manner of organisation and activity of the judicial system in Kosovo, viewing it in the context of regulating these matters through the Law on Courts presently applicable.The comparative method has reflected the features of the new judicial system in Kosovo and a comparison has been undertaken to the characteristics of earlier judicial

  13. Do Not Blame Him Suave Romantic A Study to the Reason of Cang Yang Jia Cuo was Recognized and His Love Poems%仓央嘉措被认可的原因及其情歌分析



    Cang Yang Jia Cuo is a Dalai Lama who was forced to loose,although own the biggest religious power in Tibet,but only owned a figure.He is a puppet under the double control of Diba and Lazanghan.He took the way of debauchery indulged wine and women because of political vision can not be cast.He granted the population in brothels unscrupulousness court as a passive resistance,but it handle waste charge to his enermies and made he suffer repeal and die in the escort way to Beijing.He was a victim of political struggle.These special experience and the his love songs inspired the common people motivate his sympathy and understanding to CangYangJiaCuo.The Love Poems of Cang Yang Jia Cuo courage to break the tradition,against reality,the pursuit of freedom,It expressed the inner voice of the Tibet people.Therefore,Cang Yang Jia Cuo resurreced in his perfect love poems.The orthodox positions of CangYangJiaCuo for those in the central deviant,but was revered in the hearts of Tibet people.%仓央嘉措是一位被迫放荡的达赖活佛,虽尊为西藏最大的僧王,却徒拥虚位,处于第巴和拉藏汉的双重控制之下;由于政治抱负无法施展,才走上沉湎酒色的放荡之路;外现酒色放荡,内怀慈悲才情,以此反抗却授人口柄,遭至被废,在解送北京的路上英年早逝,充当了政治斗争的牺牲品。这些特殊的经历以及他的情歌共同激动了人们对他的同情与理解。仓央嘉措的情歌敢于打破传统、反抗现实、追求自由,在西藏人民感情中,历来有深深的共鸣。在情歌的传唱不绝中,仓央嘉措完美复活了。籍由此,在正统人士看来离经叛道的仓央嘉措,在藏民心中却被敬仰爱戴。

  14. Capping the tax exclusion for employment-based health coverage: implications for employers and workers.

    Fronstin, Paul


    . For self-insured employers, calculating insurance premium costs under a tax cap could be done fairly easily using the COBRA premium. However, whether self-insured employers would be able to use the least costly method to determine the value of coverage would have to be determined by law and/or regulations. THE SEC. 89 EXPERIENCE: Sec. 89 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which attempted to make employee benefits more standard and fair, became so controversial that it was repealed by Congress in 1989--in part because the regulations created regulatory burdens that were so complicated and costly as to be unworkable. Similarly, valuation calculations under a health coverage tax cap could become overly burdensome if the lessons from Sec. 89 are not heeded.

  15. 死刑罪名削减的路线图%Roadmap of Reducing Death Penalty Charges



    As the Criminal Law Amendment (8)and the Criminal Law Amendment (9)had reduced economical and property type death penalty charges,there are existing 46 death penalty charges in China’s criminal law currently.They can be divided into two categories:one of them are the death penalty charges which violate important social relations such as human rights,national security, national defense interest and order of battle.The other kind of death penalty charges doesn’t have the national conditions and the will of the people conditions.At present,the strategies for death penalty repeal legislation should be transformed from abolishing the charges into regular death penalty crime constitution,and then apply the transformation theory to make the same harmful consequences apply unified charges.On this basis,we can reduce the death penalty in five periods,considering the national conditions and the will of the people conditions.%经过《刑法修正案(八)》《刑法修正案(九)》大量削减经济类、财产类死刑罪名,我国刑法目前存有46个死刑罪名。其中可分为两类:一类为侵犯重要的人身权利、国家安全、国防和军职类等侵害重要社会关系的死刑罪名;一类为不具备国情民意条件的死刑罪名。当前,我国死刑废止立法策略应当从死刑罪名性废止转向通过严格规定具体死刑适用条件对死刑适用犯罪构成进行规范和限制,结合转化犯的理论对造成同样危害后果的死刑适用条件进行转化。在此基础上,根据死刑罪名表征社会危害性的程度及国情民意的情况,分5个阶段逐步废止死刑。

  16. Ecological meltdown in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland: two centuries of change in a coastal marine ecosystem.

    Ruth H Thurstan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Firth of Clyde is a large inlet of the sea that extends over 100 km into Scotland's west coast. METHODS: We compiled detailed fisheries landings data for this area and combined them with historical accounts to build a picture of change due to fishing activity over the last 200 years. FINDINGS: In the early 19th century, prior to the onset of industrial fishing, the Firth of Clyde supported diverse and productive fisheries for species such as herring (Clupea harengus, Clupeidae, cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Gadidae, turbot (Psetta maxima, Scophthalmidae and flounder (Platichthys flesus, Pleuronectidae. The 19th century saw increased demand for fish, which encouraged more indiscriminate methods of fishing such as bottom trawling. During the 1880s, fish landings began to decline, and upon the recommendation of local fishers and scientists, the Firth of Clyde was closed to large trawling vessels in 1889. This closure remained in place until 1962 when bottom trawling for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus, Nephropidae was approved in areas more than three nautical miles from the coast. During the 1960s and 1970s, landings of bottomfish increased as trawling intensified. The trawl closure within three nautical miles of the coast was repealed in 1984 under pressure from the industry. Thereafter, bottomfish landings went into terminal decline, with all species collapsing to zero or near zero landings by the early 21st century. Herring fisheries collapsed in the 1970s as more efficient mid-water trawls and fish finders were introduced, while a fishery for mid-water saithe (Pollachius virens, Gadidae underwent a boom and bust shortly after discovery in the late 1960s. The only commercial fisheries that remain today are for Nephrops and scallops (Pecten maximus, Pectinidae. SIGNIFICANCE: The Firth of Clyde is a marine ecosystem nearing the endpoint of overfishing, a time when no species remain that are

  17. The Public Value Swing of China’s Sports Development in the Context of Reform---Based on Interpretation of Three Key Events%改革背景下我国体育事业发展的公共价值回转--基于3个关键事件的解读

    邵凯; 董传升


    2014年中国体育多项政策的进行调整,多项规章和规范性文件废止和修改将对我国体育事业发展产生深远影响。利用文献资料法和数理统计法对国务院和国家体育总局连出的体育政策进行了分析与解读,对我国体育事业发展方式在目前改革背景下的价值回转进行了较为深入的探讨。在充分分析我国体育事业发展方式基础上,对政策调整带来的体育发展方式的价值主体、价值结构、价值内涵进行解读,对以国家利益为主的国家体育向以公民利益为主的公共体育转型进行了细致分析,旨在梳理改革关键期体育政策变革带来的体育事业发展方式转型,并为其提供理论支持。%2014 saw many China sports policies adjusted,and the repeal and amendment of these regulations and normative documents will have a profound impact on the development of sports. In this paper,the author analyzes and interprets the sports policies promulgated by the State Council and the State Sports General Administration of Sport,and explores,in the context of reform,the turning around of value in terms of the manner that sports in China develop. We further explains the value subject,value structure and value content of the new way of sports develop-ment caused by the adjustment of policies and analyzes in detail the transformation of national interests-based na-tional sports to people’s interests-oriented public sports. The purpose of the research is to give insight into the trans-formation of the way that sports develop,and to provide theoretical support for it.


    Norhashimah Mohd Yasin


    Full Text Available Malaysia has always aspired to be the hub for Islamic banking and finance. Various measures have been, and are being, carried out to promote Malaysia as an international Islamic banking and financial centre. As the backbone for this, the national Shariah Advisory Council (SAC has been established under the auspices of the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958 (CBMA. Under the CBMA, the SAC has been conferred a statutory function as the authority for the ascertainment of Islamic law for the purposes of Islamic banking, as well as business and other types of Islamic financial businesses. In 2009, the CBMA 1958 was replaced and repealed. With the coming into force of the CBMA 2009, the role and functions of the SAC was reinforced and upgraded in terms of appointments of members and, most importantly, that the Shariah rulings pursuant to any reference made to the SAC by the Civil court or arbitrator concerning Shariah matters shall be binding on the Islamic financial institutions as well as on the court and any arbitrator. The issue of whether or not the SAC is the final arbiter on Islamic banking and finance disputes or, in other words, there is no longer a process of judicial review where it involves Shariah matters, will be the highlight of this paper. To what extent does the post CBMA 2009 solve the binding nature of the SAC upon the Civil courts of Malaysia as its rulings and directives are only relevant to ‘Shariah’ issues? What would be the situations if the issues of the Islamic banking and finance cases are deemed not to amount to a ‘Shariah’ issue, but are purely on banking, land matters or contractual interpretations? Has there any actual legal reform been brought about by this amendment or is it merely a cosmetic changes? If the court were to be bound by the SAC rulings, does this not usurp the independence of the judiciary which is the corner stone of the principle of separation of powers between the executive, the legislature and

  19. The Italian debate on nuclear energy in the post Chernobyl age

    Cantone, M.C. [Milano Univ., Dipt. di Fisica and INFN (Italy); Sturloni, G. [SISSA, Innovations in the Communication of Science, Trieste (Italy)


    Full text of publication follows: Italy entered with enthusiasm into the production of nuclear energy for civil use at the end of 50. By 1966 - with an overall output of 3.9 billions kWh - Italy had become the fourth world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactions, the second one in Europe after Great Britain. Chernobyl's 1986 disaster, which so much shook public opinion all over Europe, had particularly important economic and political consequences in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted for the repeal of three laws which promoted the installation of nuclear power plants on the Italian soil and the participation of ENEL (National Institution for the Electrical Energy) to plant constructions abroad. The 1987 referendum was interpreted by the Italian government as an opposition to nuclear power generation - the following year, the four Italian plants (Garigliano, Latina, Trino Vercellese, Caorso) ceased their activity and plans to build new plants were abandoned. This decision marked the ruin of Italian research on nuclear energy, that in the 30 had known a glorious era thanks to Enrico Fermi works. As the 20. Anniversary of Chernobyl's accident is drawing near, the University of Milan and ICS-research group (Innovations in Communication of Science) at SISSA, Trieste, have decided to analyse jointly the reasons which brought Italy to give up its nuclear energy production. In the present scenario of controversies concerning the development of science and technology, in which European countries exchange experiences of best practice to involve the public in decision making processes, Italy reaction to Chernobyl accident can indeed be considered paradigmatic in that it anticipated crucial risks governance issues in today relationship between science and society. The research project draws on methodologies used in media studies and on socio linguistic analysis, as developed by risk perception and risk

  20. Pre-Trial Detention and Control Orders Under British Anti-Terror Legislation Post 9/11: Balancing a Need for Security with the European Convention on Human Rights – An Overview

    Sascha-Dominik Bachmann


    Full Text Available Contemporary British anti-terror legislation has been characterised by an extensive use of extra-ordinary detention measures: the Terrorism Act 2000 and Terrorism Act 2006 contain provisions, which enable the extended pre-charge detention of terror suspects beyond the limits of normal criminal procedure. The now repealed provisions of Part IV of the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 allowed the indefinite detention of foreign national terror suspects on a quasi-judicial basis. Its successor, the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005, enables the use of Control Orders, effectively a form of house arrest characterised by restrictions on an individual’s liberty. In short, these measures have in common the extensive limitation of the individual’s right to liberty under Article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Whilst the judiciary have curtailed the most abhorrent manifestations of such extraordinary measures, as detailed, the legal framework as it exists today, still raises ECHR compliancy issues. Legal reformation should be sought to end such an impasse by amending at the very least the statutory framework already in place. Ideally anti-terror detention provisions should be brought back within the sphere of criminal law and in compliance with the ECHR. La législation contemporaine anti-terroriste britannique a été caractérisée par l’utilisation considérable de mesures extraordinaires de détention : la Terrorism Act 2000 et la Terrorism Act 2006 contiennent des dispositions qui permettent la détention prolongée préalable à l’accusation de personnes soupçonnées de terrorisme au-delà des limites de la procédure criminelle normale. Les dispositions, maintenant abrogées, de la Partie IV de la Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 permettaient la détention indéfinie de ressortissants étrangers soupçonnés de terrorisme sur une base quasi-judiciaire. Son successeur, la Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005

  1. Defending the Absurd: The Iconoclast's Guide to Section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act 10 of 2013

    Haneen McCreath


    Full Text Available This contribution was intended as a defence of section 25(1 of the Supreme Court Act 59 of 1959. However, the Supreme Court Act was repealed in August 2013 and replaced by the Superior Courts Act 10 of 2013, and in the process section 25(1 of the former gave way to section 47(1 of the latter. Both sections concern the doctrine of leave to sue judges in South Africa. Both prescribe that any civil litigation against a judge requires the consent of the court out of which such litigation is to be launched. Both apply to civil suits against judges for damage caused by either their judicial or their non-judicial conduct. Although section 25(1 had been one of the more inconspicuous sections of the Supreme Court Act, it was contested on occasion. Both curial and extra-curial challenges to section 25(1 assailed its constitutionality, alleging essentially that its provisions violated the right of access to courts enshrined in section 34 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 and that such violation did not meet the limitation criteria contained in section 36. It may be anticipated with considerable confidence, given its legal continuity with section 25(1, that any serious assault upon section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act also will focus upon its relationship to section 34 of the Constitution. This contribution is a pre-emptive defence of section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act and, by extrapolation, a belated justification of section 25(1 of the Supreme Court Act. An attempt will be made to demonstrate, contrary to conventional wisdom, that section 47(1 does not limit section 34 and passes constitutional muster at the first level of enquiry, thereby obviating the need for advancing to the second level of enquiry contained in section 36 of the Constitution. The jurisprudential crux of section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act is embedded in the nature of the judicial office and its core value of judicial impartiality. The procedural

  2. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)


    For almost two decades, there has been a global trend towards the deregulation and the liberalisation of electricity markets. Previously, national or regional monopolistic utility companies provided services along the entire supply chain of electricity supply: Beginning with the operation of power plants and thus the generation of electricity, continuing through the development and the operation of transmission and local distribution grids, to the connection points. Since all assets belonged to the utility company, they could easily access generation units in order to provide balancing power for the safe and reliable operation of the electricity networks. With the objective of a more efficient and cheaper electricity supply by enabling competition, European Directive 96/92/EC (repealed by 2003/53/EC) enacted so-called ''unbundling'' which meant the break-up of utility companies as full service suppliers into the three service oriented entities; for electricity generation, transmission and supply. Whereas previously a single utility company provided the balancing of the electricity grid with its own assets, as a consequence of the directive, markets developed for the provision of diverse technical services. As long as the utility companies provided these services on their own, technical rather than economic aspects prevailed in their investment decisions. With the establishment of open markets for primary, secondary and tertiary reserve power, commercial interfaces had been established which force the respective specialised market actor to investment decisions driven primarily by economic aspects. At nearly the same time - around two decades ago, the first renewable energy systems (RES) provided electricity to public grids. In the 1990's their share of the overall electricity mix was negligible, but since the beginning of the new millennium more and more countries recognised the ecological and economic advantages of RES and established incentive systems for their

  3. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E


    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: ; and at: ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at:,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  4. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia


    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  5. Welsh Slate: A Candidate for Global Heritage Stone Status

    Horak, Jana; Hughes, Terry; Lott, Graham


    Slate is the iconic stone of Wales, and has a temporal and geographic record of usage such that it is considered worthy of consideration for Global Heritage Stone status. The reputation of Welsh slate is built on the quality and durability of the stone, enabling it to be used in a wide range of contexts from industrial roofing, through domestic housing to higher prestige buildings. Although metamorphic slates are present in several across Wales, the highest quality roofing material was extracted from just two areas in north-west Wales; the Cambrian Slate Belt, around Bethesda to Nantlle, working purple and green slates of the Llanberis Slate Formation and a second area to the south around Blaenau Ffestiniog - the Ordovician Slate Belt - which works grey slates of the Nant Francon Supergroup. These two areas are considered to form the core of the Welsh Slate Province. Welsh slate has been extracted for at least 2000 years, as evidenced by their presence as roofing slates in Roman forts in North Wales dating from 77AD. Slates from medieval churches and castles in north Wales indicate extraction continued throughout this period. In the 16th century exportation of Welsh slate commenced, initially limited to Ireland and those parts of England where it could be transported by boat. The second half of 18th century saw the first major expansion of the industry, facilitated by improved road transportation and some mechanisation, and subsequently in the 1830s by repeal of punitive boat taxes: production increased substantially through the late 19th century supported by the introduction of steam railways, and both production and exports peaked around 1900. The industry is still active today, although on a much reduced scale, with an estimate of around 20% of output being exported. Considerable reserves of this high quality slate resource remain in North Wales and it is important to ensure that they are protected to maintain continuity of supply to the heritage sector and are

  6. 我國商標專利行政訴訟之變革 New System of Trade and Patent Administrative Litigation Special Report

    陳國成 Kuo-Cheng Chen


    Full Text Available 我國智慧財產法院即將在2007 年3 月成立,依司法院所公布智慧財產法院組織法草案及智慧財產案件審理法草案內容觀之,其中牽涉商標、專利行政訴訟審理變動較大者,為智慧財產案件審理法草案第33 條第1 項之規定。該條項關於撤銷、廢止商標註冊或撤銷專利權之行政訴訟中,當事人於言詞辯論終結前,就同一撤銷或廢止理由提出之新證據,智慧財產法院應由實體加以審酌之規定,改變了向來行政法院於行政訴訟中,對所提新證據不予審酌的傳統實務見解。此部分法制之變更,對行政訴訟審理運作將有何影響?應為從事實務工作者所關心。本文分就商標、專利行政訴訟現制與未來 新制規定作一介紹,併就可能之影響作一初步分析,期能有助從事商標、專利行政訴訟實務工作者對新制發展的瞭解。 Intellectual Property (IP Court is planed to be established in March 2007 in Taiwan. Reviewing the draft of IP Court Organic Law and the draft of IP Trial Laws published by Judicial Yuan, it is clear that the paragraph Ⅰof Article 33 of IP Trial Law will become the most influential factor in IP trials. Under the current law, the administrative courts are not required to consider the new evidences the party submitted based on the same reason to revoke or repeal trade mark right or patent right after the decision made by the IP Office. However, according to the draft, those evidences should be taken into consideration by IP Court before the conclusion of oral proceedings at trials. The new law will change IP trials crucially. This report wants to introduce this change and evaluate how it will influence the legal system. By comparing the two systems and pointing out the differences, this report wants to provide a general understanding of the drafts as well as the new changes for IP practitioners.

  7. Evaluation of Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracting -- Methodology for Comparing Processes and Costs of ESPC and Appropriatins-Funded Energy Projects

    Hughes, P.J.


    Federal agencies have had performance contracting authority since 1985, when Congress first authorized agencies to enter into shared energy savings agreements with Public Law 99-272, the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. By the end of FY 2001, agencies had used energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) to attract private-sector investment of over $1 billion to improve the energy efficiency of federal buildings. Executive Order 13123 directs agencies to maximize their use of alternative financing contracting mechanisms such as ESPCs when life-cycle cost effective to reduce energy use and cost in their facilities and operations. Continuing support for ESPCs at the Administration and Congressional levels is evident in the pending comprehensive national energy legislation, which repeals the sunset provision on ESPC authority and extends ESPC authority to water savings projects. Despite the Congressional and Presidential directives to use ESPCs, some agencies have been reluctant to do so. Decision makers in these agencies see no reason to enter into long-term obligations to pay interest on borrowed money out of their own operating budgets if instead Congress will grant them appropriations to pay for the improvements up front. Questions frequently arise about whether pricing in ESPCs, which are negotiated for best value, is as favorable as prices obtained through competitive sourcing, and whether ESPC as a means of implementing energy conservation projects is as life-cycle cost effective as the standard practice of funding these projects through appropriations. The lack of any quantitative analysis to address these issues was the impetus for this study. ESPCs are by definition cost-effective because of their ''pay-from-savings'' requirement and guarantee, but do their interest costs and negotiated pricing extract an unreasonably high price? Appropriations seem to be the least-cost option, because the U.S. Treasury can borrow money at

  8. Obituary: Franklin Kamney (1925-2011)

    Kinne, Richard


    Dr. Franklin E. Kameny died October 11, 2011, at the age of 86 of cardiac arrest. Kameny observed RV Tau stars and yellow semiregular variables from 1952 to1954, and his photoelectric measurements served as the basis of his Harvard Ph.D. thesis. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1956, Kameny taught astronomy for a year at Georgetown University. A US Army veteran during World War II, he was hired as an astronomer by the US Army Mapping Service in 1957. His astronomical career was terminated when he was fired from this position due to the discovery of his sexual orientation. Denied his first occupation as an astronomer, Kameny became a pioneer in the struggle for equal rights and was involved in many issues leading to just and equitable treatment of all people. One of his most most notable achievements was working for the removal of homosexuality from the American Psychiatric Association's manual of mental disorders. One of his most recent achievements was helping to push through the Washington, DC, marriage equality act. After a lonely 40-year struggle, Kameny recently began to receive recognition for all his work. In June of 2009, the Office of Personnel Management formally apologized for Kameny's firing and issued him their highest award. The apology letter, in Kameny's estimation, left open the possibility he'd never actually been fired. In his acceptance of the apology he sent the Office a letter, tongue-in-cheek, requesting that the Office let him know what his back pay was! Kameny was present in the Oval Office for the signing of the repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" in 2010 and was thanked for his work by both President Obama and Vice President Biden. 17th Street in Washington, DC, between P and R Streets was named "Frank Kameny Way," and Kameny's house is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Kameny's astronomical career, as short as it may have been, has not been forgotten. In the summer of 2009, his dissertation was "rediscovered" by AAVSO


    Cecília Paranhos Santos Marcelino


    perpetuates a lack of accountability for the authorities responsible for the lower exposure of the act repealed or undone. Using the deductive method and an investigation based by legal doctrines and academic studies on the subject, the objective of this article is analyzes the situation of children and adolescents exposed to multiple adoptions.Keywords: Multiple adoption; Child and Adolescent; Complete Protection.

  10. Sustentabilidade financeira e econômica do gasto público em saúde no nível municipal: reflexões a partir de dados de municípios mato-grossenses Financial and economic sustainability of public spending on health care by local governments: an analysis of data from municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    João Henrique Gurtler Scatena


    municipality, which also defined the composition of the municipal budgets. Meanwhile, the budget comprising the basis for EC-29 increased less (178%, thus placing limits on the municipal share of health spending. The results observed in these municipalities are believed to reflect the reality in thousands of other Brazilian municipalities, thus jeopardizing the capacity for municipal investment in health, especially beginning in 2008. The situation may become even worse, considering the repeal of the so-called Bank Transaction Tax (CPMF, Bills of Law 306/08 and 233/08 (currently under review in the National Congress, and the world recession stemming from the U.S. financial crisis.

  11. The USA Labor Unions Against the Legislative Restraint on Their Participation in Election Campaigns (1947-1948

    Koryakova Irina Konstantinovna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to investigating the struggle of the USA labor unions for the repeal of the Taft-Hartley law provision on the restraint of labor organizations’ political activity in connection with federal election campaigns. The author demonstrates that the united and active efforts of American labor unions became the main factor that made the USA Supreme Court interpret the Taft-Hartley law provision on the restraint of using labor expenditures for participating in election campaigns in favour of labor unions. The Taft-Hartley law was adopted in June of 1947 and became the main document determining the trends, forms and ways of governmental intervention into labor-management relations in the U.S. Signifying the transition from liberal statism to conservative statism, the Taft-Hartley law drastically changed the character of the state regulation of labor-management relations. Designed by the political forces intending to destroy the influence of trade unions, it seriously limited the resources and opportunities of labor party to uphold the interests of working population. As a result, the leaders of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations were unanimous in their indignation regarding new legislation which actually put direct limitations on the right of trade unions to exercise political activities including the right to finance their participation in the presidential and congressional elections. According to the Section 304 of the law, labor unions were denied the right to contributions and expenditures related to all federal elections including primaries. It meant that labor was not permitted to publish the information about the candidates and to express the opinions about them as a whole in any newspaper (labor or commercial. The AFL and the CIO leaders called that Section unconstitutional and decided to strive for defining it unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Following the recommendations

  12. Comparison of Jia Yi’s and Dong Zhongshu’s Administrative Ethics%贾谊与董仲舒行政伦理思想比较



    The unfortunate and tortuous life experiences of Jia Yi and Dong Zhongshu caused them to have a deep understanding and thinking of administering a country. Both of them were influenced by Confucianism, Legalism and Taoism and inherited and developed them. Jia Yi formed the administrative ethics of administering a country with etiquette, insisting on policy of benevolence, not repealing the govenment by law and being people-oriented, while Dong Zhongshu formed the administrative ethics of administering a country with virtue, banning the contention of a hundred schools of thoughts and honouring Confucianism alone, and the telepathy between heaven and man. A comparison of these two administrative ethics shows that Jia Yi developed the concept of etiquette from ethics to politics while Dong Zhongshu extended the concept of virtue to administering ways, that Jia Yi used systems as the bridge of etiquette and law while Dong Zhongshu highlighted the governing position of Confucianism, and that Jia Yi insisted on selecting government officials based on public opinions while Dong Zhongshu restrained the governors’ behavior by way of God’s will. These two administrative ethics show the relation of inspiration and reference as well as inheritance and development.%贾谊与董仲舒的人生际遇曲折多舛,而正是这样的经历迫使其对治国理政有了更深刻的体悟和思考。贾谊与董仲舒都曾受到儒家、法家、道家思想的影响,二者对儒、法、道的思想有继承更有发展。贾谊形成了“以礼治国”“坚持仁政、不废法治”“以民为本”的行政伦理思想,董仲舒形成了“以德治国”“罢黜百家、独尊儒术”“天人感应”的行政伦理思想。对比分析二者的行政伦理思想,可以看出贾谊将礼的概念由伦理范畴扩展为政治范畴,而董仲舒是将德育引申到治国方法中;贾谊用制度沟通礼、法,董仲舒强调儒术的统治地位;贾

  13. 清代沧州驻防的设立、本地化与覆灭%The Foundation, Localization and Destruction of the Cangzhou Garrison in the Qing Dynasty



    八旗驻防是清代兵制的基本问题。清朝不能彻底革除旗民藩篱,满汉矛盾客观存在。近代多处驻防面对强敌,难以号召民众助战,终告覆灭。不过,八旗驻防衰亡,不宜一概归因“满汉矛盾”,顺治五年(1648)设立的沧州驻防便是一例。它自初建起便非征服者,而是治安军;始终未筑满城,便于旗民交流;自十八世纪起,在本地挑甲、秋收、入葬,逐渐本地化。咸丰三年(1853)太平军进逼沧州,旗民并肩血战,令其损失惨重,折戟天津,改变了清史走向。这种情况并非沧州独有,十九世纪六十年代的杭州、西安、凉州、宁夏与巴里坤都是旗民协作的典范。研究近代驻防史,须周览史料,分析个案,而非先入为主地下结论。%The eight banner garrison system is the basic problem of the Qing military system. The banner people were separated from and unequal to the civilians by the Manchu governor. Manchu-Han differences could not be completely repealed in the Qing Dynasty. A part of garrison were annihilated without support by ci⁃vilians after 1840. However, the history of decline and fall of the banners garrison system should not completely be attributed to the definite relationship between Manchu and Han. The Cangzhou garrison was not an occupa⁃tion troop but a security force since foundation in 1648. The relationship between the banner and civilians was friendlier than some cities for the Manchu city never building. Since the 18th century, banner soldiers were se⁃lected, cropped and buried in Cangzhou. The Cangzhou banners had been gradually localized. In 1853, the gar⁃rison and the local people fought together with the Taiping rebels invaders. Cangzhou was fallen but Taiping reb⁃els suffered so heavy that crashed in Tianjin which changed the history of the Qing Dynasty. In 1860’s, Hang⁃zhou, Xi’an, Liangzhou, Ningxia and Barkul were the models for

  14. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Pieter du Toit


    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  15. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio


    for Determining the Thickness of Bound Pavement Layers Using Short-Pulse Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010,, DOI: 10.1520/D4748-10. Further ASTM standards exist, not focused on GPR but including useful information (details are not provided here, for brevity reasons). There are no standards in Europe, instead, guiding the GPR use for subsurface prospecting and regulating the numerous applications of this non-destructive technique. The following Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment (R&TTE) directive applies to GPR equipment and allows the placing of a GPR product on the European (EU) market for sale: Directive 1999/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 1999, on radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment and the mutual recognition of their conformity. Official Journal of the European Union, L 91, 7.4.1999, open access on This document will be repealed, since 13 June 2016, by the following R&TTE directive: Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014, on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment, repealing Directive 1999/5/EC. Official Journal of the European Union, L 153, 22.5.2014, open access on ec.europa. Although conformance to the R&TTE directive allows the placing of a GPR product on the market for sale, it does not give authority for its use. In order to use the equipment, in the majority of EU member countries, a license is required. The license is controlled and issued by the radio administration in each of the member countries. The Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) of the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) considers and develops policies on electronic communications activities in European context, taking account of European and international legislations and regulations. There are 48 European countries

  16. Unlocking Human Dignity: A Plan to Transform the US Immigrant Detention System

    Migration and Refugee Services/ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops


    full menu of court compliance programs, with varying degrees of supervision, reporting, oversight and monitoring. In order to realize this vision, it offers several additional recommendations.The Obama administration should desist from using detention as a “deterrent” to illegal migration and de facto refugee flows. DHS should close its family detention centers in favor of community-based supervision and support programs for immigrant families. The vast majority of families would appear for removal proceedings with appropriate orientation, supervision and community support. The growth of an immense family detention infrastructure will not (as intended deter imperiled persons from seeking refuge in the United States, but will invariably lead to the return of de facto refugees to their persecutors in violation of international law.Congress should pass legislation to repeal mandatory detention in all but the most egregious criminal and national security cases. US mandatory detention laws cover lawful permanent residents, asylum seekers, petty offenders, and persons with US families and other enduring ties to the United States. By definition, they prevent individualized release determinations based on family ties, employment, housing, criminal history, and other factors. In the overwhelming majority of cases, immigration judges or judicial officers should be permitted to consider the full range of equities and release options for persons in removal proceedings, whether formal court proceedings or non-court, administrative and summary processes.Private corporations should have a more limited, regulated and modest role in a shrinking detention system. The federal government has increasingly ceded responsibility for detention to entities whose loyalties run to their shareholders, not the common good. By some estimates, for-profit prison corporations administer more than 60 percent of the “beds” in the US immigrant detention system. Rather than expanding its reliance

  17. From access to re-use: a user’s perspective on public sector information availability

    Frederika Welle Donker


    policies ranged from open access (data available with a minimum of legal restrictions and for no more than marginal dissemination costs to full cost recovery, whereby all costs incurred in collection, creation, processing, maintenance and dissemination costs to be recoveredfrom the re-users. Most of the public sector bodies in the European Union adhered to a cost recovery policy for allowing re-use of public sector information. In 2003, the European Commission adopted two directives to ensure better accessibility of public sector information Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information and repealing Council Directive 90/313/EEC, the so-called Access Directive, provided citizens the right of access to environmental information. Citizens should be able to access documents related to the environment via a register, preferably in an electronic form and if a copy of a document was requested, the charges must not exceed marginal dissemination costs. Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 on the re-use of public sector information, the co-called PSI Directive, intended to create conditions for a level playing field for all re-users of public sector information. However, the PSI Directive of 2003 left room for public sector organisations to maintain a cost recovery regime with restrictive licence conditions. In spite of these directives, access policies for geographic data were slow to change in most European nations.At the end of the last decade, accessibility of public sector information received two major impulses. The first major impulse was the implementation of Directive 2007/2/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE, the cocalled INSPIRE Directive, established a framework of standardisation rules for the data and publishing via