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Sample records for repaired promptly experimental

  1. Simulation and experimental verification of prompt gamma-ray emissions during proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, A.; Petzoldt, J.; Dendooven, P.; Enghardt, W.; Golnik, C.; Hueso-González, F.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Roemer, K.; Fiedler, F.

    2015-05-01

    Irradiation with protons and light ions offers new possibilities for tumor therapy but has a strong need for novel imaging modalities for treatment verification. The development of new detector systems, which can provide an in vivo range assessment or dosimetry, requires an accurate knowledge of the secondary radiation field and reliable Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents multiple measurements to characterize the prompt γ-ray emissions during proton irradiation and benchmarks the latest Geant4 code against the experimental findings. Within the scope of this work, the total photon yield for different target materials, the energy spectra as well as the γ-ray depth profile were assessed. Experiments were performed at the superconducting AGOR cyclotron at KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Properties of the γ-ray emissions were experimentally determined. The prompt γ-ray emissions were measured utilizing a conventional HPGe detector system (Clover) and quantitatively compared to simulations. With the selected physics list QGSP_BIC_HP, Geant4 strongly overestimates the photon yield in most cases, sometimes up to 50%. The shape of the spectrum and qualitative occurrence of discrete γ lines is reproduced accurately. A sliced phantom was designed to determine the depth profile of the photons. The position of the distal fall-off in the simulations agrees with the measurements, albeit the peak height is also overestimated. Hence, Geant4 simulations of prompt γ-ray emissions from irradiation with protons are currently far less reliable as compared to simulations of the electromagnetic processes. Deviations from experimental findings were observed and quantified. Although there has been a constant improvement of Geant4 in the hadronic sector, there is still a gap to close.

  2. Simulation and experimental verification of prompt gamma-ray emissions during proton irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, A; Petzoldt, J; Dendooven, P; Enghardt, W; Golnik, C; Hueso-González, F; Kormoll, T; Pausch, G; Roemer, K; Fiedler, F

    2015-05-21

    Irradiation with protons and light ions offers new possibilities for tumor therapy but has a strong need for novel imaging modalities for treatment verification. The development of new detector systems, which can provide an in vivo range assessment or dosimetry, requires an accurate knowledge of the secondary radiation field and reliable Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents multiple measurements to characterize the prompt γ-ray emissions during proton irradiation and benchmarks the latest Geant4 code against the experimental findings. Within the scope of this work, the total photon yield for different target materials, the energy spectra as well as the γ-ray depth profile were assessed. Experiments were performed at the superconducting AGOR cyclotron at KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Properties of the γ-ray emissions were experimentally determined. The prompt γ-ray emissions were measured utilizing a conventional HPGe detector system (Clover) and quantitatively compared to simulations. With the selected physics list QGSP_BIC_HP, Geant4 strongly overestimates the photon yield in most cases, sometimes up to 50%. The shape of the spectrum and qualitative occurrence of discrete γ lines is reproduced accurately. A sliced phantom was designed to determine the depth profile of the photons. The position of the distal fall-off in the simulations agrees with the measurements, albeit the peak height is also overestimated. Hence, Geant4 simulations of prompt γ-ray emissions from irradiation with protons are currently far less reliable as compared to simulations of the electromagnetic processes. Deviations from experimental findings were observed and quantified. Although there has been a constant improvement of Geant4 in the hadronic sector, there is still a gap to close.

  3. Technical Note: Experimental carbon ion range verification in inhomogeneous phantoms using prompt gammas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; Krimmer, J.; Ray, C.; Testa, E., E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Testa, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 |(France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); De Rydt, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Freud, N.; Létang, J. M. [CREATIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to experimentally assess the possibility to monitor carbon ion range variations—due to tumor shift and/or elongation or shrinking—using prompt-gamma (PG) emission with inhomogeneous phantoms. Such a study is related to the development of PG monitoring techniques to be used in a carbon ion therapy context. Methods: A 95 MeV/u carbon ion beam was used to irradiate phantoms with a variable density along the ion path to mimic the presence of bone and lung in homogeneous humanlike tissue. PG profiles were obtained after a longitudinal scan of the phantoms. A setup comprising a narrow single-slit collimator and two detectors placed at 90° with respect to the beam axis was used. The time of flight technique was applied to allow the selection between PG and background events. Results: Using the positions at 50% entrance and 50% falloff of the PG profiles, a quantity called prompt-gamma profile length (PGPL) is defined. It is possible to observe shifts in the PGPL when there are absolute ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. Quantitatively, for an ion range shift of −1.33 ± 0.46 mm (insertion of a Teflon slab), a PGPL difference of −1.93 ± 0.58 mm and −1.84 ± 1.27 mm is obtained using a BaF{sub 2} and a NaI(Tl) detector, respectively. In turn, when an ion range shift of 4.59 ± 0.42 mm (insertion of a lung-equivalent material slab) is considered, the difference is of 4.10 ± 0.54 and 4.39 ± 0.80 mm for the same detectors. Conclusions: Herein, experimental evidence of the usefulness of employing PG to monitor carbon ion range using inhomogeneous phantoms is presented. Considering the homogeneous phantom as reference, the results show that the information provided by the PG emission allows for detecting ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. When considering the expected PG emission from an energy slice in a carbon ion therapy scenario, the experimental setup would allow to retrieve the same PGPL as the high statistics of

  4. Efficacy of conventional and experimental techniques for denture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, R N; Powers, J M; Del Bel Cury, A A

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of one experimental and three conventional techniques for denture repair. Forty maxillary dentures were constructed in dental stone casts duplicated from an edentulous copper-aluminium maxillary master cast. Two groups of 20 dentures each were prepared with Lucitone 199 (water-bath, 8 h/74 degrees C) or Acron MC (microwave, 3 min/500 W) denture base materials processed in gypsum moulds. The 40 dentures were all separated sagittally in the middle. After that, five dentures of each denture base material were repaired with one of the four following techniques: L (Lucitone 199, water-bath, 8 h/74 degrees C, gypsum mould), A (Acron MC, microwave, 3 min/500 W, gypsum mould), AR (Acron MC/R, autopolymerized, 60 psi/45 degrees C/15 min) and the experimental technique AS (Acron MC, 1 min/500 W + 1 min/0 W + 1 min/500 W, hard silicone mould). The parameters denture accuracy (DA), horizontal (HC) and vertical changes (VC) of the occlusal plane measured the efficacy of the repair techniques. The DA was determined by weighing a film of silicone impression material set in contact to the tissue surface of the denture seated on the metallic master die. For HC, cross-arch measurements were made among reference marks drilled on the teeth 11, 21, 16 and 26. The VC was obtained by calculating the relative differences in height between similar teeth of each semi-arch (pairs 13-23, 14-24, 15-25 e 16-26). For DA, HC and VC, the percentage differences between the percentage means obtained before and after repair were calculated and grouped for comparisons. Analysis of variance (SuperANOVA) and means compared by Tukey-Kramer intervals (0.05) revealed that AR repair had the best percentage difference value for DA [0.5% (P 0.05)]. For HC, there was a statistical difference (P 0.05). Denture accuracy was not affected by the interaction of base material-repair technique; repair with AR technique gave the best adaptation; the interaction of base material-repair

  5. Effects of prompting in reflective learning tools: Findings from experimental field, lab, and online studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eRenner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflective learning is an important type of learning both in formal and informal situations—in school, higher education, at the workplace, and in everyday life. People may benefit from technical support for reflective learning, in particular when supporting each other by reflecting not only upon their own but also upon other people’s problems. We refer to this collective approach where people come together to think about experiences and find solutions to problems as collaborative reflection. We present three empirical studies about the effects of prompting in reflective learning tools in such situations where people reflect on others’ issues. In Study 1 we applied a three-stage within-group design in a field experiment, where 39 participants from two organizations received different types of prompts while they used a reflection app. We found that prompts that invited employees to write down possible solutions led to more comprehensive comments on their colleagues’ experiences. In Study 2 we used a three-stage between-group design in a laboratory experiment, where 78 university students were invited to take part in an experiment about the discussion of problems at work or academic studies in online forums. Here we found that short, abstract prompts showed no superiority to a situation without any prompts with respect to quantity or quality of contributions. Finally, Study 3 featured a two-stage between-group design in an online experiment, where 60 participants received either general reflection instructions or detailed instructions about how to reflect on other people’s problems. We could show that detailed reflection instructions supported people in producing more comprehensive comments that included more general advice. The results demonstrate that to increase activity and to improve quality of comments with prompting tools require detailed instructions and specific wording of the prompts.

  6. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  7. 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra Impact on a Set of Criticality and Experimental Reactor Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneliau, Y.; Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2014-04-01

    A large set of nuclear data are investigated to improve the calculation predictions of the new neutron transport simulation codes. With the next generation of nuclear power plants (GEN IV projects), one expects to reduce the calculated uncertainties which are mainly coming from nuclear data and are still very important, before taking into account integral information in the adjustment process. In France, future nuclear power plant concepts will probably use MOX fuel, either in Sodium Fast Reactors or in Gas Cooled Fast Reactors. Consequently, the knowledge of 239Pu cross sections and other nuclear data is crucial issue in order to reduce these sources of uncertainty. The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra (PFNS) for 239Pu are part of these relevant data (an IAEA working group is even dedicated to PFNS) and the work presented here deals with this particular topic. The main international data files (i.e. JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0, BRC-2009) have been considered and compared with two different spectra, coming from the works of Maslov and Kornilov respectively. The spectra are first compared by calculating their mathematical moments in order to characterize them. Then, a reference calculation using the whole JEFF-3.1.1 evaluation file is performed and compared with another calculation performed with a new evaluation file, in which the data block containing the fission spectra (MF=5, MT=18) is replaced by the investigated spectra (one for each evaluation). A set of benchmarks is used to analyze the effects of PFNS, covering criticality cases and mock-up cases in various neutron flux spectra (thermal, intermediate, and fast flux spectra). Data coming from many ICSBEP experiments are used (PU-SOL-THERM, PU-MET-FAST, PU-MET-INTER and PU-MET-MIXED) and French mock-up experiments are also investigated (EOLE for thermal neutron flux spectrum and MASURCA for fast neutron flux spectrum). This study shows that many experiments and neutron parameters are very sensitive to

  8. Strengthening Scientific Verbal Behavior: An Experimental Comparison of Progressively Prompted and Unprompted Programmed Instruction and Prose Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darrel R.; Bostow, Darrel E.; Heimisson, Gudmundur T.

    2007-01-01

    Web-based software was used to deliver and record the effects of programmed instruction that progressively added formal prompts until attempts were successful, programmed instruction with one attempt, and prose tutorials. Error-contingent progressive prompting took significantly longer than programmed instruction and prose. Both forms of…

  9. Experimental Comparison of Knife-Edge and Multi-Parallel Slit Collimators for Prompt Gamma Imaging of Proton Pencil Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Julien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Janssens, Guillaume; Perali, Irene; Celani, Andrea; Fiorini, Carlo; Freud, Nicolas; Testa, Etienne; Prieels, Damien

    2016-01-01

    More and more camera concepts are being investigated to try and seize the opportunity of instantaneous range verification of proton therapy treatments offered by prompt gammas emitted along the proton tracks. Focusing on one-dimensional imaging with a passive collimator, the present study experimentally compared in combination with the first, clinically compatible, dedicated camera device the performances of instances of the two main options: a knife-edge slit (KES) and a multi-parallel slit (MPS) design. These two options were experimentally assessed in this specific context as they were previously demonstrated through analytical and numerical studies to allow similar performances in terms of Bragg peak retrieval precision and spatial resolution in a general context. Both collimators were prototyped according to the conclusions of Monte Carlo optimization studies under constraints of equal weight (40 mm tungsten alloy equivalent thickness) and of the specificities of the camera device under consideration (in particular 4 mm segmentation along beam axis and no time-of-flight discrimination, both of which less favorable to the MPS performance than to the KES one). Acquisitions of proton pencil beams of 100, 160, and 230 MeV in a PMMA target revealed that, in order to reach a given level of statistical precision on Bragg peak depth retrieval, the KES collimator requires only half the dose the present MPS collimator needs, making the KES collimator a preferred option for a compact camera device aimed at imaging only the Bragg peak position. On the other hand, the present MPS collimator proves more effective at retrieving the entrance of the beam in the target in the context of an extended camera device aimed at imaging the whole proton track within the patient. PMID:27446802

  10. Stem cell transplantation enhances endogenous brain repair after experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Nobutaka; Hiu, Takeshi; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation for stroke treatment has been a promising therapy in small and large animal models, and many clinical trials are ongoing to establish this strategy in a clinical setting. However, the mechanism underlying functional recovery after stem cell transplantation has not been fully established and there is still a need to determine the ideal subset of stem cells for such therapy. We herein reviewed the recent evidences showing the underlying mechanism of functional recovery after cell transplantation, focusing on endogenous brain repair. First, angiogenesis/neovascularization is promoted by trophic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor secreted from stem cells, and stem cells migrated to the lesion along with the vessels. Second, axonal sprouting, dendritic branching, and synaptogenesis were enhanced altogether in the both ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere remapping the pyramidal tract across the board. Finally, endogenous neurogenesis was also enhanced although little is known how much these neurogenesis contribute to the functional recovery. Taken together, it is clear that stem cell transplantation provides functional recovery via endogenous repair enhancement from multiple ways. This is important to maximize the effect of stem cell therapy after stroke, although it is still undetermined which repair mechanism is mostly contributed.

  11. Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Olesen, Morten Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant...... treatments and the biological response should be reproducible and comparable to humans. This allows for a reliable translation of results to clinical studies.This study aimed at verifying the Göttingen minipig as a pre-clinical model for articular cartilage repair by testing existing clinical cartilage...

  12. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  13. Experimental Observation of the Skeletal Adaptive Repair Mechanism and Bionic Topology Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaysar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone adaptive repair theory considers that the external load is the direct source of bone remodeling; bone achieves its maintenance by remodeling some microscopic damages due to external load during the process. This paper firstly observes CT data from the whole self-repairing process in bone defects in rabbit femur. Experimental result shows that during self-repairing process there exists an interaction relationship between spongy bone and enamel bone volume changes of bone defect, that is when volume of spongy bone increases, enamel bone decreases, and when volume of spongy bone decreases, enamel bone increases. Secondly according to this feature a bone remodeling model based on cross-type reaction-diffusion system influenced by mechanical stress is proposed. Finally, this model coupled with finite element method by using the element adding and removing process is used to simulate the self-repairing process and engineering optimization problems by considering the idea of bionic topology optimization.

  14. Experimental study on the repair of tibial plateau defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-lin; HAN Na; KOU Yu-hui; WANG Yan-hua; ZHANG Hong-bo; JIANG Bao-guo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of autograft bone,allograft bone,calcium sulfate bone cement,and calcium phosphate bone cement on the repair of tibial plateau defect in rabbits.Methods: We used autograft bone,allograft bone,calcium sulfate bone cement,and calcium phosphate bone cement to repair tibial plateau defect in rabbits.Gross and histologic observations,X-ray examination,and biomechanical test were conducted at 1,2,4,8 weeks after operation.Results: X-ray examination found that the bone density was evidently reduced in calcium sulfate group at 8 weeks after operation; there were no marked changes in other groups.The maximal load measurements showed that autograft and allograft groups were greater than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups at 1 and 2 weeks after operation.However at 4 and 8 weeks after operation,no significant difference was found among the four groups.In autograft and allograft groups,there was no significant difference in biomechanical intensity at 2,4,and 8 weeks,but it was significantly higher than that at 1 week.In calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups,the outcome was ranked in descending order as 1 week< 2 week< 4 week =8week.Histologic examination found a great amount of new bones at 8 week in both autograft and allograft groups.In calcium sulfate group,calcium sulfate was almost absorbed and there were numerous bone trabeculations.There was a large amount of unabsorbed calcium phosphate in calcium phosphate group.Conclusion: At 1-2 weeks postoperatively,the biomechanical intensity is higher in autograft and allograft groups than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups,but after 4-8 weeks,there is no significant difference among groups.At 1-2 weeks,the biomechanical intensity in all groups is increased,but at 4-8 weeks,there is no significant increase.The rates of absorption and bone formation are quicker in calcium sulfate group than calcium phosphate group.

  15. Experimental study on the repair of tibial plateau defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Hai-lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To evaluate the effect of autograft bone, allograft bone, calcium sulfate bone cement, and calcium phosphate bone cement on the repair of tibial plateau defect in rabbits. Methods: We used autograft bone, allograft bone, cal-cium sulfate bone cement, and calcium phosphate bone ce-ment to repair tibial plateau defect in rabbits. Gross and histo-logic observations, X-ray examination, and biomechanical test were conducted at 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks after operation. Results: X-ray examination found that the bone den-sity was evidently reduced in calcium sulfate group at 8 weeks after operation; there were no marked changes in other groups. The maximal load measurements showed that autograft and allograft groups were greater than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups at 1 and 2 weeks after operation. However at 4 and 8 weeks after operation, no significant difference was found among the four groups. In autograft and allograft groups, there was no significant difference in biomechanical intensity at 2, 4, and 8 weeks, but it was significantly higher than that at 1 week. In cal-cium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups, the outcome was ranked in descending order as 1 week< 2 week< 4 week =8 week. Histologic examination found a great amount of new bones at 8 week in both autograft and allograft groups. In calcium sulfate group, calcium sulfate was almost absorbed and there were numerous bone trabeculations. There was a large amount of unabsorbed calcium phosphate in calcium phosphate group. Conclusion: At 1-2 weeks postoperatively, the biome-chanical intensity is higher in autograft and allograft groups than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups, but after 4-8 weeks, there is no significant difference among groups. At 1-2 weeks, the biomechanical intensity in all groups is increased, but at 4-8 weeks, there is no significant increase. The rates of absorption and bone formation are quicker in calcium sulfate group than

  16. Nuclear Heating Measurement in Critical Facilities and Experimental Validation of Code and Libraries - An Application to Prompt and Delayed γ Nuclear Data Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, P.; Di Salvo, J.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Bernard, D.; Amharrak, H.; Lemaire, M.; Ravaux, S.

    Energy from prompt and delayed gammas in actual and future nuclear systems are more and more taken into account into design studies as they play an important role in the assessment of performance and safety concerns. Their incomplete knowledge (both prompt and delayed) require to take conservative design margins on local dimensioning parameters, thus reducing the awaited performances or flexibility of these facilities, with costs that are far from being negligible. The local energy photon deposit must be accurately known for Generation-III (Gen-III), Generation-IV (Gen-IV) or the new MTR Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The last 2 decades has seen the realization, in Zero Power Reactors (ZPR), of several programs partially devoted to γ-heating measurements. Experimental programs were and are still conducted in different Cadarache facilities such as MASURCA (for SFR), and later in MINERVE and EOLE (for JHR and Gen-III reactors). The adequacy of the γ-heating calculation was compared to experimental data using thermo-luminescent (TL) detectors and γ-fission chambers. Inconsistencies in C/E and associated uncertainties led to improvement of both libraries and experimental techniques. For these last one, characterization for TL and optically stimulated (OSL) detectors (calibration, individual response), and Monte Carlo calculation of charge repartition in those detectors and their environment were carefully checked and optimized. This step enabled to reduce the associated experimental uncertainty by a factor of 2 (8% at 2σ). Nevertheless, interpretation of integral experiment with updated calculation schemes and improved experimental techniques still tend to prove that there are some nuclei for which there are missing or erroneous data, mainly in structural and absorbing materials. New integral and differential measurements are needed to guide new evaluation efforts, which could benefit from consolidated theoretical and experimental modeling techniques.

  17. Histopathological Comparison of Mosquito Net with Polypropylene Mesh for Hernia Repair: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepti Bala; Chandrakar, Shiv Kumar; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2015-12-01

    Use of mosquito net, in place of polypropylene mesh, had been reported for tension-free hernia repair, as a better cost-effective option. This experimental histopathological study was performed in rats to find out the tissue response and the foreign body reaction and its comparison between commercial polypropylene mesh and the sterilized mosquito net. This experimental study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Government NSCB, Medical College, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), India. It was carried out in 40 albino rats. A 1.5 × 0.5-cm hernial defect was created by excising full-thickness abdominal wall muscle. All rats underwent on-lay mesh repair of hernial defect (polypropylene mesh, n = 20; mosquito net, n = 20). Half of rats in each group were sacrificed on day 14, and the other half, on day 90. Sections of containing mesh were examined histopathologically for inflammatory infiltrate, giant cells, and collagen deposition. Mosquito net group showed significantly greater number of giant cells and inflammatory cells at 14 and 90 days (p  0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively). Results of mosquito net are comparable to conventional polypropylene mesh. In a setup, where cost-effectiveness is of primary importance, use of mosquito net for tension-free hernia repair can be an acceptable alternative as proven histologically, to commercially available polypropylene mesh.

  18. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  19. Role of anti-adhesive barriers following rotator cuff repair surgery: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Mahmut; Şahin, Ercan; Songür, Murat; Zehir, Sinan; Armangil, Mehmet; Demirtaş, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the effectiveness of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Dualmesh®, Gore Medical, Flagstaff, AZ, USA), sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethyl cellulose (Seprafilm®, Genzyme, Cambridge, MA, USA), and polysiloxane (silicone) as anti-adhesive barriers for inhibition of fibrosis in the subacromial area following rotator cuff repair. Rabbit rotator cuff tenotomy and repair was conducted on 24 rabbits in 4 groups: control (Group A), Dualmesh® (Group B), Seprafilm® (Group C), and silicone (Group D). Anti-adhesive barrier materials were sutured over the repaired rotator cuff. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were made at the end of the sixth postoperative week. Macroscopic evaluation revealed that minimal adhesion occurred in the control and silicone groups, while the Seprafilm® and Dualmesh® groups showed evidence of fibrosis. Microscopic evaluation revealed diffuse fibrosis and collagen accumulation in the Dualmesh® and Seprafilm® groups, whereas minimal collagen deposition and inflammatory cell reaction was found among the silicone and control groups. Significant differences were found between the silicone and Dualmesh® (p=0.001) and silicone and Seprafilm® groups (p=0.002), as well as between the control and Dualmesh® (p=0.002) and control and Seprafilm® groups (p=0.002). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE/Dualmesh®) and sodium hyaluronate carboxymethyl cellulose (SH-CMC/Seprafilm®) did not prevent or attenuate postoperative subacromial fibrosis following cuff tear repair. Nor did silicone prevent or attenuate fibrosis. More detailed research is needed for development of an effective anti-adhesive barrier for use after rotator cuff tear surgery.

  20. Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature and efficacy of the repair system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasad Y.K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study experimentally evaluates the performance of control (standard cylinder specimen, damaged (mechanical loading after thermal exposure and repaired / retrofitted normal plain concrete cylinders using different repair schemes such as on use of FRP wraps, Geo-polymers, etc., to restore the capacity of damaged structural concrete elements. The control-companion specimen in the series provides the reference frame against which both, specimen damage levels were quantified and the benefits of a specimen repaired subsequent to damage were assessed.

  1. Analysis of sewage sludge using an experimental prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (pgnaa) set-up with an am-be source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiri, Z.; Redjem, F.; Beloudah, N.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental PGNAA set-up using a 1 Ci Am-Be source has been developed and used for analysis of bulk sewage sludge samples issued from a wastewater treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Algiers. The sample dimensions were optimized using thermal neutron flux calculations carried out with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo Code. A methodology is then proposed to perform quantitative analysis using the absolute method. For this, average thermal neutron flux inside the sludge samples is deduced using average thermal neutron flux in reference water samples and thermal flux measurements with the aid of a 3He neutron detector. The average absolute gamma detection efficiency is determined using the prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in a water sample. The gamma detection efficiency is normalized for sludge samples using gamma attenuation factors calculated with the MCNP5 code for water and sludge. Wet and dehydrated sludge samples were analyzed. Nutritive elements (Ca, N, P, K) and heavy metals elements like Cr and Mn were determined. For some elements, the PGNAA values were compared to those obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) methods. Good agreement is observed between the different values. Heavy element concentrations are very high compared to normal values; this is related to the fact that the wastewater treatment plant is treating not only domestic but also industrial wastewater that is probably rejected by industries without removal of pollutant elements. The detection limits for almost all elements of interest are sufficiently low for the method to be well suited for such analysis.

  2. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  3. Gene Expression in Experimental Aortic Coarctation and Repair: Candidate Genes for Therapeutic Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDisa, John F; Bozdag, Serdar; Olson, Jessica; Ramchandran, Ramani; Kersten, Judy R; Eddinger, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is a constriction of the proximal descending thoracic aorta and is one of the most common congenital cardiovascular defects. Treatments for CoA improve life expectancy, but morbidity persists, particularly due to the development of chronic hypertension (HTN). Identifying the mechanisms of morbidity is difficult in humans due to confounding variables such as age at repair, follow-up duration, coarctation severity and concurrent anomalies. We previously developed an experimental model that replicates aortic pathology in humans with CoA without these confounding variables, and mimics correction at various times using dissolvable suture. Here we present the most comprehensive description of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to date from the pathology of CoA, which were obtained using this model. Aortic samples (n=4/group) from the ascending aorta that experiences elevated blood pressure (BP) from induction of CoA, and restoration of normal BP after its correction, were analyzed by gene expression microarray, and enriched genes were converted to human orthologues. 51 DEGs with >6 fold-change (FC) were used to determine enriched Gene Ontology terms, altered pathways, and association with National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headers (MeSH) IDs for HTN, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CoA. The results generated 18 pathways, 4 of which (cell cycle, immune system, hemostasis and metabolism) were shared with MeSH ID's for HTN and CVD, and individual genes were associated with the CoA MeSH ID. A thorough literature search further uncovered association with contractile, cytoskeletal and regulatory proteins related to excitation-contraction coupling and metabolism that may explain the structural and functional changes observed in our experimental model, and ultimately help to unravel the mechanisms responsible for persistent morbidity after treatment for CoA.

  4. Prompt atmospheric neutrino flux

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Enberg, Rikard; Kim, C S; Reno, Mary Hall; Sarcevic, Ina; Stasto, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux including nuclear correction and $B$ hadron contribution in the different frameworks: NLO perturbative QCD and dipole models. The nuclear effect is larger in the prompt neutrino flux than in the total charm production cross section, and it reduces the fluxes by $10\\% - 30\\%$ depending on the model. We also investigate the uncertainty using the QCD scales allowed by the charm cross section data from RHIC and LHC experiments.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Ileal Patch in Delayed Primary Repair of Penetrating Colon Injuries: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Abbasi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary repair of traumatic colonic perforation is progressively gaining acceptance as the best method of management. However, when delayed, the risk of infection-related complications may increase. Here, we present a new method of repairing colon perforation in the presence of peritonitis. Acute colon injury was simulated in 22 German shepherd dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 11 and after 24 hours they were operated on. The perforations were repaired by subserosal suture technique. In the first group (group A, ileal patch was used. In the other group (group B, the colon was closed by debridement and anastomosis. After 6 weeks, the repairs were assessed on the basis of survival, gross and histological assessments. Nine (82% dogs in group A and six (56% in group B survived. Ileal patch utilization significantly decreased the mortality rate (p < 0.05. The cause of death in two group A dogs and five group B dogs was peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess formation. None of the surviving dogs showed evidence of anastomotic leakage or breakdown. Small bowel patch used in primary repair of colon injury in the presence of peritonitis may decrease the risk of postoperative infection-related complications and the mortality rate.

  6. Experimental Observation and Analytical Modeling of Melting and Solidification during Aluminum Alloy Repair by Turbulence Flow Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muki Satya Permana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the state of the art of applicable casting technology for applications in the field of repairing aluminum alloy components. Repair process on the Al alloy sample using similar metal has been carried out to investigate the micro-structural effect. Joining occurs as a result of convection heat transfer of molten flow into the sand mold which melts the existing base metal inside the mold and subsequent solidification. The analytical model has been developed to describe aluminum alloy component repair by turbulence flow casting. The model is designed based on heat transfer principle that can handle the phenomena of heat flow. The experimental result and analytical model analyses pointed out that joint quality are greatly affected by parameters of preheating temperature and duration of molten metal flow in the mold. To obtain a desired metallurgical sound at the joint, the optimum temperature and time were adjusted in order to obtain a similarity of microstructure between filler and base metal. This model is aimed to predict the use of the process parameter ranges in order to have the optimum parameters when it is applied to the experiment. The fixed parameters are flow rate, sand ratio, and pouring temperature. The process parameters are preheating temperature and pouring time. It is concluded that analytical modeling has good agreement with the experimental result.

  7. Promptness and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Novarese, Marco; Di Giovinazzo, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article uses university administration data to investigate the relation between student behavior (rapid response in finalizing enrolment procedures) and academic performance. It shows how student promptness in enrolling, or lack of it, can prove a useful forecast of academic success. Several explanations can be given, including simply the greater or lesser tendency to procrastinate.

  8. Fetal Abdominal Wall Repair with a Collagen Biomatrix in an Experimental Sheep Model for Gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Luc A. J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; van den Berg, Paul P.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; van Moerkerk, Herman T. B.; Crevels, A. Jane; Lotgering, Fred K.; Feitz, Wout F. J.; Wijnen, Rene M. H.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the regeneration of the abdominal wall using a dual- layer collagen biomatrix, and the protective effect on the bowel of fetal abdominal wall repair in a fetal sheep model for gastroschisis. In 14 fetal lambs, the abdominal wall was opened at 79 days' gestation, creating a gastroschisis

  9. Oxidatively damaged DNA and its repair after experimental exposure to wood smoke in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Barregard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter from wood smoke may cause health effects through generation of oxidative stress with resulting damage to DNA. We investigated oxidatively damaged DNA and related repair capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and measured the urinary excretion of repair products...... after controlled short-term exposure of human volunteers to wood smoke. Thirteen healthy adults were exposed first to clean air and then to wood smoke in a chamber during 4h sessions, 1 week apart. Blood samples were taken 3h after exposure and on the following morning, and urine was collected after...... chromatography with mass spectrometry. The morning following exposure to wood smoke the PBMC levels of SB were significantly decreased and the mRNA levels of hOGG1 significantly increased. FPG sites, hOGG1 activity, expression of hNUDT1 and hHO1, urinary excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua did not change...

  10. Mechanical behavior of colonic anastomosis in experimental settings as a measure of wound repair and tissue integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos A Ekmektzoglou; Georgios C Zografos; Stavros K Kourkoulis; Ismene A Dontas; Panagiotis K Giannopoulos; Katerina A Marinou; Maria V Poulakou; Despina N Perrea

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the mechanical properties of anastomotic colonic tissue in experimental settings and therefore give a measure of wound healing.METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were used as experimental models of anastomotic tissue integrity. On the 5th post-operative day, the tensile strength was measured by application of an axial force, providing a quantitative measure of anastomotic dehiscence and leakage.RESULTS: Diagrams of the load as a function of the time [P = P (t)] and of the displacement also as a function of time [△s = △s (t)] were recorded for each test,permitting the design of the load versus the displacement diagram and thus providing significant data about the critical values of anastomotic failure. Quantitative data were obtained concerning the anastomotic strength of both control specimens (healthy rats), as well as specimens from non-healthy rats for comparison.CONCLUSION: This experimental model provides an excellent method of measuring anastomotic strength.Despite the relative small number of specimens used,this method provides an accurate way of measuring wound repair. More experimental measurements need to be performed to correlate emerging tensile strength values to anastomotic failure.

  11. Prompt radiation detectors to monitor target conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned by basic scientists in the study of experimental nuclear physics can often go unnoticed by cyclotron operator’s intent on meeting a demanding schedule of tracer production. Prompt neutrons and gammas are the signature that the desired reaction is occurring, providing a robust meas...

  12. A new heterologous fibrin sealant as a scaffold to cartilage repair-Experimental study and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Caio Nunes; Miluzzi Yamada, Ana Lúcia; Junior, Rui Seabra F; Barraviera, Benedito; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Jaqueline Brandão; Watanabe, Marcos Jun; Rodrigues, Celso Antônio; Garcia Alves, Ana Liz

    2016-07-01

    Autologous fibrin gel is commonly used as a scaffold for filling defects in articular cartilage. This biomaterial can also be used as a sealant to control small hemorrhages and is especially helpful in situations where tissue reparation capacity is limited. In particular, fibrin can act as a scaffold for various cell types because it can accommodate cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. Despite knowledge of the advantages of this biomaterial and mastery of the techniques required for its application, the durability of several types of sealant at the site of injury remains questionable. Due to the importance of such data for evaluating the quality and efficiency of fibrin gel formulations on its use as a scaffold, this study sought to analyze the heterologous fibrin sealant developed from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus using studies in ovine experimental models. The fibrin gel developed from the venom of this snake was shown to act as a safe, stable, and durable scaffold for up to seven days, without causing adverse side effects. Fibrin gel produced from the venom of the Crotalus durissus terrificus snake possesses many clinical and surgical uses. It presents the potential to be used as a biomaterial to help repair skin lesions or control bleeding, and it may also be used as a scaffold when applied together with various cell types. The intralesional use of the fibrin gel from the venom of this snake may improve surgical and clinical treatments in addition to being inexpensive and adequately consistent, durable, and stable. The new heterologous fibrin sealant is a scaffold candidate to cartilage repair in this study.

  13. Prompting Strategies for Introducing Opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to introduce opera to students through the use of prompting strategies. Explains that these strategies encourage active participation by students and help to improve listening skills. Focuses on prompting strategies, such as matching characters to songs, identifying, and sequencing songs. (CMK)

  14. Prompting Strategies for Introducing Opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to introduce opera to students through the use of prompting strategies. Explains that these strategies encourage active participation by students and help to improve listening skills. Focuses on prompting strategies, such as matching characters to songs, identifying, and sequencing songs. (CMK)

  15. Experimental composite guidance conduits for peripheral nerve repair: An evaluation of ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.F. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Coughlan, A. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); O' Shea, H. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); Kehoe, S., E-mail: sharonkehoe@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Boyd, D., E-mail: d.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - Pluronic F127 - glass composites have demonstrated excellent potential, from the perspective of controlled mechanical properties and cytocompatibility, for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to controlling the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity for such composite devices, the glass component may mediate specific responses upon implantation via degradation in the physiological environment and release of constituent elements. However, research focused on quantifying the release levels of such therapeutic ions from these experimental medical devices has been limited. To redress the balance, this paper explores the ion release profiles for Si{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ce{sup 4+} from experimental composite nerve guidance conduits (CNGC) comprising PLGA (at 12.5, and 20 wt.%), F127 (at 0, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) and various loadings of Si-Ca-Na-Zn-Ce glass (at 20 and 40 wt.%) for incubation periods of up to 28 days. The concentration of each ion, at various time points, was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Perkin Elmer Optima 3000). It was observed that the Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} release from CNGCs in this study ranged from 0.22 to 6.477 ppm, 2.307 to 3.277 ppm, 40 to 119 ppm, and 45 to 51 ppm, respectively. The Ce{sup 4+} concentrations were under the minimum detection limits for the ICP instrument utilized. The results indicate that the ion release levels may be appropriate to mediate therapeutic effects with respect to peripheral nerve regeneration. The data generated in this paper provides requisite evidence to optimize composition for pre-clinical evaluation of the experimental composite. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time-dependent degradation studies of PLGA/glass composite nerve guidance conduits (NGCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} release levels for the

  16. The photobiomodulation in the bone repair after radiotherapy: experimental study in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M. R. S.; Almeida, D.; Santos, J. N.; Sarmento, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    This research evaluated the effect of the GaAlAs lasertherapy at the healing of surgical wounds produced in Wistar rats femurs few days before the beginning of the radiotherapy. For this, an orifice was artificially produced in the femur bone of the rats and they had been submitted to an external radiotherapy with a radioactive source of cobalt in the dosage of 3000 cGys. The experimental group received additionally seven sessions of 780 nm, 40 mW, 100 J/cm2 or 5 J/cm2 in four points around the surgical wound, at each 48 h, initiated at the day of the surgery. These animals had been sacrificed in three and five weeks. The results show that the number of osteocites (p< 0,0001) and Harvers channels (p< 0,0001) were significantly larger in the groups that had been radiated with laser during the experiment.

  17. In vitro construction of tissue engineered skin for wound repair after escharectomy of third degree scald: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-feng MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the practicability and effect of tissue engineered skin for repairing the wound after escharectomy of third degree scald (TDSE in rat model. Methods  Epithelial cells and fibroblasts from newborn SD rats were isolated by enzyme digestion method and cultured in vitro, and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM without cytotoxicity was prepared by hyperosmotic saline/sodium hydroxide method. The fibroblasts were mixed with bovine type Ⅰ collagen and inoculated on the surface of PADM. Third passage of cultured epidermal cells from newborn SD rats were inoculated on the collagen surface of the dermal matrix to obtain tissue engineered skin, and it was used to prepare epidermal cell sheet. Forty-eight SD rats with TDSE wound were randomly divided into two groups, then tissue engineered skin (experiment group, and epidermal cell sheet (control group graftings were performed to cover the wounds respectively. Finally, gross observation and histological changes were observed in grafted area. The wound healing rate and wound contraction rate were compared between the two groups. Microvessel count (MVC was performed with antiCD34 monoclonal antibody immunohistochemical staining technique, and vascular endothelial cells were labeled. Basal membrane of the skin was identified by immunohistochemical anti-Laminin staining technique. Results  There was no obvious sign of acute rejection of the graft in both groups. The graft survival rate was 75.05%±3.69%, 83.12%±3.13% and 92.03%±3.87% at the 2th, 4th and 6th week respectively in the experimental group. The graft survival rate was 77.63%±3.23%, 83.17%±3.92% and 91.09%±3.35% at the 2th, 4th and 6th week in the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05, but the contraction rate of the grafts was 9.13%±2.27%, 18.52%±3.40%, 23.92%±3.01% at the 2th, 4th, 6th week, respectively, in the experimental group, and 14.21%±3.05%, 29.12%±3

  18. Experimental study of the effects of helium-neon laser radiation on repair of injured tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Qing; Li, Zhu-Yi; Weng, Long-Jiang; An, Mei; Li, Kai-Yun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Wang, Jian-Xin; Lu, Yu

    1993-03-01

    Despite extensive research into the biology of tendon healing, predictably restoring normal function to a digit after a flexor tendon laceration remains one of the most difficult problems facing the hand surgeon. The challenge of simultaneously achieving tendon healing while minimizing the peritendinous scar formation, which limits tendon gliding, has captured the attention of investigators for many years. It has been said that low-power density helium-neon laser radiation had effects on anti-inflammation, detumescence, progressive wound healing, and reducing intestinal adhesions. This experimental study aims at whether helium-neon laser can reduce injured tendon adhesions and improve functional recovery of the injured tendon. Fifty white Leghorn hens were used. Ten were randomly assigned as a normal control group, the other forty were used in the operation. After anesthetizing them with Amytal, a half of the profundus tendons of the second and third foretoes on both sides of the feet were cut. Postoperatively, the hens moved freely in the cages. One side of the toes operated on were randomly chosen as a treatment group, the other side served as an untreated control group. The injured tendon toes in the treatment group were irradiated for twenty minutes daily with a fiber light needle of helium-neon laser therapeutic apparatus (wavelength, 6328 angstroms) at a constant power density of 12.74 mW/cm2, the first exposure taking place 24 hours after the operation. The longest course of treatment was 3 weeks. The control group was not irradiated. At 3 days, 1, 2, 3, and 5 weeks after surgery, 8 hens were sacrificed and their tendons were examined. The experimental results: (1) active, passive flexion and tendon gliding functional recovery were significantly better in the treatment group (p tendon at the cut site were significantly smaller in the treatment group (p tendon adhesions were significantly lighter in the treatment group (p tendon extrinsic healing, reducing

  19. Evaluation of bone repair after radiotherapy by photobiomodulation-an animal experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M. R. S.; Almeida, D.; Santos, J. N.; Sarmento, V. A.

    2011-05-01

    This research evaluated the effect of GaAlAs lasertherapy at the healing of surgical wounds produced in Wistar rat femurs a few days before the beginning of the radiotherapy. An orifice was artificially produced in the femur bone of the rats and they were submitted to an external radiotherapy with a radioactive source of cobalt in the dosage of 3000 cGys. The experimental group received additionally seven sessions of 780 nm, 40 mW, 100 or 5 J/cm2 in four points around the surgical wound, at each 48 h, initiated at the day of surgery. These animals were then sacrificed at three and five weeks. The results were based on the clinical and histological analyses. Clinically, even though the rats had gained body mass within the time of the experiment ( p < 0.05), those who has been submitted to the lasertherapy presented cutaneous inflammatory reactions. Regarding the histological findings, the number of osteocites ( p < 0.0001) and Harvers channels ( p < 0.0001) was significantly larger in the groups that had been radiated with laser during the experiment.

  20. Biomechanical compatibility of surgical mesh and fascia being reinforced: dependence of experimental hernia defect repair results on anisotropic surgical mesh positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurov, M V; Titkova, S M; Oettinger, A P

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to compare the effectiveness of experimental middle hernia defect repair in regard to the transverse and longitudinal positioning of anisotropic lightweight surgical mesh. The mechanical properties of fascial layers and surgical mesh DynaMesh(®)-PP Light were determined in two perpendicular directions under uniaxial tension. In 12 male Wistar rats, middle hernia defect was repaired by the sublay technique. In six animals, the mesh was positioned across (DLH group) and in the other six along (DLV group) the midline. At 6 months after implantation, mesh deformation, structural rearrangement, and repaired abdominal wall biomechanics were evaluated. Histological sections were stained with van Giesen and Mallory's trichrome. The anisotropic mechanical properties of the mesh and fascial layers coincided in the DLH group, but did not correspond to each other in the DLV group. In the DLV group, meshes were stretched in width by 11.4% and reduced in length by 12.7%. In all animals, the lower edge of the mesh was shifted to a defect area with margin hernia formation in two rats. Constant shear stress caused disproportional connective tissue formation. Repaired abdominal wall lost its natural elasticity. In the DLH group, the mesh deformation was minimal. Formed connective tissue was tightly associated with the anterior layer and did not differ from it in composition. The mechanical properties of repaired abdominal wall were close to those of the anterior layer. In prosthetic hernia repair, the mechanical properties of surgical mesh should correspond with those of the fascia being repaired. A mismatch of mechanical properties may result in implant deformation, abdominal wall biomechanics impairment, and recurrent herniation at the edges of the meshes.

  1. Human acellular dermal matrix for repair of abdominal wall defects: review of clinical experience and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Luther H; Kim, Daniel; Silverman, Ronald P; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Singh, Navin; Goldberg, Nelson H

    2005-01-01

    The use of prosthetic mesh for the tension-free repair of incisional hernias has been shown to be more effective than primary suture repair. Unfortunately, prosthetic materials can be a suboptimal choice in a variety of clinical scenarios. In general, prosthetic materials should not be implanted into sites with known contamination or infection because they lack an endogenous vascular network and are thus incapable of clearing bacteria. This is of particular relevance to the repair of recurrent hernias, which are often refractory to repair because of indolent bacterial colonization that weakens the site and retards appropriate healing. Although fascia lata grafts and muscle flaps can be employed for tension-free hernia repairs, they carry the potential for significant donor site morbidity. Recently, a growing number of clinicians have used human acellular dermal matrix as a graft material for the tension-free repair of ventral hernias. This material has been shown to become revascularized in both animal and human subjects. Once repopulated with a vascular network, this graft material is theoretically capable of clearing bacteria, a property not found in prosthetic graft materials. Unlike autologous materials such as fascial grafts and muscle flaps, acellular dermal matrix can be used without subjecting the patient to additional morbidity in the form of donor site complications. This article presents a thorough review of the current literature, describing the properties of human acellular dermal matrix and discussing both animal and human studies of its clinical performance. In addition to the review of previously published clinical experiences, we discuss our own preliminary results with the use of acellular dermal matrix for ventral hernia repair in 46 patients.

  2. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E. [ITT Exelis Mission Systems, Colorado Springs, CO

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  3. Percutaneous mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R

    2006-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  4. Preparation of porous PLA/DBM composite biomaterials and experimental research of repair rabbit radius segmental bone defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Jianru; Wang, Jue; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Jianchun; Gao, Lan; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Chu, Kaibo

    2015-12-01

    Bone substitutes are used in wide range of orthopaedic application. An ideal bone substitute should exhibit superior osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. Neither bio-derived materials nor synthetic materials can meet the needs of an ideal bone substitute. Preparation of composite materials is a promising way to improve properties of biomaterial. In this study, the porous poly lactic acid (PLA)/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) composite biomaterials prepared by supercritical CO2 technique were implanted to repair rabbit radius segmental bone defect. By comparing with PLA and bone autograft, the X-ray result and histological analysis showed the repair effect of PLA/DBM porous composite materials is significantly better than that of the PLA group and the blank control group, and is similar to autologous bone. The PLA/DBM can promote the healing of bone defects and can be used as a kind of ideal alternative materials to repair bone defects.

  5. PROMPT: a protein mapping and comparison tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frishman Dmitrij

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of large protein datasets has become a standard task in bioinformatics. Typically researchers wish to know whether one group of proteins is significantly enriched in certain annotation attributes or sequence properties compared to another group, and whether this enrichment is statistically significant. In order to conduct such comparisons it is often required to integrate molecular sequence data and experimental information from disparate incompatible sources. While many specialized programs exist for comparisons of this kind in individual problem domains, such as expression data analysis, no generic software solution capable of addressing a wide spectrum of routine tasks in comparative proteomics is currently available. Results PROMPT is a comprehensive bioinformatics software environment which enables the user to compare arbitrary protein sequence sets, revealing statistically significant differences in their annotation features. It allows automatic retrieval and integration of data from a multitude of molecular biological databases as well as from a custom XML format. Similarity-based mapping of sequence IDs makes it possible to link experimental information obtained from different sources despite discrepancies in gene identifiers and minor sequence variation. PROMPT provides a full set of statistical procedures to address the following four use cases: i comparison of the frequencies of categorical annotations between two sets, ii enrichment of nominal features in one set with respect to another one, iii comparison of numeric distributions, and iv correlation of numeric variables. Analysis results can be visualized in the form of plots and spreadsheets and exported in various formats, including Microsoft Excel. Conclusion PROMPT is a versatile, platform-independent, easily expandable, stand-alone application designed to be a practical workhorse in analysing and mining protein sequences and associated annotation

  6. 立式钢制油罐吸瘪和修复试验%Experimentation on Vertical Steel Oil Tank Being Bucked and Repaired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向东; 刘丽川; 舒丹; 袁崇高; 刘海洋

    2012-01-01

      In order to study the process of vertical steel oil tank being bucked and make sure the repair condition of the bucked tank,the bucking and repairing experimentation is carried out on a 300 m3 vertical metal oil tank three times. During the first circle experiment,the oil tank shell begins to be bucked to form a dent without crease after drains from the oil tank for 5 min⁃utes,then the tank is repaired completely. During the second circle experiment,dents are formed within the oil tank shell with crease,however,the tank shell is distorted and broken when the oil tank is repaired. During the last circle experiment,the oil tank is broken and impossible to be repaired. The result shows that the vertical steel oil tank can be bucked easily,the bucked degrees in⁃clude that dents without crease,dents with crease but no crazing,and dents with breach. The repair degree of each kind of bucked tank is different,and other accident is probable to occur during the repair.%  为研究立式钢制油罐吸瘪过程,确定修复条件,对300 m3地面立式钢制油罐进行3种不同程度吸瘪和修复试验。首先,试验油罐排水5 min时开始吸瘪,吸瘪处没有产生折痕,修复后油罐完全恢复。其次,试验油罐吸瘪处产生折痕,修复后油罐变形并已破裂。最后,试验油罐吸瘪处破裂,无法恢复。根据试验得出立式钢制油罐极易吸瘪的结论。油罐吸瘪程度可划分为吸瘪无折痕、吸瘪有折痕但未开裂和吸瘪开裂3种,每种可修复程度均不同。油罐修复过程中可能伴随其他事故的产生。

  7. Experimental Analysis of Residual Stresses in Samples of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welded on Martensitic Stainless Steel Used for Kaplan Blades Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses occur in materials as a result of mechanical processes: welding, machining, grinding etc. If residual stresses reach high values they can accelerate the occurrence of cracks and erosion of material. An experimental research was made in order to study the occurrence of residual stresses in the repaired areas of hydraulic turbine components damaged by cavitation erosion. An austenitic stainless steel was welded in various layer thicknesses on a martensitic stainless steel base. The residual stresses were determined using the hole drilling strain gage method.

  8. The experimental observation on the repairing spinal cord injury by olfactory ensheathing cells allograft of different sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objecttive To observe the repaired effect of distinct source olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. Methods These OECs were dissociated from olfactory bulb and olfactory mucosa of SD rats and transplanted to the injuried region of spinal cord injury rats. The function of nerve, motor evoked potential of hind legs and the histopathlogical diversities of injuried spinal cord were observed. Results The OECs grafts into the SCI area could survive longer time. The BBB scale, incubat...

  9. Experimental Analysis of Repaired Masonry Elements with Flax-FRCM and PBO-FRCM Composites Subjected to Axial Bending Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Cevallos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the construction industry, the use of natural fabrics as a reinforcement for cement-based composites has shown great potential. The use of these sustainable composites to provide strengthening or repair old masonry structures that exhibit structural problems mainly due to a poor tensile strength of the mortar/brick joints is revealed to be a promising area of research. One of the most significant load conditions affecting the mechanical response of masonry structures occurs when axial bending loads are applied on the resistant cross-section. In this study, three different types of masonry elements were built using clay bricks and a lime-based mortar. After 28 days, the samples were subjected to concentric and eccentric compressive loads. In order to produce significant bending effects, the compressive loads were applied with large eccentricity, and a sudden failure characterized the behavior of the unreinforced masonry (URM elements. The tested masonry specimens were repaired using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM composites produced using bi-directional flax and polyparaphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO fabrics. The mechanical behavior of the URM and repaired samples was compared in terms of load-displacement and moment-curvature responses. Furthermore, the results achieved using flax-FRCM composites were compared with those of using PBO-FRCM composites.

  10. Prompt fission neutron emission: Problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambsch F.-J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the challenges ahead of us even after 75 years of the discovery of the fission process and large progress made since then. The focus is on application orientation, which requires improved measurements on fission cross-sections and neutron and γ-ray multiplicities. Experimental possibilities have vastly improved the past decade leading to developments of highly sophisticated detector systems and the use of digital data acquisition and signal processing. The development of innovative fast nuclear reactor technology needs improved respective nuclear data. Advancements in theoretical modelling also require better experimental data. Theory has made progress in calculating fission fragment distributions (i.e. GEF code as well as prompt neutron and γ-ray emission to catch up with the improved experiments.

  11. Clinical research of Huafu Zaisheng powder on prompting early repair of wound on diabetic foot with necrotic tendons%化腐再生散促进糖尿病足肌腱坏死创面早期修复临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 张朝晖; 徐强; 刘现周; 朱朝军

    2013-01-01

    index of the white blood cell in both groups was on a declining tendency. But Group A declined promptly and had statistical significance compared with Group B (P<0.05); the level of TNF-a in secreta has rising tendency in both groups, with Group A was higher than Group B(P<0.05); the pathological examination showed that the neogenesis of new vessels was more obvious in Group A than that in Group B after wound dressing. [Conclusion] The wound dressing treatment with Huafu Zaisheng powder combined with Shengji Xianpi ointment on the wound of diabetic foot with necrotic tendons is proved to behave well in promoting the liquefaction of necrotic tendons as early as possible and in the growth of the newly born granulation tissue, in activating the anti-inflammatory immune mechanism and controlling infection, thus promote the process of wound repair.

  12. The effects of stress- relaxation plate on disorganization and repair of regional bone structure: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of stress-relaxation plate on disorganization and repair of the cortex beneath the plate. Methods: A washer made of viscoelastic polyethylene was placed between the screw and the screw hole of conventional stainless rigid plate (RP) to produce a stressrelaxation plate (SRP). Both SRP and RP were applied to osteotomized tibia in 48 New Zealand rabbits. Healing process of the fracture with either SRP or RP fixation (control) was comparatively studied with polarized light microscopy, in situ hybridization of collagen mRNA and immunohistochemical technique from 2 to 36 weeks postoperatively. Results: The study of plated bone remodeling showed that the degree of cortex osteoporosis beneath the plate was similar between the SRP and RP group within 12 weeks postoperatively. In comparison, the disorganization of bone structure in SRP group happened later and milder than that of RP group, and the repair process began at 12 weeks after implantation. As a consequence, the absorption cavities became smaller and the structure of collagen fibers became well oriented along with these changes by polarized light microscopy. In addition to these, the in situ hybridization analysis of collagen genes and the immunohistochemical study of type Ⅰ , Ⅲ collagen showed that the osteoblasts lying on the surface of absorption cavities expressed and synthesized type Ⅰ collagen at 8 to 12 weeks after implantation. From this time on, the changes above became more evident significantly before most of cavities were repaired by 36 weeks. In contrast to the changes in the SRP group, no expression and synthesis of any kind of collagen could be observed during 12 to 36 weeks after implantation in RP group. Conclusions: Without removal of the bone plate, the SRP fixation not only reduces the degree of plated bone osteoporosis, but also makes the disorganized bone structure restored to normal in terms of the expression and synthesis of type Ⅰ collagen mRNA of

  13. Experimental spinal cord repair (by means of direct connection of the above-the-lesion CNS with PNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, G A; Brunelli, G R; Mattiuzzo, V

    1997-01-01

    There are no medical or surgical treatments able to repair traumatic paraplegia. Experiments done by connecting the above-the-lesion with the below-the-lesion cord by means of PNS grafts have always failed. The grafts are reinhabited by regrowing axons of the first motoneurons which however are not able to progress into the distal spinal cord. At the present state of knowledge no surgical treatment can cure paraplegia. Thousands of researchers are working all over the world in many different types of research ranging from molecular biology to embriology, and from biochemistry to pharmacology and surgery. None of these experiments have proved to be practically effective.

  14. A new approach to prompt fission neutron TOF data treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Zeynalova, O. V.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. A new mathematical approach, applicable to single events, was developed for prompt fission neutron (PFN) time-offlight distribution unfolding. The main goal was to understand the reasons of the long existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fission fragments (FF). Since the 252Cf (sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data the understanding of the PFN emission mechanism is very important both for nuclear fission theory and nuclear data. The experimental data were taken with a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in an experimental setup similar to the well known work of C. Budtz-Jorgensen and H.-H. Knitter. About 2.5 × 105 coincidences between fission fragment (FF) and neutron detector response to prompt fission neutron detection have been registered (∼ 1.6 × 107 of total recorded fission events). Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12-bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. The main goal of this work was a detailed description of the prompt fission neutron treatment.

  15. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Izabel Medeiros Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG, after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG and the arginine group (AG respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and C-reactive protein (CRP. The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's tmethods were used and p≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain.

  16. Biocompatibility evaluation of cigarette and carbon papers used in repair of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntaş, Emine Elif; Sümer, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the biocompatibility of two different paper patches (carbon and cigarette papers) and compare the adhesion and proliferation features of L929 fibroblast cells by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT Test) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, time-dependent cytotoxic effects of cigarette and carbon papers used in repairing small traumatic TM perforations were investigated in vitro by using MTT test. And also adhesion and spreading of cells over disk surface were observed by SEM. Cytotoxicity test carried out by MTT analysis on leakage products collected from two types of paper patches at the end of 24 and 48 h revealed no cytotoxicity (P > 0.05). In SEM studies, it was observed that cells started to proliferate over disk surface as a result of 48-h incubation, and SEM revealed that the cell proliferation over cigarette paper was more compared to the one over carbon paper. We believe that this is the first study where biocompatibility and adhesion features of carbon and cigarette paper have been studied by using L929 fibroblast cell culture. As a result, biocompatibility of cigarette paper and also whether cigarette paper was superior to carbon paper in cell attachment and biocompatibility were studied. It was found, by MTT test and SEM test, that cigarette paper had a higher biocompatibility and cell attachment, and thus cigarette paper should be the patch to be preferred in cases where TM perforations are repaired by paper-patch method.

  17. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differen...

  18. Repairs of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  19. Tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  20. Use of fibrin glue derived from snake venom in the repair of deep corneal ulcers: experimental study in dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrin glue has been researched as an alternative method for tissue synthesis and is known for its capability to promote hemostasis at the application site, good approximation of wound edges and fast healing. The current study consisted in the application of fibrin glue derived from snake venom as treatment for experimental corneal ulcers. Twenty-one dogs had their corneas experimentally prepared through lamellar keratectomy (of standardized diameter and depth. Animals were divided into seven groups of three animals each. Six experimental groups were periodically evaluated and collection was carried out on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th post-operative days, whereas one control group was evaluated throughout the experiment. Analyses consisted in the clinical evolution and in the histopathological study of all operated on eyes. Results indicated that fibrin glue was efficient in repairing keratectomy wounds in dogs and contributed to an earlier healing phenomenon, avoiding edema formation and keeping corneal clearness. The use of fibrin glue derived from snake venom showed to be easy to apply, feasible with animal models and of low cost, avoiding the lesion progress and allowing fast and appropriate corneal healing.

  1. Relationships between PROMPT and gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llinares, Marta Lloret; Mapendano, Christophe K; Martlev, Lasse H;

    2015-01-01

    Most mammalian protein-coding gene promoters are divergent, yielding promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs) in the reverse direction from their conventionally produced mRNAs. PROMPTs are rapidly degraded by the RNA exosome rendering a general function of these molecules elusive. Yet, levels...... of certain PROMPTs are altered in stress conditions, like the DNA damage response (DDR), suggesting a possible regulatory role for at least a subset of these molecules. Here we manipulate PROMPT levels by either exosome depletion or UV treatment and analyze possible effects on their neighboring genes...

  2. Ultrasonography and Radiography Evaluation of the Cartilage Graft in Repair of Experimentally Induced Radial Bone Defect in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to thank to the Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences research council. Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Punak Tehran for approval and financial support to finish this project. Problems statement: The purpose of this research was to determine the biological effect of cartilage graft as a bone defect filler and osteogenetic stimulation to speed up bone healing too. Approach: Sixteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits having body weight ranged from 3.0-3.5 Kg. Under general anesthesia, a segmental full thickness bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft in all rabbits. They were divided into two groups of 6 rabbits each. Group I was considered as control and the fractured site was fixed using finger bone plate with 4 screws, whereas the ear cartilage of 1×1 cm graft was used to fill the gap after fracture fixation in Group II. Rabbits in two groups were subdivided into 2 subgroups of 1 and 2 months duration with 4 rabbits in each. Radiography and two dimensional and color Doppler sonography were done before and after creating defects and on 15, 30 and 60 days to evaluate local reaction as far as new blood vessels network and callus formation are concerned. Results: On the radiographs during the whole process, bone repair in Group I was not as perfect as those in Group II samples and trace of internal callus filled the gap incompletely in 60 days in Group I, whereas in Group II internal callus almost was formed on 30 days and in addition intercortical callus was seen supporting to cover and filled the gap completely in this group. Sonographic findings confirmed the protrusion of newly formed blood vascular network in 30 days in Group I and from 15 days in Group II and remarkably increased till end of observation period. Conclusion: Cartilage graft is suitable alternative bone filler and radiography and sonography are reliable techniques to trace local reaction at

  3. Pregnane X receptor agonists enhance intestinal epithelial wound healing and repair of the intestinal barrier following the induction of experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terc, Joshua; Hansen, Ashleigh; Alston, Laurie; Hirota, Simon A

    2014-05-13

    The intestinal epithelial barrier plays a key role in the maintenance of homeostasis within the gastrointestinal tract. Barrier dysfunction leading to increased epithelial permeability is associated with a number of gastrointestinal disorders including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It is thought that the increased permeability in patients with IBD may be driven by alterations in the epithelial wound healing response. To this end considerable study has been undertaken to identify signaling pathways that may accelerate intestinal epithelial wound healing and normalize the barrier dysfunction observed in IBD. In the current study we examined the role of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) in modulating the intestinal epithelial wound healing response. Mutations and reduced mucosal expression of the PXR are associated with IBD, and others have reported that PXR agonists can dampen intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, stimulation of the PXR has been associated with increased cell migration and proliferation, two of the key processes involved in wound healing. We hypothesized that PXR agonists would enhance intestinal epithelial repair. Stimulation of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells with rifaximin, rifampicin and SR12813, all potent agonists of the PXR, significantly increased wound closure. This effect was driven by p38 MAP kinase-dependent cell migration, and occurred in the absence of cell proliferation. Treating mice with a rodent specific PXR agonist, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), attenuated the intestinal barrier dysfunction observed in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of experimental colitis, an effect that occurred independent of the known anti-inflammatory effects of PCN. Taken together our data indicate that the activation of the PXR can enhance intestinal epithelial repair and suggest that targeting the PXR may help to normalize intestinal barrier dysfunction observed in patients with IBD

  4. How to repair an episiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio .

  5. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  6. Prompt fission neutron spectrum of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Chen, Y. -J. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Hambsch, F. J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - IRRM, Geel (Belgium); Jurado, B. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Kornilov, N. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Lestone, J. P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Litaize, O. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Morillon, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Neudecker, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oberstedt, S. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - IRRM, Geel (Belgium); Ohsawa, T. [Kinki Univ., Osaka-fu (Japan); Otuka, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pronyaev, V. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Saxena, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Schmidt, K. H. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Serot, O. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Shcherbakov, O. A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of NRC " Kurchatov Institute" , Gatchina (Russian Federation); Shu, N. -C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Smith, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talou, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trkov, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Tudora, A. C. [Univ. of Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Vorobyev, A. S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of NRC " Kurchatov Institute" , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutron emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  7. 21 CFR 1401.7 - Prompt response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prompt response. 1401.7 Section 1401.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.7 Prompt response... determination, the reasons for the denial, and that an appeal may be lodged within the Office of National...

  8. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  9. 31 CFR 904.1 - Prompt referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COLLECTION STANDARDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY-DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE) REFERRALS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 904.1 Prompt referral. (a) Agencies shall promptly refer to the Department of Justice for... interest and penalties, shall be referred to the Civil Division or other division responsible...

  10. 38 CFR 1.950 - Prompt referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.950 Prompt referral. (a) VA shall promptly refer debts to Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation where aggressive collection activity has been taken in... may direct, exclusive of interest and other late payment charges, shall be referred to the...

  11. Periodic email prompts to re-use an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle program: influence of prompt content and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math; van de Kar, Angelique; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2013-01-31

    Adherence to Internet-delivered lifestyle interventions using multiple tailoring is suboptimal. Therefore, it is essential to invest in proactive strategies, such as periodic email prompts, to boost re-use of the intervention. This study investigated the influence of content and timing of a single email prompt on re-use of an Internet-delivered computer-tailored (CT) lifestyle program. A sample of municipality employees was invited to participate in the program. All participants who decided to use the program received an email prompting them to revisit the program. A 2×3 (content × timing) design was used to test manipulations of prompt content and timing. Depending on the study group participants were randomly assigned to, they received either a prompt containing standard content (an invitation to revisit the program), or standard content plus a preview of new content placed on the program website. Participants received this prompt after 2, 4, or 6 weeks. In addition to these 6 experimental conditions, a control condition was included consisting of participants who did not receive an additional email prompt. Clicks on the uniform resource locator (URL) provided in the prompt and log-ins to the CT program were objectively monitored. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether prompt content and/or prompt timing predicted clicking on the URL and logging in to the CT program. Of all program users (N=240), 206 participants received a subsequent email prompting them to revisit the program. A total of 53 participants (25.7%) who received a prompt reacted to this prompt by clicking on the URL, and 25 participants (12.1%) actually logged in to the program. There was a main effect of prompt timing; participants receiving an email prompt 2 weeks after their first visit clicked on the URL significantly more often compared with participants that received the prompt after 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 3.069, 95% CI 1.392-6.765, P=.005) and after 6 weeks (OR 4

  12. Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R; Chen, Y J; Hambsch, F J; Kornilov, N V; Lestone, J P; Litaize, O; Morillon, B; Neudecker, D; Oberstedt, S; Ohsawa, T; Smith, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides”was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei. The following technical areas were addressed: (i) experiments and uncertainty quantification (UQ): New data for neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu have been measured, and older data have been compiled and reassessed. There is evidence from the experimental work of this CRP that a very small percentage of neutrons emitted in fission are actually scission neutrons; (ii) modeling: The Los Alamos model (LAM) continues to be the workhorse for PFNS evaluations. Monte Carlo models have been developed that describe the fission phenomena microscopically, but further development is needed to produce PFNS evaluations meeting the uncertainty targets; (iii) evaluation methodologies: PFNS evaluations rely on the use of the least-squares techniques for merging experimental and model data. Considerable insight was achieved on how to deal with the problem of too small uncertainties in PFNS evaluations. The importance of considering that all experimental PFNS data are “shape” data was stressed; (iv) PFNS evaluations: New evaluations, including covariance data, were generated for major actinides including 1) non-model GMA evaluations of the 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 233U(nth,f) PFNS based exclusively on experimental data (0.02 ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV), which resulted in PFNS average energies E of 2.00±0.01, 2.073±0.010, and 2.030±0.013 MeV, respectively; 2) LAM evaluations of neutron-induced fission spectra on uranium and plutonium targets with improved UQ for incident energies from thermal up to 30 MeV; and 3) Point-by-Point calculations for 232Th, 234U and 237Np targets; and (v) data

  13. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B.

    1980-09-01

    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  14. PASSING STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENTS WITH FADING PROMPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Marie GREENE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandates that all students perform at a level of proficient on state assessments. This includes students with learning and intellectual disabilities who are inherently performing below grade level. Given that schools are held accountable for meeting these goals and some states are not allowing students to graduate if they do not pass the assessments, this is a large concern for students, parents, teachers, and administration Method: Forty-five students with a disability in writing or an intellectual disability participated in this quasi-experimental, single-group, pretest-posttest design that evaluated the effectiveness of the Fading Prompts through Graphic Organizers method for students with learning and intellectual disabilities in written expression as measured according to the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment. Results: Data analyses were conducted through the use of four dichotomies for percent differences, which compared teacher administered pretests and posttests, pretests and the state administered PSSA, teacher administered posttests and the PSSA, and the participants’ PSSA and the average state PSSA score. All forty-five students performed at a below basic level during baseline and a proficient level on the posttest. The learned skills generalized to the PSSA with forty-three students earning a passing score of proficient, while two students advanced to basic. Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of this study, it is highly recommended that this program be utilized at least for students with learning and intellectual disabilities until further research can be done.

  15. Short-term intermittent administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 facilitates myocardial repair in experimental myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuechen Luo; Xiaoning Zhao; Xin Zhou; Wenjie Ji; Ling Zhang; Tao Luo; Hongrnei Liu

    2013-01-01

    The binding of the stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)to the cysteine (C)-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has emerged as a key signal for stem and progenitor cells trafficking to the circulation from the bone marrow.Our aim was to investigate the role of daily intermittent administration of AMD3100 (a specific reversible CXCR4 receptor antagonist) during the healing process after myocardial infarction (MI).Wistar rats were subjected to MI and AMD3100 was injected intraperitoneally after surgery.SDF-1α mRNA expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Histology changes were analyzed with immunofluorescence,Masson's trichrome staining,and wheat germ agglutinin.The number of leukocytes in peripheral blood was measured by complete blood cell count analysis.The activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) were determined by gelatin zymography.The expression level of SDF-1αmRNA in the infarcted tissue was enhanced rapidly (6 h),peaked at 24 h,and then declined to the normal level at 7days post-MI.AMD3100 further enhanced the increase of SDF-1α in infarct area.Increased leukocytes were observed in AMD3100-treated groups.The mobilization of c-kit+ stem/progenitor cells and enhanced neovascularization were augmented by AMD3100.Additionally,AMD3100 improved ventricular remodeling,which was revealed by the decrease of infarct size,viable cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and left ventricle (LV) expansion index,and the increase of LV free wall thickness.The activities of MMP-2/9 were up-regulated by AMD3100.In conclusion,short-term intermittent administration of AMD3100 could accelerate the wound healing process in experimental MI and be a potential therapy for the treatment of MI.

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Enhanced The Recruitment of Progenitor Cells and Myelin Repair in Experimental Demyelination of Rat Hippocampal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Azin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hippocampal insults have been observed in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 induces neurogenesis in the hippocampus and enhances the proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs. In the current study, we have investigated the effect of FGF2 on the processes of gliotoxin induced demyelination and subsequent remyelination in the hippocampus. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either saline or lysolecithin (LPC injections to the right hippocampi. Animals received intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of FGF2 (5 ng/g on days 0, 5, 12 and 26 post-LPC. Expressions of myelin basic protein (Mbp as a marker of myelination, Olig2 as a marker of OPC proliferation, Nestin as a marker of neural progenitor cells, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap as a marker of reactive astrocytes were investigated in the right hippocampi by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: There was reduced Mbp expression at seven days after LPC injection, increased expressions of Olig2 and Nestin, and the level of Gfap did not change. FGF2 treatment reversed the expression level of Mbp to the control, significantly enhanced the levels of Olig2 and Nestin, but did not change the level of Gfap. At day-28 post- LPC, the expression level of Mbp was higher than the control in LPC-treated animals that received FGF2. The levels of Olig2, Nestin and Gfap were at the control level in the non-treated LPC group but significantly higher in the FGF2-t reated LPC group. Conclusion: FGF2 enhanced hippocampal myelination and potentiated the recruitment of OPCs and neural stem cells (NSCs to the lesion area. Long-term application of FGF2 might also enhance astrogliosis in the lesion site.

  17. Effect of phototherapy with light-emitting diodes (890 nm) on tendon repair: an experimental model in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Luiz Henrique Lima; Álvarez, Luis Emiliano Cisneros; Yamada, Ana Lúcia Miluzzi; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues, Celso Antonio; Watanabe, Marcos Jun; Alves, Ana Liz Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phototherapy with 890-nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the healing of experimentally induced tendinitis in sheep was evaluated in this study. Partial tenotomies measuring 0.2 cm wide × 0.5 cm long were performed on the second third of the superficial digital flexor tendons of 10 healthy sheep. The animals were divided into two groups: "treated" (TG), treated with LEDs at the aforementioned wavelength, and "control" (CG), a control group treated with a placebo. Kinesiotherapy, which consisted of 5-min walks on grassy ground, was performed on both groups. B-mode and power Doppler ultrasonographies (US) were performed to evaluate the tendon healing process during the first 14 days after surgery and on the 21st and 28th postoperative days. Biopsies were performed on day 28 for the histopathological assessment of neovascularisation and the pattern of the tendon fibres. The absence of lameness and a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the sensitivity to pain during palpation were observed in the treated group. Furthermore, a significant reduction in oedema and an increased number of vessels (p < 0.05) were observed in this group with the B-mode and power Doppler US, respectively. No significant difference in the evolution of the lesion was found. There was a histological difference (p < 0.05) in neovascularisation in the treated group. Phototherapy with 890-nm light-emitting diodes decreases the inflammatory process.

  18. POROUS POLYMER IMPLANTS FOR REPAIR OF FULL-THICKNESS DEFECTS OF ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY IN RABBIT AND DOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, HWB; VETH, RPH; NIELSEN, HKL; DEGROOT, JH; PENNINGS, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Full-thickness defects of articular cartilage were repaired by implantation of porous polymer implants in rabbits and dogs. The quality of the repair tissue was determined by collagen typing with antibodies. Implants with varying pore sizes and chemical composition were used. The effect of loading

  19. Distribution of sac pressure in an experimental aneurysm model after endovascular repair: the effect of endoleak types I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, Eleftherios S; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Pacanowski, John P; Cassada, David C; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2003-06-01

    To study in an experimental aneurysm model the differential distribution of strain/pressure (S/P) on the aneurysm wall before and after endograft exclusion and in the presence of individual type I and type II endoleaks. Two tapered elliptical Gore-Tex patches were sutured to an anterior and posterior longitudinal arteriotomy of an 8-mm Gore-Tex tube graft, thus creating a fusiform aneurysm. Two S/P transducers were placed at the proximal sac adjacent to the proximal neck, 2 at the site of the widest sac diameter, and 2 at the sac adjacent to the distal neck. The aneurysm, which was connected to a pulsatile pump system, was excluded using a 10-mm endograft. Type I and type II endoleaks were created and tested individually. S/P measurements were obtained at systemic systolic pressures (BP) of 80, 110, and 150 mmHg. Thrombosis of the sac contents was induced by injection of thrombin and calcium in the sac. Angiography was used to verify presence or absence of flow in the sac. Aneurysm exclusion resulted in significant S/P reductions at all 3 BP levels versus prior to exclusion (p0.05 for all 3 BP levels). In the presence of a proximal type I endoleak, S/P distribution was not uniform, and S/P at the proximal neck was close to S/P prior to exclusion (p>0.05 no graft versus type I endoleak for all 3 BP levels). This was also true in the presence of thrombus. With a type II endoleak, S/P was more evenly distributed and was not significantly elevated compared to the pressure without an endoleak (p>0.05, graft versus type II endoleak for all 3 BP levels). Thrombus had no effect on intrasac S/P with a type II endoleak. Intrasac S/P was significantly higher in the presence of a type I endoleak compared to a type II endoleak when BP=150 mmHg (p=0.008). Endovascular exclusion of an aneurysm results in uniform S/P reduction in the aneurysm sac. Type I endoleak, but not type II endoleak, results in significantly higher S/P in an area of the sac adjacent to the proximal neck

  20. Early Parkinson's May Prompt Vision Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167131.html Early Parkinson's May Prompt Vision Problems Changes in sight could ... in vision may be an early sign of Parkinson's disease, researchers report. The neurodegenerative condition is caused ...

  1. Multi-modal calculations of prompt fission neutrons from 238U(n, f) at low induced energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Na; ZHONG Chun-Lai; FAN Tie-Shuan

    2011-01-01

    Properties of prompt fission neutrons from 238U(n,f) are calculated for incident neutron energies below 6 MeV using the multi-modal model,including the prompt fission neutron spectrum,the average prompt fission neutron multiplicity,and the prompt fission neutron multiplicity as a function of the fission fragment mass v(A) (usually named “sawtooth” data) The three most dominant fission modes are taken into account.The model parameters are determined on the basis of experimental fission fragment data.The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Investigating Prompt Fission Neutron Emission from 235U(n,f in the Resolved Resonance Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göök Alf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of prompt emission in fission is of importance in understanding the fission process in general and the sharing of excitation energy among the fission fragments in particular. Experimental activities at IRMM on prompt neutron emission from fission in response to OECD/NEA nuclear data requests is presented in this contribution. Main focus lies on currently on-going investigations of prompt neutron emission from the reaction 235U(n,f in the region of the resolved resonances. For this reaction strong fluctuations of fission fragment mass distributions and mean total kinetic energy have been observed [Nucl. Phys. A 491, 56 (1989] as a function of incident neutron energy in the resonance region. In addition fluctuations of prompt neutron multiplicities were also observed [Phys. Rev. C 13, 195 (1976]. The goal of the present study is to verify the current knowledge of prompt neutron multiplicity fluctuations and to study correlations with fission fragment properties.

  3. Functional and neurophysiological evidence of the efficacy of trophic repair pharmacotherapy using an adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gispen, W. H.; Duckers, H.J.; van Dokkum, R.P.; Verhaagen, J; Lopes da Silva, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CEAE) is a well-established animal model for the human syndrome, multiple sclerosis. CEAE has striking histological, electrophysiological and clinical analogies with multiple sclerosis and is a valuable animal model for the preclinical pharmacotherapeutical development of new putative therapeutic agents. In this paper, we describe a neurotrophic repair approach in Lewis rats suffering from CEAE. The neurotrophic peptide used is a degradation re...

  4. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  5. Low energy prompt gamma-ray tests of a large volume BGO detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Anezi, M.S.; Raashid, M.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    Tests of a large volume Bismuth Germinate (BGO) detector were carried out to detect low energy prompt gamma-rays from boron and cadmium-contaminated water samples using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. Inspite of strong interference between the sample- and the detector-associated prompt gamma-rays, an excellent agreement has been observed between the experimental and calculated yields of the prompt gamma-rays, indicating successful application of the large volume BGO detector in the PGNAA analysis of bulk samples using low energy prompt gamma-rays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance tests of a portable neutron generator based PGNAA setup for field measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of large volume BGO detector in prompt gamma analysis of bulk samples utilizing low energy prompt-gamma rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of interference of boron and cadmium prompt gamma-rays from bulk samples with BGO detector background spectrum.

  6. Specificity of reinnervation and motor recovery after interposition of an artificial barrier between transected and repaired nerves in adjacency--an experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, B S; Ma, S F; Chuang, D C; Lidman, D; Wei, F C

    2001-01-01

    Non-specific re-innervation of target organs caused by misdirected axonal growth at the repair site is regarded as one reason for a poor functional outcome after peripheral nerve transsection and repair. This study investigates the rate of aberrant re-innervation and its influence on motor recovery in the rat sciatic nerve using artificial sheets as barrier between tibial and peroneal nerves. The sciatic nerve was transsected and repaired as follows: epineural sutures (A x 6), fascicular repair of tibial and peroneal nerves respectively (B x 8), and the same as in group B, but separating both nerves using an Integra-sheet with silicone (C x 8), or Integra without silicone (D x 8). As control, solely the tibial nerve was transsected and repaired (E x 5). Final investigations after 4 months revealed that in group C, 50% of the Integra-silicone sheets were dislocated. No dislocation was found in group D. Muscle contraction force of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher in group E as compared to all other groups. However although not significant, group D showed a consistently higher muscle contraction force than groups A, B, and C. Histology in groups A, B, and C with dislocated sheets demonstrated multiple axons growing from the tibial to the peroneal nerve and vice versa. In groups D and E, no such axonal growth was visible. These findings were confirmed by a significantly higher rate of specific reinnervation of the soleus muscle using sequential retrograde double labelling technique. Results of this study suggest that an artificial sheet such as Integra bears the potential of preventing aberrant re-innervation between repaired adjacent nerves resulting in improved motor recovery. Clinically, this technique may be of importance for brachial plexus, sciatic nerve, and facial nerve repair.

  7. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of prompt fission neutrons are presented. The main results of the Los Alamos model often used in nuclear data evaluation work are reviewed briefly, and a preliminary assessment of uncertainties associated with the evaluated prompt fission neutron spectrum for n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 239}Pu is discussed. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons is done by Monte Carlo simulations of the evaporation process of the excited primary fission fragments. The successive emissions of neutrons are followed in the statistical formalism framework, and detailed information, beyond average quantities, can be inferred. This approach is applied to the following reactions: {sup 252}Cf (sf), n{sub th} + {sup 239}Pu, n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 235}U, and {sup 236}Pu (sf). A discussion on the merits and present limitations of this approach concludes this presentation.

  8. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  9. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brunella; Agodi, Concetta; Alba, Rosa; Baran, Virgil; Boiano, Alfonso; Cardella, Giuseppe; Colonna, Maria; Coniglione, Rosa; De Filippo, Enrico; Del Zoppo, Antonio; Di Toro, Massimo; Inglima, Gianni; Glodariu, Tudor; La Commara, Marco; Maiolino, Concetta; Mazzocco, Marco; Pagano, Angelo; Piattelli, Paolo; Pirrone, Sara; Rizzo, Carmelo; Romoli, Mauro; Sandoli, Mario; Santonocito, Domenico; Sapienza, Piera; Signorini, Cosimo

    2008-01-01

    The prompt gamma ray emission was investigated in the 16A MeV energy region by means of the 36,40Ar+96,92Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of 132Ce. We show that the prompt radiation, which appears to be still effective at such a high beam energy, has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  10. Prompt loss of beam ions in KSTAR plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Yoon, S. W.; Park, B. H.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Ko, W.-H.

    2016-10-01

    For a toroidal plasma facility to realize fusion energy, researching the transport of fast ions is important not only due to its close relation to the heating and current drive efficiencies but also to determine the heat load on the plasma-facing components. We present a theoretical analysis and orbit simulation for the origin of lost fast-ions during neutral beam injection (NBI) heating in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. We adopted a two-dimensional phase diagram of the toroidal momentum and magnetic moment and describe detectable momentums at the fast-ion loss detector (FILD) position as a quadratic line. This simple method was used to model birth ions deposited by NBI and drawn as points in the momentum phase space. A Lorentz orbit code was used to calculate the fast-ion orbits and present the prompt loss characteristics of the KSTAR NBI. The scrape-off layer deposition of fast ions produces a significant prompt loss, and the model and experimental results closely agreed on the pitch-angle range of the NBI prompt loss. Our approach can provide wall load information from the fast ion loss.

  11. Prompt loss of beam ions in KSTAR plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For a toroidal plasma facility to realize fusion energy, researching the transport of fast ions is important not only due to its close relation to the heating and current drive efficiencies but also to determine the heat load on the plasma-facing components. We present a theoretical analysis and orbit simulation for the origin of lost fast-ions during neutral beam injection (NBI heating in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR device. We adopted a two-dimensional phase diagram of the toroidal momentum and magnetic moment and describe detectable momentums at the fast-ion loss detector (FILD position as a quadratic line. This simple method was used to model birth ions deposited by NBI and drawn as points in the momentum phase space. A Lorentz orbit code was used to calculate the fast-ion orbits and present the prompt loss characteristics of the KSTAR NBI. The scrape-off layer deposition of fast ions produces a significant prompt loss, and the model and experimental results closely agreed on the pitch-angle range of the NBI prompt loss. Our approach can provide wall load information from the fast ion loss.

  12. Calculation of prompt loss and toroidal field ripple loss under neutral beam injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Hao, Baolong; White, Roscoe; Wang, Jinfang; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Hu, Chundong

    2017-02-01

    Neutral beam injection is a major auxiliary heating method in the EAST experimental campaign. This paper gives detailed calculations of beam loss with different plasma equilibria using the guiding center code ORBIT and NUBEAM/TRANSP. Increasing plasma current can dramatically lower the beam ion prompt loss and ripple loss. Countercurrent beam injection gives a much larger prompt loss fraction than co-injection, and ripple-induced collisionless stochastic diffusion is the dominant loss channel.

  13. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  14. Undescended testicle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  15. A new prompt heavy-ion-induced fission mode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W Udo Schröder

    2015-08-01

    Fission instabilities induced by mechanical and thermal stresses on intermediate nuclear systems in heavy-ion reactions are poorly understood but should reveal independent evidence for the nuclear equation of state (EoS), notably the tensile strength of finite nuclei. Experimental evidence is presented in support of a new mode of prompt fission of the composite nucleus formed in central 78Kr+40Ca collisions at only a few MeV per nucleon above the interaction barrier. The new process recalls the ‘L-window for fusion’ phenomenon, which was predicted by the early reaction theory and reappears in modern DFT model calculations.

  16. Introducing Nuclear Data Evaluations of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neudecker, Denise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-17

    Nuclear data evaluations provide recommended data sets for nuclear data applications such as reactor physics, stockpile stewardship or nuclear medicine. The evaluated data are often based on information from multiple experimental data sets and nuclear theory using statistical methods. Therefore, they are collaborative efforts of evaluators, theoreticians, experimentalists, benchmark experts, statisticians and application area scientists. In this talk, an introductions is given to the field of nuclear data evaluation at the specific example of a recent evaluation of the outgoing neutron energy spectrum emitted promptly after fission from 239Pu and induced by neutrons from thermal to 30 MeV.

  17. Drought prompts government to close nuclear plant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday because a record drought left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. The plant supplies more than 10 percent of Romania's electricity and closure prompted fears of a price hike" (1/2 page).

  18. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  19. 45 CFR 1701.5 - Prompt response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prompt response. 1701.5 Section 1701.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND... Saturdays, Sundays and legal public holidays) of the receipt of a request, the Associate Director shall...

  20. Investigating the Effect of Discussion Prompts on Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ginger S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Andrews' (1980) three structured divergent prompt designs (Playground prompt, Brainstorm prompt, and Focal prompt) on knowledge construction. Sixty-five online graduate participants at a university in a South Atlantic state were a part of the study. Students' posts were analyzed using the…

  1. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  2. Attempted endogenous tissue repair following experimental spinal cord injury in the rat: involvement of cell adhesion molecules L1 and NCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Brook, G.A.; Houweling, D.A.; Gieling, R.G.; Hermanss, T.; Joosten, E.A.J.; Bär, D.P.R.; Schmitt, W.H.; Leprince, P.; Noth, J.; Nacimiento, W.

    2000-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the devastating consequences of spinal cord injury are due to the failure of lesioned CNS axons to regenerate. The current study of the spontaneous tissue repair processes following dorsal hemisection of the adult rat spinal cord demonstrates a phase of rapid and

  3. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  4. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  5. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  6. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices Within an E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n = 26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, was compared to the other class, the comparison group (n = 25), which received only cognitive prompts in the same curriculum. Data sources included a test of inquiry practices, a questionnaire of metacognition, and worksheets. The results showed that the mixed cognitive and metacognitive prompts had significant impacts on the students' inquiry practices, especially their planning and analyzing abilities. Furthermore, the mixed prompts appeared to have a differential effect on those students with lower level metacognition, who showed significant improvement in their inquiry abilities. A combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts during an inquiry cycle was found to promote students' inquiry practices.

  7. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  8. Prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A V; Zotov, N P [D V Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119 992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-02-15

    We consider the prompt photon production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach. The unintegrated quark and gluon distributions in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analysis is performed. We investigate both inclusive prompt photon and prompt photon and associated muon production rates. In a standard model such events occur mainly due to the Compton scattering process where the final heavy (charm or bottom) quark produces a muon. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the D and CDF collaborations at Fermilab Tevatron. Our analysis also covers the azimuthal correlations between the produced prompt photon and muon which can provide an important information about non-collinear parton evolution in a proton. Finally, we extrapolate the theoretical predictions to CERN LHC energies.

  9. Prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    2005-09-01

    We consider the prompt photon production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of k{sub T}-factorization approach. The unintegrated quark and gluon distributions in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analysis is performed. We investigate both inclusive prompt photon and prompt photon and associated muon production rates. In standard model such events come mainly due to Compton scattering process where the final heavy (charm or bottom) quark produces a muon. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the DOe and CDF collaborations at Fermilab Tevatron. Our analysis also covers the azimuthal correlations between produced prompt photon and muon which can provide an important information about non-collinear parton evolution in a proton. Finally, we extrapolate the theoretical predictions to CERN LHC energies. (orig.)

  10. Prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in the k_T-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lipatov, A V

    2005-01-01

    We consider the prompt photon production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of k_T-factorization approach. The unintegrated quark and gluon distributions in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analisys is performed. We investigate both inclusive prompt photon and prompt photon and associated muon production rates. In Standard Model such events come mainly due to Compton scattering process where the final heavy (charm or bottom) quark produces a muon. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the D0 and CDF collaborations at Fermilab Tevatron. Our analysis also covers the azimuthal correlations between produced prompt photon and muon which can provide an important information about non-collinear parton evolution in a proton. Finally, we extrapolate the theoretical predictions to CERN LHC energies.

  11. Prompts, feedback, positive reinforcement, and potty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah M; Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Two parents were concerned because their two young girls were delayed in learning to use the potty. In this study we obtained data on the frequency of wet diapers and use of the potty at home. Following baseline, an intervention was implemented that involved increased intake of liquids and salty foods, prompting, and positive reinforcement. Once a substantial decrease in wet diapers was achieved, together with an increase in use of the potty, the girls were offered the opportunity to wear "Princess Underwear!" as an even more powerful prompt and reinforcer. An ABC design was used with each girl. The results showed significant increases in their use of the potty and decreased incidents of wet diapers when the intervention was in effect. Although this design does not rule out possible effects of coincidences, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the intervention produced improvements in potty training.

  12. Prompt GRB optical follow-up experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H-S; Williams, G; Ables, E; Band, D; Barthelmy, S; Bionta, R; Cline, T; Gehrels, N; Hartmann, D; Hurley, K; Kippen, M; Nemiroff, R; Pereira, W; Porrata, R

    2000-11-13

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are brief, randomly located, releases of gamma-ray energy from unknown celestial sources that occur almost daily. The study of GRBs has undergone a revolution in the past three years due to an international effort of follow-up observations of coordinates provided by Beppo/SAX and IPN GRB. These follow-up observations have shown that GRBs are at cosmological distances and interact with surrounding material as described by the fireball model. However, prompt optical counterparts have only been seen in one case and are therefore very rare or much dimmer than the sensitivity of the current instruments. Unlike later time afterglows, prompt optical measurements would provide information on the GRB progenitor. LOTIS is the very first automated and dedicated telescope system that actively utilizes the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN) and it attempts to measure simultaneous optical light curve associated with GRBs. After 3 years of running, LOTIS has responded to 75 GRB triggers. The lack of any optical signal in any of the LOTIS images places numerical limits on the surrounding matter density, and other physical parameters in the environment of the GRB progenitor. This paper presents LOTIS results and describes other prompt GRB follow-up experiments including the Super-LOTIS at Kitt Peak in Arizona.

  13. Equine CTNNB1 and PECAM1 nucleotide structure and expression analyses in an experimental model of normal and pathological wound repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoret Christine L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound healing in horses is fraught with complications. Specifically, wounds on horse limbs often develop exuberant granulation tissue which behaves clinically like a benign tumor and resembles the human keloid in that the evolving scar is trapped in the proliferative phase of repair, leading to fibrosis. Clues gained from the study of over-scarring in horses should eventually lead to new insights into how to prevent unwanted scar formation in humans. cDNA fragments corresponding to CTNNB1 (coding for β-catenin and PECAM1, genes potentially contributing to the proliferative phase of repair, were previously identified in a mRNA expression study as being up-regulated in 7 day wound biopsies from horses. The aim of the present study was to clone full-length equine CTNNB1 and PECAM1 cDNAs and to study the spatio-temporal expression of mRNAs and corresponding proteins during repair of body and limb wounds in a horse model. Results The temporal pattern of the two genes was similar; except for CTNNB1 in limb wounds, wounding caused up-regulation of mRNA which did not return to baseline by the end of the study. Relative over-expression of both CTNNB1 and PECAM1 mRNA was noted in body wounds compared to limb wounds. Immunostaining for both β-catenin and PECAM1 was principally observed in endothelial cells and fibroblasts and was especially pronounced in wounds having developed exuberant granulation tissue. Conclusion This study is the first to characterize equine cDNA for CTNNB1 and PECAM1 and to document that these genes are expressed during wound repair in horses. It appears that β-catenin may be regulated in a post-transcriptional manner while PECAM1 might help thoracic wounds mount an efficient inflammatory response in contrast to what is observed in limb wounds. Furthermore, data from this study suggest that β-catenin and PECAM1 might interact to modulate endothelial cell and fibroblast proliferation during wound repair in the

  14. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    : homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage......Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...

  15. Prompt photon production in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Krzysztof

    2010-03-15

    This thesis presents measurement of the production of prompt photons in photoproduction with the H1 experiment at HERA. The analysis is based on the data taken in the years 2004-2007, with a total integrated luminosity of 340 pb{sup -1}. The main difficulty of the measurement comes from the high background of neutral mesons decaying into photons. It is accounted for with the help of multivariate analysis. Prompt photon cross sections are measured with the low negative four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} < 1GeV{sup 2} and in the inelasticity range 0.1 < y < 0.7 for photons with a transverse energy 6 < E{sub T}{sup {gamma}} < 15GeV and in the pseudorapidity range.1.0 < {eta}{sup {gamma}} < 2.4 as a function of photons transverse energy and its pseudorapidity. Cross sections for prompt photon events with an additional hadronic jet are measured as a function of the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet and of the momentum fractions x{sub {gamma}} and x{sub p} of the incident photon and proton carried by the constituents participating in the hard scattering process. Additionally, the transverse correlation between the photon and the jet is studied. The results are compared with predictions of a next-to-leading order calculation and a calculation based on the k{sub T} factorisation approach. Neither of calculations is able to describe all the aspects of the measurement. (orig.)

  16. Prompt photon production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2009-07-01

    Prompt photon production has been studied by the CDF and D0{sup -} experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at the centre of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measurements of the inclusive photon, inclusive photon plus jet, photon plus heavy flavor jet, and diphoton production cross sections are discussed. The analyses use data sample corresponding to integrated luminosity between 0.2 fb{sup -1} and 1.02 fb{sup -1}. The results are compared to the next to leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations.

  17. Late Time Emission of Prompt Fission Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Talou, P; Stetcu, I; Lestone, J P; McKigney, E; Chadwick, M B

    2016-01-01

    The emission of prompt fission $\\gamma$ rays within a few nanoseconds to a few microseconds following the scission point is studied in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applied to the deexcitation of primary excited fission fragments. Neutron and $\\gamma$-ray evaporations from fully accelerated fission fragments are calculated in competition at each stage of the decay, and the role of isomers in the fission products, before $\\beta$-decay, is analyzed. The time evolution of the average total $\\gamma$-ray energy, average total $\\gamma$-ray multiplicity, and fragment-specific $\\gamma$-ray spectra, is presented in the case of neutron-induced fission reactions of $^{235}$U and $^{239}$Pu, as well as spontaneous fission of $^{252}$Cf. The production of specific isomeric states is calculated and compared to available experimental data. About 7% of all prompt fission $\\gamma$ rays are predicted to be emitted between 10 nsec and 5 $\\mu$sec following fission, in the case of $^{235}$U and $^{239}$Pu $(n_{\\rm th},f)$ reactio...

  18. Improvement of adhesion performance of mortar-repair interface with inducing crack path into repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Satoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important performance for repair materials is adhesion to the substrate. The authors experimentally find out that high modulus fine aggregates in repair material enhance strength of it as well as the strength of the interface repaired with it, compared to the ordinary repair without fine aggregates. This paper elaborates the mechanisms for that with fractographic observation and FEM analysis based on the results of experiment. Also the authors discuss the ways for enhancing the strength and ductility of the repaired mortar

  19. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  20. ERCC1-XPF endonuclease facilitates DNA double-strand break repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Ahmad (Riris); A.R. Robinson (Andria Rasile); A. Duensing (Anette); E. van Drunen (Ellen); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); D.B. Weisberg (David); P. Hasty (Paul); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.J. Niedernhofer (Laura)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractERCC1-XPF endonuclease is required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of helix-distorting DNA lesions. However, mutations in ERCC1 or XPF in humans or mice cause a more severe phenotype than absence of NER, prompting a search for novel repair activities of the nuclease. In Saccharomyce

  1. Experimental study on cleft palate repair of rat using rat fetal membrane%鼠胎膜修复大鼠腭裂的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 娜荷雅; 张幸竹; 王丝墨; 唐喜乐; 马振宇; 肖晶; 李武伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 以鼠胎膜对腭裂进行整复手术,研究修复腭裂的效果.方法 建立腭裂动物模型实验.30只SD大鼠按照腭部裂隙大小分为3组,每组10只.a组:长7 mm×宽0.9 mm;b组:长7 mm×宽1.1 mm;c组:长7mm×宽1.3 mm.术后12周处死所有大鼠,观察裂隙变化.手术关闭裂隙实验.10只SD大鼠分为3组.A组大鼠5只,手术造腭裂并以新鲜双层胎膜关闭裂隙;B组大鼠3只,手术造腭裂,令裂隙自行生长;C组2只作为空白对照组.术后4周处死动物,大体观察;制作切片,行组织学观察.结果 腭裂动物模型成功建立,确立b组7mm×1.1 mm为临界缺损.A组大鼠腭裂得到成功修复,口鼻腔黏膜分别愈合,完全覆盖腭裂,镜下见腭裂处口腔黏膜层次清楚,存在黏膜下层,顶部有完整的鼻腔黏膜.结论 鼠胎膜对SD大鼠腭裂具有良好的修复效果.%Objective To explore the feasibility of repairing the defect in cleft palate using fetal membrane in a rat model. Methods To establish the animal model of cleft palate. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rats in each group according to the different size of man - made cleft, group a: 7 mm × 0. 9 mm, group b: 7 mm × 1. 1 mm, group c: 7 mm × 1.3 mm. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks and the changes of clefts were compared. Repairing experiment for cleft palate. Ten SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, group A was underwent reduction with 5 rats, group B was only performed model operation with 3 rats, group C was blank with 2 rats. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks and the gross and histological observation was respectively carried out. Results The animal model of cleft palate was successfully established. Group b was determined to be the animal model group for critical - sized defect. Cleft palate was repaired successfully in group A with fetal membrane of rat, the structure of palate mucosa was similar to that of the group C in gross

  2. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  3. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007661.htm Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  4. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  5. Learning New Grammatical Structures in Task-Based Language Learning: The Effects of Recasts and Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Guchte, Marrit; Braaksma, Martine; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bimmel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examine the effects of prompts and recasts on the acquisition of two new and different grammar structures in a task-based learning environment. Sixty-four 14-year-old 9th grade students (low intermediate) learning German as a foreign language were randomly assigned to three conditions: two experimental groups (one…

  6. Learning New Grammatical Structures in Task-Based Language Learning: The Effects of Recasts and Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Guchte, Marrit; Braaksma, Martine; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bimmel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examine the effects of prompts and recasts on the acquisition of two new and different grammar structures in a task-based learning environment. Sixty-four 14-year-old 9th grade students (low intermediate) learning German as a foreign language were randomly assigned to three conditions: two experimental groups (one…

  7. Effectiveness of Visual and Verbal Prompts in Training Visuospatial Processing Skills in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabani, Ellahe; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a growing interest in intervention-based assessment to promote and enhance children's learning. In this study, we explored the potential effect of an experimental visual-spatial intervention procedure and possible training benefits of two prompting modalities: one group received training with verbal and visual…

  8. Comparison of Most-to-Least Prompting to Flexible Prompt Fading for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Alcalay, Aditt; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen; Dale, Stephanie; Ravid, Daniel; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    This study compared most-to-least prompting to flexible prompt fading for teaching four children with an autism spectrum disorder various expressive tasks. Using a parallel treatment design nested into a multiple probe design, researchers taught each participant how to expressively label six pictures with most-to-least prompting and six pictures…

  9. The Advantages of Rime-Prompting: A Comparative Study of Prompting Methods when Hearing Children Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, David; Poole, Sally-Ann

    2001-01-01

    Applies onset-rime theory in a randomized controlled trial to the authentic reading task of reading aloud to an adult. Finds that the rime-prompt method has potential for helping children recognize one- and two-syllable words. Notes that it is suitable for use by parents, teachers, and other helpers. (SG)

  10. PUCK: An Automated Prompting System for Smart Environments: Towards achieving automated prompting; Challenges involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Barnan; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Seelye, Adriana M

    2012-10-01

    The growth in popularity of smart environments has been quite steep in the last decade and so has the demand for smart health assistance systems. A smart home-based prompting system can enhance these technologies to deliver in-home interventions to users for timely reminders or brief instructions describing the way a task should be done for successful completion. This technology is in high demand given the desire of people who have physical or cognitive limitations to live independently in their homes. In this paper, with the introduction of the "PUCK" prompting system, we take an approach to automate prompting-based interventions without any predefined rule sets or user feedback. Unlike other approaches, we use simple off-the-shelf sensors and learn the timing for prompts based on real data that is collected with volunteer participants in our smart home test bed. The data mining approaches taken to solve this problem come with the challenge of an imbalanced class distribution that occurs naturally in the data. We propose a variant of an existing sampling technique, SMOTE, to deal with the class imbalance problem. To validate the approach, a comparative analysis with Cost Sensitive Learning is performed.

  11. Effects of intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery and brain repair markers in experimental ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stem cell therapy can promote good recovery from stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are safe and effective. However, more information regarding appropriate cell type is needed from animal model. This study was targeted at analyzing the effects in ischemic stroke of acute intravenous (i.v.) administration of allogenic bone marrow- (BM-MSC) and adipose-derived-stem cells (AD-MSC) on functional evaluation results and brain repair markers. Methods Allogenic MSC (2 × 106 cells) were administered intravenously 30 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) to rats. Infarct volume and cell migration and implantation were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry. Function was evaluated by the Rogers and rotarod tests, and cell proliferation and cell-death were also determined. Brain repair markers were analyzed by confocal microscopy and confirmed by western blot. Results Compared to infarct group, function had significantly improved at 24 h and continued at 14 d after i.v. administration of either BM-MSC or AD-MSC. No reduction in infarct volume or any migration/implantation of cells into the damaged brain were observed. Nevertheless, cell death was reduced and cellular proliferation significantly increased in both treatment groups with respect to the infarct group. At 14 d after MSC administration vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), synaptophysin (SYP), oligodendrocyte (Olig-2) and neurofilament (NF) levels were significantly increased while those of glial fiibrillary acid protein (GFAP) were decreased. Conclusions i.v. administration of allogenic MSC - whether BM-MSC or AD-MSC, in pMCAO infarct was associated with good functional recovery, and reductions in cell death as well as increases in cellular proliferation, neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis markers at 14 days post-infarct. PMID:23356495

  12. Prompt Photons in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Alexa, C; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C.W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P.J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P.C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R

    2010-01-01

    The production of prompt photons is measured in the photoproduction regime of electron-proton scattering at HERA. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 340 pb^-1 collected by the H1 experiment. Cross sections are measured for photons with transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in the range 6 < Et < 15 GeV and -1.0 < eta < 2.4, respectively. Cross sections for events with an additional jet are measured as a function of the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, and as a function of the fractional momenta x_gamma and x_p carried by the partons entering the hard scattering process. The correlation between the photon and the jet is also studied. The results are compared with QCD predictions based on the collinear and on the k_T factorisation approaches.

  13. Prompt photons in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-10-15

    The production of prompt photons is measured in the photoproduction regime of electronproton scattering at HERA. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 340 pb{sup -1} collected by the H1 experiment. Cross sections are measured for photons with transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in the range 6< E{sub T}{sup {gamma}}<15 GeV and -1.0<{eta}{sup {gamma}}<2.4, respectively. Cross sections for events with an additional jet are measured as a function of the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, and as a function of the fractional momenta x{sub {gamma}} and x{sub p} carried by the partons entering the hard scattering process. The correlation between the photon and the jet is also studied. The results are compared with QCD predictions based on the collinear and on the kT factorisation approaches. (orig.)

  14. Correlating prompt GRB photons with neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Taboada, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    It is standard in theoretical neutrino astrophysics to use a broken power law approximation, based on the Band function, to describe the average photon flux of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts. We will show that this approximation overestimates the contribution of high energy gamma-rays (and underestimates low energy gamma-rays). As a consequence models that rely on this approximation overestimate neutrino event rate by a factor of approx 2 depending on Earth's column density in the direction of the GRB. Furthermore the characteristic energy of neutrinos that trigger a km^3 detector is typically 10^{16} eV, higher than previously predicted. We also provide a new broken power law approximation to the Band function and show that it properly represents the photon spectra.

  15. Subscale testing of prompt agent defeat formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, A.; Stamatis, D.; Svingala, F.; Lightstone, J.; Miller, K.; Bensman, M.; Bohmke, M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to improve the current bioagent defeat systems with formulations that produce lower peak pressure and impulse, sustained high temperatures, and release of biocidal species for prompt defeat applications. In this work, explosive charge configurations similar to fuel-air explosives were detonated in a semi-enclosed chamber configuration. Binder type and fuel-to-oxidizer ratios were varied to observe the effects on combustion performance. Thermocouple measurements and high-speed video were used to monitor the combustion of the dispersed formulation. The down-selected formulations were then tested in a sub-scale vented agent defeat system developed to evaluate performance of formulations against aerosolized Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores. Diagnostics including thermocouples and piezoelectric pressure gauges were utilized to characterize the detonation event. Biological sampling with surface coupons, liquid impingement, and filters of the post detonation environment were utilized to determine spore survivability and to rank the relative effectiveness of each formulation.

  16. Prompt γ-ray spectroscopy of the neutron-rich 124Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancraeyenest A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prompt γ-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich cadmium isotopes has been performed. The nuclei of interest have been populated via a 25-MeV, proton-induced fission of the 238U thick target and prompt γ-rays measured using the multi-detector HPGe array JUROGAM II. New high-spin decays have been observed and placed in the level scheme using triple coincidence gates. The experimental results are compared to shell-model calculations and show good agreement.

  17. Prompt photon photoproduction at HERA in the k_T-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lipatov, A V

    2005-01-01

    We present calculations of the prompt photon photoproduction at HERA collider in the k_T-factorization approach. Both direct and resolved contributions are taken into account. The conservative error analisys is performed. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton and in a photon are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We investigate both inclusive and associated with jet prompt photon photoproduction rates. In particular, we study the angular correlations between produced photon and hadronic jet in the transverse momentum plane which can provide a unique information about non-collinear evolution dynamics. We compare our theoretical predictions with recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations.

  18. Calculation of Prompt Fission Neutron from 233U(n, f) Reaction by Multi-Modal Los Alamos Model%Calculation of Prompt Fission Neutron from 233U(n, f) Reaction by Multi-Modal Los Alamos Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑娜; 钟春来; 樊铁栓

    2012-01-01

    An attempt is made to improve the evaluation of the prompt fission neutron emis- sion from 233U(n, f) reaction for incident neutron energies below 6 MeV. The multi-modal fission approach is applied to the improved version of Los Alamos model and the point by point model. The prompt fission neutron spectra and the prompt fission neutron as a function of fragment mass (usually named "sawtooth" data) v(A) are calculated independently for the three most dominant fission modes (standard I, standard II and superlong), and the total spectra and v(A) are syn- thesized. The multi-modal parameters are determined on the basis of experimental data of fission fragment mass distributions. The present calculation results can describe the experimental data very well, and the proposed treatment is thus a useful tool for prompt fission neutron emission prediction.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HUMAN AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE FOR REPAIRING TENDON SHEATH DEFECT%人羊膜修复腱鞘缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸣; 赵红芳; 田德虎; 于昆仑; 白江博; 董瑞一; 张国辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨人羊膜修复鸡足趾腱鞘缺损后防止肌腱粘连的可行性和有效性.方法 取行剖腹产术产妇自愿捐赠的胎盘,制备大小为1.5 cm×1.0 cm的羊膜片.3~6月龄健康雄性来亨鸡40只,体重(1.86±0.04)kg,取双足第3趾制备肌腱、腱鞘损伤模型.“8”字缝合修复肌腱后,右足采用羊膜片修复缺损腱鞘(A组),左足缺损腱鞘不作处理(B组).术后1、2、4、6周各取10只实验动物行大体及组织学观察,并按照Tang等肌腱粘连大体观察分级标准进行分级,生物力学试验测定肌腱滑移度及总屈趾角度.结果 术后实验动物均存活至实验完成,切口均愈合良好.随术后时间延长,大体及组织学观察显示两组均有假鞘(新生腱鞘)形成,但A组假鞘较B组成熟、光滑.术后1、6周A组肌腱粘连分级均明显优于B组,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05).生物力学试验测定示,术后1、2周两组肌腱滑移度比较,差异均无统计学意义(P> 0.05),4、6周时A组肌腱滑移度均较B组长(P<0.05).术后1、2、4、6周A组总屈趾角度均小于B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 采用人羊膜修复鸡腱鞘缺损能有效预防肌腱粘连,利于肌腱滑动功能的恢复.%Objective To investigate the feasibility and effect of human amniotic membrane in prevention of tendon adhension after tendon sheat defect repair. Methods The amniotic membrane in size of 1.5 cm × 1.0 cm was harvested from human placenta which was voluntary donated from maternal after cesarean. Forty healthy male Leghorn chicken (aged 3-6 months) were selected, weighing (1.86 ± 0.04) kg. The model of flexor digitorum profundus tendon and tendon sheath defects was established at the third toe. After repair of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon, the human amniotic membrane was used to repair the tendon sheath defect in the right foot (group A), but tendon sheath defect was not repaired in the left foot (group B) . At 1, 2, 4

  20. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  1. Prompt neutron multiplicity distribution for 235U(n,f) at incident energies up to 20 MeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-Jing; LIU Ting-Jin

    2011-01-01

    For the n+U fission reaction, the total excitation energy partition of the fission fragments, the average neutron kinetic energy (A) and the total average energies E(A) removed by γ rays as a function of fission fragment mass are given at incident energies up to 20 MeV. The prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of the fragment mass, ν(A), for neutron-induced fission of U at different incident neutron energies is calculated. The calculated results are checked with the total average prompt neutron multiplicities ν and compared with the experimental and evaluated data. Some prompt neutron and γ emission mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Electromagnetic field stimulation potentiates endogenous myelin repair by recruiting subventricular neural stem cells in an experimental model of white matter demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafat, Mohammad Amin; Heibatollahi, Motahareh; Mongabadi, Somayeh; Moradi, Fatemeh; Javan, Mohammad; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2012-09-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may affect the endogenous neural stem cells within the brain. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of EMFs on the process of toxin-induced demyelination and subsequent remyelination. Demyelination was induced using local injection of lysophosphatidylcholine within the corpus callosum of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. EMFs (60 Hz; 0.7 mT) were applied for 2 h twice a day for 7, 14, or 28 days postlesion. BrdU labeling and immunostaining against nestin, myelin basic protein (MBP), and BrdU were used for assessing the amount of neural stem cells within the tissue, remyelination patterns, and tracing of proliferating cells, respectively. EMFs significantly reduced the extent of demyelinated area and increased the level of MBP staining within the lesion area on days 14 and 28 postlesion. EMFs also increased the number of BrdU- and nestin-positive cells within the area between SVZ and lesion as observed on days 7 and 14 postlesion. It seems that EMF potentiates proliferation and migration of neural stem cells and enhances the repair of myelin in the context of demyelinating conditions.

  3. Repair-mediated duplication by capture of proximal chromosomal DNA has shaped vertebrate genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Pace

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are a common form of cellular damage that can lead to cell death if not repaired promptly. Experimental systems have shown that DSB repair in eukaryotic cells is often imperfect and may result in the insertion of extra chromosomal DNA or the duplication of existing DNA at the breakpoint. These events are thought to be a source of genomic instability and human diseases, but it is unclear whether they have contributed significantly to genome evolution. Here we developed an innovative computational pipeline that takes advantage of the repetitive structure of genomes to detect repair-mediated duplication events (RDs that occurred in the germline and created insertions of at least 50 bp of genomic DNA. Using this pipeline we identified over 1,000 probable RDs in the human genome. Of these, 824 were intra-chromosomal, closely linked duplications of up to 619 bp bearing the hallmarks of the synthesis-dependent strand-annealing repair pathway. This mechanism has duplicated hundreds of sequences predicted to be functional in the human genome, including exons, UTRs, intron splice sites and transcription factor binding sites. Dating of the duplication events using comparative genomics and experimental validation revealed that the mechanism has operated continuously but with decreasing intensity throughout primate evolution. The mechanism has produced species-specific duplications in all primate species surveyed and is contributing to genomic variation among humans. Finally, we show that RDs have also occurred, albeit at a lower frequency, in non-primate mammals and other vertebrates, indicating that this mechanism has been an important force shaping vertebrate genome evolution.

  4. Teaching Speaking Report Text Using Speaking Prompt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learning how to communicate either in oral or written way, that is how to listen, speak, read and write fluently, accurately and acceptaby. However students find difficulties in learning them. In speaking session, the students can not express their idea well because they have problems in vocabulay, putting the words together in the correct structure, and pronouncing them besides they are lack of information or they don’t have enough background knowledge about the topic. Those problems makes the students don’t want to speak, or they need long time to prepare their speaking. Another problem is that they are accustmed to write before speaking and memorize it to perform their speaking task. Based on these problems it is necesary to use the teaching strategies, one of them is using speaking promt. As pre activity, the teacher reviews the generic structure, the simple present tense, shows pictures related to the topic, introduces the facts which are classified based on the generic structure, and pronunciation practise. In the main activy, students describe the picture based on the facts that have been given.The sentence pattern of simple present tense is also shown. As the post activity, the students give comment on their performance each other.These activities in fact can solve their problems. Speaking prompt helps them in speaking. They don’t need to think about the background knowledge, the generic structure and the sentence pattern.

  5. TEACHING SPEAKING REPORT TEXT USING SPEAKING PROMPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learning how to communicate either in oral or written way, that is how to listen, speak, read and write fluently, accurately and acceptaby. However students find difficulties in learning them. In speaking session, the students can not express their idea well because they have problems in vocabulay, putting the words together in the correct structure, and pronouncing them besides they are lack of information or they don’t have enough background knowledge about the topic. Those problems makes the students don’t want to speak, or they need long time to prepare their speaking. Another problem is that they are accustmed to write before speaking and memorize it to perform their speaking task. Based on these problems it is necesary to use the teaching strategies, one of them is using speaking promt. As pre activity, the teacher reviews the generic structure, the simple present tense, shows pictures related to the topic, introduces the facts which are classified based on the generic structure, and pronunciation practise. In the main activy, students describe the picture based on the facts that have been given.The sentence pattern of simple present tense is also shown. As the post activity, the students give comment on their performance each other.These activities in fact can solve their problems. Speaking prompt helps them in speaking. They don’t need to think about the background knowledge, the generic structure and the sentence pattern

  6. Approaches to Simulating the Prompt Electromagnetic Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alex; Cohen, Bruce I.; Eng, Chester D.; Farmer, William A.; Grote, David P.; Kruger, Hans W.; Larson, David J.

    2016-10-01

    LLNL is developing a suite of modern tools for simulating the generation and propagation of the prompt (E1) electromagnetic pulse (EMP). These include the 3-D EMPulse code, based on PIC methods with a Cartesian grid in the laboratory frame, and a companion 3-D approach which builds on the methods used in Longmire's fast-running CHAP code. In CHAP, and in our own CHAP-lite, 1-D spherical symmetry is assumed, and the calculation takes advantage of a separation of scales. The independent coordinates are (r, τ) , where r is the distance from the source and τ = t-r/c; the pulse varies slowly with r at fixed τ, so a coarse radial grid can be used. We seek similar efficiencies in 3-D, incorporating non-spherically-symmetric physics via a vector spherical harmonic decomposition. For each (l,m) harmonic, the radial equation is similar to that in CHAP-lite. We describe this approach, along with other aspects of our project. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Prompt planetesimal formation beyond the snow line

    CERN Document Server

    Armitage, Philip J; Simon, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    We develop a simple model to predict the radial distribution of planetesimal formation. The model is based on the observed growth of dust to mm-sized particles, which drift radially, pile-up, and form planetesimals where the stopping time and dust-to-gas ratio intersect the allowed region for streaming instability-induced gravitational collapse. Using an approximate analytic treatment, we first show that drifting particles define a track in metallicity--stopping time space whose only substantial dependence is on the disk's angular momentum transport efficiency. Prompt planetesimal formation is feasible for high particle accretion rates (relative to the gas, $\\dot{M}_p / \\dot{M} > 3 \\times 10^{-2}$ for $\\alpha = 10^{-2}$), that could only be sustained for a limited period of time. If it is possible, it would lead to the deposition of a broad and massive belt of planetesimals with a sharp outer edge. Including turbulent diffusion and vapor condensation processes numerically, we find that a modest enhancement of...

  8. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  9. Prompt gamma analysis of chlorine in concrete for corrosion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-02-15

    Measurement of chlorine in concrete is very important for studying of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is primarily ascribed to the penetration of chloride ions to the steel surface. Preventive measures for avoiding concrete structure reinforcement corrosion requires monitoring the chloride ion concentration in concrete so that its concentration does not exceed a threshold limit to initiate reinforcement concrete corrosion. An accelerator based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed for non-destructive analysis of elemental composition of concrete samples. The setup has been used to measure chlorine concentration in concrete samples over a 1-3 wt% concentration range. Although a strong interference has been observed between the chlorine {gamma}-rays and calcium {gamma}-rays from concrete, the chlorine concentration in concrete samples has been successfully measured using the 1.164 and 7.643 MeV chlorine {gamma}-rays. The experimental data were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. An excellent agreement has been achieved between the experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations. The study has demonstrated the successful use of the accelerator-based PGNAA setup in non-destructive analysis of chlorine in concrete samples.

  10. Prompt gamma analysis of chlorine in concrete for corrosion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of chlorine in concrete is very important for studying of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is primarily ascribed to the penetration of chloride ions to the steel surface. Preventive measures for avoiding concrete structure reinforcement corrosion requires monitoring the chloride ion concentration in concrete so that its concentration does not exceed a threshold limit to initiate reinforcement concrete corrosion. An accelerator based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed for non-destructive analysis of elemental composition of concrete samples. The setup has been used to measure chlorine concentration in concrete samples over a 1-3 wt% concentration range. Although a strong interference has been observed between the chlorine gamma-rays and calcium gamma-rays from concrete, the chlorine concentration in concrete samples has been successfully measured using the 1.164 and 7.643 MeV chlorine gamma-rays. The experimental data were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. An excellent agreement has been achieved between the experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations. The study has demonstrated the successful use of the accelerator-based PGNAA setup in non-destructive analysis of chlorine in concrete samples.

  11. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  12. Contralateral C7 transfer to lower trunk via the prespinal route in the repair of brachial plexus injury: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Jiang, Ye; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Contralateral C7 (cC7) root transfer to reconstruct brachial plexus injury (BPI) has been widely used. A revised technique that cC7 root was transferred to lower trunk via the prespinal route with direct neurorrhaphy has been reported clinically. The aim of this experimental study was to develop an animal model of the modified surgical approach in order to obtain quantification index of postoperative nerve regeneration and muscle morphology. Sixty adult Sprague-Dawley rats randomized into experimental and control groups of 30 each. In the experimental group, after total brachial plexus injury (BPI) the cC7 root was transferred to lower trunk via the prespinal route with direct neurorrhaphy, and in the control group the brachial plexus was only exposed without intervention. Electrophysiological study, muscle tension test, neuromorphology, muscle wet weight, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area measurements were obtained 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Median and ulnar nerve regeneration and the forearm flexor muscles functional recovery were obtained by cC7 root transfer to lower trunk via the prespinal route when measured at 12 weeks following the operation though the parameters had not recovered to normal value. We concealed the control and experimental groups from those who did the evaluations. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Geant4 prompt gamma emission yields in the context of proton therapy monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco ePinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo tools have been long used to assist the research and development of solutions for proton therapy monitoring. The present work focuses on the prompt-gamma emission yields by comparing experimental data with the outcomes of the current version of Geant4 using all applicable proton inelastic models. For the case in study and using the binary cascade model, it was found that Geant4 overestimates the prompt-gamma emission yields by 40.2+/-0.3%, even though it predicts the prompt-gamma profile length of the experimental profile accurately. In addition, the default implementations of all proton inelastic models show an overestimation in the number of prompt gammas emitted. Finally, a set of built-in options and physically-sound Geant4 source code changes have been tested in order to try to improve the discrepancy observed. A satisfactory agreement was found when using the QMD model with a wave packet width equal to 1.3 fm2.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of prompt-gamma emission during carbon ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Foulher, F.; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Henriquet, P.; Ray, C.; Testa, E.; Testa, M. [Universite de Lyon 1, F-69003 Lyon (France); IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J. M. [Laboratoire de Controles Non Destructifs Par Rayonnements Ionisants, INSA-Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Karkar, S. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Plescak, R.; Schardt, D. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 tool-kit (version 9.1) were performed to study the emission of secondary prompt gamma-rays produced by nuclear reactions during carbon ion-beam therapy. These simulations were performed along with an experimental program and instrumentation developments which aim at designing a prompt gamma-ray device for real-time control of hadron therapy. The objective of the present study is twofold: first, to present the features of the prompt gamma radiation in the case of carbon ion irradiation; secondly, to simulate the experimental setup and to compare measured and simulated counting rates corresponding to various experiments. For each experiment, we found that simulations overestimate prompt gamma-ray detection yields by a factor of 12. Uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections and binary cascade model cannot explain such discrepancies. The so-called 'photon evaporation' model is therefore questionable and its modification is currently in progress. (authors)

  15. Screening of biochemical and molecular mechanisms of secondary injury and repair in the brain after experimental blast-induced traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Patrick M; Dixon, C Edward; Shellington, David K; Shin, Samuel S; Bayır, Hülya; Jackson, Edwin K; Kagan, Valerian E; Yan, Hong Q; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Bauman, Richard; Clark, Robert S B; Garman, Robert H; Bandak, Faris; Ling, Geoffrey; Jenkins, Larry W

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Explosive blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in modern combat casualty care and has been linked to post-traumatic stress disorder, memory loss, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In this article we report on blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI) characterized by fiber-tract degeneration and axonal injury revealed by cupric silver staining in adult male rats after head-only exposure to 35 psi in a helium-driven shock tube with head restraint. We now explore pathways of secondary injury and repair using biochemical/molecular strategies. Injury produced ∼25% mortality from apnea. Shams received identical anesthesia exposure. Rats were sacrificed at 2 or 24 h, and brain was sampled in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal samples were used to assess gene array (RatRef-12 Expression BeadChip; Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA) and oxidative stress (OS; ascorbate, glutathione, low-molecular-weight thiols [LMWT], protein thiols, and 4-hydroxynonenal [HNE]). Cortical samples were used to assess neuroinflammation (cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX) and purines (adenosine triphosphate [ATP], adenosine diphosphate, adenosine, inosine, 2'-AMP [adenosine monophosphate], and 5'-AMP). Gene array revealed marked increases in astrocyte and neuroinflammatory markers at 24 h (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and complement component 1) with expression patterns bioinformatically consistent with those noted in Alzheimer's disease and long-term potentiation. Ascorbate, LMWT, and protein thiols were reduced at 2 and 24 h; by 24 h, HNE was increased. At 2 h, multiple cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]) were increased; by 24 h, only MIP-1α remained elevated. ATP was not depleted, and adenosine correlated with 2'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), and not 5'-cAMP. Our data reveal (1) gene-array alterations similar to disorders of

  16. An experimental double-blind irradiation study of a novel topical product (TPF 50) compared to other topical products with DNA repair enzymes, antioxidants, and growth factors with sunscreens: implications for preventing skin aging and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Spencer, James M; Braun, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for skin aging and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Although traditional sunscreens remain the mainstay for the prevention of UVR-induced skin damage, they cannot ensure a complete protection against the whole spectrum of molecular lesions associated with UVR exposure. The formation of helix-distorting photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), as well as oxidative damage to DNA bases, including the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) are among the key DNA lesions associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. Besides DNA lesions, UVR-induced formation of free radicals can result in protein carbonylation (PC), a major form of irreversible protein damage that inactivates their biological function. This study compares a complex novel topical product (TPF50) consisting of three actives, ie, 1) traditional physical sunscreens (SPF 50), 2) a liposome-encapsulated DNA repair enzymes complex (photolyase, endonuclease, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase [OGG1]), and 3) a potent antioxidant complex (carnosine, arazine, ergothionine) to existing products. Specifically, we assessed the ability of TFP50 vs those of DNA repair and antioxidant and growth factor topical products used with SPF 50 sunscreens in preventing CPD, 8OHdG, and PC formation in human skin biopsies after experimental irradiations. In head-to-head comparison studies, TPF50 showed the best efficacy in reducing all of the three molecular markers. The results indicated that the three TPF50 components had a synergistic effect in reducing CPD and PC, but not 8OHdG. Taken together, our results indicate that TPF50 improves the genomic and proteomic integrity of skin cells after repeated exposure to UVR, ultimately reducing the risk of skin aging and NMSC.

  17. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  18. Transplante de cartilagem costal autóloga no reparo de desvio do pavilhão auricular de cães: estudo experimental Autologus costicartilage graft to repair external ear deviation of dogs: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvaldo Eurides

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, 12 cães com idade entre 7 e 12 meses foram submetidos a técnica cirúrgica com objetivo de apresentar novo método para reparo de desvio lateral da orelha externa, mediante transplante autólogo de cartilagem costal. Verificou-se que as orelhas apresentaram postura ereta, movimentos aparentemente normais e ausência de desvio. Macroscopicamente o enxerto encontrava-se firmemente aderido a cartilagem auricular e a pele. Pela microscopia óptica observou-se em torno da cartilagem costal presença de tecido conjuntivo fibroso. A técnica cirúrgica avaliada poderá ser utilizada para correção de desvio lateral da orelha de cães.To perform the research twelve dogs between 7 and 12 months old were submitted to a surgical technique in order to test new method to repair lateral external ear deviation with an autologus costicartilage implant. The ears presented erect posture, normal appearance, movement and no deviations. Macroscopic examination showed that the implant was firmly attached to the auricular cartilage and skin. Around the costicartilage fibrous connective tissue was observed by optical microscopy. This surgical technique can be used to correct lateral deviations of dogs ears.

  19. Calculation of prompt fission neutron spectra for 235U(n,f)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-Jing; JIA Min; TAO Xi; QIAN Jing; LIU Ting-Jin; SHU Neng-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    The prompt fission neutron spectra for the neutron-induced fission of 235U at En < 5 MeV are calculated using nuclear evaporation theory with a semi-empirical model,in which the nonconstant and constant temperatures related to the Fermi gas model are taken into account. The calculated prompt fission neutron spectra reproduce the experimental data well.For the n(thermal)+235U reaction,the average nuclear temperature of the fission fragment,and the probability distribution of the nuclear temperature,are discussed and compared with the Los Alamos model.The energy carried away by γ rays emitted from each fragment is also obtained and the results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data.

  20. Pectus excavatum repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002949.htm Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  1. Visual Prompts or Volunteer Models: An Experiment in Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Yin Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful long-term programs for urban residential food waste sorting are very rare, despite the established urgent need for them in cities for waste reduction, pollution reduction and circular resource economy reasons. This study meets recent calls to bridge policy makers and academics, and calls for more thorough analysis of operational work in terms of behavioral determinants, to move the fields on. It takes a key operational element of a recently reported successful food waste sorting program—manning of the new bins by volunteers—and considers the behavioral determinants involved in order to design a more scalable and cheaper alternative—the use of brightly colored covers with flower designs on three sides of the bin. The two interventions were tested in a medium-scale, real-life experimental set-up that showed that they had statistically similar results: high effective capture rates of 32%–34%, with low contamination rates. The success, low cost and simple implementation of the latter suggests it should be considered for large-scale use. Candidate behavioral determinants are prompts, emotion and knowledge for the yellow bin intervention, and for the volunteer intervention they are additionally social influence, modeling, role clarification, and moderators of messenger type and interpersonal or tailored messaging.

  2. 骨诱导无机材料BAM修复牙种植体周围骨缺损的实验研究%Experimental Study about BAM Osteoinduction Calcium Phosphate Ceramic in Repairing the Bone Defect around Dental Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新风; 王鹏来; 刘超; 刘宗响; 程庆涛; 袁晟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of BAM osteoinductrve calcium phosphate ceramic (BAMOICPC) with absorbable collagen membrane (BME-10X medical collagen membrane) in repairing the bone defect around dental implant. Methods: BLB implants coated by hydroxyapatite (HA) were implanted in femur of rabbit Standard opening bone defect on one side of implant (4mm in height, 3mm in width,2mm in thickness)was made. In the control group, the side wall bone defect was open. In the experimental group A, the side wall bone defect was covered simply by BME-10X collagen membrane. In the experimental group B, BAMOICPC were implanted on the bone defects. In the experimental group C, BAMOICPC were implanted on the bone defects and covered with BME-10X collagen membrane. On the 6th postoperative month, animals were killed and sampled. The bone with the implant segment were analyzed by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In the control group, the surface of implants in the area of bone defect were wrapped by fibers. In group A, a little bone covered the border of bone defect. The experimental bone defects in group B were partially covered by new bone.In group C, the bone defects were completely covered by new bone. Compared with group B, the new bone in group C was high hardness, and combined with the implant more tightly by SEM observation.The mature haversian canals system were observed both in B and C experimental groups by histology methods. Conclusion: BAM osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics (BAMOICPC) is an ideal bone substitute material. Combined with collagen membrane, BAMOICPC repaired the bone defect around dental implants more excellently.%目的:评价骨诱导磷酸钙生物陶瓷( BAMOICPC)与可吸收胶原膜(BME-10X医用胶原膜)在牙种植体周围骨缺损中的修复能力.方法:在兔股骨上植入羟基磷灰石涂层BLB种植体,然后在其侧壁制造高4mm、宽3mm、深2mm的骨缺损.对照组为单纯侧壁骨缺损,

  3. Is peritoneal reflection the best anatomical repair landmark in experimental colorectal surgery on rats? A reflexão peritoneal é o melhor reparo anatômico na cirurgia experimental colorretal em ratos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçalves Priolli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To validate Peyer's patch as an anatomical repair landmark for colorectal surgery in rats and to measure the collagen content in segments of the colon containing or not containing Peyer's patch. METHODS: The distance between Peyer's patch and the peritoneal reflection was measured in forty-five Wistar rats. The colon and rectum were resected for quantification of collagen content by means of computer-assisted image analysis in regions of the colon with and without Peyer's patch. RESULTS: There was great variation in the distance between Peyer's patch and the peritoneal reflection when the male and female rats were considered as a single group (p=0.04. Comparison between the genders showed that the distance between the patch and the peritoneal reflection was greater in female than in male rats (p=0.001. The colonic segment containing Peyer's patch was observed to have lower tissue collagen content than the segment in which this structure was not present (p=0.02. CONCLUSION: Peyer's patch can be indicated as an anatomical repair landmark, and there is a need to study the healing of colorectal anastomoses in rats based on differing quantities of tissue collagen existing in the colonic wall with or without this structure.OBJETIVO: Validar a placa de Peyer como reparo anatômico para a cirurgia colorretal em ratos e mensurar a quantidade de colágeno em segmentos da parede cólica que contém ou não a placa de Peyer. MÉTODOS: Foi aferida a distância entre a placa de Peyer e a reflexão peritoneal em 45 ratos Wistar. O cólon e o reto foram ressecados, para a quantificação do colágeno, por meio de análise de imagem assistida por computador, em regiões do cólon que continham ou não a placa de Peyer. RESULTADOS: Existe grande variação entre a distância da placa de Peyer e a reflexão peritoneal quando se consideraram os animais de ambos os gêneros como grupo único (p= 0.04, sendo a distância entre a placa e a reflex

  4. When "Other" Initiate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  5. Comparison of LSO and BGO block detectors for prompt gamma imaging in ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, F.; Biegun, A. K.; Dendooven, P.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Golnik, C.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Petzoldt, J.; Römer, K. E.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2015-09-01

    A major weakness of ion beam therapy is the lack of tools for verifying the particle range in clinical routine. The application of the Compton camera concept for the imaging of prompt gamma rays, a by-product of the irradiation correlated to the dose distribution, is a promising approach for range assessment and even three-dimensional in vivo dosimetry. Multiple position sensitive gamma ray detectors arranged in scatter and absorber planes, together with an imaging algorithm, are required to reconstruct the prompt gamma emission density map. Conventional block detectors deployed in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which are based on Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) scintillators, are suitable candidates for the absorber of a Compton camera due to their high density and absorption efficiency with respect to the prompt gamma energy range (several MeV). We compare experimentally LSO and BGO block detectors in clinical-like radiation fields in terms of energy, spatial and time resolution. The high energy range compensates for the low light yield of the BGO material and boosts significantly its performance compared to the PET scenario. Notwithstanding the overall superiority of LSO, BGO catches up in the field of prompt gamma imaging and can be considered as a competitive alternative to LSO for the absorber plane due to its lower price and the lack of intrinsic radioactivity.

  6. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PROBING-PROMPTING BERBANTUAN LEMBAR KERJA BERSTRUKTUR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Diasputri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know the influence of the use of a learning model Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet on learning outcomes in an high school especially in the Hydrocarbon and Petroleum. Sampling is done by using purposive sampling technique. In the experimental class, learning used Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet, while in classroom control used conventional methods. After being given a different treatment and after post test was done, it can be concluded that students' learning outcomes in class experiment is better than the control class, respectively 77 and 70. Based on the analysis of difference average learning outcomes, it obtained t count (4,074> t table (1,669, so it can be concluded that the average  of learning outcomes in experimental class is better than the control class. In the test mastery learning, mastery percentage of experimental class reached 91.18% while control class reached 59.38%. Test correlation obtained biserial coefficient of 0.5638. It can be concluded that the learning model of Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet have significant effect on student learning outcomes on Hydrocarbons and Petroleum subject with contribution of 32%.

  7. Epoetin Alpha and Epoetin Zeta: A Comparative Study on Stimulation of Angiogenesis and Wound Repair in an Experimental Model of Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrera, Natasha; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Vaccaro, Mario; Squadrito, Francesco; Galeano, Mariarosaria; Stagno d'Alcontres, Francesco; Stagno d'Alcontres, Ferdinando; Buemi, Michele; Minutoli, Letteria; Colonna, Michele Rosario; Altavilla, Domenica

    2015-01-01

    Deep second-degree burns are characterized by delayed formation of granulation tissue and impaired angiogenesis. Erythropoietin (EPO) is able to stimulate angiogenesis and mitosis, activating vascularization and cell cycle. The aim of our study was to investigate whether two biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietins, EPO-α and EPO-Z, may promote these processes in an experimental model of burn injury. A total of 84 mice were used and a scald burn was produced on the back after shaving, in 80°C water for 10 seconds. Mice were then randomized to receive EPO-α (400 units/kg/day/sc) or EPO-Z (400 units/kg/day/sc) or their vehicle (100 μL/day/sc 0.9% NaCl solution). After 12 days, both EPO-α and EPO-Z increased VEGF protein expression. EPO-α caused an increased cyclin D1/CDK6 and cyclin E/CDK2 expression compared with vehicle and EPO-Z (p<0.001). Our study showed that EPO-α and EPO-Z accelerated wound closure and angiogenesis; however EPO-α resulted more effectively in achieving complete skin regeneration. Our data suggest that EPO-α and EPO-Z are not biosimilars for the wound healing effects. The higher efficacy of EPO-α might be likely due to its different conformational structure leading to a more efficient cell proliferation and skin remodelling.

  8. Nitric oxide and Brazilian propolis combined accelerates tissue repair by modulating cell migration, cytokine production and collagen deposition in experimental leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Menegazzo Miranda

    Full Text Available The fact that drugs currently used in the treatment of Leishmania are highly toxic and associated with acquired resistance has promoted the search for new therapies for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL. In this study, BALB/c mice were injected in the hind paw with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and subsequently treated with a combination of nitric oxide (NO donor (cis-[Ru(bpy 2imN(NO](PF63 (Ru-NO, given by intraperitoneal injection, and oral Brazilian propolis for 30 days. Ru-NO reached the center of the lesion and increased the NO level in the injured hind paw without lesion exacerbation. Histological and immunological parameters of chronic inflammation showed that this combined treatment increased the efficacy of macrophages, determined by the decrease in the number of parasitized cells, leading to reduced expression of proinflammatory and tissue damage markers. In addition, these drugs in combination fostered wound healing, enhanced the number of fibroblasts, pro-healing cytokines and induced collagen synthesis at the lesion site. Overall, our findings suggest that the combination of the NO donor Ru-NO and Brazilian propolis alleviates experimental ATL lesions, highlighting a new therapeutic option that can be considered for further in vivo investigations as a candidate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. Epoetin Alpha and Epoetin Zeta: A Comparative Study on Stimulation of Angiogenesis and Wound Repair in an Experimental Model of Burn Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Irrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep second-degree burns are characterized by delayed formation of granulation tissue and impaired angiogenesis. Erythropoietin (EPO is able to stimulate angiogenesis and mitosis, activating vascularization and cell cycle. The aim of our study was to investigate whether two biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietins, EPO-α and EPO-Z, may promote these processes in an experimental model of burn injury. A total of 84 mice were used and a scald burn was produced on the back after shaving, in 80°C water for 10 seconds. Mice were then randomized to receive EPO-α (400 units/kg/day/sc or EPO-Z (400 units/kg/day/sc or their vehicle (100 μL/day/sc 0.9% NaCl solution. After 12 days, both EPO-α and EPO-Z increased VEGF protein expression. EPO-α caused an increased cyclin D1/CDK6 and cyclin E/CDK2 expression compared with vehicle and EPO-Z (p<0.001. Our study showed that EPO-α and EPO-Z accelerated wound closure and angiogenesis; however EPO-α resulted more effectively in achieving complete skin regeneration. Our data suggest that EPO-α and EPO-Z are not biosimilars for the wound healing effects. The higher efficacy of EPO-α might be likely due to its different conformational structure leading to a more efficient cell proliferation and skin remodelling.

  10. Nitric Oxide and Brazilian Propolis Combined Accelerates Tissue Repair by Modulating Cell Migration, Cytokine Production and Collagen Deposition in Experimental Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Milena Menegazzo; Panis, Carolina; Cataneo, Allan Henrique Depieri; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Kawakami, Natalia Yoshie; Lopes, Luiz Gonzaga de França; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Andrade, Célia Guadalupe Tardelli de Jesus; Cecchini, Rubens; da Silva, Jean Jerley Nogueira; Sforcin, José Maurício; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério

    2015-01-01

    The fact that drugs currently used in the treatment of Leishmania are highly toxic and associated with acquired resistance has promoted the search for new therapies for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). In this study, BALB/c mice were injected in the hind paw with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and subsequently treated with a combination of nitric oxide (NO) donor (cis-[Ru(bpy) 2imN(NO)](PF6)3) (Ru-NO), given by intraperitoneal injection, and oral Brazilian propolis for 30 days. Ru-NO reached the center of the lesion and increased the NO level in the injured hind paw without lesion exacerbation. Histological and immunological parameters of chronic inflammation showed that this combined treatment increased the efficacy of macrophages, determined by the decrease in the number of parasitized cells, leading to reduced expression of proinflammatory and tissue damage markers. In addition, these drugs in combination fostered wound healing, enhanced the number of fibroblasts, pro-healing cytokines and induced collagen synthesis at the lesion site. Overall, our findings suggest that the combination of the NO donor Ru-NO and Brazilian propolis alleviates experimental ATL lesions, highlighting a new therapeutic option that can be considered for further in vivo investigations as a candidate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25973801

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid signaling modulates cell survival in experimental ischemic stroke penumbra and initiates long-term repair in young and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany N Eady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid, a major omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, improves behavioral deficit and reduces infarct volume and edema after experimental focal cerebral ischemia. We hypothesize that DHA elicits neuroprotection by inducing AKT/p70S6K phosphorylation, which in turn leads to cell survival and protects against ischemic stroke in young and aged rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats underwent 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. DHA, neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1 or vehicle (saline was administered 3 h after onset of stroke. Neurological function was evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. DHA treatment improved functional recovery and reduced cortical, subcortical and total infarct volumes 7 days after stroke. DHA also reduced microglia infiltration and increased the number of astrocytes and neurons when compared to vehicle on days 1 and 7. Increases in p473 AKT and p308 AKT phosphorylation/activation were observed in animals treated with DHA 4 h after MCAo. Activation of other members of the AKT signaling pathway were also observed in DHA treated animals including increases in pS6 at 4 h and pGSK at 24 h. DHA or NPD1 remarkably reduced total and cortical infarct in aged rats. Moreover, we show that in young and aged rats DHA treatment after MCAo potentiates NPD1 biosynthesis. The phosphorylation of p308 AKT or pGSK was not different between groups in aged rats. However, pS6 expression was increased with DHA or NPD1 treatment when compared to vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that DHA induces cell survival, modulates the neuroinflammatory response and triggers long term restoration of synaptic circuits. Both DHA and NPD1 elicited remarkable protection in aged animals. Accordingly, activation of DHA signaling might provide benefits in the management of ischemic stroke both acutely as well as long term to limit ensuing disabilities.

  12. Automated activity-aware prompting for activity initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lawrence B; Cook, Diane J

    2013-01-01

    Performing daily activities without assistance is important to maintaining an independent functional lifestyle. As a result, automated activity prompting systems can potentially extend the period of time that adults can age in place. In this paper we introduce AP, an algorithm to automate activity prompting based on smart home technology. AP learns prompt rules based on the time when activities are typically performed as well as the relationship between activities that normally occur in a sequence. We evaluate the AP algorithm based on smart home datasets and demonstrate its ability to operate within a physical smart environment.

  13. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Eric F. (ITT Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO); Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur (ITT Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO)

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  14. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PROBING-PROMPTING BERBANTUAN LEMBAR KERJA BERSTRUKTUR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Diasputri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaran Probing-Prompting Berbantuan Lembar Kerja Berstruktur terhadap hasil be/ajar siswa di suatu sekolah pada materi Hidrokarbon dan Minyak Bumi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik Purposive Sampling. Pada kelas eksperimen digunakan model pembelajaran probing-prompting berbantuan lembar kerja berstruktur, sedangkan kelas kontrol menggunakan metode konvesional. Setelah diberi perlakuan yang berbeda dan dilakukan post test dapat diketahui bahwa hasil be/ajar siswa kelas ekperimen lebih baik dibandingkan hasil be/ajar siswa kelas kontrol, yaitu masing-masing 77 dan 70. Berdasarkan uji perbedaan rata-rata hasil be/ajar, diperoleh thitung(4,074> trabe1(1,669, maka dapat dikatakan bahwa rata-rata hasil be/ajar kelompok eksperimen lebih baik dari kelompok kontrol. Pada uji ketuntasan be/ajar, persentase ketuntasan kelas eksperimen mencapai 91, 18% dan kelas kontrol mencapai 59,38%. Uji korelasi memperoleh harga koefisien biserial sebesar 0,5638. Dari seluruh hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa model pembelajaran probing-prompting berbantuan LKB berpengaruh terhadap hasil be/ajar siswa pada materi pokok Hidrokarbon dan Minyak bumi dengan memberikan kontribusi sebesar 32%.This study aimed to know the influence of the use of a learning model Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet on learning outcomes in an high school especially in the Hydrocarbon and Petroleum. Sampling is done by using purposive sampling technique. In the experimental class, learning used Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet, while in classroom control used conventional methods. After being given a different treatment and after post test was done, it can be concluded that students' learning outcomes in class experiment is better than the control class, respectively 77 and 70. Based on the analysis of difference average learning outcomes, it obtained fcounr

  15. Repair welding process of friction stir welding groove defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-jie; ZHANG Hui-jie

    2009-01-01

    The groove defect formed in the friction stir welding dramatically deteriorates weld appearances and mechanical properties of the joints owing to its larger size and penetration. Therefore, the friction stir repair welding was utilized to remove such a groove defect, and the focus was placed on the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the repair joints so as to obtain an optimum repair welding process. The experimental results indicate that the groove defect can be removed by friction stir repair welding, and the offset repair welding process is superior to the symmetrical repair welding process. In the symmetrical repair welding process, a large number of fine cavity defects and an obvious aggregation of hard-brittle phase Al2Cu occur, accordingly the mechanical properties of the repair joint are weakened, and the fracture feature of repair joint is partially brittle and partially plastic. A good-quality repair joint can be obtained by the offset repair welding process, and the repair joint is fractured near the interface between the weld nugget zone and thermal-mechanically affected zone.

  16. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Michael J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Beck, Roy W; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Edwards, Allison R; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, Scott M; Glassman, Adam R; Miller, Kellee M; Scott, Ingrid U; Stockdale, Cynthia R; Sun, Jennifer K

    2010-06-01

    Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the fovea. Eyes were randomized to sham injection + prompt laser (n=293), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + prompt laser (n=187), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + deferred (> or =24 weeks) laser (n=188), or 4 mg triamcinolone + prompt laser (n=186). Retreatment followed an algorithm facilitated by a web-based, real-time data-entry system. Best-corrected visual acuity and safety at 1 year. The 1-year mean change (+/-standard deviation) in the visual acuity letter score from baseline was significantly greater in the ranibizumab + prompt laser group (+9+/-11, Peyes at baseline (n=273), visual acuity improvement in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group appeared comparable to that in the ranibizumab groups. No systemic events attributable to study treatment were apparent. Three eyes (0.8%) had injection-related endophthalmitis in the ranibizumab groups, whereas elevated intraocular pressure and cataract surgery were more frequent in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group. Two-year visual acuity outcomes were similar to 1-year outcomes. Intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser is more effective through at least 1 year compared with prompt laser alone for the treatment of DME involving the central macula. Ranibizumab as applied in this study, although uncommonly associated with endophthalmitis, should be considered for patients with DME and characteristics similar to those in this clinical trial. In pseudophakic eyes, intravitreal triamcinolone + prompt laser seems more effective than laser alone but frequently increases the risk of intraocular pressure elevation. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier

  17. PAGER - Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that estimates the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing...

  18. Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.

  19. Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  20. Research on Prompt Neutron Multiplicity Distribution at Thermal Neutrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The prompt neutron multiplicity distribution as a function of mass of fission fragments ν(A) was studied using the semi-empirical method of excitation energy distributions between the two fission

  1. 12 CFR 226.10 - Prompt crediting of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.10 Prompt crediting of payments. (a) General... address for receiving payments, such as a post office box. (3) Nonconforming payments. If a...

  2. Measurement of Prompt Photon Cross Sections in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V; Asmone, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Berndt, T; Bizot, J C; Böhme, J; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brisson, V; Broker, H B; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Collard, Caroline; Contreras, J G; Coppens, Y R; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Demirchyan, R; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dingfelder, J; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Duprel, C; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garutti, E; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Görlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Grab, C; Grässler, Herbert; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Heremans, R; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Heuer, R D; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hladky, J; Hoting, P; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Kant, D; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kennedy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Koblitz, B; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kroseberg, J; Kuckens, J; Kuhr, T; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lemrani, R; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N A; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michine, S; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morozov, I; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nagovizin, V; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C B; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D K; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Ossoskov, G; Ozerov, D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pöschl, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Raicevic, N; Ratiani, Z; Reimer, P; Reisert, B; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schleper, P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schneider, M; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Spitzer, H; Stamen, R; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Uraev, A; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Woerling, E E; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zohrabyan, H G; Zomer, F

    2004-01-01

    Results are presented on the photoproduction of isolated prompt photons, inclusively and associated with jets, in the gamma p center of mass energy range 142 4.5 GeV. They are measured differentially as a function of E_T^gamma, E_T^jet, the pseudorapidities eta^gamma and eta^jet and estimators of the momentum fractions x_gamma and x_p of the incident photon and proton carried by the constituents participating in the hard process. In order to further investigate the underlying dynamics, the angular correlation between the prompt photon and the jet in the transverse plane is studied. Predictions by perturbative QCD calculations in next to leading order are about 30% below the inclusive prompt photon data after corrections for hadronisation and multiple interactions, but are in reasonable agreement with the results for prompt photons associated with jets. Comparisons with the predictions of the event generators PYTHIA and HERWIG are also presented.

  3. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Tudora, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra) as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f) and 237Np(n, f)) both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  4. Thermal and prompt photons at RHIC and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, Jean-François [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Shen, Chun [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Denicol, Gabriel [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Luzum, Matthew [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão Travessa R, no. 187, 05508-090, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo (Brazil); Schenke, Björn [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Thermal and prompt photon production in heavy ion collisions is evaluated and compared with measurements from both RHIC and the LHC. An event-by-event hydrodynamical model of heavy ion collisions that includes shear and bulk viscosities is used, along with up-to-date photon emission rates. Larger tension with measurements is observed at RHIC than at the LHC. The center-of-mass energy and centrality dependence of thermal and prompt photons is investigated.

  5. Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    emission. During the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the prompt radiation contributed from 40%-70% of the free-in-air dose depending on distance from...intermediate- and low -yield thermonuclear weapons for initial radiation shielding calculations No Gritzner, et al. 1976 (EM-1, Low , Henre...Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for repair of tracheal injury during transhiatal esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilibeth Fermin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO for repair of tracheal injury during transhiatal esophagectomy Tracheal injury is a rare but potentially fatal complication of esophagectomies requiring prompt recognition and treatment. We describe a case of tracheal injury recognized in the operative period of an open transhiatal esophagectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the mid to distal esophagus. When injury was discovered, attempts to improve oxygenation and ventilation by conventional methods were unsuccessful. Therefore, peripheral ECMO was used to support oxygenation during the tracheal defect repair. The use of ECMO for the repair of a tracheal injury during esophagectomy is very uncommon but, in our case, provided adequate oxygenation and ventilation while the surgeon repaired the injury and the patient was able to be promptly weaned from ECMO support and extubated not long after.

  7. PROMPT: Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Reichart, D; Moran, J; Bartelme, J; Bayliss, M; Foster, A; Clemens, J C; Price, P; Evans, C; Salmonson, J; Trammell, S; Carney, B W; Keohane, J; Gotwals, R

    2005-01-01

    Funded by $1.2M in grants and donations, we are now building PROMPT at CTIO. When completed in late 2005, PROMPT will consist of six 0.41-meter diameter Ritchey-Chretien telescopes on rapidly slewing mounts that respond to GRB alerts within seconds, when the afterglow is potentially extremely bright. Each mirror and camera coating is being optimized for a different wavelength range and function, including a NIR imager, two red-optimized imagers, a blue-optimized imager, an UV-optimized imager, and an optical polarimeter. PROMPT will be able to identify high-redshift events by dropout and distinguish these events from the similar signatures of extinction. In this way, PROMPT will act as a distance-finder scope for spectroscopic follow up on the larger 4.1-meter diameter SOAR telescope, which is also located at CTIO. When not chasing GRBs, PROMPT serves broader educational objectives across the state of North Carolina. Enclosure construction and the first two telescopes are now complete and functioning: PROMPT ...

  8. Enzymic and structural aspects of repair DNA synthesis activation in mammalian chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakova, N.V.; Naryzhnyj, S.N.; Filatov, M.V.; Krutyakov, V.M. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    Analysis was made of the enzymic and structural factors responsible for activation of repair DNA synthesis in ..gamma..-irradiated chromatin isolated from rat liver or some human cells. The results obtained prompted us to reduce by 10-12 times the dose of radiation used before. With doses of 30 Gy and 10 Gy, the value of the original repair synthesis was doubled in the chromatin of rat liver and HeLa cells, respectively.

  9. A Study of Online Review Promptness in a B2C System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 technologies have attracted an increasing number of active online writers and viewers. A deeper understanding of when customers will review and what motivates them to write online reviews is of both theoretical and practical significance. In this paper, we present a novel methodological framework, which consists of theoretical modeling and text-mining technologies, to study the relationships among customers’ review promptness, their review opinions, and their review motivations. We first study customers’ online “purchase-review” behavior dynamics; then, we introduce the LDA method to mine customers’ opinion from their review text; finally, we propose a theoretical model to explore some motivations for those people publishing review online. The analytical and experimental results with real data from a Chinese B2C website demonstrate that the behavior dynamics of customers’ online review are influenced by the multidimensional motivations, and some of them can be observed from their review behaviors, such as review promptness.

  10. Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madland, D.G., E-mail: dgm@lanl.gov; Kahler, A.C.

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents a number of refinements to the original Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum and average prompt neutron multiplicity as derived in 1982. The four refinements are due to new measurements of the spectrum and related fission observables many of which were not available in 1982. They are also due to a number of detailed studies and comparisons of the model with previous and present experimental results including not only the differential spectrum, but also integral cross sections measured in the field of the differential spectrum. The four refinements are (a) separate neutron contributions in binary fission, (b) departure from statistical equilibrium at scission, (c) fission-fragment nuclear level-density models, and (d) center-of-mass anisotropy. With these refinements, for the first time, good agreement has been obtained for both differential and integral measurements using the same Los Alamos model spectrum.

  11. Deep inelastic prompt photon production at HERA in the k{sub T} factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the prompt photon production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA in the framework of k{sub T}-factorization QCD approach. Our study is based on the off-shell partonic amplitude eq{sup *} {yields} e{gamma}q, where the photon radiation from the leptons as well as from the quarks is taken into account. The unintegrated quark densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analysis is performed. We investigate both inclusive and jet associated prompt photon production rates. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. We demonstrate that in the k{sub T}-factorization approach the contribution from the quark radiation subprocess (QQ mechanism) is enhanced as compared to the leading-order collinear approximation. (orig.)

  12. Prompt photon and associated heavy quark production at hadron colliders with kt-factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Lipatov, A V; Zotov, N P

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the kt-factorization approach, the production of prompt photons in association with a heavy (charm or beauty) quarks at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the O(\\alpha \\alpha_s^2) off-shell amplitudes of gluon-gluon fusion and quark-(anti)quark interaction subprocesses. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The analysis covers the total and differential cross sections and extends to specific angular correlations between the produced prompt photons and muons originating from the semileptonic decays of associated heavy quarks. Theoretical uncertainties of our evaluations are studied and comparison with the results of standard NLO pQCD calculations is performed. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the D0 and CDF collaborations at the Tevatron. Finally, we extend our results to LHC energies.

  13. Prompt gamma-ray emission for future imaging applications in proton-boron fusion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Caliri, C.; Cuttone, G.; Giuffrida, L.; La Rosa, G.; Manna, R.; Manti, L.; Marchese, V.; Marchetta, C.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Picciotto, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, an approach exploiting the proton therapy biological enhancement by using Boron atoms injected inside a tumor, has been proposed [1-3]. Here, the 11B(p,α)2α nuclear fusion reaction channel, where three alpha particles are produced with an average energy around 4 MeV, is considered [4]. These alphas are able to penetrate the cells nucleus and strongly damage their DNA. In addition, gamma prompts emitted by the proton Boron nuclear reactions can be used for on-line proton beam imaging purposes. In this work an experimental study of the gamma prompt emissions from the proton Boron nuclear reactions has been carried out with the main aim to understand and quantify the most probable emission for future clinical applications.

  14. Deep inelastic prompt photon production at HERA in the kt-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the prompt photon production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA in the framework of kt-factorization QCD approach. Our study is based on the off-shell partonic amplitude e q* -> e gamma q, where the photon radiation from the leptons as well as from the quarks is taken into account. The unintegrated quark densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analisys is performed. We investigate both inclusive and jet associated prompt photon production rates. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. We demonstrate that in the kt-factorization approach the contribution from the quark radiation subprocess (QQ mechanism) is enhanced as compared to the leading-order collinear approximation.

  15. The Role of Incidental Unfocused Prompts and Recasts in Improving English as a Foreign Language Learners' Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Muhammad; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of incidental unfocused prompts and recasts on improving English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' grammatical accuracy as measured in students' oral interviews and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) grammar test. The design of the study was quasi-experimental with pre-tests,…

  16. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices within an E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n?=?26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and…

  17. The Role of Incidental Unfocused Prompts and Recasts in Improving English as a Foreign Language Learners' Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Muhammad; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of incidental unfocused prompts and recasts on improving English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' grammatical accuracy as measured in students' oral interviews and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) grammar test. The design of the study was quasi-experimental with pre-tests,…

  18. Effects of Video Modeling on the Instructional Efficiency of Simultaneous Prompting among Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc-Tosun, Derya; Kurt, Onur

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of simultaneous prompting with and without video modeling in teaching food preparation skills to four participants with autism spectrum disorder, whose ages ranged from 5 to 6 years old. An adapted alternating treatment single-case experimental design was used to…

  19. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-07

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  20. Repairable-conditionally repairable damage model based on dual Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, B K; Persson, L M; Edgren, M R; Hedlöf, I; Brahme, A

    2003-09-01

    The advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy makes it increasingly important to model the response accurately when large volumes of normal tissues are irradiated by controlled graded dose distributions aimed at maximizing tumor cure and minimizing normal tissue toxicity. The cell survival model proposed here is very useful and flexible for accurate description of the response of healthy tissues as well as tumors in classical and truly radiobiologically optimized radiation therapy. The repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) model distinguishes between two different types of damage, namely the potentially repairable, which may also be lethal, i.e. if unrepaired or misrepaired, and the conditionally repairable, which may be repaired or may lead to apoptosis if it has not been repaired correctly. When potentially repairable damage is being repaired, for example by nonhomologous end joining, conditionally repairable damage may require in addition a high-fidelity correction by homologous repair. The induction of both types of damage is assumed to be described by Poisson statistics. The resultant cell survival expression has the unique ability to fit most experimental data well at low doses (the initial hypersensitive range), intermediate doses (on the shoulder of the survival curve), and high doses (on the quasi-exponential region of the survival curve). The complete Poisson expression can be approximated well by a simple bi-exponential cell survival expression, S(D) = e(-aD) + bDe(-cD), where the first term describes the survival of undamaged cells and the last term represents survival after complete repair of sublethal damage. The bi-exponential expression makes it easy to derive D(0), D(q), n and alpha, beta values to facilitate comparison with classical cell survival models.

  1. On the importance of prompt oxygen changes for hypofractionated radiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissick, Michael; Campos, David; van der Kogel, Albert; Kimple, Randall

    2013-10-01

    This discussion is motivated by observations of prompt oxygen changes occurring prior to a significant number of cancer cells dying (permanently stopping their metabolic activity) from therapeutic agents like large doses of ionizing radiation. Such changes must be from changes in the vasculature that supplies the tissue or from the metabolic changes in the tissue itself. An adapted linear-quadratic treatment is used to estimate the cell survival variation magnitudes from repair and reoxygenation from a two-fraction treatment in which the second fraction would happen prior to significant cell death from the first fraction, in the large fraction limit. It is clear the effects of oxygen changes are likely to be the most significant factor for hypofractionation because of large radiation doses. It is a larger effect than repair. Optimal dose timing should be determined by the peak oxygen timing. A call is made to prioritize near real time measurements of oxygen dynamics in tumors undergoing hypofractionated treatments in order to make these treatments adaptable and patient-specific.

  2. Effect of chemical surface treatments and repair material on transverse strength of repaired acrylic denture resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojdani Mahroo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the transverse strength of a denture base resin (H, repaired with an autopolymerizing acrylic resin (A or a visible light-curing (VLC resin (T following the use of three chemical solvents: methyl methacrylate monomer, aceton or chloroform. Materials and Methods: Eighty specimens (65.0 x 10.0 x 3.3 mm of H were fabricated and stored in distilled water at 37°C for seven days. Specimens were divided into eight equal groups of 10. In each group, specimens were sectioned in the middle to create a 10 mm gap. Two groups served as controls and had no surface treatment. They were repaired with A or T materials. In the remaining six experimental groups, specimen surfaces were treated with ac for 30 sec or mma for 180 sec or ch for 5 sec. Then A or T material was placed on the treated surfaces, using the same preparation molds. After seven days′ storage at 37°C, the transverse bond strength (MPa of the specimens was measured using a three-point bending test. A two-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD were performed to identify significant differences ( P < 0.05. The nature of the failures was noted as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. Results: Significant differences were found between the controls and experimental groups ( P < 0.05. In the control groups, repair with A showed significantly higher strength (60.3 MPa than those repaired with T (51.3 MPa. Mean transverse strength of experimental specimens repaired with A was (75.06 MPa which was significantly greater than those repaired with T (67.9 MPa. Although surface treatment increased repair strength, no significant differences were detected between the effects of the chemical etchants. Conclusions: The autopolymerizing resin exhibited significantly higher repair strength than VLC resin. The transverse strength of the repaired specimens was increased significantly after chemical treatments.

  3. Utilização da veia glicerolada na regeneração neural: Estudo experimental em ratos The use of glycerol-treated venous graft in damaged nerves repair: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando dos Santos Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A auto-enxertia de nervo é o tratamento de escolha para grandes perdas de tecido neural que não podem ser reparadas por meio de rafia primária. A utilização do enxerto venoso previamente conservado em glicerol seria uma alternativa para diminuir o tempo operatório e a morbidade cirúrgica nesses casos. Os vasos preservados em glicerol não apresentam destruição de sua estrutura, o que permite seu uso na microcirurgia vascular, tendo a vantagem de diminuir a imunogenicidade do enxerto. O objetivo deste trabalho experimental foi comparar o grau de reparação nervosa, utilizando análise histológica, contagem do número de axônios mielinizados regenerados e análise funcional, obtida com a interposição de enxerto autógeno (grupo A e de tubo de veia glicerolada (grupo B em defeitos de 5 mm no nervo fibular de ratos Wistar. Somente no grupo A foi observado a formação de neuroma. O grupo B apresentou padrões histológicos compatíveis com diminuição quantitativa do número de axônios mielinizados regenerados em menor número em relação ao grupo A (controle. Na recuperação funcional, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois grupos.Autografting is the treatment of choice for cases of major nervous tissue loss where the ruptured nerve ends cannot be reduced. The use of a venous autograft previously treated with glycerol may be an alternative treatment, as it reduces surgery time duration and level of morbidity. Blood vessel explants, used in vascular microsurgery, kept in glycerol maintain their original biological structure, and when used in autografting, present reduced levels of patient's immune response. The aim of this study was to compare the level of nervous tissue regeneration by using histological analysis, regenerated myelinized axons counts, and functional analysis, obtained with the interposition of autologous graft (group A and glycerol-treated vein tube (group B in 5-mm defects on Wistar

  4. The experimental study of calcitonin gene-related peptide intranasal administration to central nervous system and prompt the repair of cerebral infarct%降钙素基因相关肽经鼻给药进入中枢神经系统及促脑梗死修复的实验性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆建; 闫承军; 宋大庆; 刘云海; 孙树印

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develoP a convenient and effective method for delivering CGRP to the central nervous system byPassing the blood-brain barrier( BBB),and to exPlore whether it had Preventive and Protective effects on cerebral in-farction in rats. Methods The MCAO model was made by nylon strand. CGRP concentration was measured IN and IV in-jection of CGRP after 30 min in different brain areas using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA),and exPlored the treatment IN and IV CGRP in rats with focal cerebral infarction. Results CGRP demonstrated a much higher delivery of IN than IV CGRP to the brain regions. Intranasal administration CGRP had significant Preventive and Protective effect to focal cerebral infarction which showed the brain infarction decreased and cerebral blood flow increased( P<0. 01 ). Conclusion CGRP intranasal administration targeting central administration can avoid the blood-brain barrier block,and had Preven-tive and Protective effects on the rats with focal cerebral infarction. Intranasal administration CGRP had definite Preventive and Protective effect to focal cerebral infarction in rats.%目的:寻找快速、便捷有效的靶向中枢给药方法,为脑梗死治疗提供新的思路。方法线栓法制作大鼠大脑中动脉闭塞( Middle cerebral artery occlusion,MCAO)脑缺血再灌注模型,采用ELISA法测定经鼻( IN)和静脉( IV)注射CGRP后30 min时,各脑区的CGRP浓度,并观察IN和IV给予CGRP对局灶性脑梗死的治疗效果。结果 IN给药组脑部各区域、颈髓和脑脊液(Cerebro-sPinal fluid,CSF)中CGRP浓度较IV组显著增高(P<0.01),与IV组相比较,IN给药组梗死体积减小,脑血流量增加( P<0.01)。结论 CGRP经鼻靶向中枢给药可以避开血脑屏障阻碍,并对大鼠局灶性脑梗死有预防和保护作用。

  5. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, E. Frederick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zarick, Thomas Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sheridan, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preston, Eric F. [ITT Coporation, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  6. Prompt Fission Gamma-ray Studies at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; Mosby, S. M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Stoyer, M. A.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on 252Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and 239Pu. Correlated PFG data from 252Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL, for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.

  7. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  8. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  9. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberstedt S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f and 237Np(n, f both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  10. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  12. Experimental Research on the Combination of PHBV Membrane and Coralline Hydroxyapatite on Repair of Mandibular Defects%PHBV膜与珊瑚羟基磷灰石联合修复颌骨缺损的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁琴艳; 陈黄琴; 黄彬; 冯蕊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of polyhydroxybutyrate -hydroxyvalerate ( PHBV) mem-brane combined with coralline hydroxyapatite ( CHA) on maxillary defects and its mechanism .Methods Forty-eight white healthy rabbits were divided into experimental group ( left side ) and control group ( right side ) . 12mm ×5mm ×4mm mandibular defect of bilateral mandibular corpus in the manufacture was made ,the PHBV membrane combined with CHA repaired defects in the experimental group , and only CHA repaired defects in the control group.Left and right sides of 12mm ×5mm ×4mm mandibular defects in six rabbits were used as blank group.Sixteen rabbits were sacrificed in4,8,12 weeks after operation,respectively.two in each period of control group .Results New bone could be observed in the center of defect area of experimental group after 4 weeks,but there hada large number of fibrous connective tissue in control group and new bone formation could only be seen in the bone-bed .There had many small bone cells in new bone tissue of experimental group after 12 weeks ,and some new bone cells arrange regularly as mature bone tissue .In control group ,part of bone tissue formation and the fibrous connective tissue was still visible in defect area of control group after 12 weeks.Con-clusion The combination of PHBV membrane and CHA has faster speed in bone formation of mandibular defects than that of only CHA treatment .PHBV membrane can inhibit fibrous tissue permeability and facilitate new bone formation through the mechanical property of membrane .%目的:通过聚羟基丁酸酯-羟基戊酸酯(PHBV)膜与珊瑚羟基磷灰石(CHA)联合修复颌骨缺损,来观察和探讨骨缺损的修复方式及成骨机制,为PHBV膜将来应用于临床提供理论依据。方法实验选择54只实验动物日本大耳白兔,随机抽取48只左侧为PHBV膜与CHA复合组(实验组),右侧为单纯CHA(对照组)。在下颌骨体部双侧造成12mm ×5mm ×4

  13. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Moodley_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32328 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Moodley_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Root Justi cations... the ontology, based on the no- tion of root justi cations [8, 9]. In Section 5, we discuss the implementation of a Prot eg e3 plugin which demonstrates our approach to ontology repair. In this section we also discuss some experimental results comparing...

  14. Method for measuring prompt gamma-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao; Zhu, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt gamma flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background gamma-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on a 2"*2" BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of {\\gamma}-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agree well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and ...

  15. Method for measuring prompt γ-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Guo; Lai, Cai-Feng; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong Zhang, Xin-Wei; Ye, Bang-Jiao; Zhu, Tong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The prompt γ-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt γ flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background γ-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt γ-rays are obtained based on a 2″×2″ BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt γ-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of γ-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt γ-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agrees well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and the discrepancies for the integral quantities of γ-rays of energy 0.4-1 MeV and 1-3 MeV are 9.2% and 1.1%, respectively. Supported by National Special Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research, China (2015GB108001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (91226104)

  16. [Experimental study on application recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2(rhBMP-2)/poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/fibrin sealant(FS) on repair of rabbit radial bone defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhongkai; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Mingchao; Lu, Wei; Tang, Lei; Yao, Qi; Lu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    This paper is aimed to investigate the repair of rabbit radial bone defect by the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/poly-lactideco-glycolic acid microsphere with fibrin sealant (rhBMP-2/PLGA/FS). The radial bone defect models were prepared using New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups, experiment group which were injected with eMP-2/PLGA/FS at bone defect location, control group which were injected with FS at bone defect location, and blank control group without treatment. The ability of repairing bone defect was evaluated with X-ray radiograph. Bone mineral density in the defect regions was analysed using the level of ossification. The osteogenetic ability of repairing bone defect, the degradation of the material, the morphologic change and the bone formation were assessed by HE staining and Masson staining. The result showed that rhBMP-2/PLGA/FS had overwhelming superiority in the osteogenetic ability and quality of bone defect over the control group, and it could promote the repair of bone defect and could especially repair the radial bone defect of rabbit well. It may be a promising and efficient synthetic bone graft.

  17. Prompt neutron emission and energy balance in 235U(n,f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göök Alf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of prompt fission neutron (PFN emission are of importance in understanding the fission process in general and the sharing of excitation energy among the fission fragments in particular. Experimental activities at JRC-Geel on PFN emission in response to OECD/NEA nuclear data requests is presented in this contribution. The focus lies on on-going investigations of PFN emission from the reaction 235U(n,f in the region of the resolved resonances taking place at the GELINA facility. For this reaction strong fluctuations of fission fragment mass distributions and mean total kinetic energy have been observed as a function of incident neutron energy in the resonance region. In addition, fluctuations of prompt neutron multiplicities have also been observed. The goal of the present study is to verify the current knowledge of PFN multiplicity fluctuations and to study correlations with fission fragment properties. The experiment employs a scintillation detector array for neutron detection, while fission fragment properties are determined via the double kinetic energy technique using a position sensitive twin ionization chamber. Results on PFN multiplicity correlations with fission fragment properties from the present study show significant differences compared to earlier studies on this reaction, induced by thermal neutrons. Specifically, the total kinetic energy dependence of the neutron multiplicity per fission shows an inverse slope FX1TKE/FX2ν approximately 35% weaker than observed in earlier studies of thermal neutron induced fission on 235U. The inverse slope is related to the energy carried away per emitted neutron and is, thereby, closely connected to the energy balance of the fission reaction. The present result should have strong impact on the modeling of both prompt neutron and prompt γ-ray emission in fission of the 236U compound nucleus.

  18. The shift of prompt critical in reflected reactors and the limitations of the mean prompt-neutron lifetime model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busch, R.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1994-08-01

    Prompt critical in a bare reactor is defined as the point at which the reactivity {rho} of the reactor is equal to the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}. In a reflected reactor, however, it is shown that prompt critical will occur at a reactivity of {rho} = {beta}(1-f) where f is the fraction of core neutrons that return to the core region after having leaked into the reflector. Furthermore, it is also shown that the mean prompt-neutron lifetime model that has been traditionally used to characterize the dynamic response of reflected reactors may not always provide an adequate representation of the system for reactivities greater than 1$. And finally, the coupled, point-kinetic equations proposed by Avery and further developed by Cohn for simple reflected systems are recast into a more usable form that can be readily used to perform superprompt critical transient analyses.

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  20. Exotic Prompt and Non-Prompt Leptonic Decays as a Window to the Dark Sector with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Miriam; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Results of searches for both prompt and non-prompt leptonic decays of new dark sector particles in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector are presented. Searches that encompass a wide range of new particle masses, lifetimes and degrees of collimation of leptonic decay products are discussed. The results are interpreted in the context of models containing new gauge bosons (dark photons or dark Z bosons) that give rise to lepton-jets or to more general displaced leptonic signatures that could be a viable dark matter candidate.

  1. Understanding the molecular mechanism of formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein crosslink repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde induces DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in several experimental in vitro and in vivo test systems, as well as in exposed human workers. DPCs are repaired by several DNA repair pathways in different species, but the molecular understanding of DPC repair in human tissues...

  2. Environmental Consciousness in Daily Activities Measured by Negative Prompts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Hiramatsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gap between people’s attitude and action as regards environmental issues has been pointed out even while surveys registered an increase in people’s environmental awareness. Among the possible reasons is that people tend to automatically answer “yes”, as most surveys on environmental consciousness use positively-phrased questions or prompts. To remove the “yes-bias” in previous surveys, this present study conducted in Japan a large-scale questionnaire survey on environmental consciousness using negative prompts and free-answered prompts on which behaviors people feel good/bad/uncertain for the environment. This study also investigated peoples’ psychological factors and concrete pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs in daily life. The results of the questionnaire with negative prompts showed that the rate of people’s consciousness to the environment was lower compared with other surveys. Through factor analysis, five psychological factors were extracted as the explanatory factors of environmental attitude. Demographic effects on the consciousness and PEBs were also observed. Comparison of free-answers on concrete daily behaviors among five different environmentally conscious groups showed there were certain phases in the perception of PEBs based on consciousness level. Similar common behaviors were highly ranked as both PEB and doubtful behaviors, indicating that people were worried about actions that involve a trade-off relationship from diversified standpoints.

  3. Application of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Park, Kwang Won; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This technical report is written for the promotion to utilization of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis facility to be installed in HANARO reactor. It is described for a practical aspects including experiment and equipments, methodology, current status of the research and development and its applications. 102 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  4. Introduction of Prompt Gamma Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xing-hua; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Gui-ying; YAO; Yong-gang; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; HUA; Long; NI; Bang-fa

    2013-01-01

    CARR will provide with maximal neutron flux in Asia,the third of the world.By using the high quality neutron beam and the advanced international experience,Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis(PGNAA)facility will be setup at high level.PGNAA on CARR will promote the development of nuclear analysis technology and improve Chinese status in the nuclear analysis field.

  5. Calculation of prompt neutron spectra for curium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1997-03-01

    With the aim of checking the existing evaluations contained in JENDL-3.2 and providing new evaluations based on a methodology proposed by the author, a series of calculations of prompt neutron spectra have been undertaken for curium isotopes. Some of the evaluations in JENDL-3.2 was found to be unphysically hard and should be revised. (author)

  6. The Effect of Prompting to Students with Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Stamelos, Ioannis G.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of question prompts on student learning in relation to their learning styles. The context of the study is technology-enhanced learning in an ill-structured domain. Design/methodology/approach: The study conditions were the same for all the students in the four learning style groups.…

  7. Pause, Prompt, and Praise: The Need for More Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Judith D.; McClelland, David J.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that the effectiveness of the "Pause, Prompt, and Praise" procedure varied according to the method of analysis used: subjective interpretation of gain scores indicated that the procedure was the most effective treatment for both tutees and tutors; the ANOVA indicated that the tutoring experience was effective; whereas the more rigorous…

  8. Pause, Prompt, and Praise: The Need for More Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Judith D.; McClelland, David J.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that the effectiveness of the "Pause, Prompt, and Praise" procedure varied according to the method of analysis used: subjective interpretation of gain scores indicated that the procedure was the most effective treatment for both tutees and tutors; the ANOVA indicated that the tutoring experience was effective; whereas the more rigorous…

  9. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  10. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  11. A revised analysis of gamma-ray bursts' prompt efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Nava, Lara; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-09-01

    The prompt gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs) efficiency is an important clue on the emission mechanism producing the γ-rays. Previous estimates of the kinetic energy of the blast waves, based on the X-ray afterglow luminosity LX, suggested that this efficiency is large, with values above 90 per cent in some cases. This poses a problem to emission mechanisms and in particular to the internal shocks model. These estimates are based, however, on the assumption that the X-ray emitting electrons are fast cooling and that their Inverse Compton (IC) losses are negligible. The observed correlations between LX (and hence the blast wave energy) and Eγ, iso, the isotropic equivalent energy in the prompt emission, has been considered as observational evidence supporting this analysis. It is reasonable that the prompt gamma-ray energy and the blast wave kinetic energy are correlated and the observed correlation corroborates, therefore, the notion LX is indeed a valid proxy for the latter. Recent findings suggest that the magnetic field in the afterglow shocks is significantly weaker than was earlier thought and its equipartition fraction, ɛB, could be as low as 10-4 or even lower. Motivated by these findings we reconsider the problem, taking now IC cooling into account. We find that the observed LX - Eγ, iso correlation is recovered also when IC losses are significant. For small ɛB values the blast wave must be more energetic and we find that the corresponding prompt efficiency is significantly smaller than previously thought. For example, for ɛB ˜ 10-4 we infer a typical prompt efficiency of ˜15 per cent.

  12. 兔膝关节半月板水平裂损伤修复的实验研究%Repair of meniscus horizontal fissure injury of knee joints in rabbits: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢诗涓

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of various approaches on meniscus repair via establishing the animal model of meniscus horizontal fissure injury, thereby offering proofs for repairing meniscus and cartilage injury in clinics. Methods: A total of 36 adult New Zealand white rabbits were subjected lo meniscus horizontal fissure injury of knee joints and were randomly assigned into three groups, namely the blank control group (group A), fibrin gel-treated group (group B) and platelet-rich plasma gel-lreated group (group C), respectively. Rabbits of each group were sentenced at weeks 4, 8 and 12 after operation. Meniseuses were extracted for gross morphological observation and optical microscopic examination to determine the repair of injured regions. Results: Group A showed no evidence of repair. By contrast, group B presented a rate of 58.3% for grade Ⅱ repair, and group C was found to have the rate of 50.0% for both grade Ⅱ and Ⅲ repair, suggesting a remarkably lower repair rate of group A as compared with that of group B (P = 0.014) and group C (P<0.01) as well as better repair conditions of group C when compared with that of group C (P < 0.01). Conclusion: In contrast to lack of spontaneous repair of meniscus horizontal fissure injury, fibrin glue may form scars in spite of the capacity of promoting repair. Whereas platelet-rich plasma gel is not only capable of promoting meniscus repair, but inducing fibrocartilage healing where meniscus horizontal fissure defect is located as well.%目的:通过构建动物半月板水平裂损伤模型,观察不同方法对其半月板损伤模型修复的影响,为临床治疗半月板及软骨损伤提供依据.方法:36只成年新西兰白兔行膝关节外侧半月板水平裂损伤后随机分为3组:空白对照组A、纤维蛋白凝胶组B、富血小板血浆凝胶组C,每组12只.3组分别于术后4、8、12周分3次处死取材,肉眼行大体形态观察,在光学显微镜观察各组半月板损伤

  13. Supporting learning with weblogs in science education: A comparison of blogging and hand-written reflective writing with and without prompts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Petko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to compare how weblogs and traditional hand-written reflective learning protocols compare regarding the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies for knowledge acquisition as well as learning gains in secondary school students. The study used a quasi-experimental control group design with repeated measurements comparing weblogs and text-based reflective journals both with and without prompts. During a learning unit on the subject of climate change, students were assigned one to four experimental groups with different writing assignments and one control group that did not keep a learning protocol of any kind. Comparisons of pretest and posttest scores indicate that students in the experimental groups collectively outperform the students in the control group. Looking closer however, only the groups writing with the guidance of prompts showed better learning gains, while groups writing without prompts did not show significant differences when compared to the control group. There were no differences with respect to learning gains between groups writing weblogs and those writing with paper and pencil when supported by prompts. Without prompts however, students in the paper-and-pencil writing condition performed better than students writing blogs. For blogging students, prompts seemed to be more important to achieve greater learning gains. In addition, students showed greater use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies when guided by prompts. Also here, there were no differences with regard to the medium of writing. Both cognitive and metacognitive strategies were predictors of learning gains. In conclusion, the use of prompts can be considered as important scaffold when writing weblogs or paper based learning protocols.

  14. Similar Prompts May Not Be Similar in the Performance They Elicit: Examining Fluency, Complexity, Accuracy, and Lexis in Narratives from Five Picture Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nel; Vercellotti, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    Only a few characteristics of picture-based narrative prompts have been studied to determine what features affect task performance. Thus, it is not easy to identify equivalent narrative prompts or identify features that are impactful. Tavakoli and Foster (2008) and Tavakoli (2009) examined the impact of prompt on the language produced by English…

  15. Experimental study and clinical evaluation of different dressings in wound repair%不同敷料修复创面的实验研究及临床应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    首家保; 陈彬; 芦慎; 王彤华; 杨小辉

    2012-01-01

    背景 各种材料以多种形式制成的创面敷料近年来发展迅速,复合应用或是制成凝胶、药膜的形式是目前研究和应用的热点.目的 评价不同敷料在创面的实验研究或者临床应用.方法 以 "敷料;创面;实验;应用"为关键词,对维普数据库2002-01/2011-10 的相关文章进行计算机检索,纳入与敷料和创面相关的随机对照实验类文章,排除重复研究或Meta 分析类文章,对22 篇文献研究的资料结果进行提取、分析.结果 与结论 纳米银、聚维酮碘、壳聚糖、康复新等是用于实验动物创面的主要材料,分别与中空活性炭纤维、明胶海绵复合或是制成原位凝胶、药膜形式的材料,能最大程度地发挥抗感染、促进创面愈合的作用.壳聚糖、纳米银或者银离子、猪胶原纤维、生物光素、液超妥藻酸盐、痊愈妥等材料可用于临床患者创面,多是以复合或是制成水凝胶等形式,有利于发挥各自性能,更好地促进不同创面愈合.%BACKGROUND: In recent years, wound dressings made of different materials in various forms develop rapidly; compositeapplication form, gel form and drug-membrane form are the current hot spots of research and application.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experimental study and clinical application of different wound dressings.METHODS: A computer-based online search of VIP database was performed for relevant articles published between January2002 and October 2011, with the key words of “dressing”, “wound”, “experiment” and “application”. Randomized controlledstudies relevant to dressings and wounds were included; repetitive studies and Meta analysis were excluded. The analysis wasbased on 22 documents.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Nano-silver, povidone iodine, chitosan and Kangfuxin are main materials used for wound repairin experimental animals; the anti-infection effect and wound healing promotion are the maximum when the materials arecomposited

  16. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  17. Achilles tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  18. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  19. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  20. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  1. Inguinal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100027.htm Inguinal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through ...

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  3. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100035.htm Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  4. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on ... Overview The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth ...

  5. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  6. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  7. Cleft lip repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100010.htm Cleft lip repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... abnormal opening in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of ...

  8. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  9. The LANL/LLNL Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Program at LANSCE and Approach to Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C., E-mail: haight@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545,USA (United States); Wu, C.Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Lee, H.Y.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Perdue, B.A.; O' Donnell, J.M.; Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Jandel, M.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Neudecker, D.; Rising, M.E.; Mosby, S.; Sjue, S.; White, M.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545,USA (United States); Bucher, B.; Henderson, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    New data on the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from neutron-induced fission with higher accuracies are needed to resolve discrepancies in the literature and to address gaps in the experimental data. The Chi-Nu project, conducted jointly by LANL and LLNL, aims to measure the shape of the PFNS for fission of {sup 239}Pu induced by neutrons from 0.5 to 20 MeV with accuracies of 3–5% in the outgoing energy from 0.1 to 9 MeV and 15% from 9 to 12 MeV and to provide detailed experimental uncertainties. Neutrons from the WNR/LANSCE neutron source are being used to induce fission in a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC). Two arrays of neutron detectors are used to cover the energy range of neutrons emitted promptly in the fission process. Challenges for the present experiment include background reduction, use of {sup 239}Pu in a PPAC, and understanding neutron detector response. Achieving the target accuracies requires the understanding of many systematic uncertainties. The status and plans for the future will be presented.

  10. A learning program that ensures prompt and versatile vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Nottebohm, Fernando

    2007-12-18

    Here we show how a migratory songbird, the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), achieves prompt and precise vocal imitation. Juvenile chipping sparrow males develop five to seven potential precursor songs; the normal development of these songs requires intact hearing but not imitation from external models. The potential precursor songs conform with general species-typical song parameters but differ from the song of wild, adult territorial males. As chipping sparrow males return from migration to start their first breeding season, they settle close to an older adult. The young male then stops producing all but one of its precursor songs, retaining the one that most resembles that of its neighbor. This single song then becomes more variable and, in a matter of days, is altered to closely match the neighbor's song. This elegant solution ensures species specificity and promptness of imitation.

  11. The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.

  12. The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.

  13. Non linear prompt neutron kinetics in multigroup diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatak, Ajoy Kumar

    1963-06-15

    It is shown that in the usual point kinetics formulation of the Fuch's model the assumption that the basic quantity is the ratio of prompt negative temperature coefficient to prompt neutron lifetime is correct in the limit that the higher mode effects can be neglected. The criticality calculation needed to calculate this coefficient is defined. The effect on the Fuch's model when the heat capacity and temperature coefficient vary linearly with temperature and delayed neutrons are taken into account is considered. The higher mode contributions in the presence of temperature feed-back effects are estimated. A method for calculating the space-dependent effects in non-linear kinetics is outlined. An analysis of the transient behavior of the TREAT reactor is also given. (C.E.S.)

  14. Prompt gamma ray-spectroscopy of N = 50 fission fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drouet F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Excited states in the nuclei 83As and 84,86Se have been studied via prompt γ-ray spectroscopy. The nuclei were produced by the proton-induced fission of a 238U target, at the accelerator of the University of Jyväskylä. The JUROGAM-II array was used to detect prompt γ-rays and a triple-γ coincidence analysis performed. A comparison of the N = 50 nuclei with shell-model calculations reproduces the low-lying states in 83As and 84Se well. The inclusion of particle-hole excitations is necessary to correctly describe the states above ∼ 3.5 MeV.

  15. Thermal photon-IMF anticorrelation: a signal of prompt multifragmentation?

    CERN Document Server

    Alba, R

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for IMF emission in central $^{58}$Ni + $^{197}$Au reactions at 30 and 45 MeV/nucleon is investigated by looking at the thermal bremsstrahlung photon production. An IMF - photon anticorrelation signal is observed, for central collisions, at 45 MeV/nucleon with IMF velocity around the center of mass value. This observation is proposed as an evidence for prompt nuclear fragmentation events.

  16. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-03-24

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  17. Application of Jitter Radiation: Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, J

    2013-01-01

    A high-degree of polarization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission has been confirmed in recent years. In this paper, we apply jitter radiation to study the polarization feature of GRB prompt emission. In our framework, relativistic electrons are accelerated by turbulent acceleration. Random and small-scale magnetic fields are generated by turbulence. We further determine that the polarization property of GRB prompt emission is governed by the configuration of the random and small-scale magnetic fields. A two-dimensional compressed slab, which contains stochastic magnetic fields, is applied in our model. If the jitter condition is satisfied, the electron deflection angle in the magnetic field is very small and the electron trajectory can be treated as a straight line. A high-degree of polarization can be achieved when the angle between the line of sight and the slab plane is small. Moreover, micro-emitters with mini-jet structure are considered to be within a bulk GRB jet. The jet "off-axis" effect is int...

  18. Prompt optical emission from residual collisions in GRB outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhuo

    2007-01-01

    The prompt $\\gamma$-ray emission in $\\gamma$-ray bursts is believed to be produced by internal shocks within a relativistic unsteady outflow. The recent detection of prompt optical emission accompanying the prompt $\\gamma$-ray emission appears to be inconsistent with this model since the out flowing plasma is expected to be highly optically thick to optical photons. We show here that fluctuations in flow properties on short, $\\sim1$ ms, time scale, which drive the $\\gamma$-ray producing collisions at small radii, are expected to lead to "residual" collisions at much larger radii, where the optical depth to optical photons is low. The late residual collisions naturally account for the relatively bright optical emission. The apparent simultaneity of $\\gamma$-ray and optical emission is due to the highly relativistic speed with which the plasma expands. Residual collisions may also account for the X-ray emission during the early "steep decline" phase, where the radius is inferred to be larger than the $\\gamma$-r...

  19. Swift captures the spectrally evolving prompt emission of GRB 070616

    CERN Document Server

    Starling, R L C; Willingale, R; Page, K L; Osborne, J P; De Pasquale, M; Nakagawa, Y E; Kuin, N P M; Onda, K; Norris, J P; Ukwatta, T N; Kodaka, N; Burrows, D N; Kennea, J A; Page, M J; Perri, M; Markwardt, C B

    2007-01-01

    The origins of Gamma-ray Burst prompt emission are currently not well understood and in this context long, well-observed events are particularly important to study. We present the case of GRB 070616, analysing the exceptionally long-duration multipeaked prompt emission, and later afterglow, captured by all the instruments on-board Swift and by Suzaku WAM. The high energy light curve remained generally flat for several hundred seconds before going into a steep decline. Spectral evolution from hard to soft is clearly taking place throughout the prompt emission, beginning at 285 s after the trigger and extending to 1200 s. We track the movement of the spectral peak energy, whilst observing a softening of the low energy spectral slope. The steep decline in flux may be caused by a combination of this strong spectral evolution and the curvature effect. We investigate origins for the spectral evolution, ruling out a superposition of two power laws and considering instead an additional component dominant during the l...

  20. A Revised Analysis of Gamma Ray Bursts' prompt efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Beniamini, Paz; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    The prompt Gamma-Ray Bursts' (GRBs) efficiency is an important clue on the emission mechanism producing the $\\gamma$-rays. Previous estimates of the kinetic energy of the blast waves, based on the X-ray afterglow luminosity $L_X$, suggested that this efficiency is large, with values above 90\\% in some cases. This poses a problem to emission mechanisms and in particular to the internal shocks model. These estimates are based, however, on the assumption that the X-ray emitting electrons are fast cooling and that their Inverse Compton (IC) losses are negligible. The observed correlations between $L_X$ (and hence the blast wave energy) and $E_{\\gamma\\rm ,iso}$, the isotropic equivalent energy in the prompt emission, has been considered as observational evidence supporting this analysis. It is reasonable that the prompt gamma-ray energy and the blast wave kinetic energy are correlated and the observed correlation corroborates, therefore, the notion $L_X$ is indeed a valid proxy for the latter. Recent findings sugg...

  1. DNA repair responses in human skin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

    1981-07-01

    Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

  2. GRB Prompt Optical Observations by Master and Lomonosov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbovskoy, Evgeny

    We present the results of the prompt, early and afterglow optical observations of five γ-ray bursts (GRBs): GRB 100901A, GRB 100902A, GRB 100905A, GRB 100906A and GRB 101020A. These observations were made with the Mobile Astronomical System of TElescope-Robots in Russia (MASTER-II Net), the 1.5-m telescope of the Sierra Nevada Observatory and the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope. For two sources, GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, we detected optical counterparts and obtained light curves starting before the cessation of γ-ray emission, at 113 and 48 s after the trigger, respectively. Observations of GRB 100906A were conducted in two polarizing filters. Observations of the other three bursts gave the upper limits on the optical flux; their properties are briefly discussed. A more detailed analysis of GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, supplemented by Swift data, provides the following results and indicates different origins for the prompt optical radiation in the two bursts. The light-curve patterns and spectral distributions suggest that there is a common production site for the prompt optical and high-energy emission in GRB 100901A. The results of the spectral fits for GRB 100901A in the range from optical to X-ray favour power-law energy distributions and a consistent value of the optical extinction in the host galaxy. GRB 100906A produced a smoothly peaking optical light curve, suggesting that the prompt optical radiation in this GRB originated in a front shock. This is supported by a spectral analysis. We have found that the Amati and Ghirlanda relations are satisfied for GRB 100906A. We obtain an upper limit on the value of the optical extinction on the host of GRB 100906A. Also we consider prompt observation of dark gamma ray bursts for which on very widefield cameras MASTER-VWF and MASTER-II telescopes upper limits were received. We represent SHOCK experiment onboard the spacecraft Lomonosov.

  3. Search for prompt neutrinos with AMANDA-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzini, Sara Rebecca

    2008-09-11

    The investigation performed in this work aims to identify and disentangle the signal of prompt neutrinos from the inclusive atmospheric spectrum. We have analysed data recorded in the years 2000-2003 by the AMANDA-II detector at the geographical South Pole. After a tight event selection, our sample is composed of about 4 . 10{sup 3} atmospheric neutrinos. Prompt neutrinos are decay products of heavy quark hadrons, which are produced in the collision of a cosmic ray particle with a nucleon in the atmosphere. The technique used to recognise prompt neutrinos is based on a simulated information of their energy spectrum, which appears harder than that of the conventional component from light quarks. Models accounting for different hadron production and decay schemes have been included in a Monte Carlo simulation and convoluted with the detector response, in order to reproduce the different spectra. The background of conventional events has been described with the Bartol 2006 tables. The energy spectrum of our data has been reconstructed through a numerical unfolding algorithm. The reconstruction is based on a Monte Carlo simulation and uses as an input three parameters of the neutrino track which are correlated with the energy of the event. Numerical regularisation is introduced to achieve a result free of unphysical oscillations, typical unfortunate feature of unfolding. The reconstructed data spectrum has been compared with different predictions using the model rejection factor technique. The prompt neutrino models differ in the choice of the hadron interaction model, the set of parton distribution functions and the numerical parameterisation of the fragmentation functions describing the transition from quark to hadrons. Here we considered mainly three classes of models, known in the literature as the Recombination Quark Parton Model, the Quark Gluon String Model and the Perturbative QCD model. Upper limits have been set on the expected flux predictions, based on our

  4. Prompt and non-prompt J/psi production in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-03-01

    The production of J/psi mesons is studied in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is based on a dimuon sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 314 inverse nanobarns. The J/psi differential cross section is determined, as a function of the J/psi transverse momentum, in three rapidity ranges. A fit to the decay length distribution is used to separate the prompt from the non-prompt (b hadron to J/psi) component. Integrated over J/psi transverse momentum from 6.5 to 30 GeV/c and over rapidity in the range |y| < 2.4, the measured cross sections, times the dimuon decay branching fraction, are 70.9 \\pm 2.1 (stat.) \\pm 3.0 (syst.) \\pm 7.8(luminosity) nb for prompt J/psi mesons assuming unpolarized production and 26.0 \\pm 1.4 (stat.) \\pm 1.6 (syst.) \\pm 2.9 (luminosity) nb for J/psi mesons from b-hadron decays.

  5. Prompt and non-prompt J/$\\psi$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Porteboeuf, Sarah; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Neuland, Maike Brigitte; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J A; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A T; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J M; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Parker, William; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The production of J/psi mesons is studied in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is based on a dimuon sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 314 inverse nanobarns. The J/psi differential cross section is determined, as a function of the J/psi transverse momentum, in three rapidity ranges. A fit to the decay length distribution is used to separate the prompt from the non-prompt (b hadron to J/psi) component. Integrated over J/psi transverse momentum from 6.5 to 30 GeV/c and over rapidity in the range |y| < 2.4, the measured cross sections, times the dimuon decay branching fraction, are 70.9 \\pm 2.1 (stat.) \\pm 3.0 (syst.) \\pm 7.8(luminosity) nb for prompt J/psi mesons assuming unpolarized production and 26.0 \\pm 1.4 (stat.) \\pm 1.6 (syst.) \\pm 2.9 (luminosity) nb for J/psi mesons from b-hadron decays.

  6. Does using an asthma prompting form improve asthma care in a pediatric office?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Debra

    2013-01-01

    An asthma exacerbation can be a life-threatening experience. This project tested the effectiveness of using a prompting form to improve childhood asthma care. Thirty randomly selected charts without a prompt form in a pediatric practice were compared for differences with thirty randomly selected charts with a completed prompting form. The number of medications reviewed (p=.001) and the frequency of refills written (p=.024) were significantly higher in the prompt group. Education was higher (p=.000) and triggers were more frequently discussed in the prompt group. The use of a prompting form facilitates discussion and improves preventive asthma care.

  7. Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter; Allen, James

    1994-01-01

    Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an algorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by finding word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather than using a set of prebuilt templates, we build the pattern on the fly. In a fair test, our method, when combined with a statistical model to filter possible repairs, was successful at detecting and correcting 80\\% of the repairs, without using prosodic information or a parser.

  8. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  9. A Characteristic Wind Signature in Prompt GRB Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, S; Zhang, B; Kobayashi, Shiho; Meszaros, Peter; Zhang, Bing

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the self-absorption effects in the prompt emission from the reverse shock in GRB afterglows that occur in the wind environment of a massive stellar progenitor. We point out that the higher self-absorption frequency in a wind environment implies a hump in the reverse shock emission spectrum and a more complex optical/IR light curve behavior than previously thought. We discuss a possible new diagnostic to test for the presence of a wind environment, and to provide constraints on the progenitor wind mass loss and the burst parameters.

  10. Prompt radiochemistry at the National Ignition Facility (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, G. P.; Bradley, P. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Keksis, A. L.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, G.; Obst, A. W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Bernstein, L. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Fortner, R. J.; Moody, K. J.; Schneider, D. H.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Stoyer, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    Understanding mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility requires the diagnosis of charged-particle reactions within an imploded target. Radiochemical diagnostics of these reactions are currently under study by scientists at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Measurement of these reactions requires assay of activated debris and tracer gases from the target. Presented below is an overview of the prompt radiochemistry diagnostic development efforts, including a discussion of the reactions of interest as well as the progress being made to collect and count activated material.

  11. Prompt radiochemistry at the National Ignition Facility (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, G P; Bradley, P A; Bredeweg, T A; Keksis, A L; Fowler, M M; Hayes, A C; Jungman, G; Obst, A W; Rundberg, R S; Vieira, D J; Wilhelmy, J B; Bernstein, L A; Cerjan, C J; Fortner, R J; Moody, K J; Schneider, D H; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, M A

    2008-10-01

    Understanding mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility requires the diagnosis of charged-particle reactions within an imploded target. Radiochemical diagnostics of these reactions are currently under study by scientists at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Measurement of these reactions requires assay of activated debris and tracer gases from the target. Presented below is an overview of the prompt radiochemistry diagnostic development efforts, including a discussion of the reactions of interest as well as the progress being made to collect and count activated material.

  12. A library of prompt detonation reaction zone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Tables are given listing literature data that allows calculation of sonic reaction zones at or near steady-state for promptly detonating explosive cylinders. The data covers homogeneous, heterogeneous, composite, inorganic and binary explosives and allows comparison across the entire explosive field. Table 1 lists detonation front curvatures. Table 2 lists Size Effect data, i.e. the change of detonation velocity with cylinder radius. Table 3 lists failure radii and detonation velocities. Table 4 lists explosive compositions. A total of 51 references dating back into the 1950`s are given. Calculated reaction zones, radii of curvature and growth rate coefficients are listed.

  13. Spectroscopy of fission fragments using prompt-delayed coincidence technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Palit; S Biswas

    2015-09-01

    The time-stamp structure of the digital data acquisition system of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) has been utilized to carry out prompt-delayed coincidence technique for the spectroscopic study of fission fragments. This technique was found to be useful to determine the states above the long-lived isomer (with half-life up to ∼5 s), present in the fission fragments. The angular correlation of -rays, emitted by the fission fragments, has also been used in the present INGA geometry to determine the spins of the de-exciting states.

  14. Groin hernia repair in young males: mesh or sutured repair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data for the optimal inguinal hernia repair in younger men with an indirect hernia is not available. We analysed nationwide data for risk of reoperation in younger men after a primary repair using a Lichtenstein operation or a conventional non-mesh hernia repair....

  15. ERCC1-XPF endonuclease facilitates DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anwaar; Robinson, Andria Rasile; Duensing, Anette; van Drunen, Ellen; Beverloo, H Berna; Weisberg, David B; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Niedernhofer, Laura J

    2008-08-01

    ERCC1-XPF endonuclease is required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of helix-distorting DNA lesions. However, mutations in ERCC1 or XPF in humans or mice cause a more severe phenotype than absence of NER, prompting a search for novel repair activities of the nuclease. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, orthologs of ERCC1-XPF (Rad10-Rad1) participate in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Rad10-Rad1 contributes to two error-prone DSB repair pathways: microhomology-mediated end joining (a Ku86-independent mechanism) and single-strand annealing. To determine if ERCC1-XPF participates in DSB repair in mammals, mutant cells and mice were screened for sensitivity to gamma irradiation. ERCC1-XPF-deficient fibroblasts were hypersensitive to gamma irradiation, and gammaH2AX foci, a marker of DSBs, persisted in irradiated mutant cells, consistent with a defect in DSB repair. Mutant mice were also hypersensitive to irradiation, establishing an essential role for ERCC1-XPF in protecting against DSBs in vivo. Mice defective in both ERCC1-XPF and Ku86 were not viable. However, Ercc1(-/-) Ku86(-/-) fibroblasts were hypersensitive to gamma irradiation compared to single mutants and accumulated significantly greater chromosomal aberrations. Finally, in vitro repair of DSBs with 3' overhangs led to large deletions in the absence of ERCC1-XPF. These data support the conclusion that, as in yeast, ERCC1-XPF facilitates DSB repair via an end-joining mechanism that is Ku86 independent.

  16. Measurements of prompt $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2S)$ production and polarization at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kratschmer, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Quarkonia, bound states of a heavy quark and its antiquark, are theideal probe to study how quarks form bound states via strong interactions. Non Relativistic QuantumChromoDynamics (NRQCD) is aQCD inspired model that factorizes the production of a bound stateinto two steps: the creation of the initial quark-antiquark pair andthe transformation of the initial pair to a bound state. The NRQCDfactorization approach relies on experimental data to describe thenon-perturbative evolution of the initial pair to a bound state.This thesis describes the measurements of the production cross sections and polarizations of the prompt J/ψ and ψ(2S) mesons, whichare c¯ states that are produced either directly or via the decay ofca short-lived intermediate state. The measurements are based on adimuon data sample collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC√in proton-proton collisions at s = 7 TeV, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb−1 . The prompt J/ψ and ψ(2S)production cross sections are determine...

  17. Media Literacy: Using a Game to Prompt Self-Reflection on Political Truth Biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Vacca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how games can both capture player biases around truthfulness and facilitate self-reflection on such patterns of biases as a pedagogical approach to media literacy. Our focus is on the study of a game called Fibber, conducted with 344 participants online. The gameplay entails guessing whether statements made by presidential candidates are mostly factual and receiving aggregate feedback on their judgment patterns and potential truth biases. Specifically we sought to answer the questions: 1 how can the game prompt self-reflection in players, 2 what player characteristics are linked to self-reported acts of self-reflection and biases, and 3 how can the study inform future designs of media literacy and self-reflection games? Our results suggest that efforts to promote self-reflection in truth biases – a useful media literacy technique – may be facilitated through aggregation of in-game decisions that can serve as en end-of-game self-reflection prompt. Furthermore, self-reflection on potential political truth biases may be supported by specific in-game behaviors and player characteristics such as gender and political orientation. Future work includes a more experimental comparison of specific game mechanics and qualitative data to better understand the self-reflection process and possible subsequent changes in behavior as a result of self-reported acts of self-reflection. 

  18. Associated production of prompt photons and heavy quarks in off-shell gluon-gluon fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15

    In the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach, we study the production of prompt photons associated with heavy (charm and beauty) quarks in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies. Our consideration is based on the amplitude for the production of a single photon associated with a quark pair in the fusion of two off-shell gluons. The total and differential cross sections are presented and the conservative error analysis is performed. Two sets of unintegrated gluon distributions in the proton have been used in numerical calculation: the one obtained from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation and the other from Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the CDF collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron. Our analysis extends to specific angular correlations between the produced prompt photons and muons originating from semileptonic decays of the final charmed or beauty quarks. We point out the importance of such observables, which can serve as a crucial test for the unintegrated gluon densities in a proton. Finally, we extrapolate the theoretical predictions to the CERN LHC energies. (orig.)

  19. If he can do it, so can they: exposure to counterstereotypically successful exemplars prompts automatic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Risen, Jane L

    2014-03-01

    After incidental exposure to Blacks who succeeded in counterstereotypical domains (e.g., Brown University President Ruth Simmons, Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison), participants drew an automatic inference that race was not a success-inhibiting factor in modern society. Of note, participants' automatic inferences were not simply guided by their explicit reasoning (i.e., their beliefs about what these exemplars signify about the state of race relations). Studies 1-3 demonstrated the basic automatic inference effect and provided evidence that such effects unfolded automatically, without intention or awareness. Study 4 replicated the effect in non-race-related domains. Subsequent studies examined what features of exemplars (Studies 5 and 6) and inference makers (Studies 7 and 8) prompt automatic inferences. Study 5 suggested that counterstereotypically successful exemplars prompt racism-denying inferences because they signal what is possible, even if not typical. Study 6 demonstrated that when these exemplars succeed in a stereotypical domain (e.g., Blacks in athletics), similar automatic inferences are not drawn. Those most likely to draw automatic inferences are people predisposed to approach the world with inferential thinking: participants dispositionally high in need for cognition (Study 7) or experimentally primed to think inferentially (Study 8).

  20. Development of a prompt gamma activation analysis facility using diffracted polychromatic neutron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Byun, S H; Choi, H D

    2002-01-01

    A prompt gamma activation analysis facility has recently been developed at Hanaro, the 24 MW research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Polychromatic thermal neutrons are extracted by setting pyrolytic graphite crystals at a Bragg angle of 45 deg. . The detection system comprises a large single n-type HPGe detector, signal electronics and a fast ADC. Neutron beam characterization was performed both theoretically and experimentally. The neutron flux was measured to be 7.9x10 sup 7 n/cm sup 2 s in a 1x1 cm sup 2 beam area at the sample position with a uniformity of 12%. The corresponding Cd-ratio for gold was found to be 266. The beam quality was compared with other representative thermal neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. The detection efficiency was calibrated up to 11 MeV using a set of radionuclides and the (n,gamma) reactions of N and Cl. Finally, the sensitivities and the detection limits were obtained for several elements.

  1. Oxytalan elastic and collagen fibers during the repair process in experimental nitric oxide inhibition Fibras elásticas oxitalânicas e fibras colágenas durante o processo de reparo na inibição experimental do óxido nítrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Xavier-Vidal

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the repair process in rats with experimentally induced arterial hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate lesions in the ventricular myocardium and the repair process during experimental hypertension induced by systemic blockage of nitric oxide using N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME. Nitric oxide is an endothelial vasorelaxing factor and is necessary for the maintenance of normal arterial pressure, and L-NAME is an analog and antagonist of L-arginine, the substrate of the nitric oxide synthase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 26 normotensive young male Wistar rats belonging to several litters. Animals were treated with oral administration of L-NAME dissolved in water (75 mg/100 mL for 43 days . Hearts were weighed and processed by routine methods. Special stains utilized were Gomori's trichrome (aniline blue, picrosirius red polarization to identify fibrillar collagen, alcian blue technique (pH 0.5 and pH 2.5 to identify glycosaminoglycans, periodic acid-Schiff technique (with and without amylases to identify proteoglycans, and Weigert's resorcinol fuchsin solution (with and without oxone to identify elastic fibers. RESULTS: The results showed significant elevation of the arterial pressure (P OBJETIVO: Avaliar o processo de reparo em ratos submetidos à hipertensão arterial experimental. Avaliamos lesões miocárdicas ventriculares e processos de reparo durante a hipertensão arterial experimental induzida pelo bloqueio da síntese do óxido nítrico (ON utilizando o Hidrocloreto de L-NAME. ON é um fator de relaxamento endotelial e é necessário para a manutenção da pressão arterial normal. L-NAME é um analogo e antagonista da L-Arginine que é o substrato da enzima óxido nítrico sintase. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizamos 26 ratos Wistar normotensos jovens oriundos de diversas ninhadas. Os animais foram submetidos ao L-NAME (Hidrocloreto de Nw-nitro-L-arginina metil ester por administra

  2. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects ...

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007392.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  4. An animal model to train Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Presch, I; Pommergaard, H C

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure, and the majority of operations worldwide are performed ad modum Lichtenstein (open tension-free mesh repair). Until now, no suitable surgical training model has been available for this procedure. We propose an experimental surgical...... training model for Lichtenstein's procedure on the male and female pig. METHODS: In the pig, an incision is made 1 cm cranially to the inguinal sulcus where a string of subcutaneous lymph nodes is located and extends toward the pubic tubercle. The spermatic cord is located in a narrow sulcus in the pig...... pigs, and a total of 55 surgeons have been educated to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: This new experimental surgical model for training Lichtenstein's hernia repair mimics the human inguinal anatomy enough to make it suitable as a training model. The operation...

  5. CFRP布修复震损高强混凝土柱抗震性能试验研究%Experimental investigation on seismic behavior of damaged high strength concrete columns repaired with CFRP sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苏岩; 曹怀超; 刘毅

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the seismic behavior of high strength concrete square columns repaired with CFRP sheets, four high strength concrete square columns were tested under low reversed cyclic loading. The test included one reference column, one undamaged column strengthened with wrapped jacketing, two damaged columns repaired with wrapped jacketing and L - shaped jacketing combined with wrapped jacketing separately. Based on the test data, the ductility, bearing capacity, energy dissipation, stiffness degradation, and CFRP sheets strain for different columns were compared systematically. The results show that the seismic behavior of two repaired columns are significantly improved. The ductility of these two columns become much better than that of reference column, but are slightly worse than the undamaged column strengthened with wrapped jacketing. Compared with the wrapped jacketing method, the method of L - shaped jacketing combined with wrapped jacketing is more effective in repairing the damaged column.%为了研究CFRP(碳纤维)布修复震损高强混凝土方柱的抗震性能,共进行了4个高强混凝土方柱试件模型的低周反复荷载试验,分别研究横向CFRP布方式加固试件和修复震损试件、横向结合L型CFRP布方式修复震损试件的抗震性能.在试验数据的基础上分析对比了试件的延性性能、承载力、能量耗散、刚度退化以及CFRP应变.研究结果表明:经过2种不同方式修复的震损破坏试件的抗震性能得到了明显改善,廷性性能远远比对比试件的好,但是仍然比未经震损直接加固的试件的延性略低,其中采用横向结合L型CFRP布方式修复的试件所表现的抗震性能较好.

  6. Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this research, Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR), was to research the design and development of experimental... augmented reality systems for maintenance job aiding. The goal was to explore and evaluate the feasibility of developing prototype adaptive augmented ... reality systems that can be used to investigate how real time computer graphics, overlaid on and registered with the actual equipment being maintained, can

  7. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  8. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, ...

  9. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Roelle

    Full Text Available Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1 complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2 explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3 unspecific engaging prompts or (4 revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1 a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2 a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive

  10. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  11. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Kazanas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approx. 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular. one can this may obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the (nu)F(sub nu), spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  12. LOTIS Upper Limits and the Prompt OT from GRB 990123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G G; Hartmann, D H; Park, H S; Porrata, R A; Ables, E; Bionta, R; Band, D L; Barthelmy, S D; Cline, T; Gehrels, N; Ferguson, D H; Fishman, G; Kippen, R M; Kouveliotou, C; Hurley, K; Nemiroff, R; Sasseen, T

    2000-08-10

    GRB 990123 established the existence of prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (LOTIS) has been conducting a fully automated search for this kind of simultaneous low energy emission from GRBs since October 1996. Although LOTIS has obtained simultaneous, or near simultaneous, coverage of the error boxes obtained with BATSE, IPN, XTE, and BeppoSAX for several GRBs, image analysis resulted in only upper limits. The unique gamma-ray properties of GRB 990123, such as very large fluence (top 0.4%) and hard spectrum, complicate comparisons with more typical bursts. We scale and compare gamma-ray properties, and in some cases afterglow properties, from the best LOTIS events to those of GRB 990123 in an attempt to determine whether the prompt optical emission of this event is representative of all GRBs. Furthermore, using LOTIS upper limits in conjunction with the relativistic blast wave model, we weakly constrain the GRB and afterglow parameters such as density of the circumburster medium and bulk Lorentz factor of the ejecta.

  13. Prompt-gamma detection towards absorbed energy monitoring during hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Dauvergne, D.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Universite de Lyon 1, IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Krimmer, J.; Freud, N.; L' etang, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard (France); Herault, J.; Amblard, R.; Angellier, G. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France)

    2015-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is an emerging technique which exploits the fact that a large quantity of the energy of the incident particles is deposited at the end of their flight path. This allows a conformation of the applied dose to the tumor volume and a simultaneous sparing of surrounding healthy tissue. A real-time control of the ion range during the treatment is possible via the detection of prompt secondary radiation (gamma rays or charged particles). Besides a monitoring of the ion range, the knowledge of the total energy absorbed inside the patient is also of importance for an improvement of the treatment quality. It has been shown that the ambient dose in a treatment room is correlated to the monitoring units, i.e. the number of protons of the beam delivery system. The present study consists in applying time-of-flight (TOF) information to identify prompt gamma-rays generated by interactions inside the patient which provides a direct information on the energy imparted. Results from test measurements will be given, which show that events generated in the nozzle and the target phantom can be discriminated. Furthermore, a standalone detection system is being developed which will be read out by a standard PC. The status of the developments for the corresponding electronics will be presented. (authors)

  14. 26 CFR 301.6501(d)-1 - Request for prompt assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be begun, within 18 months after the receipt of a written request for prompt assessment thereof... return in question has been filed, file the request for prompt assessment in writing with the district... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for prompt assessment....

  15. A Prompting Procedure for Increasing Sales in a Small Pet Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Jacqueline; Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    A simple prompting procedure involving index cards was used to increase suggestive selling by the owner/operator of a small pet grooming business. Over a year of baseline data revealed that no sales prompts were given and few pet products were sold. When the owner was prompted by an index card to ask customers if they wanted to purchase pet…

  16. A Comparison of Flexible Prompt Fading and Constant Time Delay for Five Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluaga, Doris; Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Leaf, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing rates of autism, identifying prompting procedures that can assist in the development of more optimal learning opportunities for this population is critical. Extensive empirical research exists supporting the effectiveness of various prompting strategies. Constant time delay (CTD) is a highly implemented prompting procedure…

  17. Even–odd effects in prompt emission of spontaneously fissioning even–even Pu isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudora, A., E-mail: anabellatudora@hotmail.com [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest Magurele, POB MG-11, R-76900 (Romania); Hambsch, F.-J. [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440, Geel (Belgium); Giubega, G.; Visan, I. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest Magurele, POB MG-11, R-76900 (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    The available experimental Y(A,TKE) data for {sup 236,238,240,242,244}Pu(SF) together with the Zp model prescription with appropriate parameters allows the investigation of even–odd effects in fragment distributions. The size of the global even–odd effect in Y(Z) is decreasing from {sup 244}Pu(SF) to {sup 236}Pu(SF) confirming the general observation of a decrease of the even–odd effect with the fissility parameter. Charge polarizations (ΔZ) and root-mean squares (rms) as a function of A of {sup 236–244}Pu(SF) were obtained for the first time. In the asymmetric fission region both ΔZ(A) and rms(A) exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units due to the even–odd effects. The total average charge deviations 〈ΔZ〉 (obtained by averaging ΔZ(A) over the experimental Y(A) distribution) are of about |0.5| for all studied Pu(SF) systems. The comparison of the calculated ΔZ(A) and rms(A) of {sup 240}Pu(SF) with those of {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f) reported by Wahl shows an in-phase oscillation with a higher amplitude in the case of {sup 240}Pu(SF), confirming the higher even–odd effect in the case of SF. As in the previously studied cases ({sup 233,235}U(n{sub th},f), {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f), {sup 252}Cf(SF)) the even–odd effects in the prompt emission of {sup 236–244}Pu(SF) are mainly due to the Z even–odd effects in fragment distributions and charge polarizations and the N even–odd effects in the average neutron separation energies from fragments 〈Sn〉. The size of the global N even–odd effect in 〈Sn〉 is decreasing with the fissility parameter, being higher for the Pu(SF) systems compared to the previously studied systems. The prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of Z, ν(Z), exhibit sawtooth shapes with a visible staggering for asymmetric fragmentations. The size of the global Z even–odd effect in ν(Z) exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing fissility. The average prompt neutron multiplicities as a

  18. Resorbable biosynthetic mesh for crural reinforcement during hiatal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicuben, Evan T; Worrell, Stephanie G; DeMeester, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    The use of mesh to reinforce crural closure during hiatal hernia repair is controversial. Although some studies suggest that using synthetic mesh can reduce recurrence, synthetic mesh can erode into the esophagus and in our opinion should be avoided. Studies with absorbable or biologic mesh have not proven to be of benefit for recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of hiatal hernia repair with modern resorbable biosynthetic mesh in combination with adjunct tension reduction techniques. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who had crural reinforcement during repair of a sliding or paraesophageal hiatal hernia with Gore BioA resorbable mesh. Objective follow-up was by videoesophagram and/or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. There were 114 patients. The majority of operations (72%) were laparoscopic primary repairs with all patients receiving a fundoplication. The crura were closed primarily in all patients and reinforced with a BioA mesh patch. Excessive tension prompted a crural relaxing incision in four per cent and a Collis gastroplasty in 39 per cent of patients. Perioperative morbidity was minor and unrelated to the mesh. Median objective follow-up was one year, but 18 patients have objective follow-up at two or more years. A recurrent hernia was found in one patient (0.9%) three years after repair. The use of crural relaxing incisions and Collis gastroplasty in combination with crural reinforcement with resorbable biosynthetic mesh is associated with a low early hernia recurrence rate and no mesh-related complications. Long-term follow-up will define the role of these techniques for hiatal hernia repair.

  19. Methodologies for hydrogen determination in metal oxides by prompt gamma activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, E. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station R9000, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Biegalski, S.R. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station R9000, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail: biegalski@mail.utexas.edu; Landsberger, S. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station R9000, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA), available at University of Texas at Austin (UT), has been employed for the direct determination of hydrogen content in a series of metal oxide materials typically used as cathodes in lithium ion battery systems. Special attention was given to the experimental setup including potential sources of error and system calibration for the detection of hydrogen. Spectral interference with hydrogen arising from cobalt was identified and corrected for. Limits of detection as a function of cobalt mass present in a given sample are also discussed. PGAA has proven to be a novel and precise technique for the determination of hydrogen in metal oxides. This type of investigation could provide valuable insight regarding the factors that limit the practical capacities of lithium ion oxide cathodes.

  20. Relevance of the quark component in prompt photon and electroweak gauge boson production at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2009-04-15

    In the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach, we study the production of prompt photons and electroweak gauge bosons in high energy proton-(anti)proton collisions at modern colliders. Our consideration is based on the amplitude for the production of a single photon or W{sup {+-}}/Z{sup 0} boson associated with a quark pair in the fusion of two off-shell gluons. The quark component is taken into account separately using the quark-gluon scattering and quark-antiquark annihilation QCD subprocesses. Special attention is put on the contributions from the quarks involved into the earlier steps of the evolution cascade. Using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin formalism, we simulate this component and demonstrate that it plays an important role at both the Tevatron and LHC energies. Our theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the D diameter and CDF collaborations at the Tevatron. (orig.)

  1. Prompt J/Psi production at LHC: new evidence for the kt-factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the kt-factorization approach, the production and polarization of prompt J/Psi mesons in pp collisions at the LHC energy 7 TeV is studied. Both the direct production mechanism as well as feed-down contributions from chic1, chic2 and psi' decays are taken into account. Our consideration is based on the color singlet model supplemented with the off-shell matrix elements for the corresponding partonic subprocesses. The unintegrated gluon densities in a proton are determined using the CCFM evolution equation as well the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We compare our numerical predictions with the first experimental data taken by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. The estimation of all polarization parameters which determine J/Psi spin density matrix is performed.

  2. Prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in off-shell gluon-gluon fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2007-01-01

    The amplitude for production of a single photon associated with quark pair in the fusion of two off-shell gluons is calculated. The matrix element found is applied to the inclusive prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in the framework of kt-factorization QCD approach. The total and differential cross sections are calculated in both central and forward pseudo-rapidity regions. The conservative error analisys is performed. We used the unintegrated gluon distributions in a proton which were obtained from the full CCFM evolution equation as well as from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Theoretical results were compared with recent experimental data taken by the D0 and CDF collaborations at Fermilab Tevatron. Theoretical predictions for LHC energies are given.

  3. Simulation and experimental verification of prompt gamma-ray emissions during proton irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumann, A.; Petzoldt, J.; Dendooven, P.; Enghardt, W.; Golnik, C.; Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Roemer, K.; Fiedler, F.

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation with protons and light ions offers new possibilities for tumor therapy but has a strong need for novel imaging modalities for treatment verification. The development of new detector systems, which can provide an in vivo range assessment or dosimetry, requires an accurate knowledge of the

  4. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  5. Evaluation of a Portable DVD Player and System of Least Prompts to Self-Prompt Cooking Task Completion by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Fields, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a portable DVD player plus the system of least prompts (SLP) for DVD player use as a self-prompting device to teach cooking tasks to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three cooking tasks and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the…

  6. Radiation-Induced Prompt Photocurrents in Microelectronics Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodd, P E; Buller, D L; Doyle, B L; Vizkelethy, G; Walsh, D S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of photocurrents in nuclear weapons induced by proximal nuclear detonations are well known and remain a serious hostile environment threat for the US stockpile. This report describes the final results of an LDRD study of the physical phenomena underlying prompt photocurrents in microelectronic devices and circuits. The goals of this project were to obtain an improved understanding of these phenomena, and to incorporate improved models of photocurrent effects into simulation codes to assist designers in meeting hostile radiation requirements with minimum build and test cycles. We have also developed a new capability on the ion microbeam accelerator in Sandia's Ion Beam Materials Research Laboratory (the Transient Radiation Microscope, or TRM) to supply ionizing radiation in selected micro-regions of a device. The dose rates achieved in this new facility approach those possible with conventional large-scale dose-rate sources at Sandia such as HERMES III and Saturn. It is now possible to test the phy...

  7. Novel Scintillation Detectors for Prompt Fission γ-Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billnert, R.; Andreotti, E.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hult, M.; Karlsson, J.; Marissens, G.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    In this work we present first results from measurements of prompt fission γ-rays from the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. New and accurate data on corresponding γ-rays from the reactions 235U(nth,f) and 239Pu(nth,f) are highly demanded for the modeling of new Generation-IV nuclear reactor systems. For these experiments we employed scintillation detectors made out of new materials (LaBr3, LaCl3 and CeBr3), whose properties were necessary to know in order to obtain reliable results. Hence, we have characterized these detectors. In all the important properties these detectors outshine sodium-iodine detectors that where used in the 1970s, when the existing data had been acquired. Our finding is that the new generation of scintillation detectors is indeed promising, as far as an improved precision of the demanded data is concerned.

  8. A Compton camera prototype for prompt gamma medical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirolf P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compton camera prototype for a position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays from proton-induced nuclear reactions is being developed in Garching. The detector system allows to track the Comptonscattered electrons. The camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation absorber crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors acting as scatterers. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has been characterized with radioactive sources. Online commissioning measurements were performed with a pulsed deuteron beam at the Garching Tandem accelerator and with a clinical proton beam at the OncoRay facility in Dresden. The determination of the interaction point of the photons in the monolithic crystal was investigated.

  9. Relativistic corrections to prompt J/ψ photo- and hadroproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi-Guo; Kniehl, Bernd A.

    2014-07-01

    We systematically calculate the relativistic corrections to prompt J/ψ photoproduction and hadroproduction using the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic QCD. Specifically, we include the S31[1] and P3J[1] color-singlet and the S31[8], S10[8], and P3J[8] color-octet channels as well as the effects due to the mixing between the S31[8] and D31[8] channels. We provide all the squared hard-scattering amplitudes in analytic form. Assuming the nonrelativistic-QCD long-distance matrix elements to satisfy the velocity scaling rules, we find the relativistic corrections to be appreciable, except in the S31[1] color-singlet channel of hadroproduction. We also observe significant differences in the line shapes of the relativistic corrections between photoproduction and hadroproduction.

  10. Confronting GRB prompt emission with a model for subphotospheric dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlgren, Björn; Nymark, Tanja; Ryde, Felix; Pe'er, Asaf

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. Here we fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM ($\\textit{Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model}$), a table model for ${\\scriptsize XSPEC}$. We show that this model can describe different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipatio...

  11. Fission fragment mass distributions via prompt -ray spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L S Danu; D C Biswas; B K Nayak; R K Choudhury

    2015-09-01

    The distribution of fragment masses formed in nuclear fission is one of the most striking features of the process. Such measurements are very important to understand the shape evolution of the nucleus from ground state to scission through intermediate saddle points. The fission fragment mass distributions, generally obtained via conventional methods (i.e., by measuring the energy and/or the velocity of the correlated fission fragments) are limited to a mass resolution of 4–5 units. On the other hand, by employing the -ray spectroscopy, it is possible to estimate the yield of individual fission fragments. In this work, determination of the fission fragment mass distribution by employing prompt -ray spectroscopy is described along with the recent results on 238U(18O, f) and 238U(32S, f) systems.

  12. Optomechanical design of a prompt gamma reaction history diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hans W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaufman, Morris I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [NSTEC; Frogget, Brent C [NSTEC; Tunnell, Thomas W [NSTEC; Cox, Brian [NSTEC; Frayer, Daniel K [NSTEC; Ali, Zaheer [NSTEC; Stoeffl, Wolfgang [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility and the Omega Laser Facility both have a need for measuring prompt gamma radiation as part of a nuclear diagnostic program. A new gamma-detection diagnostic using off-axis-parabolic mirrors has been built. Some new techniques were used in the design, construction, and tolerancing of this gamma ray diagnostic. Because of the wavelength requirement (250-700 nm), the optical element surface finishes were a key design consideration. The optical enclosure had to satisfy pressure safety concerns and shielding against electromagnetic interference induced by gammas and neutrons. Structural finite element analysis was needed to meet rigorous optical and safety requirements. The optomechanical design is presented. Alignment issues are also discussed.

  13. Explaining prompts children to privilege inductively rich properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caren M; Lombrozo, Tania; Legare, Cristine H; Gopnik, Alison

    2014-11-01

    Four experiments with preschool-aged children test the hypothesis that engaging in explanation promotes inductive reasoning on the basis of shared causal properties as opposed to salient (but superficial) perceptual properties. In Experiments 1a and 1b, 3- to 5-year-old children prompted to explain during a causal learning task were more likely to override a tendency to generalize according to perceptual similarity and instead extend an internal feature to an object that shared a causal property. Experiment 2 replicated this effect of explanation in a case of label extension (i.e., categorization). Experiment 3 demonstrated that explanation improves memory for clusters of causally relevant (non-perceptual) features, but impairs memory for superficial (perceptual) features, providing evidence that effects of explanation are selective in scope and apply to memory as well as inference. In sum, our data support the proposal that engaging in explanation influences children's reasoning by privileging inductively rich, causal properties.

  14. Subnanosecond current mode detectors for prompt physical process diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    For prompt physical diagnosis, several types of subnanosecond current mode detectors have been developed,including scintillator detectors with large linear output current,GaAs:Cr and InP:Fe photoconductor detectors(PCD), and X-ray diodes(XRD), etc. The characteristic of scintillation light of BaF2 crystal doped with La and of plastic scintillator ST1422 with slow component quencher are described. As for the photoconductor detectors, the main performance of neutron damaged GaAs:Cr and InP:Fe were studied. In addition, the spectral response of an XRD with coaxial leading-out end was also studied. These detectors have been successfully applied to nuclear test diagnosis and ICF research.

  15. Measurement of inclusive prompt photon photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Abramowicz, H; Acosta, D; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Ahn, S H; Amelung, C; An Shiz Hong; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, M; Bacon, Trevor C; Badgett, W F; Bailey, D C; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Barret, O; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bellagamba, L; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bienlein, J K; Blaikley, H E; Bohnet, I; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Bornheim, A; Borzemski, P; Boscherini, D; Botje, M; Breitweg, J; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brümmer, N; Burgard, C; Burow, B D; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Cashmore, R J; Castellini, G; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coboken, K; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cor, M; Cormack, C; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottingham, W N; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, G; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Dardo, M; De Pasquale, S; De Wolf, E; Deffner, R; Del Peso, J; Deppe, O; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Dondana, S; Dosselli, U; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Dulinski, Z; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eckert, M; Edmonds, J K; Eisenberg, Y; Eisenhardt, S; Engelen, J; Epperson, D E; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Fagerstroem, C P; Fernández, J P; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Frisken, W R; Fusayasu, T; Gadaj, T; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Gendner, N; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Golubkov, Yu A; Grabosch, H J; Graciani, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grzelak, G; Göttlicher, P; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanna, D S; Harnew, N; Hart, H; Hart, J C; Hartmann, J; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hebbel, K; Heinloth, K; Heinz, L; Hernández, J M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Homma, K; Hong, S J; Howell, G; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iannotti, L; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Ishii, T; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jing, Z; Johnson, K F; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Kasemann, M; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khakzad, M; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, Robert; Klimek, K; Ko, I A; Koch, W; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Kotanski, A; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D; Kreisel, A; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Kötz, U; Labarga, L; Lamberti, L; Lane, J B; Laurenti, G; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Lindemann, L; Ling, T Y; Liu, W; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Löhr, B; Ma, K J; MacDonald, N; Maccarrone, G; Magill, S; Mallik, U; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Mattingly, M C K; Mattingly, S E K; McCance, G J; McCubbin, N A; McFall, J D; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Meyer, A; Meyer-Larsen, A; Milewski, J; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Monaco, V; Monteiro, T; Morandin, M; Moritz, M; Murray, W N; Musgrave, B; Mönig, K; Nagano, K; Nam, S W; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Noyes, V A; Nylander, P; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Olkiewicz, K; Orr, R S; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Park, I H; Park, S K; Parsons, J A; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Pelfer, Pier Giovanni; Pellegrino, A; Pelucchi, F; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Pfeiffer, M; Pic, D; Piotrzkowski, K; Poelz, G; Polenz, S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Prinias, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Puga, J; Quadt, A; Raach, H; Raso, M; Rautenberg, J; Re, J; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Ritz, S; Riveline, M; Rohde, M; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Sadrozinski, H F W; Saint-Laurent, M; Salehi, H; Samp, S; Sartorelli, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schechter, A; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Schwarzer, O; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Seiden, A; Selonke, F; Shah, T P; Shcheglova, L M; Sideris, D; Sievers, M; Simmons, D; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, I O; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Stanek, R; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Straub, P B; Strickland, E; Stroili, R; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, I; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Toothacker, W S; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Tymieniecka, T; Umemori, K; Vaiciulis, A W; Van Sighem, A; Velthuis, J J; Verkerke, W; Voci, C; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Votano, L; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D S; Waugh, R; Weber, A; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wieber, H; Wiggers, L; Wildschek, T; Williams, D C; Wing, M; Wodarczyk, M; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Wróblewski, A K; Wölfle, S; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zajac, J; Zakrzewski, J A; Zamora Garcia, Y; Zawiejski, L; Zetsche, F; Zeuner, W; Zhu, Q; Zichichi, A; Zotkin, S A

    2000-01-01

    First inclusive measurements of isolated prompt photons in photoproduction at the HERA ep collider have been made with the ZEUS detector, using an integrated luminosity of 38.4 pb$^{-1}$. Cross sections are given as a function of the pseudorapidity and the transverse energy ($\\eta^\\gamma$, \\eTg) of the photon, for $\\eTg > $ 5 GeV in the $\\gamma p$ centre-of-mass energy range 134-285 GeV. Comparisons are made with predictions from Monte Carlo models having leading-logarithm parton showers, and with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations, using currently available parameterisations of the photon structure. For forward $\\eta^\\gamma$ (proton direction) good agreement is found, but in the rear direction all predictions fall below the data.

  16. Video prompting versus other instruction strategies for persons with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E; Hoogeveen, Frans; Caffó, Alessandro; Singh, Nirbhay; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-06-01

    Two studies assessed the effectiveness of video prompting as a strategy to support persons with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease in performing daily activities. In study I, video prompting was compared to an existing strategy relying on verbal instructions. In study II, video prompting was compared to another existing strategy relying on static pictorial cues. Video prompting and the other strategies were counterbalanced across tasks and participants and compared within alternating treatments designs. Video prompting was effective in all participants. Similarly effective were the other 2 strategies, and only occasional differences between the strategies were reported. Two social validation assessments showed that university psychology students and graduates rated the patients' performance with video prompting more favorably than their performance with the other strategies. Video prompting may be considered a valuable alternative to the other strategies to support daily activities in persons with Alzheimer's disease.

  17. 同种异体牙源性骨移植材料修复兔颅骨缺损的实验研究%Experimental Study of the Repair of Rabbit Skull Defects with Allogeneic Tooth Derived Bone Graft Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 王稚英; 王明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the osteogenesis of rabbit allogeneic tooth derived bone graft material by histological detection ,so as to provide quality and cheap repair materials for the repair of bone defects in dental implants. Methods The bone graft materials were prepared using rab⁃bits allogeneic extracted teeth. A total of 28 adult Japanese healthy rabbits were selected to establish the cranial defect model with three 8 mm diam⁃eter holes. The allogenic tooth derived bone graft material were implanted into the experimental group. The artificial bone repair material was used as the control group,and the control group did not receive any implantion. Tetracycline labeling was performed after operation,the specimens were taken at 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation,and then the gross observation,X⁃ray examination,preparation of hard tissue sections,and HE staining were carried out. Results Histological analysis at 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation showed that there was an increasing trend the new bone for⁃mation in both experimental group and the control group ,and the experimental group was better;the trabecular bone structure of the blank group was scarce and the change was not obvious. Conclusion Allogenic tooth derived bone graft materials can promote the repair of bone defect ,and the effect is better than that of artificial bone repair materials.%目的:通过组织学检测评估兔同种异体牙源性骨移植材料的成骨作用,为口腔种植区骨量不足的修复提供质优价廉的修复材料。方法将兔同种异体离体牙制备成骨移植材料。选用成年健康日本长耳兔28只,建立颅骨缺损模型(3个直径为8 mm的洞形缺损),植入同种异体牙源性骨移植材料作为实验组、人工骨修复材料作为对照组、空白对照组不植入任何材料。取标本前3 d、7 d向兔腹腔注射四环素,分别于术后4、8、12周取标本,进行大体观察、X线检查、制备硬组织

  18. Novel Repair Concept for Composite Materials by Repetitive Geometrical Interlock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zaremba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Material adapted repair technologies for fiber-reinforced polymers with thermosetting matrix systems are currently characterized by requiring major efforts for repair preparation and accomplishment in all industrial areas of application. In order to allow for a uniform distribution of material and geometrical parameters over the repair zone, a novel composite interlock repair concept is introduced, which is based on a repair zone with undercuts prepared by water-jet technology. The presented numerical and experimental sensitivity analyses make a contribution to the systematic development of the interlock repair technology with respect to material and geometrical factors of influence. The results show the ability of the novel concept for a reproducible and automatable composite repair.

  19. Repair sequences in dysarthric conversational speech: a study in interactional phonetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Ben

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents some findings from a case study of repair sequences in conversations between a dysarthric speaker, Chris, and her interactional partners. It adopts the methodology of interactional phonetics, where turn design, sequence organization, and variation in phonetic parameters are analysed in unison. The analysis focused on the use of segmental and prosodic variation found during attempts by Chris to repair a previously identified trouble source. The results indicate that trouble sources were extremely common in the recorded conversations, but that repair attempts were almost always communicatively successful. Analysis of the fragments revealed that repair sequences are often collaborative achievements, with the participant's conversational partners signalling the specific trouble source within a turn, or providing feedback about repair attempts. It was also observed that successful repair attempts were not always simple repetitions of the trouble source, but varied in other linguistic areas. It is suggested that intelligibility repairs should be studied using both experimental and qualitative methods.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Vinay; Lambert, Dennis; Edler, Joshua; Kymes, Steven; Apte, Rajendra S

    2012-08-01

    Perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) with ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser versus triamcinolone plus prompt laser. Data for the analysis were drawn from reports of the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCRnet) Protocol I. Computer simulation based on Protocol I data. Analyses were conducted from the payor perspective. Simulated participants assigned characteristics reflecting those seen in Protocol I. Markov models were constructed to replicate Protocol I's 104-week outcomes using a microsimulation approach to estimation. Baseline characteristics, visual acuity (VA), treatments, and complications were based on Protocol I data. Costs were identified by literature search. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed, and the results were validated against Protocol I data. Direct cost of care for 2 years, change in VA from baseline, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) measured as cost per additional letter gained from baseline (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study). For sham plus laser (S+L), ranibizumab plus prompt laser (R+pL), ranibizumab plus deferred laser (R+dL), and triamcinolone plus laser (T+L), effectiveness through 104 weeks was predicted to be 3.46, 7.07, 8.63, and 2.40 letters correct, respectively. The ICER values in terms of dollars per VA letter were $393 (S+L vs. T+L), $5943 (R+pL vs. S+L), and $20 (R+dL vs. R+pL). For pseudophakics, the ICER value for comparison triamcinolone with laser versus ranibizumab with deferred laser was $14 690 per letter gained. No clinically relevant changes in model variables altered outcomes. Internal validation demonstrated good similarity to Protocol I treatment patterns. In treatment of phakic patients with DME, ranibizumab with deferred laser provided an additional 6 letters correct compared with triamcinolone with laser at an additional cost of $19 216 over 2 years. That would indicate that if the gain in VA seen at 2 years

  1. Tendon repair augmented with a novel circulating stem cell population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Robert J; Chahine, Nadeen O; Razzano, Pasquale; Patwa, Sohum A; Sgaglione, Nicholas J; Grande, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Tendon ruptures are common sports-related injuries that are often treated surgically by the use of sutures followed by immobilization. However, tendon repair by standard technique is associated with long healing time and often suboptimal repair. Methods to enhance tendon repair time as well as the quality of repair are currently unmet clinical needs. Our hypothesis is that the introduction of a unique stem cell population at the site of tendon transection would result in an improved rate and quality of repair. Achilles tendons of fifty-one Sprague-Dawley rats were transected and suture-repaired. In half of the rats, a biodegradable scaffold seeded with allogenic circulating stem cells was placed as an onlay to the defect site in addition to the suture repair. The other half was treated with suture alone to serve as the control group. Animals were randomized to a two-, four-, or six-week time group. At the time of necropsy, tendons were harvested and prepared for either biomechanical or histological analysis. Histological slides were evaluated in a blinded fashion with the use of a grading scale. By two weeks, the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement in repair compared to controls with no failures. Average histological scores of 0.6 and 2.6 were observed for the experimental and control group respectively. The experimental group demonstrated complete bridging of the transection site with parallel collagen fiber arrangement. By four weeks, both groups showed a continuing trend of healing, with the scaffold group exceeding the histological quality of the tissue repaired with suture alone. Biomechanically, the experimental group had a decreasing cross-sectional area with time which was also associated with a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength of the tendons, reaching 4.2MPa by six weeks. The experimental group also achieved a significantly higher elastic toughness by six weeks and saw an increase in the tensile modulus, reaching

  2. Demonstrating mood repair with a situation-based measure of self-compassion and self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Caroline J; King, John A; Brewin, Chris R

    2015-12-01

    The clinical significance of self-criticism and self-compassion has prompted the development of questionnaires assessing these constructs. However, there is a lack of measures assessing their interaction within specific contexts and potential involvement in mood repair processes. To rectify this, we developed the Self-Compassion and Self-Criticism Scales (SCCS), based on responses to specific scenarios, and examined its psychometric properties in an online survey and an experimental situation. In study 1, standard psychometric procedures were used to investigate the reliability and validity of the SCCS. In study 2, an experimental challenge involving a difficult language task was used to test its sensitivity to change. In study 1, exploratory factor analysis (n = 413) showed a clear two-factor structure of the SCCS denoting two orthogonal scales, with high internal validity (α ≥ .87). Correlations between the SCCS and existing measures also demonstrated appropriate convergent validity. Study 2 (n = 90) provided preliminary evidence that the SCCS can detect changes in self-appraisals. Participants receiving no performance feedback from the challenge task showed reduced state self-criticism and increased state self-compassion, demonstrating mood repair. The SCCS has promise as a situational measure of self-compassion and self-criticism. In the context of specific problem situations, clients' levels of self-criticism and self-compassion may well be orthogonal and can be assessed with the SCCS. In setting treatment goals and assessing treatment outcome, it may be helpful to target both self-compassion and self-criticism separately. © 2015 The Authors. Psychology and Psychotherapy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  3. Implementation of the Prompt Gamma facility in the ININ; Implementacion de la instalacion del Prompt Gamma en el ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Delfin L, A.; Aguilar H, F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) technique is based on the reaction of a neutron and an atom emitting gamma radiation in an immediate form and it is used for the elemental identification and characterization. This is a non-destructive technique and presents advantages compared with the X-ray fluorescence analysis technique since it has the advantage of the ability for the neutron penetration which allows a complete analysis in volume of material while the X-ray penetration is not very deep, it is superficial and other advantage of PGNAA is that can detects light elements while by mean of the X-ray fluorescence technique it is not possible. In this work it is shown the implementation of this technique un the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the way in which this technique is applied with a radiation source of the TRIGA Mark III reactor from which thermal neutrons were isolated. (Author)

  4. 应用骨髓基质细胞及组织工程方法修复兔桡骨实验性缺损%Bone marrow stromal cell and tissue engineering in repairing experimental bone defects of rabbit radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付春江; 毕郑钢; 张军; 曹杨

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Stem cell transplantation and tissue engineering in repairing bone defects is a hotspots of recent study.OBJECTIVE:To observe the therapeutic effect of engineering repair on bone defect by auto-transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs)DESIGN: Left-right comparative studySETTING:Experimental center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical UniversityMATERIALS:Twelve New Zealand rabbits with birth age of 10 days to 2months were selected ,male or female with body mass of 2 to 2.5 kg.METHODS :The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Center of First Clinical Medical College, Harbin Medical University from June 2002to June 2003. Self-BMSCs were separated for subculture. 1.5 cm bone was intercepted at middle of radius in 12 rabbits so as to simulate complete bone defect. Then, the left radius defect was filled with collagen sponge carrying BMSCs ( experimental side),which was replaced by simple collagen sponge in the right side(control side). Twelve weeks later, rabbits were put to death and the outcomes of both sides were compared.X-ray assessment was accorded to the standardized stage of bone defect repair (bone repair was graded into 0 to 5 grades,grade 5 implies that bone defect has been completely replaced by new bone,grade 0 implies that no new bone repair).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The general observations of rabbit radius defects,X-ray scanning, histological and electro-microscopic observations.At week 12, callus became strong and protruded to bone defects in experimental side,well connecting with broken ends. While broken ends in control group were only connected by fibrous tissue and no continuous callus was found continuously crossing through the bone defect of experimental side, marrow cavity was smooth, but molding was incomplete. While in control side, no continuous callus could be observed passing through the broteoblasts and new stroms could be observed in bone defect of experimental side, but only a few of osteocytes

  5. Radioisotopic evaluation of bone repair after experimental surgical trauma Avaliação radiofarmacológica do reparo ósseo após trauma cirúrgico padronizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scientific approach of the bone reaction after surgical procedures provides valuable information on methods and techniques. The purpose of this study was to follow this process using a radioisotope marker of bone remodelling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two bone cavities were created (one for every tibia in adult Wistar male rats using a 0.5 mm spherical burr; left tibial cavities were filled with bovine freeze-dried bone; the right ones were left unfilled for control. Scintigrams were done with sodium methylene diphosphonate (MDP labelled with radioactive pertechnetate (99mTcO4- to evaluate the inflammatory response and the local osteoblastic activity. The evolution of bone repair was additionally evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Our results have shown that the highest bone activity was recorded between the 7th and the 14th day after surgery. The morphological analysis confirmed the results obtained with radioisotope analysis and did not reveal significant differences regarding the evolution of bone repair between the filled and the unfilled defects. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that 99mTc -MDP is a valuable tool to study bone repair, as it was able to show subtle alterations of bone activity even in lesions as small as those created herein (0.5 mm wide, 0.5 mm deep.Este trabalho objetivou estudar a evolução temporal do processo de reparo ósseo em tíbia de rato, após trauma cirúrgico padronizado. A incorporação do radiofármaco 99mTc-MDP na região afetada foi tomada como medida indireta da intensidade de reação tecidual; foi feito também acompanhamento histológico do processo de reparo. Foram realizadas cirurgias nas duas tíbias de 72 animais divididos em 2 grupos, sendo sacrificados em diferentes dias pós-operatórios (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias p.o.. As cavidades criadas nas tíbias esquerdas foram preenchidas com osso liofilizado bovino, e as direitas serviram como controle (não preenchidas. Grupos paralelos de

  6. Experimental study on repair-centered simple implant template in vitro%以修复为中心的简易种植模板的体外实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明会; 崔晓光; 夏蕊; 董世涛; 韩克难; 李枢安

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare two kinds of implant template in vitro simulation accuracy after cavity preparation,and provide refer-ence for clinical application. Methods Using maxillary 76 |67,mandibular 7654 |4567 free - end edentulous turned hard plaster model. Then the traditional planting operation template and simple planting to repair as the center of the template were made,and sequence cavity was prepared for their models. Cavity preparation was followed by CT scanning,measurement of the corresponding data,and analysis and evaluation of the re-sults of the scan. Results Two independent samples of T tests were used to compare the accuracy of two templates. The repair oriented simple im-plant template in the planting hole at the top and bottom and buccal lingual,mesial distal direction deviation values were less than the traditional implant template,the differences were statistically significant( P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion Compared with the traditional planting surgical tem-plate,the location direction of cavity preparation nest on repair - centered simple implant template in vitro is closer to the preoperative design,and it improves the accuracy of the planting site and direction significantly and reaches the requirement of clinical application.%目的:实验比较两种种植模板在体外模拟备洞后的精度,为临床应用提供参考。方法利用上颌76|67、下颌7654|4567游离缺失的阴模翻制硬石膏模型四副,用于模板制作和实验备洞。然后制作传统种植手术模板和以修复为中心的简易种植模板,并分别戴入各自的模型上进行序列备洞,备洞后进行 CT 扫描,测量相应数据,并对扫描结果进行评价分析。结果采用两独立样本的 t 检验比较两模板的准确性,以修复为导向的简易种植模板在种植窝洞顶端和底端的颊舌向偏差值、近远中向偏差值均小于传统种植模板,差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05,n =12)。结论与传统

  7. Compatibility of repair mortar with migrating corrosion inhibiting admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjegovic, D.; Ukrainczyk, V. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Ukrainczyk, B. [LGM, Zagreb (Croatia); Miksic, B. [CORTEC Corp., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    One of the methods for corrosion protection of reinforced concrete is the use of migrating corrosion inhibitor as an admixture in repair mortars. The admixture must be effective for corrosion protection and compatible with polymers added to repair mortar to improve properties of fresh and hardened mortar. This paper presents experimental results on compatibility of a migrating corrosion inhibitor added to two repair mortars based on an inorganic binder modified with polymers. The influence of a migrating inhibitor on the properties of fresh and hardened mortars was tested. The effectiveness on reinforcement corrosion protection has been tested according to ASTM G 109. Test results prove that the investigated migrating inhibitor is compatible with repair mortars and that it delays corrosion of the reinforcement.

  8. Electronic Pathways in Photoactivated Repair of UV Mutated DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, K. J.; Bary Malik, F.

    An investigation of the physics, underlying the damage caused to DNA by UV radiation and its subsequent repair via a photoreactivation mechanism, is presented in this study. Electronic pathways, starting from the initial damage to the final repair process, are presented. UV radiation is absorbed to create a hole-excited thymine or other pyrimidine that subsequently is responsible for the formation of a dimer. The negative-ion of the cofactor riboflavin, FADH-, formed by the exposure of the photolyase protein to visible light, interacts with the hole-excited electronic orbital of the thymine dimer inducing a photon-less Auger transition, which restores the two thymines to the ground state, thereby detaching the lesion and repairing the DNA. Density functional theoretical calculations supporting the theory are presented. The mechanism involves the least amount of energy dissipation and is charge neutral. It also avoids radiation damage in the repair process. Recent experimental data are compatible with this theory.

  9. Cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis, a non-destructive technique for hydrogen level assessment in zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, Adrien; Motta, Arthur T.; Comstock, Robert J.; Paul, Rick L.

    2012-06-01

    We propose a novel use of a non-destructive technique to quantitatively assess hydrogen concentration in zirconium alloys. The technique, called Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (CNPGAA), is based on measuring prompt gamma rays following the absorption of cold neutrons, and comparing the rate of detection of characteristic hydrogen gamma rays to that of gamma rays from matrix atoms. Because the emission is prompt, this method has to be performed in close proximity to a neutron source such as the one at the National Institute of Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research. Determination shown here to be simple and accurate, matching the results given by usual destructive techniques such as Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE), with a precision of ±2 mg kg-1 (or wt ppm). Very low levels of hydrogen (as low as 5 mg kg-1 (wt ppm)) can be detected. Also, it is demonstrated that CNPGAA can be applied sequentially on an individual corrosion coupon during autoclave testing, to measure a gradually increasing hydrogen concentration. Thus, this technique can replace destructive techniques performed on "sister" samples thereby reducing experimental uncertainties.

  10. Functional and neurophysiological evidence of the efficacy of trophic repair pharmacotherapy using an adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Duckers, H.J.; Dokkum, R.P. van; Verhaagen, J.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CEAE) is a well-established animal model for the human syndrome, multiple sclerosis. CEAE has striking histological, electrophysiological and clinical analogies with multiple sclerosis and is a valuable animal model for the preclinical pharmacotherape

  11. The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Metacognitive Prompting on Genetics Problem Solving Ability among High School Students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurah, Catherine Muhonja

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of students' genetics problem-solving ability. Focus group interviews substantiated and supported findings from the quantitative instruments. The study was conducted in 17 high schools in Western Province, Kenya. A total of 2,138 high school students were purposively sampled. A sub-sample of 48 students participated in focus group interviews to understand their perspectives and experiences during the study so as to corroborate the quantitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, zero-order correlations, 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA,, and sequential hierarchical multiple regressions. Qualitative data were transcribed, coded, and reported thematically. Results revealed metacognitive prompts had significant positive effects on student problem-solving ability independent of gender. Self-efficacy and metacognitive prompting significantly predicted genetics problem-solving ability. Gender differences were revealed, with girls outperforming boys on the genetics problem-solving test. Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relationship between metacognitive prompting and genetics problem-solving ability. This study established a foundation for instructional methods for biology teachers and recommendations are made for implementing metacognitive prompting in a problem-based learning environment in high schools and science teacher education programs in Kenya.

  12. Assessment and improvements of Geant4 hadronic models in the context of prompt-gamma hadrontherapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, G.; Pinto, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Freud, N.; Krimmer, J.; Létang, J. M.; Ray, C.; Testa, E.

    2014-04-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are nowadays essential tools for a wide range of research topics in the field of radiotherapy. They also play an important role in the effort to develop a real-time monitoring system for quality assurance in proton and carbon ion therapy, by means of prompt-gamma detection. The internal theoretical nuclear models of Monte Carlo simulation toolkits are of decisive importance for the accurate description of neutral or charged particle emission, produced by nuclear interactions between beam particles and target nuclei. We assess the performance of Geant4 nuclear models in the context of prompt-gamma emission, comparing them with experimental data from proton and carbon ion beams. As has been shown in the past and further indicated in our study, the prompt-gamma yields are consistently overestimated by Geant4 by a factor of about 100% to 200% over an energy range from 80 to 310 MeV/u for the case of 12C, and to a lesser extent for 160 MeV protons. Furthermore, we focus on the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) modeling of ion-ion collisions, in order to optimize its description of light nuclei, which are abundant in the human body and mainly anticipated in hadrontherapy applications. The optimization has been performed by benchmarking QMD free parameters with well established nuclear properties. In addition, we study the effect of this optimization on charged particle emission. With the usage of the proposed parameter values, discrepancies reduce to less than 70%, with the highest values being attributed to the nucleon-ion induced prompt-gammas. This conclusion, also confirmed by the disagreement we observe in the case of proton beams, indicates the need for further investigation on nuclear models which describe proton and neutron induced nuclear reactions.

  13. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilker murat arer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a congenital herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through a retrosternal diaphragmatic defect and make up about 1 % - 5 % of all types of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernias is usually indicated when patients are symptomatic and have a high risk of strangulation or incarceration of the contained viscera. 71-year-old male patient admitted to emergency department with a 2-day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and obstipation. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia was performed. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia with mesh repair is secure, satisfactory and easily performed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 71-74

  14. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  15. Mammalian mismatch repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation...

  16. Prompt Optical Emission from Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kehoe, R; Balsano, R; Barthelmy, S D; Bloch, J; Butterworth, P S; Casperson, D E; Cline, T; Fletcher, S; Frontera, F; Gisler, G; Heise, J; Hills, J; Hurley, K; Lee, B; Marshall, S; McKay, T; Pawl, A; Piro, L; Priedhorsky, B; Szymanski, J J; Wren, J; Kehoe, Robert; Akerlof, Carl; Balsano, Richard; Barthelmy, Scott; Bloch, Jeff; Butterworth, Paul; Casperson, Don; Cline, Tom; Fletcher, Sandra; Frontera, Fillippo; Gisler, Galen; Heise, John; Hills, Jack; Hurley, Kevin; Lee, Brian; Marshall, Stuart; Kay, Tim Mc; Pawl, Andrew; Piro, Luigi; Priedhorsky, Bill; Szymanski, John; Wren, Jim

    2001-01-01

    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) seeks to measure contemporaneous and early afterglow optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The ROTSE-I telescope array has been fully automated and responding to burst alerts from the GRB Coordinates Network since March 1998, taking prompt optical data for 30 bursts in its first year. We will briefly review observations of GRB990123 which revealed the first detection of an optical burst occurring during the gamma-ray emission, reaching 9th magnitude at its peak. In addition, we present here preliminary optical results for seven other gamma-ray bursts. No other optical counterparts were seen in this analysis, and the best limiting sensitivities are m(V) > 13.0 at 14.7 seconds after the gamma-ray rise, and m(V) > 16.4 at 62 minutes. These are the most stringent limits obtained for GRB optical counterpart brightness in the first hour after the burst. This analysis suggests that there is not a strong correlation between optical flux and gamma-ray em...

  17. Suxamethonium induces a prompt increase in the bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Bum; Na, Se Hee; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Jong Yeop; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Ji Eun; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Park, Chung Hoon; Kim, Yong Chan; Park, Woo Young

    2017-04-01

    Upon inducting general anesthesia in the operating room, we have observed a prompt increase in the bispectral index (BIS) after the intravenous injection of suxamethonium. We hypothesized that the cause of this BIS increase is muscle hyperactivity owing to fasciculation. However, no reports have been published regarding this abrupt increase in the BIS upon the induction of general anesthesia by suxamethonium. To investigate the degree of change in the BIS in patients receiving anesthesia with suxamethonium, we performed a prospective observational study of 63 participants who underwent closed reduction for nasal bone fracture. Anesthesia was induced by the total intravenous administration of anesthetics and 1.5 mg kg of suxamethonium was injected intravenously upon achieving BIS between 45 and 55. Intubation was performed after fasciculation. Electromyograms and BIS values were recorded from the induction of suxamethonium until 15 minutes after intubation. The mean BIS values were 95.4, 48.5, and 69.3 before induction, before the intravenous injection of suxamethonium, and immediately after fasciculation, respectively. The BIS value immediately after fasciculation (69.3 ± 10.6) was significantly higher than the cutoff BIS value of 60 (P increase of the BIS to values over 60, none of the participants was awake during surgery. In conclusion, the administration of suxamethonium resulted in the postfasciculation increase of the BIS to an average value of 69.3 without affecting the patient's state of consciousness.

  18. Prompt Neutron Emission in 252CF Spontaneous Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2011-10-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics. The goal was to compare the results from digital data acquisition and digital signal processing analysis with results of the pioneering work of Budtz-Jørgensen and Knitter. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 107 fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. The results are in very good agreement with literature. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  19. On the Prompt Signals of Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pisin; Takahashi, Yoshi

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new model of gamma ray burst (GRB) that explains its observed prompt signals, namely, its primary thermal spectrum and high energy tail. This mechanism can be applied to either assumption of GRB progenitor: coalescence of compact objects or hypernova explosion. The key ingredients of our model are: (1) The initial stage of a GRB is in the form of a relativistic quark-gluon plasma "lava"; (2) The expansion and cooling of this lava results in a QCD phase transition that induces a sudden gravitational stoppage of the condensed non-relativistic baryons and form a hadrosphere; (3) Acoustic shocks and Alfven waves (magnetoquakes) that erupt in episodes from the epicenter efficiently transport the thermal energy to the hadrospheric surface and induce a rapid detachment of leptons and photons from the hadrons; (4) The detached $e^+e^-$ and $\\gamma$ form an opaque, relativistically hot leptosphere, which expands and cools to $T \\sim mc^2$, or 0.5 MeV, where $e^+e^- \\to 2\\gamma$ and its reverse process b...

  20. Prompt Gas Desorption Due to Ion Impact on Accelerator Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Sagar; Seidl, Peter A.; Faltens, Andy; Lidia, Steven M.

    2011-10-01

    The repetition rate and peak current of high intensity ion accelerators for inertial fusion or other applications may be limited under certain conditions by the desorption of gas molecules and atoms due to stray ions striking the accelerator structure. We have measured the prompt yield of atoms in close proximity to the point of impact of the ions on a surface. Using the 300-keV, K+ ion beam of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I), ions strike a metal target in a 5-10 microsecond bunch. The collector of a Bayert-Alpert style ionization gauge is used to detect the local pressure burst several centimeters away. Pressure transients are observed on a micro-second time scale due to the initial burst of desorbed gas, and on a much longer (~1 second) timescale, corresponding to the equilibration of the pressure after many ``bounces'' of atoms in the vacuum chamber. We report on these time dependent pressure measurements, modeling of the pressure transient, and implications for high-intensity ion accelerators. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LBNL under Contract DE-AC02-05CH1123.

  1. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  2. A PROMPT METHODOLOGY TO GEOREFERENCE COMPLEX HYPOGEA ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Troisi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Actually complex underground structures and facilities occupy a wide space in our cities, most of them are often unsurveyed; cable duct, drainage system are not exception. Furthermore, several inspection operations are performed in critical air condition, that do not allow or make more difficult a conventional survey. In this scenario a prompt methodology to survey and georeferencing such facilities is often indispensable. A visual based approach was proposed in this paper; such methodology provides a 3D model of the environment and the path followed by the camera using the conventional photogrammetric/Structure from motion software tools. The key-role is played by the lens camera; indeed, a fisheye system was employed to obtain a very wide field of view (FOV and therefore high overlapping among the frames. The camera geometry is in according to a forward motion along the axis camera. Consequently, to avoid instability of bundle adjustment algorithm a preliminary calibration of camera was carried out. A specific case study was reported and the accuracy achieved.

  3. DSP Algorithms for Fission Fragment and Prompt Fission Neutron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are in high demand for modern nuclear fission investigation due to importance of increase the accuracy of fissile nuclear data for new generation of nuclear power stations. DSP algorithms for fission fragment (FF) and prompt fission neutron (PFN) spectroscopy are described in the present work. The twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (GTIC) is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the FF in the 252Cf(SF) reaction. Along with the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement the correlation between neutron emission and FF mass and energy is investigated. The TOF is measured between common cathode of the GTIC and the neutron detector (ND) pulses. Waveform digitizers (WFD) having 12 bit amplitude resolution and 100 MHz sampling frequency are used for the detector pulse sampling. DSP algorithms are developed as recursive procedures to perform the signal processing, similar to those available in various nuclear electronics modules, such as constant fraction discriminator (CFD), pulse shape discriminator (PSD), peak-sensitive analogue-to-digital converter (pADC) and pulse shaping amplifier (PSA). To measure the angle between FF and the cathode plane normal to the GTIC a new algorithm is developed having advantage over the traditional analogue pulse processing schemes. Algorithms are tested by comparing the numerical simulation of the data analysis of the 252Cf(SF) reaction with data available from literature.

  4. WIDGET: System Performance and GRB Prompt Optical Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Yuji; Tamagawa, Toru; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuwahara, Makoto; Lin, Hungmiao; Kageyama, Shoichi; Iwakiri, Wataru; Sugasahara, Takako; Takahara, Kazuki; Kodaka, Natsuki; Abe, Keiichi; Masuno, Keisuke; Onda, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    The WIDeField telescope for Gamma-ray burst Early Timing (WIDGET) is used for a fully automated, ultra-wide-field survey aimed at detecting the prompt optical emission associated with Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). WIDGET surveys the HETE-2 and Swift/BAT pointing directions covering a total field of view of 62 degree x 62 degree every 10 secounds using an unfiltered system. This monitoring survey allows exploration of the optical emission before the gamma-ray trigger. The unfiltered magnitude is well converted to the SDSS r' system at a 0.1 mag level. Since 2004, WIDGET has made a total of ten simultaneous and one pre-trigger GRB observations. The efficiency of synchronized observation with HETE-2 is four times better than that of Swift. There has been no bright optical emission similar to that from GRB 080319B. The statistical analysis implies that GRB080319B is a rare event. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the WIDGET system and the simultaneous GRB observations obtained with this instrument.

  5. Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, V.; Wilson, T. L.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of conducting fundamental physics and astronomy experiments on the lunar surface continues to be of interest in the planetary science community. Such an inquiry necessarily requires an analysis of the backscatter albedos produced by Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) when they directly impact the lunar regolith. Unlike the Earth, this happens because the Moon has only a tenuous exosphere. Such secondary radiation constitutes a background that obscures and interferes with measurements conducted in the normal sense of laboratory physics on Earth. Our previous investigations using recent enhancements in the Monte Carlo program known as FLUKA included the production of charged particles, neutrons, photons, and neutrinos by the impact of Galactic protons. That investigation is extended here to include the effect of ionized helium, He-4, or a particles. Because high-energy GCRs excite planetary regoliths into giving rise to charmed mesons, neutrinos are produced. Thus a connection is established for the GCR helium production of prompt neutrinos on the Moon using the physics of charm.

  6. Theoretical description of prompt fission neutron multiplicity and spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Manailescu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    The present work concerns two successful models used today: Point by Point (PbP) and the Monte Carlo approaches. The description of the PbP model and of the extended Los Alamos model for higher energies that takes into account the secondary chains and ways is given in Chapter II. In this chapter are given also examples of PbP and most probable fragmentation approach calculations for various quantities which characterize prompt emission: multi-parametric matrices, quantities as a function of fragment mass, quantities as a function of the TKE and total average quantities, for different spontaneous and neutron induced fissioning systems. Special care was given to the TXE partition between the fully accelerated fission fragments, two partition methods used in the PbP model being discussed in details. In Chapter III is given the description of the Monte Carlo treatment included in the FIFRELIN code. Only those aspects that differ from the PbP treatment are emphasized. A special attention is given to the latest dev...

  7. The Contour Mapping Program for Prompt Environmental Radiation Distribution Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Yoo, Dong Han; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    For prompt response and consequent measure at the environmental radiation emergency of nuclear installations which include nuclear power plants, needed is rapid and movable monitoring system which can display and analyze distribution of overall environmental radiation around surrounding area. At occurrence of the nuclear emergency including the disastrous accident like the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants accident or detected radiation in the public city environment, the comprehensive understanding of rapid radiation distribution, which has measurement error, is essential for the quick measuring on the public protection in the surrounding area. For that, 2D and 3D contour mapping method are developed for the distribution of natural radiation, major artificial radiation ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I), and total radiation, which is based on the information which is auto-recognized and interpolated for virtually measured radiation data by using random number generation. Especially, the radiation contour is displayed on the map image of the measured area so that the radiation distribution can be understood at a glance. 2D and 3D mapping programming for the distribution of radiation on the simulated measured radiation data was carried out by using MATLAB language. It showed the operation time of a few ten seconds which was more than 100 times faster than conventional technique. It was thought that the present study could be directly employed for the understanding of rapid and comprehensive radiation distribution on the public environment at the nuclear or radiation emergency.

  8. Prompt gamma-ray burst emission from gradual magnetic dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We considered a model for the prompt phase of gamma-ray burst emission arising from a magnetized jet undergoing gradual energy dissipation due to magnetic reconnection. The dissipated magnetic energy is translated to bulk kinetic energy and to acceleration of particles. The energy in these particles is released via synchrotron radiation as they gyrate around the strong magnetic fields in the jet. At small radii, the optical depth is large, and the radiation is reprocessed through Comptonization into a narrow, strongly peaked component. At larger distances the optical depth becomes small and radiation escapes the jet with a non-thermal distribution. The obtained spectra typically peak around ≈300 keV (as observed) and with spectral indices below and above the peak that are, for a broad range of the model parameters, close to the observed values. The small radius of dissipation causes the emission to become self-absorbed at a few keV and can sufficiently suppress the optical and X-ray fluxes within the limits required by observations.

  9. The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum: From Experiment to the Evaluated Data and its Impact on Critical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-10

    After a brief introduction concerning nuclear data, prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) evaluations and the limited PFNS covariance data in the ENDF/B-VII library, and the important fact that cross section uncertainties ~ PFNS uncertainties, the author presents background information on the PFNS (experimental data, theoretical models, data evaluation, uncertainty quantification) and discusses the impact on certain well-known critical assemblies with regard to integral quantities, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation. He sketches recent and ongoing research and concludes with some final thoughts.

  10. ENCOURAGING ELECTRICITY SAVINGS IN A UNIVERSITY RESIDENTIAL HALL THROUGH A COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK, VISUAL PROMPTS, AND INCENTIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marthinus J; Cumming, Tania D; Osborne, Nikola K.P; Bruining, Angela M; McClean, Julia I; Leland, Louis S

    2010-01-01

    This experiment investigated the combined use of visual prompts, daily feedback, and rewards to reduce electricity consumption in a university residential hall. After a 17-day baseline period, the experimental intervention was introduced in the intervention hall, and no change was made in the control hall. Energy usage decreased in the intervention hall, but energy usage did not change appreciably in the control hall. In the intervention hall, mean daytime and nighttime savings were 16.2% and 10.7%, respectively, compared to savings of 3.8% (day) and 6.5% (night) in the control hall. PMID:21119909

  11. Estimation of Covariances on Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra and Impact of the PFNS Model on the Vessel Fluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Léonie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the need for precise handling of nuclear data covariances grows ever stronger, no information about covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS are available in the evaluated library JEFF-3.2, although present in ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries for the main fissile isotopes. The aim of this work is to provide an estimation of covariance matrices related to PFNS, in the frame of some commonly used models for the evaluated files, such as the Maxwellian spectrum, the Watt spectrum, or the Madland-Nix spectrum. The evaluation of PFNS through these models involves an adjustment of model parameters to available experimental data, and the calculation of the spectrum variance-covariance matrix arising from experimental uncertainties. We present the results for thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. The systematic experimental uncertainties are propagated via the marginalization technique available in the CONRAD code. They are of great influence on the final covariance matrix, and therefore, on the spectrum uncertainty band width. In addition to this covariance estimation work, we have also investigated the importance on a reactor calculation of the fission spectrum model choice. A study of the vessel fluence depending on the PFNS model is presented. This is done through the propagation of neutrons emitted from a fission source in a simplified PWR using the TRIPOLI-4® code. This last study includes thermal fission spectra from the FIFRELIN Monte-Carlo code dedicated to the simulation of prompt particles emission during fission.

  12. Estimation of Covariances on Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra and Impact of the PFNS Model on the Vessel Fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Léonie; Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Archier, Pascal; De Saint Jean, Cyrille; Pénéliau, Yannick; Regnier, David

    2016-02-01

    As the need for precise handling of nuclear data covariances grows ever stronger, no information about covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) are available in the evaluated library JEFF-3.2, although present in ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries for the main fissile isotopes. The aim of this work is to provide an estimation of covariance matrices related to PFNS, in the frame of some commonly used models for the evaluated files, such as the Maxwellian spectrum, the Watt spectrum, or the Madland-Nix spectrum. The evaluation of PFNS through these models involves an adjustment of model parameters to available experimental data, and the calculation of the spectrum variance-covariance matrix arising from experimental uncertainties. We present the results for thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. The systematic experimental uncertainties are propagated via the marginalization technique available in the CONRAD code. They are of great influence on the final covariance matrix, and therefore, on the spectrum uncertainty band width. In addition to this covariance estimation work, we have also investigated the importance on a reactor calculation of the fission spectrum model choice. A study of the vessel fluence depending on the PFNS model is presented. This is done through the propagation of neutrons emitted from a fission source in a simplified PWR using the TRIPOLI-4® code. This last study includes thermal fission spectra from the FIFRELIN Monte-Carlo code dedicated to the simulation of prompt particles emission during fission.

  13. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Prompt Global Strike’ Raises Bar for Intel Community.” Inside The Air Force. June 22, 2007. 11 U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Posture Review...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic...DATE 25 OCT 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conventional Prompt Global Strike And Long

  14. Prompt gamma analysis of fly ash, silica fume and Superpozz blended cement concrete specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Garwan, M A; Maslehuddin, M; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M

    2009-09-01

    Preventive measures against corrosion of reinforcing steel require making the concrete dense by adding pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash, silica fume, Superpozz, blast furnace slag, etc. to Portland cement. In order to obtain the desired strength and durability of concrete, it is desirable to monitor the concentration of the pozzolan in the blended cement concrete. Addition of pozzolan to blended cement changes the overall concentration of calcium and silicon in the blended cement concrete. The resulting variation in calcium and silicon gamma-ray yield ratio from blended cement concrete has found to have an inverse correlation with concentration of fly ash, silica fume, Superpozz, blast furnace slag in the blended cement concrete. For experimental verification of the correlation, intensities of calcium and silicon prompt gamma-ray due to capture of thermal neutrons in blended cement concrete samples containing 5-80% (by weight of cement) silica fume, fly ash and Superpozz were measured. The gamma-ray intensity ratio was measured from 6.42 MeV gamma-rays from calcium and 4.94 MeV gamma-ray from silicon. The experimentally measured values of calcium to silicon gamma-ray yield ratio in the fly ash, silica fume and Superpozz cement concrete specimens agree very well with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Prompt gamma analysis of fly ash, silica fume and Superpozz blended cement concrete specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-09-15

    Preventive measures against corrosion of reinforcing steel require making the concrete dense by adding pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash, silica fume, Superpozz, blast furnace slag, etc. to Portland cement. In order to obtain the desired strength and durability of concrete, it is desirable to monitor the concentration of the pozzolan in the blended cement concrete. Addition of pozzolan to blended cement changes the overall concentration of calcium and silicon in the blended cement concrete. The resulting variation in calcium and silicon gamma-ray yield ratio from blended cement concrete has found to have an inverse correlation with concentration of fly ash, silica fume, Superpozz, blast furnace slag in the blended cement concrete. For experimental verification of the correlation, intensities of calcium and silicon prompt gamma-ray due to capture of thermal neutrons in blended cement concrete samples containing 5-80% (by weight of cement) silica fume, fly ash and Superpozz were measured. The gamma-ray intensity ratio was measured from 6.42 MeV gamma-rays from calcium and 4.94 MeV gamma-ray from silicon. The experimentally measured values of calcium to silicon gamma-ray yield ratio in the fly ash, silica fume and Superpozz cement concrete specimens agree very well with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Prompt non-tire rubber recycling : final report for phases 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. G.; Daniels, E. J.

    1999-06-25

    This report summarizes an assessment conducted by Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., under a subcontract to Argonne National Laboratory. The project was conducted in two phases. An assessment of alternative technologies for recycling of prompt non-tire rubber was conducted in the first phase, and an experimental program focusing on a new technology called the catalytic Regeneration Process offered the greatest opportunity for recovery of high-value recyclable rubber material. An experimental and large-scale test program was undertaken to further delineate the economic potential as an essential step leading to commercial deployment and to determine the course of continued development of the technology by the private sector. The experimental program defined process-operating conditions for the technology and verified the degree of devulcanisation achievable for two rubber compounds: ethylene-propylene-nonconjugated-diene monomer (EPDM) and neoprene. To determine product acceptance, samples of devulcanized EPDM and neoprene were prepared and used in factory trials for the production of automotive moldings (EPDM) and fiber-filled belting (neoprene). The factory trials indicated that the physical properties of the products were acceptable in both cases. The appearance of molded and calendared surface finishes was acceptable, while that of extruded finishes was unsatisfactory. The fiber-filled neoprene belting application offers the greatest economic potential. Process costs were estimated at $0.34/lb for neoprene waste rubber relative to a value of $0.57/lb. The results of the experimental program led to the decision to continue development of this technology is being planned, subject to the availability of about $3 million in financing from private-sector investors. The ability to recycle non-tire rubber scrap could conserve as much as 90,000 Btu/lb, thus yielding an estimated energy savings potential of about 0.25 quad/yr.

  17. Biologics for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  18. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  19. The Experimental Research in Repairing the Bone Defect Around Dental Implant by a New Type Material%Gel-HA-M/PRP复合材料对种植体周围骨缺损修复的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚新华; 周健; 李全利; 孙传锋; 窦晓晨

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察明胶-羟基磷灰石-米诺环素(Gel-HA-M)纳米复合物与富血小板血浆(platelet-rich plasma,PRP)复合(GEL-HA-M/PRP)修复种植体周围骨缺损的效果,探讨其作为种植体周围骨缺损修复材料的可行性.方法:普通健康杂种犬6只,拔除双侧下颌第二、三、四前磨牙,3个月后每侧拔牙处植入3枚直径4 mm、长11 mm的种植体,并于钛钉周围制造宽约1.5mm、深4mm的环形骨缺损,分别植入自体骨、Gel-HA-M/PRP,最后为空白作为对照.种植术后4、8、12周各处死2只动物,进行大体、影像学及组织学观察.结果:实验组种植体周围骨缺损区较空白对照组新骨形成量多、外形好,并未见材料剩余;自体骨组可见成熟骨组织,较多新骨形成,同时有少量骨吸收存在;空白组主要为纤维性结合,有少量的骨组织再生.结论:提示Gel-HA-M纳米复合物的PRP复合凝胶能够促进种植体周围骨缺损的修复.%Objective: To investigate the feasibility of a hybrid biomaterial gelatin-apatite-minocycline nanocomposite combined with platelet-rich plasma (Gel-HA-M/PRP) to repair the bone defects around dental implants.Methods: 6 healthy mongrel dogs, their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th premolars were extracted from both sides of the mandible.Three months after extraction, 3 implants with the diameter of 4 mm and length of 11 mm were separately implanted in each side of the mandible.At the same time, a bone defect with the size of 1.5 mm in width and 4 mm in depth was created around the neck of each implant.The bone defects were grafted with autogenous bone, Gel-HA-M/PRP, and kept void as control respectively.Every 2 dogs were sacrificed at 4-, 8-, and 12-week respectively after the implantation.Specimen were examined by X-ray and histopathology sections.Results: In hybrid material grafted wounds, more new bone formation were observed, the Gel-HA-M nanocomposite was fully adsorbed.In autogenous bone grafted wounds, mature bone and a few

  20. 聚乳酸及其复合物修复下颌骨缺损的实验研究%THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF REPAIRING THE MANDIBULAR BONE DEFECT USING PLA-rhBMP-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄相道; 刘境华; 赵明; 王会信

    2001-01-01

    Purpose A new synthetic material consists of Polylac tic acid[PLA] and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2[PLA-rhBMP -2]. The capacity of repairing bone defect of biodegradable PLA and the effica cy of PLA as a carrier for bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] are determined wit h detecting the osteogenetic process. Materials and Methods Eighteen rabbits were picked up and divided i nto three groups randomly. The defects of 12mm×6mm size were made at bilateral mandibul ar edges. PLA-rhBMP-2, PLA were implanted in the defect respectively. The 18 r abbits were killed at 2,4,8 and 12 weeks after implanting. The sample was analyz ed by the methods of X-rays and histological examination. Results After 2 weeks, the new bone began to form in the defects. A fter 8 weeks, bulk bone could be obviously observed. After 12 weeks, most of the PLA in the defects were already biodegraded. The defects were restored with n ew bone. The results in PLA-rhBMP-2 group were better than those of other grou ps. Conclusions PLA could be a promising carrier for BMP. PLA-rhBM P-2 has also been considered a better biodegradable material for repairing mand ibular defect.%目的 聚乳酸与骨形成蛋白复合,研究该材料修复颌骨缺损的能力,探讨聚乳酸作为骨形成蛋白载体的有效性。方法 18只日本大耳白兔,随机分组,在双侧下颌骨体部形成12mm×6mm的缺损,分别植入聚乳酸-人骨形成蛋白-2复合物(PLA-rhBMP-2)、单纯聚乳酸(PLA),于2、4、8、12周分批处死。通过X线、组织学染色等方法进行观察。结果 PLA-rhBMP-2植入组于术后2周,缺损区部分新骨形成;术后8周,大片新骨形成并开始改建,术后12周,PLA大部分降解,由骨组织修复。结果优于对照组。结论 PLA可作为BMP的有效载体,PLA-rhBMP-2是良好的颌骨缺损修复材料。

  1. Emprego da submucosa de intestino delgado porcina no reparo de lesões do esôfago cervical. Estudo experimental em cães Small intestine submucosa for repair of cervical esophageal lesions in a dog model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacarias Alves de Souza Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a eficácia da submucosa de intestino delgado (SID porcina como enxerto para reparo de lesões em esôfago cervical de cães. MÉTODOS: Foram operados 10 cães. Ressecou-se parcialmente uma porção da parede anterior do esôfago que foi substituída por um enxerto de SID. Avaliaram-se a resistência tensiométrica, o aspecto macroscópico, a regeneração tecidual e a concentração de colágeno da porção esofágica onde se implantou o enxerto. RESULTADOS: Não houve infecção, fístula ou estenose. Verificou-se ganho semelhante de resistência do esôfago operado em relação ao controle: 31.84N contra 28.60N em média (p=0,593. A macroscopia revelou cicatrização completa com pouca retração tecidual. O estudo anátomo-patológico por HE mostrou re-epitelização completa da mucosa, proliferação vascular discreta a moderada e proliferação fibroblástica intensa. Na análise do colágeno pelo Sirus-red obteve-se em média 54.04% de colágeno tipo I, 16,04% de colágeno tipo III e 71.58% de colágeno total. CONCLUSÃO: A SID mostrou ser, no cão, um enxerto eficaz no reparo de lesões maiores do esôfago, apresentando-se resistente à infecção e à rejeição. A SID deve ser, portanto, considerada opção importante no tratamento destas lesões.PURPOSE: Study of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS efficiency as a graft in the handling of lesions of the cervical esophagus in dogs. METHODS: Ten dogs were operated. A resection of a portion of the anterior wall of the esophagus was performed, followed by its repair with a SIS graft. The tensiometric resistance, macroscopic appearance regeneration process and collagen contents of the esophagus tissue were evaluated. RESULTS: No cases of fistula, stenosis or infection occured. Tensiometric evaluation showed a similar resistance in the operated esophagus when compared to the control (an average of 31.84N against 28.60N. Macroscopic analysis revealed complete healing

  2. Experimental study on micro replantation repair of rabbit model of the foot skin degloving injury%显微回植修复兔模型前足皮肤脱套伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱中杰; 尹宗生

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨在显微镜下回植皮肤,修复兔模型前足皮肤脱套伤的应用效果.方法 选择新西兰大白兔48只,通过装置模拟利器切割撕脱、重物挤压前足等场景,造成大白兔前足脱套伤合并胫骨、跖骨、指(趾)骨骨折等,建立大白兔前足皮肤脱套伤的动物模型,成功41只,并采用内固定趾骨或胫骨骨折,在显微镜下修复断裂肌腱,吻合前足断裂的动脉及相应神经,并将背侧皮肤向远侧掀起,通过直接吻合、转位吻合、移植桥接等方法,逐平面的吻合背侧的动静脉,使皮肤复位,至创缘时吻合创缘皮下浅静脉,缝合皮缘,并放置橡皮引流条.术后石膏固定兔模型前足,抗炎抗感染.结果 41只兔模型回植的皮肤全部成活,3只兔模型创缘皮肤部分坏死,经换药创面愈合.术后X线复查,趾骨胫骨骨折对位好.对兔模型随访3~9个月,平均5个月,骨折和皮肤创面愈合良好,前足可正常行走.结论 在显微镜下回植皮肤,修复兔模型的前足皮肤脱套伤,有效恢复了伤足的供血,加速了骨折的愈合,可有效恢复大白兔模型伤是的行走功能.%Objective To investigate the replanting the skin under the microscope,the repair of rabbit model of anterior foot application effect of skin degloving injury.Methods 48 New Zealand rabbits,by means of simulation tool cutting avulsion,crush fore foot scene,resulting in the big white rabbit forefoot degloving injury combined with tibia,metatarsal,finger (toe) bone fracture,the establishment of rabbit animal model of the foot skin degloved injury,41 cases were successful,and the use of internal fixation of tibial fracture phalanx or repair of tendon rupture,under the microscope,the artery anastomosis front foot fractureand corresponding nerve,the dorsal skin and set off to the far side,through the direct anastomosis,anastomosed graft bridging method,such asby plane,arteriovenous anastomosis of dorsal,enable the skin to reset

  3. T-odd angular correlations in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2011-05-01

    Study of the T-odd three-vector correlation in the emission of prompt neutrons from 235U fission by polarized cold neutrons has been continued at the facility MEPHISTO of the FRM II reactor (Technical University of Munich). The sought correlation was not found within experimental error of 2.3 × 10-5. The upper limit for the asymmetry coefficient has been set to | D n | ternary fission correlation coefficient D α = (170±20) × 10-5. This limit casts doubt on a model that explains the three-vector correlation in ternary fission by the Coriolis mechanism. At the same time, five-vector correlation in the emission of prompt fission neutrons has been measured, which describes the rotation of the fissioning nucleus at the moment it breaks (ROT effect). At the angle 22.5° to the fission axis, the correlation coefficient was found to be (1.57 ± 0.20) × 10-4, while at the angle of 67.5° it is zero within the experimental uncertainty. The existence of ROT effect in the emission of prompt fission neutrons can be explained by the anisotropy of neutron emission in the rest frame of the fragment (fission fragments are aligned with respect to the axis of deformation of the fissioning nucleus), similar to the mechanism of ROT effect in the emission of prompt γ-rays.

  4. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  5. Interferences in Prompt γ Analysis of corrosive contaminants in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.

    2006-12-01

    An accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed to measure the concentration of corrosive chloride and sulfate contaminants in concrete. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) limit of chlorine and sulfur in the concrete depends upon the γ-ray used for elemental analysis. For more interfering γ-rays, the MDC limit is higher than that for less interfering γ-rays. The MDC limit of sulfur in concrete measured for the KFUPM PGNAA setup was calculated to be 0.60±0.19 wt%. The MDC limit is equal to the upper limit of sulfur concentration in concrete set by the British Standards. The MDC limit of chlorine in concrete for the KFUPM PGNAA setup, which was calculated for less interfering 1.165 MeV γ-rays, was found to be 0.075±0.025 wt%. The lower limits of the MDC of chlorine in concrete was 73% higher than the limit set by American Concrete Institute. The limit of the MDC can be improved to the desired standard by increasing the intensity of neutron source. For moreinterfering 5.715 and 6.110 MeV chlorine γ-rays the MDC limit was found to be 2-3 times larger than that of 1.165 MeV γ-rays. When normalized to the same intensity of the neutron source, the MDC limits of chlorine and sulfur in concrete from the KFUPM PGNAA setup are better than MDC limits of chlorine in concrete obtained with the 241Am-Be source-based PGNAA setup. This study has shown that an accelerator-based PGNAA setup can be used in chlorine and sulfur analysis of concrete samples.

  6. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  7. The journey of DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared “Molecule of the Year”. Today, we are celebrating another “year of repair”, with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  8. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  9. Robotic repair of a large abdominal intercostal hernia: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Stephani C; Singh, Tejinder P

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal intercostal hernia is an uncommon phenomenon, reported in few case reports and small case series. If left untreated, it can lead to strangulation and visceral ischemia. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate surgical intervention are thus critical to prevent resulting morbidity. We present a 50-year-old woman with a large abdominal intercostal hernia after an open nephrectomy. She underwent a successful robotic repair of the hernia with mesh placement. Through the presentation, we would like to raise awareness of intercostal hernia as a complication of open nephrectomy and significance of early diagnosis in avoiding potential morbidity. We also performed a review of literature especially focusing on acquired abdominal intercostal hernia secondary to prior surgery. Although intercostal hernias can be difficult to repair secondary to the size and location, adequate visualization and surgical planning are critical to successful repair.

  10. ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Epshtein, Vitaly; Benjamin, Bradley; Proshkin, Sergey; Mironov, Alexander; Cashel, Michael; Nudler, Evgeny

    2016-05-20

    The small molecule alarmone (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial adaptation to nutrient deprivation by altering the initiation properties of RNA polymerase (RNAP). ppGpp is generated in Escherichia coli by two related enzymes, RelA and SpoT. We show that ppGpp is robustly, but transiently, induced in response to DNA damage and is required for efficient nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER). This explains why relA-spoT-deficient cells are sensitive to diverse genotoxic agents and ultraviolet radiation, whereas ppGpp induction renders them more resistant to such challenges. The mechanism of DNA protection by ppGpp involves promotion of UvrD-mediated RNAP backtracking. By rendering RNAP backtracking-prone, ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair and prompts transitions between repair and recovery states.

  11. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influência do tempo transcorrido entre a lesão do cólon e a síntese no processo de cicatrização Influence of running time between colon injury and repair in the healing process: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2000-01-01

    repair was evaluated regarding the presence of leakage and abscess were evaluated. The breaking strength and the collagen synthesis were also analysed. Five rats died. In the experimental groups, peritonitis was observed and when compared to the control group a high statistically significant difference was demonstrated (for group B p=0.0018, for group (p=0.0033 and for D p=0.000008. In 19 animals, dehiscence was present and was statistically significant in the 24 hours group (p=0.000002. The amount of mature collagen (type I on the 4th day was similar to the control group of 12 and 18 hours and lesser in the 24 hour group (p<0.05. On the 7th day it was lesser in the 18 hour group (p<0.05 and in the 24 hour group (p=0.00001. There was a lesser concentration of immature collagen (type III in the 24 hour group on the 4th day (p=0.000268 and on the 7th day in the groups of 18 hours (p=0.0009 and of 24 hours (p=0.000009. It may be concluded that delayed repair, longer than 12 hours increases morbidity and delay collagen deposition.maturation.

  13. Laser repairing surface crack of Ni-based superalloy components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠柯; 叶和清; 许德胜; 黄索逸

    2001-01-01

    Surface crack of components of the cast nickel-base superalloy was repaired with twin laser beams under proper technological conditions. One laser beam was used to melt the substrate material of crack, and the other to fill in powder material to the crack region. The experimental results show that the surface crack with the width of 0.1~0.3mm could be repaired under the laser power of 3kW and the scanning speed of 6~8mm/s. The repaired deepness of crack region is below 6.5mm. The microstructure of repaired region is the cellular crystal, columnar crystal dendrite crystal from the transition region to the top filled layer. The phases in repaired region mainly consisted of supersaturated α-Co with plenty of Ni, some Cr and Al, Cr23C6, Co2B, Co-Ni-Mo, Ni4B3, TiSi and VSi. The hardness of filled layer in repaired region ranged from HV0.2450 to HV0.2500, and the hardness decreases gradually from the filled layer to joined zone.

  14. Monte-Carlo Hauser-Feshbach simulations of prompt fission gamma-ray properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetcu, Ionel; Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Jandel, Marian

    2014-09-01

    Properties of prompt fission neutrons and γ rays, emitted before the weak decays of the fission fragments toward stability, are important for both nuclear technologies and a better understanding of the fission process. In the present work, we use the Hauser-Feshbach model to simulate the de-excitation of the fully accelerated fission fragments treated as compound nuclei. Our Monte-Carlo implementation of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model, which takes into account the competition between the neutron and γ emissions, allows the description of both average quantities, like in the Los Alamos model, and correlations between the emitted particles. Our simulations will be compared against available experimental data and current evaluations. In particular, we will compare our average γ-ray spectrum with recent measurements at the research reactor KFKI in Budapest for the 235U(nth , f) and 252Cf(sf) reactions, as well as multiplicity-dependent distributions obtained at the DANCE facility at LANSCE. Properties of prompt fission neutrons and γ rays, emitted before the weak decays of the fission fragments toward stability, are important for both nuclear technologies and a better understanding of the fission process. In the present work, we use the Hauser-Feshbach model to simulate the de-excitation of the fully accelerated fission fragments treated as compound nuclei. Our Monte-Carlo implementation of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model, which takes into account the competition between the neutron and γ emissions, allows the description of both average quantities, like in the Los Alamos model, and correlations between the emitted particles. Our simulations will be compared against available experimental data and current evaluations. In particular, we will compare our average γ-ray spectrum with recent measurements at the research reactor KFKI in Budapest for the 235U(nth , f) and 252Cf(sf) reactions, as well as multiplicity-dependent distributions obtained at the

  15. 大鼠股神经结扎损伤修复方法的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THREE REPAIRING METHODS FOR FEMORAL NERVE INJURY AFTER LIGATION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨加富; 张晨; 孙琳; 王志军; 付雷

    2012-01-01

    ,其余各期各组间比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 股神经结扎后,采用股神经缝线解除的修复效果最佳,其次是股神经缝线解除加神经外膜松解,而股神经结扎处神经切除后吻合效果最差.%Objective To investigate the effects of 3 methods (suture removal, suture removal with epineurium neurolysis, and ligated femoral nerve resection with end-end suture) in repairing femoral nerve injury after ligation in different periods so as to provide a reference for clinical use of repairing iatrogenic ligation injury of the peripheral nerve. Methods A total of 120 adult female Sprague Dawley rats, weighing (200 ± 20) g, were used to prepare the animal models of left femoral nerve ligation, and were divided into groups A (n=40), B (n=40), and C (n=40) according different repairing methods. At immediate, 1, 3, and 5 months (10 rats each time point) after ligation, suture removal was performed in group A, suture removal with epineurium neurolysis in group B, and ligated femoral nerve resection with end-end suture in group C. At 3 months after operation, the foot-base angle (FBA) and the heels-tail angle (HTA), action potential and conduction velocity of femoral nerve, and wet weight of quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) were measured; the samples of quadriceps femoris and femoral nerve were harvested for histological observation, muscle fiber count, and nerve fiber passing rate measuring. Results The FBA in group A was significant smaller than that in group C at immediate, 1, 3, and 5 months (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between groups A and B (P > 0.05). The HTA in group A was significantly smaller than that in group C at immediate, 1, 3, and 5 months (P < 0.05), and the THA in group B was significantly smaller than that in group C at 1, 3, and 5 months (P < 0.05). The wet weight of QFM in group B was significantly higher than that in group C at immediate, 3, and 5 months (P < 0.05), and the

  16. 四环素骨诱导活性材料整复牙槽缺损的实验研究%Experimental study on repairing the defect in alveolar bone with tetracycline activated materials for bone guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘牧菲

    2000-01-01

    目的:将盐酸四环素处理的人离体非功能牙块用于诱导骨再生技术中,观察和比较其对牙槽骨再生修复的影响。方法:拔除大鼠第一磨牙近中根做人工牙槽缺损。置入盐酸四环素处理的离体人牙块,以盐酸处理的离体人牙块为阳性对照,未做任何处理的离体人牙块为阴性对照。不同时期取材做组织观察和评价。结果:四环素处理组炎症反应小,早期成骨明显。中晚期成骨量明显高于对照组。结论:盐酸四环素处理的人离体非功能牙块有抑制骨吸收,诱导、促进牙槽骨再生等作用。%Objective:The effect on alveolar bone regeneration and repair was observed and compared with guide bone regeneration technique -isolated human dentin blocks treated with tetracycline-HCL.Methods:The first molar mesial roots of rats were extracted as defects in alveolar bone and the isolated human dentin blocks treated with tetracycline-HCL as positive control and and untreated with anything as negative control were implanted the defect sites for histologic observation and evaluation at the different periods.Results:There is less inflammatory (in tetracycline treatment groups than control at early stages and they showed marked osteaogenesis),but the osteogenic quantity is larger than control groups at middle and late stages. Conclusion:The isolated teeth blocks treated with tetracycline HCL have actions on inhibiting bone resorption, and promoting alveolar bone generation.

  17. 深低温保存的同种异体骨膜与胎骨联合移植的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BONE REPAIR INDUCED BY CRYOPRESERVED ALLOGRAFT PERIOSTEUM AND FETAL BONE COMPOSITION IN BONE DEFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永涛; 顾洁夫; 尚平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the repairing effect of transplantation of allogeneic fetal bone in combination with a covering cryopreserved periosteal allograft to bone defect. Methods Twenty Long-eared white male rabbits were chosen as experimental model of bilateral 12 mm combined bony and periosteal radial defect. Cryopreserved allograft periosteum with allogeneic fetal bone were implanted in the left defect as experimental side and fetal bone was simply transplanted in the right defect as control side. Bone repair process in the two groups were compared by macroscopy, microscopy, roentgenograms and the contents of calcium and phosphate in the defect area at 2、4、8 and 12 weeks after transplantation. Results There was significant statistic difference in the contents of calcium and phosphate between the experimental and control sides at 4、8 and 12 weeks after transplantation (P<0.05). With time passing by, the contents of calcium and phosphate have the increasing trends. In the experimental group, lamella bone was seen and medullary canal recanalized at 8 weeks postoperatively. The histological section showed the bone lacuna and lamella bone were formed. Conclusion It suggests that allogeneic fetal bone in combination with a covering cryopreserved periosteal allograft can promote bone repair, and allogeneic fetal bone is excellent bone substitute.%目的探讨有生物活性的移植材料对骨缺损修复能力的影响。方法实验采用兔桡骨缺损模型,经深低温保存的同种异体骨膜加胎兔骨移植为实验侧,胎兔骨移植为对照侧,分别在术后2、4、8及12周对实验侧和对照侧骨缺损模型进行大体观察、组织学检查、X线片及钙、磷含量检查。观察异体骨膜加胎骨复合体修复骨缺损的可行性及移植后骨膜、胎骨的动态变化。结果实验侧术后4、8及12周钙、磷含量明显高于对照侧(P<0.05),随着时间的推移,钙、磷含量

  18. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  19. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  20. Groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske

    2005-01-01

    The choice of anesthesia for groin hernia repair is between general, regional (epidural or spinal), and local anesthesia. Existing data from large consecutive patient series and randomized studies have shown local anesthesia to be the method of choice because it can be performed by the surgeon......, does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...... scientific data to support the choice of anesthesia, large epidemiologic and nationwide information from databases show an undesirable high (about 10-20%) use of spinal anesthesia and low (about 10%) use of local infiltration anesthesia. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should therefore adjust their anesthesia...

  1. Rapid repair of severely earthquake-damaged bridge piers with flexural-shear failure mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiguo; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xiuli; Si, Bingjun

    2011-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a proposed rapid repair technique for severely earthquake-damaged bridge piers with flexural-shear failure mode. Six circular pier specimens were first tested to severe damage in flexural-shear mode and repaired using early-strength concrete with high-fluidity and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). After about four days, the repaired specimens were tested to failure again. The seismic behavior of the repaired specimens was evaluated and compared to the original specimens. Test results indicate that the proposed repair technique is highly effective. Both shear strength and lateral displacement of the repaired piers increased when compared to the original specimens, and the failure mechanism of the piers shifted from flexural-shear failure to ductile flexural failure. Finally, a simple design model based on the Seible formulation for post-earthquake repair design was compared to the experimental results. It is concluded that the design equation for bridge pier strengthening before an earthquake could be applicable to seismic repairs after an earthquake if the shear strength contribution of the spiral bars in the repaired piers is disregarded and 1.5 times more FRP sheets is provided.

  2. Experimental study of alveolar bone defect repair of Bio-Oss combined SIS%Bio-Oss结合 SIS 修复牙槽骨缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖武堂

    2016-01-01

    目的:应用 Bio - Oss 结合猪小肠黏膜下层(SIS)修复牙槽骨缺损,探讨 SIS 能否增强修复牙槽骨缺损的疗效。方法将经手术处理后显露牙槽骨嵴,两壁骨缺损的雌雄各半的骨缺损模型新西兰大白兔60只,按数字表法随机分为 A、B、C、D 四组,每组均为15只。A 组缺损处给予 Bio - Oss 骨粉+ SIS 填充;B 组缺损处给予 Bio - Oss 骨粉填充;C 组缺损处给予 SIS 填充;D 组大白兔作为空白对照组骨缺损处旷置。填充完毕后,将四组大白兔龈瓣复位并缝合。于术后4、8、12周进行 X 线片观察植骨区的骨密度变化;并进行 CT 检查,以邻牙为参照测量植骨区的吸收值,比较四组方法的疗效差异。结果 A 组大白兔的行为及组织学改善情况均优于 B、C、D 组;采用 Bio - Oss 骨粉+ SIS 联合治疗的A 组疗效显著优于 B 组和 C 组,骨缺损区有新骨生成,骨密度显著增高,其中骨密度组间比较差异显著( P <0.05)。结论 Bio - Oss 骨粉结合 SIS 修复牙槽骨缺损能有效促进牙槽骨组织再生,重建效果较好,具有良好的临床推广价值。%Objective Application of Bio - Oss combined porcine small intestinal submuco - sa(SIS)repaired alveolar bone defect ,to investigate whether SIS can enhance the efficacy of alveolar bone defect repair. Methods After surgical treatment,revealed alveolar crest,two walls bone defects were made the bone defect model in 60male and female rabbits. According to a random number table,the rabbits is divided into A,B,C,D four groups. . A group defects was given Bio - Oss bone + SIS filling;group B defects was given Bio - Oss bone filling;group C was given SIS filling defect;D group as a control group. After the filling is completed,the four groups of rabbits gingival flap reset and sutured. 4,8 and 12 weeks after the operation carried out X - ray film to observe changes in bone mineral density zones

  3. INTEGRITY OF GLASS/EPOXY AIRCRAFT COMPOSITE PART REPAIRED USING FIVE DIFFERENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IEA AGHACHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft repairs are considered permanent repairs. This type of permanent repair is time- consuming and needs to be accomplished in a well-guided specification and precise accuracy. The critical demand for aircraft repaired part is to meet the integrity of the original parent body while in-service, which does not give room for trial anderror. Similarly, the cost of discarding parts that have minor to medium surface damage is very high. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to find other viable repair method that could be applied to surface repair of an aircraft. It was found that the pre-preg method is still the most preferred. The infusion process, ifperformed under well-controlled environment, can be good substitute for wet layup.

  4. Transcript RNA supports precise repair of its own DNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Havva; Meers, Chance; Storici, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA is considered an extraordinary process in molecular biology. Despite the fact that cells transcribe abundant amount of RNA with a wide range of functions, it has been difficult to uncover whether RNA can serve as a template for DNA repair and recombination. An increasing number of experimental evidences suggest a direct role of RNA in DNA modification. Recently, we demonstrated that endogenous transcript RNA can serve as a template to repair a DNA double-strand break (DSB), the most harmful DNA lesion, not only indirectly via formation of a DNA copy (cDNA) intermediate, but also directly in a homology driven mechanism in budding yeast. These results point out that the transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA is more general than previously thought. We found that transcript RNA is more efficient in repairing a DSB in its own DNA (in cis) than in a homologous but ectopic locus (in trans). Here, we summarize current knowledge about the process of RNA-driven DNA repair and recombination, and provide further data in support of our model of DSB repair by transcript RNA in cis. We show that a DSB is precisely repaired predominately by transcript RNA and not by residual cDNA in conditions in which formation of cDNA by reverse transcription is inhibited. Additionally, we demonstrate that defects in ribonuclease (RNase) H stimulate precise DSB repair by homologous RNA or cDNA sequence, and not by homologous DNA sequence carried on a plasmid. These results highlight an antagonistic role of RNase H in RNA-DNA recombination. Ultimately, we discuss several questions that should be addressed to better understand mechanisms and implications of RNA-templated DNA repair and recombination.

  5. Identification of novel DNA repair proteins via primary sequence, secondary structure, and homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akutsu Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA repair is the general term for the collection of critical mechanisms which repair many forms of DNA damage such as methylation or ionizing radiation. DNA repair has mainly been studied in experimental and clinical situations, and relatively few information-based approaches to new extracting DNA repair knowledge exist. As a first step, automatic detection of DNA repair proteins in genomes via informatics techniques is desirable; however, there are many forms of DNA repair and it is not a straightforward process to identify and classify repair proteins with a single optimal method. We perform a study of the ability of homology and machine learning-based methods to identify and classify DNA repair proteins, as well as scan vertebrate genomes for the presence of novel repair proteins. Combinations of primary sequence polypeptide frequency, secondary structure, and homology information are used as feature information for input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM. Results We identify that SVM techniques are capable of identifying portions of DNA repair protein datasets without admitting false positives; at low levels of false positive tolerance, homology can also identify and classify proteins with good performance. Secondary structure information provides improved performance compared to using primary structure alone. Furthermore, we observe that machine learning methods incorporating homology information perform best when data is filtered by some clustering technique. Analysis by applying these methodologies to the scanning of multiple vertebrate genomes confirms a positive correlation between the size of a genome and the number of DNA repair protein transcripts it is likely to contain, and simultaneously suggests that all organisms have a non-zero minimum number of repair genes. In addition, the scan result clusters several organisms' repair abilities in an evolutionarily consistent fashion. Analysis also identifies several

  6. New tools to study DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomez-Cabello

    Full Text Available A broken DNA molecule is difficult to repair, highly mutagenic, and extremely cytotoxic. Such breaks can be repaired by homology-independent or homology-directed mechanisms. Little is known about the network that controls the repair pathway choice except that a licensing step for homology-mediated repair exists, called DNA-end resection. The choice between these two repair pathways is a key event for genomic stability maintenance, and an imbalance of the ratio is directly linked with human diseases, including cancer. Here we present novel reporters to study the balance between both repair options in human cells. In these systems, a double-strand break can be alternatively repaired by homology-independent or -dependent mechanisms, leading to the accumulation of distinct fluorescent proteins. These reporters thus allow the balance between both repair pathways to be analyzed in different experimental setups. We validated the reporters by analyzing the effect of protein downregulation of the DNA end resection and non-homologous end-joining pathways. Finally, we analyzed the role of the DNA damage response on double-strand break (DSB repair mechanism selection. Our reporters could be used in the future to understand the roles of specific factors, whole pathways, or drugs in DSB repair pathway choice, or for genome-wide screening. Moreover, our findings can be applied to increase gene-targeting efficiency, making it a beneficial tool for a broad audience in the biological sciences.

  7. Increasing Pizza Box Assembly Using Task Analysis and a Least-to-Most Prompting Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnow, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to use a task analysis and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy to teach students with cognitive disabilities pizza box assembly skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching students with cognitive disabilities to increase the number of task-analyzed…

  8. The Effects of Simultaneous Prompting on Teaching Receptively Identifying Occupations from Picture Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Osman Senai; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2002-01-01

    A study involving three preschoolers with developmental disabilities examined whether or not the use of a simultaneous prompting procedure would result in an increase on the percentage of correct responding of receptively identifying occupations from picture cards. Results found simultaneous prompting was effective. Maintenance and generalization…

  9. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  10. Using Self-Directed Video Prompting to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Brooks, David G.; Tullis, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of self-directed video prompting presented via an iPod Touch on teaching four adolescents with moderate-to-severe intellectual and developmental disabilities two daily living tasks. Students were taught to wash a table using instructor-delivered video prompts. After reaching 80% correct for at least three…

  11. The Effectiveness of Using a Video iPod as a Prompting Device in Employment Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laarhoven, Toni; Johnson, Jesse W.; Van Laarhoven-Myers, Traci; Grider, Kristin L.; Grider, Katie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a video iPod as a prompting device for teaching three job-related tasks to a young man with developmental disabilities in a community-based employment setting. The effectiveness of the prompting device was evaluated using a multiple probe across behaviors design. Results…

  12. 17 CFR 201.601 - Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. 201.601 Section 201.601 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 201.601 Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. (a) Timing of payments....

  13. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-price architect-engineer contracts. 52.232-26 Section 52.232-26 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-26 Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts. As prescribed in 32.908(a), insert the following clause: Prompt Payment for Fixed-Price...

  14. An Evaluation of Prompting and Reinforcement for Training Visual Analysis Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicholas D.; Daly, Edward J., III.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of an instructional package consisting of structured criteria, extrastimulus prompts, prompt delay, and reinforcement contingencies to improve decision making based on visual analysis of case-study (A/B) design data. Four participants without backgrounds in behavior analysis received training under two experimental…

  15. Increasing Activity Attendance and Engagement in Individuals with Dementia Using Descriptive Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenske, Shasta; Rudrud, Eric H.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Rapp, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of providing descriptive prompts to increase activity attendance and engagement in 6 individuals with dementia were evaluated using a reversal design. The results showed that providing descriptive prompts increased activity attendance and engagement for all participants. The results support the use of antecedent interventions for…

  16. 9 CFR 201.44 - Market agencies to render prompt accounting for purchases on order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accounting for purchases on order. 201.44 Section 201.44 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... prompt accounting for purchases on order. Each market agency shall, promptly following the purchase of livestock on a commission or agency basis, transmit or deliver to the person for whose account such...

  17. Towards a methodology for large-sample prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, I.H.

    2004-01-01

    Large-sample prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis, or shortly LS PGNAA, is a method by which mass fractions of elements can be determined in large samples with a mass over 1 kg. In this method the large sample is irradiated with neutrons. Directly (prompt) after absorption of the neutrons photon

  18. Increasing Pizza Box Assembly Using Task Analysis and a Least-to-Most Prompting Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnow, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to use a task analysis and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy to teach students with cognitive disabilities pizza box assembly skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching students with cognitive disabilities to increase the number of task-analyzed…

  19. Using Progressive Video Prompting to Teach Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability to Shoot a Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…

  20. Enhancing engagement with a digital intervention using email and text message prompts: a usability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah ALKHALDI

    2015-10-01

    Findings will inform health behaviour researchers and DI providers about the optimal content of prompt that can lead to enhanced engagement with DIs. Findings will also be used to test the effectiveness of different prompt content and delivery mode on engagement in a randomised controlled study.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Multi-repaired Weld Residual Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yuan-xiang; ZHAO Xue-rong; ZHANG Xiao-fei; HU Lun-ji

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the change regulation of residual stress during multi-repaired welding to provide theoretical guidance for correct repaired welding procedure and improvement of joint properties, and to simulate the magnitude and distribution of residual stress using the finite element method (FEM).A model of temperature field of weld-repaired using FEM, which was simplified, was established. The weld stress consists of thermal stress and organization stress. Models of the thermal stress and organization stress were described. ANSYS, a software of finite element, was applied to calculate the stress, BHW35 steel was taken as an example, the simulated and experimental results for the 1st, 3rd and 5th weld-repaired were analyzed, the simulated results are in good agreement with experimental results. It can be concluded that the residual stress in the weld center changes little,and the high residual stress exists in HAZ.And in the same place, the more repaired weld, the higher residual stress,and the area of residual stress becomes wider.

  2. Accelerated prompt gamma estimation for clinical proton therapy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Brent F. B.; Létang, J. M.; Testa, É.; Sarrut, D.

    2016-11-01

    There is interest in the particle therapy community in using prompt gammas (PGs), a natural byproduct of particle treatment, for range verification and eventually dose control. However, PG production is a rare process and therefore estimation of PGs exiting a patient during a proton treatment plan executed by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation converges slowly. Recently, different approaches to accelerating the estimation of PG yield have been presented. Sterpin et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4915-46) described a fast analytic method, which is still sensitive to heterogeneities. El Kanawati et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8067-86) described a variance reduction method (pgTLE) that accelerates the PG estimation by precomputing PG production probabilities as a function of energy and target materials, but has as a drawback that the proposed method is limited to analytical phantoms. We present a two-stage variance reduction method, named voxelized pgTLE (vpgTLE), that extends pgTLE to voxelized volumes. As a preliminary step, PG production probabilities are precomputed once and stored in a database. In stage 1, we simulate the interactions between the treatment plan and the patient CT with low statistic MC to obtain the spatial and spectral distribution of the PGs. As primary particles are propagated throughout the patient CT, the PG yields are computed in each voxel from the initial database, as a function of the current energy of the primary, the material in the voxel and the step length. The result is a voxelized image of PG yield, normalized to a single primary. The second stage uses this intermediate PG image as a source to generate and propagate the number of PGs throughout the rest of the scene geometry, e.g. into a detection device, corresponding to the number of primaries desired. We achieved a gain of around 103 for both a geometrical heterogeneous phantom and a complete patient CT treatment plan with respect to analog MC, at a convergence level of 2% relative

  3. Clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair : Review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Coert, JH

    2002-01-01

    The use of nerve conduits has evolved from a previous experimental idea to a clinical reality over the last ten years. An overview of the literature on the clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair is presented.

  4. Clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair : Review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Coert, JH

    2002-01-01

    The use of nerve conduits has evolved from a previous experimental idea to a clinical reality over the last ten years. An overview of the literature on the clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair is presented.

  5. Teaching multi-step math skills to adults with disabilities via video prompting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, Ryan O; Frandsen, Kaitlyn; Hansen, Blake; Gabrielsen, Terisa; Clarke, Brynn; Simons, Kalee; Clements, Kyle

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching multi-step math skills to nine adults with disabilities in an 18-21 post-high school transition program using a video prompting intervention package. The dependent variable was the percentage of steps completed correctly. The independent variable was the video prompting intervention, which involved several multi-step math calculation skills: (a) calculating a tip (15%), (b) calculating item unit prices, and (c) adjusting a recipe for more or fewer people. Results indicated a functional relationship between the video prompting interventions and prompting package and the percentage of steps completed correctly. 8 out of the 9 adults showed significant gains immediately after receiving the video prompting intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  7. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  8. BMSCs-based tissue-engineering bone repairing bone defect in dental implant region:an experimental study%以 BMSCs为基础构建组织工程骨修复种植区骨量不足的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彪; 赵刚; 徐红梅; 郭希民; 郭红延

    2015-01-01

    Objective To repair bone defect in implant region using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells -based tissue-engi-neering bone and investigate its osteogenesis potential .Methods Bilateral implantaion ,two implants every side , was performed in the mandible premolar region of 3 Beagles and bone defects were created in the distal of every implant .Two bone defects in one side of mandible premolar region were randomly repaired with two types of grafts :PRP (n=6, the control group);and compound osteogenic-induced BMSCs with PRP(n=6, the experimental group).1 and 3 months after transplation, gross investigation,X-ray examination and histological observation were conducted to examine bone formation .Results One month after implantation ,the osteogenesis in ex-perimental group was better than in the control group .We detected more bone matrix and less collagenous fibers in the experimental group.The bone density in the experimental group was higher than in the control group and the difference was significantly different [(101 ±8.99)vs(93 ±9.81),P≤0.05].Three months after implantation,the bone density in the experimental group tended to be higher than in the control group;however,the difference was not statistically significant [(100.75 ±12.05)vs(105 ±11.58)].But we detected more Haversian system in the experimental group .Conclusion Bone marrow stem cell-based tissue-engineered bone has high osteogenic potential around implants .%目的:评价以骨髓间充质干细胞(bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ,BMSCs)为基础构建组织工程骨修复种植体周围骨缺损的成骨效果。方法在3只犬双侧下颌前磨牙区各植入2颗种植体,分为对照组和实验组,每组6颗种值体;在种植体远中制备骨缺损,对照组每侧骨缺损区随机植入富血小板血浆( platelet-rich plasma,PRP)和实验组成骨诱导培养BM-SCs复合PRP。分别于移植后1、3个月取材,行大体、影像

  9. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  10. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  11. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, H; Lee, F; Patil, N G

    2001-09-01

    A 75-year-old man developed an incisional hernia over the upper abdomen following a wedge resection of a gastric stromal tumour in 1996. This is the first published report of a successful repair of an incisional hernia via a laparoscopic intraperitoneal on-lay technique using GORE-TEX DualMesh material in Hong Kong. Compared with conventional open repair of incisional hernia, long incisions and wound tension are avoided using the laparoscopic approach. This translates into a reduced risk of wound-related complications and facilitates recovery. In selected cases, minimally invasive surgery is a safe technique for the repair of incisional hernias.

  12. [Inguinal and femoral hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, B; Anthuber, M

    2011-05-01

    With an incidence of 200,000 new cases per year in Germany, inguinal hernia has a significant socioeconomic impact. The 2009 guidelines from the European Hernia Society established treatment recommendations. Hernia repair is based on reinforcing the posterior wall of the inguinal canal by suture or mesh repair by an anterior or posterior approach. Lightweight mesh reduces recurrence rates and is the treatment of choice even in primary hernias. Laparoscopic hernia repair is associated with specific risks but is superior in postoperative pain and earlier return to work.

  13. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  14. Evaluating the 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Induced by Thermal to 30 MeV Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudecker D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new evaluation of the 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS induced by thermal to 30 MeV neutrons. Compared to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, this one includes recently published experimental data as well as an improved and extended model description to predict PFNS. For instance, the pre-equilibrium neutron emission component to the PFNS is considered and the incident energy dependence of model parameters is parametrized more realistically. Experimental and model parameter uncertainties and covariances are estimated in detail. Also, evaluated covariances are provided between all PFNS at different incident neutron energies. Selected evaluation results and first benchmark calculations using this evaluation are briefly discussed.

  15. Evaluating the 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Induced by Thermal to 30 MeV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, D.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Kahler, A. C.; Rising, M. E.; White, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new evaluation of the 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) induced by thermal to 30 MeV neutrons. Compared to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, this one includes recently published experimental data as well as an improved and extended model description to predict PFNS. For instance, the pre-equilibrium neutron emission component to the PFNS is considered and the incident energy dependence of model parameters is parametrized more realistically. Experimental and model parameter uncertainties and covariances are estimated in detail. Also, evaluated covariances are provided between all PFNS at different incident neutron energies. Selected evaluation results and first benchmark calculations using this evaluation are briefly discussed.

  16. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  17. Material Classification by Analysis of Prompt Photon Spectra Induced by 14-Mev Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilov, Alexander; Novikov, Ivan

    Neutron based technologies are widely used in the field of bulk material analysis. These methods employ characteristic prompt gamma rays induced by a neutron probe for classification of the interrogated object using the elemental parameters extracted from the spectral data. Automatic data analysis and material classification algorithms are required for applications where access to nuclear spectroscopy expertise is limited and/or the autonomous robotic operation is necessary. Data obtained with neutron based systems differ from elemental composition evaluations based on chemical formulae due to statistical nature of nuclear reactions, presence of shielding and cladding, and other environmental conditions. Experimental data that are produced by the spectral decomposition can be expressed graphically as sets of overlapping classes in a multidimensional space of measured elemental intensities. To discriminate between classes of various materials, decision-tree and pattern recognition algorithms were studied. Results of application of these methods to data sets obtained for a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator based active interrogation system are discussed.

  18. The Use of Point-of-Decision Prompts to Increase Stair Climbing in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Alan Sloan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a significant contributor to worldwide mortality and morbidity associated with non-communicable diseases. An excellent avenue to incorporate lifestyle physical activity into regular routine is to encourage the use of stairs during daily commutes. We evaluated the effectiveness of point-of-decision prompts (PODPs in promoting the use of stairs instead of the escalators in a Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (MRT station. We measured the number of stair climbers before the PODPs were put up, during the 4 weeks that they were in use, and 2 weeks after they were removed. Measurements at a no intervention control site were additionally taken. The use of stair-riser banners was associated with an increase in the number of people using the stairs by a factor of 1.49 (95% CI 1.34–1.64. After the banners were removed, the number of stair climbers at the experimental station dropped to slightly below baseline levels. The Singapore MRT serves a diverse multi-ethnic population with an average daily ridership of over 2 million and 88 stations island-wide. An increase of physical activity among these MRT commuters would have a large impact at the population level. Our findings can be translated into part of the national strategy to encourage an active lifestyle in Singaporeans.

  19. The use of point-of-decision prompts to increase stair climbing in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Robert Alan; Haaland, Benjamin Adam; Leung, Carol; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2013-01-07

    Physical inactivity is a significant contributor to worldwide mortality and morbidity associated with non-communicable diseases. An excellent avenue to incorporate lifestyle physical activity into regular routine is to encourage the use of stairs during daily commutes. We evaluated the effectiveness of point-of-decision prompts (PODPs) in promoting the use of stairs instead of the escalators in a Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) station. We measured the number of stair climbers before the PODPs were put up, during the 4 weeks that they were in use, and 2 weeks after they were removed. Measurements at a no intervention control site were additionally taken. The use of stair-riser banners was associated with an increase in the number of people using the stairs by a factor of 1.49 (95% CI 1.34-1.64). After the banners were removed, the number of stair climbers at the experimental station dropped to slightly below baseline levels. The Singapore MRT serves a diverse multi-ethnic population with an average daily ridership of over 2 million and 88 stations island-wide. An increase of physical activity among these MRT commuters would have a large impact at the population level. Our findings can be translated into part of the national strategy to encourage an active lifestyle in Singaporeans.

  20. Study of non-collinear parton dynamics in the prompt photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the prompt photon photoproduction at HERA within the framework of k{sub T} - factorization QCD approach. Our consideration is based on the off-shell matrix elements for the underlying partonic subprocesses. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton and in a photon are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin (KMR) prescription. Additionally, we use the CCFM-evolved unintegrated gluon as well as valence and sea quark distributions in a proton. A conservative error analysis is performed. Both inclusive and associated with the hadronic jet production rates are investigated. The theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. We study also the specific kinematical properties of the photon-jet system which are strongly sensitive to the transverse momentum of incoming partons. Using the KMR scheme, the contribution from the quarks emerging from the earlier steps of the parton evolution is estimated and found to be of 15 - 20% approximately. (orig.)

  1. The influence of poster prompts on stair use: The effects of setting, poster size and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Eves, Frank F.; Carroll, Douglas

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that poster prompts increase stair use. The present study was concerned with the effects of poster size, poster message, and setting on stair use. DESIGN: Using a quasi-experimental design, four observational studies were undertaken in which stair and escalator use were logged during 2-week baseline periods and 2-week intervention periods. METHODS: In the first two studies, observations were undertaken in two shopping centres (total N = 30,018) with the size of poster varying. In the other two studies (total N = 37,907), one in a shopping centre and one in a train station, two poster messages were tested in both sites. RESULTS: Pedestrian traffic volume was controlled for statistically. There were significant increases in stair use with A1- and A2-, but not A3-size posters. Overall, the two different poster messages were both effective in encouraging stair use. Interactions between gender and message setting, however, reflected the fact that the 'stay healthy, save time' poster had little impact on female shoppers but was highly effective for female commuters. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that developers of health-promotion posters pay attention to poster size. They also indicate that it is insufficient to segment audiences by gender without considering the setting and motivational context.

  2. Event-by-Event Study of Prompt Neutrons from 239Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J; Pruet, J; Younes, W

    2010-01-15

    Employing a recently developed Monte Carlo model, we study the fission of {sup 240}Pu induced by neutrons with energies from thermal to just below the threshold for second chance fission. Current measurements of the mean number of prompt neutrons emitted in fission, together with less accurate measurements of the neutron energy spectra, place remarkably fine constraints on predictions of microscopic calculations. In particular, the total excitation energy of the nascent fragments must be specified to within 1 MeV to avoid disagreement with measurements of the mean neutron multiplicity. The combination of the Monte Carlo fission model with a statistical likelihood analysis also presents a powerful tool for the evaluation of fission neutron data. Of particular importance is the fission spectrum, which plays a key role in determining reactor criticality. We show that our approach can be used to develop an estimate of the fission spectrum with uncertainties several times smaller than current experimental uncertainties for outgoing neutron energies of less than 2 MeV.

  3. Event-by-event study of prompt neutrons from 239Pu(n,f)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J; Pruet, J; Younes, W

    2009-07-23

    Employing a recently developed Monte-Carlo model, we study the fission of {sup 240}Pu induced by neutrons with energies from thermal to just below the threshold for second chance fission. Current measurements of the mean number of prompt neutrons emitted in fission, together with less accurate measurements of the neutron energy spectra, place remarkably fine constraints on predictions of microscopic calculations. In particular, the total excitation energy of the nascent fragments must be specified to within 1MeV to avoid disagreement with measurements of the mean neutron multiplicity. The combination of the Monte-Carlo fission model with a statistical likelihood analysis also presents a powerful tool for the evaluation of fission neutron data. Of particular importance is the fission spectrum, which plays a key role in determining reactor criticality. We show that our approach can be used to develop an estimate of the fission spectrum with uncertainties several times smaller than current experimental uncertainties for outgoing neutron energies of less than 2 MeV.

  4. Range assessment in particle therapy based on prompt γ-ray timing measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Christian; Hueso-González, Fernando; Müller, Andreas; Dendooven, Peter; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine; Kormoll, Thomas; Roemer, Katja; Petzoldt, Johannes; Wagner, Andreas; Pausch, Guntram

    2014-09-21

    Proton and ion beams open up new vistas for the curative treatment of tumors, but adequate technologies for monitoring the compliance of dose delivery with treatment plans in real time are still missing. Range assessment, meaning the monitoring of therapy-particle ranges in tissue during dose delivery (treatment), is a continuous challenge considered a key for tapping the full potential of particle therapies. In this context the paper introduces an unconventional concept of range assessment by prompt-gamma timing (PGT), which is based on an elementary physical effect not considered so far: therapy particles penetrating tissue move very fast, but still need a finite transit time--about 1-2 ns in case of protons with a 5-20 cm range--from entering the patient's body until stopping in the target volume. The transit time increases with the particle range. This causes measurable effects in PGT spectra, usable for range verification. The concept was verified by proton irradiation experiments at the AGOR cyclotron, KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Based on the presented kinematical relations, we describe model calculations that very precisely reproduce the experimental results. As the clinical treatment conditions entail measurement constraints (e.g. limited treatment time), we propose a setup, based on clinical irradiation conditions, capable of determining proton range deviations within a few seconds of irradiation, thus allowing for a fast safety survey. Range variations of 2 mm are expected to be clearly detectable.

  5. An online evidence based medicine exercise prompts reflection in third year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda Orkin; Robert, Nancy J; Raczek, John; Carraccio, Carol; Hicks, Patricia J

    2014-08-09

    Reflective practice is a desirable trait in physicians, yet there is little information about how it is taught to or learned by medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an online Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) exercise with a face-to-face debriefing session would prompt third year medical students to reflect on their current skills and lead them to further reflection on clinical decision making in the future. All third year medical students at the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine who completed their pediatrics clerkship between 7/1/09 and 2/11/11 were required to complete the EBM exercise. Following completion each student received a personal report (Learning Profile) of their responses and attended a one hour large group debriefing session. Student responses to a survey following the debriefing sessions were analyzed using a post-test survey design with a single experimental cohort. Ninety-five percent of students completing the debriefing survey indicated that the debriefing session helped them better understand their learning profiles; 68% stated that their profiles allowed them to evaluate themselves and their decisions. Sixty-three percent noted that participating in the exercise and the debrief would lead them to either learn more about EBM and use EBM more in the future or reflect more on their own decision making. The EBM exercise was a successful way to introduce the concept of reflective practice to third year medical students, and the graphic Learning Profiles were effective instigators of discussion and reflection.

  6. Needs of Accurate Prompt and Delayed γ-spectrum and Multiplicity for Nuclear Reactor Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpault, G.; Bernard, D.; Blanchet, D.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Ravaux, S.; Santamarina, A.

    The local energy photon deposit must be accounted accurately for Gen-IV fast reactors, advanced light-water nuclear reactors (Gen-III+) and the new experimental Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The γ energy accounts for about 10% of the total energy released in the core of a thermal or fast reactor. The γ-energy release is much greater in the core of the reactor than in its structural sub-assemblies (such as reflector, control rod followers, dummy sub-assemblies). However, because of the propagation of γ from the core regions to the neighboring fuel-free assemblies, the contribution of γ energy to the total heating can be dominant. For reasons related to their performance, power reactors require a 7.5% (1σ) uncertainty for the energy deposition in non-fuelled zones. For the JHR material-testing reactor, a 5% (1 s) uncertainty is required in experimental positions. In order to verify the adequacy of the calculation of γ-heating, TLD and γ-fission chambers were used to derive the experimental heating values. Experimental programs were and are still conducted in different Cadarache facilities such as MASURCA (for SFR), MINERVE and EOLE (for JHR and Gen-III+ reactors). The comparison of calculated and measured γ-heating values shows an underestimation in all experimental programs indicating that for the most γ-production data from 239Pu in current nuclear-data libraries is highly suspicious.The first evaluation priority is for prompt γ-multiplicity for U and Pu fission but similar values for otheractinides such as Pu and U are also required. The nuclear data library JEFF3.1.1 contains most of the photon production data. However, there are some nuclei for which there are missing or erroneous data which need to be completed or modified. A review of the data available shows a lack of measurements for conducting serious evaluation efforts. New measurements are needed to guide new evaluation efforts which benefit from consolidated modeling techniques.

  7. 骨髓基质细胞诱导分化修复髁突软骨面缺失的实验研究%An experimental study of bone marrow stromal cells differentiating to chondrocytes for repairing temporomandibular joint condylar cartilage defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃; 沈国芳; 王旭东; 杨辛; 张秀丽; 蒋欣泉

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To repair the temporomandibular joint condylar cartilaginous defects by the differentiated bone marrow stroma cells combined with chondrocytes. METHODS: Fifteen goats were randomly divided into 2 groups.The experimental group included 9 goats, autologous BMSCs combined with chondrocytes were mixed with pluronic F-127 and implanted into goat temporomandibular joint condylar articular cartilage defects. The control group included 6 goats, pluronic F-127 gel was implanted into their temporomandibular joint condylar articular cartilage defects.The goats were killed 4,8,12 weeks postoperatively.The reconstructive articular cartilage was evaluated by HE staining and immunostaining of type Ⅱ collagen. RESULTS: The experimental group could reconstruct the articular cartilage after 4 weeks. 12 weeks later the articular cartilage did not degenerate. The control group could not reconstruct the articular cartilage. CONCLUSIONS: BMSCs can be differentiated into chondrocytes and play an important role in repairing articular cartilage defects. Supported by Phosphor Program of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (04QMX1424) and Key Project in Social Development Sponsored by Fujian Provincial Department of Science and Technology (2009Y0016).%目的:采用骨髓基质细胞(BMSCs)体内修复髁突软骨全层缺失.方法:15只山羊,9只作为实验组,将BMSCs和少量软骨细胞(7∶3比例混合)按5×107/mL与生物可降解材料复合后,植入山羊髁突软骨全层缺失处;对照组6只山羊,髁突软骨全层缺失区植入支架材料,分别于术后4、8、12周每个时间段取材3只实验动物,2只对照组动物;2组分别用HE染色、Ⅱ型胶原分泌的免疫组化法进行评价.结果:实验组术后4周,山羊髁突软骨缺失区能形成成熟的软骨组织,12周时软骨未退变.对照组不能形成成熟的软骨组织.结论:骨髓基质细胞在自体软骨细胞基质的诱导下,可以修复山羊颞下

  8. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  9. Biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Høgh Danielsen, Pernille; Mikkelsen, Lone

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative-stress-induced damage to DNA includes a multitude of lesions, many of which are mutagenic and have multiple roles in cancer and aging. Many lesions have been characterized by MS-based methods after extraction and digestion of DNA. These preparation steps may cause spurious base oxidation...... DNA glycosylase 1), responsible for repair of 8-oxodG, by genotyping. Products of repair in DNA or the nucleotide pool, such as 8-oxodG, excreted into the urine can be assessed by MS-based methods and generally reflects the rate of damage. Experimental and population-based studies indicate that many...

  10. Prompt photon production in p-p collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleymans, J. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Redlich, K. [Universitat Bielefeld (Germany)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive photon cross-section in p-p collisions is presented. The dependence of the {gamma} rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. A comparison is made with experimental data for centre-of-mass energies ranging from 23 GeV to 1.8 TeV. Predictions of the cross-sections are given for two different sets of structure functions for RHIC and LHC energies.

  11. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15...

  13. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  15. Measurement of the inclusive isolated prompt photon production cross section at the Tevatron using the CDF detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluca Silberberg, Carolina [Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-04-01

    In this thesis we present the measurement of the inclusive isolated prompt photon cross section with a total integrated luminosity of 2.5 fb-1 of data collected with the CDF Run II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The prompt photon cross section is a classic measurement to test perturbative QCD (pQCD) with potential to provide information on the parton distribution function (PDF), and sensitive to the presence of new physics at large photon transverse momentum. Prompt photons also constitute an irreducible background for important searches such as H → γγ, or SUSY and extra-dimensions with energetic photons in the final state. The Tevatron at Fermilab (Batavia, U.S.A.) is currently the hadron collider that operates at the highest energies in the world. It collides protons and antiprotons with a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The CDF and the D0 experiments are located in two of its four interaction regions. In Run I at the Tevatron, the direct photon production cross section was measured by both CDF and DO, and first results in Run II have been presented by the DO Collaboration based on 380 pb-1. Both Run I and Run II results show agreement with the theoretical predictions except for the low pTγ region, where the observed and predicted shapes are different. Prompt photon production has been also extensively measured at fixed-target experiments in lower pTγ ranges, showing excess of data compared to the theory, particularly at high xT. From an experimental point of view, the study of the direct photon production has several advantages compared to QCD studies using jets. Electromagnetic calorimeters have better energy resolution than hadronic calorimeters, and the systematic uncertainty on the photon absolute energy scale is smaller. Furthermore, the determination of the photon kinematics does not require the use of jet algorithms. However, the measurements using photons

  16. 计算机辅助构建气管软骨环并行气管前壁缺损修复实验研究%Experimental study on computer-aided construction of tracheal rings for anterior tracheal defect repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋平; 赵大庆; 罗家胜; 李海立; 郑德育

    2014-01-01

    dogs (8 males and 4 females, aged 2-year-old, with body weight of 11-13 kg) were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental group and control group. The anterior 3-5 ring tracheal defect model(2 cm × 5 cm defect) was made to form a skin tube with diameter of about 2 cm and length of 5 cm in the tracheal resection site. In experimental group, two C-shaped tracheal rings with inside diameter about 2 cm were produced by computer-aided construction usingβ-TCP, placed outside of the artificial skin tube, and stitched with the skin tube by suspension suture. The cavity was closed by layer by layer suture and covered with lateral muscle. The control group underwent the same operation procedure except that withoutβ-TCP cartilage ring was placed outside the skin tube. The animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks, and fiber laryngoscopy, CT and conventional histological examination were conducted. Results None of the animals showed infection after operation. In control group, one animal died at the operation day due to severe subcutaneous emphysema, and gross anatomic observation showed that the repaired anterior part of the trachea collapsed and the lumen narrowed. All the other animals in control group survived 8 weeks post operation, which showed asthma at 1 week after operation, and vomiting after eating with limited neck mobility at 2 weeks after operation. Fiber laryngoscopy showed that the repaired part of anterior wall was collapsed with obviously abnormal breathing exercise. All the animals in experimental group survived 8 weeks without any symptoms. Fiber laryngoscopy showed smooth reconstructed airways and CT examination showed good implantation position. Histological examination showed that the β-TCP scaffolds were integrated well with the surrounding tissues, with the tissues were grown into the scaffold pores. Conclusion It is demonstrated that application of computer-aided technology could realize individualized manufacture of repair scaffolds, the

  17. Response tests of a LaCl{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector with low energy prompt gamma rays from boron and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Anezi, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al Matouq, Faris A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Dastageer, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-05-15

    The yield of 478 and 558 keV gamma-rays have been measured from water samples containing 0.031-0.500 wt. % boron and 0.0625-0.500 wt. % cadmium, respectively, using a cylindrical 76 mm Multiplication-Sign 76 mm (height Multiplication-Sign diameter) LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector. Inspite of interferences between detector-associated and the sample-associated prompt gamma rays, the LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector has excellent resolution for the low energy prompt gamma-rays. An excellent agreement has been observed between the experimental and calculated yield of boron and cadmium prompt gamma ray from water samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance Tests of a large LaCl{sub 3}:Ce Detector with Low Energy Prompt Gamma Rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photopeak efficiency estimation of the LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutron Activation spectrum of the LaCl{sub 3}:Ce Detector. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron and Cadmium concentration measurements in bulk water samples.

  18. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  19. Construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinger, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, P. [KC Integrity Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeomans, M.; Glover, A. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The presentations by Working Group 4 focused on construction, repair and maintenance of pipelines with particular reference to high-strength steels and their applications for natural gas transmission pipelines. Discussions focused on how technology can be used to provide cost-effective design and construction solutions for long distance pipelines in a manner that does not compromise safety and reliability. The role that carbon plays in increasing the toughness of steel was also discussed. A few fundamental changes in steel production technology and a reduction in carbon content can result in a simultaneous increase in strength and toughness of steels. The cost impact of this technology was summarized. It was concluded that high strength steels offer effective solutions to deliver cost-effective pipelines to transport natural gas from northern basins. This session also presented pipeline routes that transport diluted bitumens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Project and the Muskeg River Mine to upgrader facilities in Alberta. Construction issues included design conservatism, water course crossings, winter construction, winter ditching, and public consultation. Examples of high strength steel pipe applications were also included with reference to experience gained by TransCanada and Corridor Pipeline. tabs., figs.

  20. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S W; Robertson, D; Polf, J

    2010-11-21

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ∼ 10(-6) to 10(-3) prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy.

  1. Dental stem cells for tooth regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantesso, Andrea; Sharpe, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) resident in bone marrow are one of the most studied and clinically important populations of adult stem cells. Cells with, similar properties to these MSCs have been described in several different tooth tissues and the potential ease with which these dental MSCs could be obtained from patients has prompted great interest in these cells as a source of MSCs for cell-based therapeutics. In this review we address the current state of knowledge regarding these cells, their properties, origins, locations, functions and potential uses in tooth tissue engineering and repair. We discuss some of the key controversies and outstanding issues, not least of which whether dental stem cells actually exist.

  2. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  3. ACTI - An MCNP Data Library for Prompt Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, S. C. (Stephanie C.); Reedy, R. C. (Robert C.); Young, P. G. (Phillip Gaffney),

    2002-01-01

    Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy is used in a wide variety of applications for determining material compositions. High-quality photon-production data from thermal-neutron capture reactions are essential for these applications. Radiation transport codes, such as MCNP{trademark}, are often used to design detector systems, determine minimum detection thresholds, etc. These transport codes rely on evaluated nuclear databases such as ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) to provide the fundamental data used in the transport calculations. Often the photon-production data from incident neutron reactions in the evaluations are of relatively poor quality. We have compiled the best experimental data for thermal-neutron capture for the naturally occurring isotopes for elements from H through Zn as well as for {sup 70,72,73,74,76}Ge, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 155,157}Gd, {sup 181}Ta and {sup 182,183,184,186}W. This compilation has been used to update the ENDF evaluations for {sup 1}H, {sup 4}He, {sup 9}Be, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, Na, Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 32}S, S, {sup 35,37}Cl, K, Ca, {sup 45}Sc, Ti, {sup 51}V, {sup 50,52,53,54}Cr, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 54,56,57,58}Fe, {sup 58,60,61,62,64}Ni, {sup 63,65}Cu and {sup 182,183,184,186}W. In addition, the inelastic cross sections and corresponding secondary-photon distributions were updated for {sup 16}O. Complete new evaluations were submitted to ENDF for {sup 35,37}Cl. This paper will discuss the evaluation effort and the production of the MCNP data library, ACTI, based on the new evaluations. Data from the ENDF evaluations for {sup 28-30}Si were also included in the ACTI library for completeness. The silicon evaluations were updated in 1997 and include the latest experimental data for radiative capture.

  4. Umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    The repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias still represents a challenge to surgeons. Although a common and relatively simple procedure, there is no exact protocol today on how the repair should be done. The Mayo technique and its alterations could not stand the test of time: a recurrence rate of 20% and higher is not acceptable for any surgical procedure. Although there is no consensus opinion, one thing is clear: the importance of an anatomic repair without tension and without an artificial enlargement of the defect. In 1987 Lichtenstein reported on 6321 cases of herniorraphy with a tension free repair, and in 1994 Stuart reemphasized that special importance in his editorial in the Lancet. A newer study from Brancato and coworkers in Italy also states the advantage of a tension-free prosthetic repair in 16 patients with epigastric hernia. We have gone even further and recommend a tailored-to-the-patient repair using a customized polypropylene mesh and a one-layer running suture. The advantages should be obvious: no artificial creation of an even bigger than original defect, a completely tension-free repair, and little to no recurrence of the hernia. Our results clearly prove that assumption. Moreover, the procedure is extremely safe and complications are very rare and minor. We conclude that using a mesh plug in a customized tension-free repair of umbilical and epigastric hernia shows many advantages over the commonly used methods. And we finally conclude with the words of Albert Einstein: "The only source of knowledge is experience."

  5. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    New Jersey, USA. Repair Types, Procedures – Part I RTO-EN-AVT-156 9 - 19 [5] Drieker R, Botello C, MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle... MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR), Vol. III: Field Test Report,” AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0039, July 2000. [8

  6. Hand function after nerve repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundborg, Göran; Rosén, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

  7. Cobbler's technique for Iridodialysis repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Singh Pandav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis.

  8. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  9. Repairing Learned Knowledge Using Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    It necessar and Identify by’ 6109h nii be) learning precedent-based learning knowledge repair explanation-based learning near - miss groups 20. ABSTRACT...can a program use explanations to repair a recollection, preventing further misapplication? Near - Miss Groups Isolate Suspicious Relations If a metal...pail differs from a porcelain cup only in the position of handle attachment, then we would say that the pail is a near miss . Unfortunately, there are

  10. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  11. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  12. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  13. Neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm with thrombosis: prompt treatment should be needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Yu, Hyeong Won; Jo, Heui Seung

    2015-01-01

    Vitelline veins are a pair of embryonic structures. The veins develop the portal vein system. Serious problems occur if the vitelline vein does not regress and becomes an aneurysm. Thrombus formation in the vitelline vein aneurysm could lead to portal vein thrombosis and portal hypertension unless promptly and correctly treated. Though vitelline vein aneurysm is an extremely rare anomaly, it rapidly progresses to portal vein thrombosis that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We reported a case of neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm and thrombosis that was cured by prompt operation. PMID:26665130

  14. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  15. Evaluating the remaining strength factor for repaired pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, J.L.F.; Vieira, R.D [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Diniz, J.L.A. [Fluke Engenharia Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses and brings experimental evidence to the application of the remaining strength factor (RSF) to pipeline that has undergone metal thickness loss due to erosion, corrosion or grinding. The RSF is defined as the ratio between pressures that plastically collapse pipeline segments with and without metal loss (damage), and it may also be extended to damaged pipes that have been repaired with composite sleeves. Data from burst tests performed on undamaged, damaged and damage-repaired pipe specimens are utilized to back up the use of the RSF concept, allowing better insight into the safety factor derived from the application of standard fitness-for-purpose methodologies. The paper concludes by showing that the RSF may be used to establish a quantitative measurement of the effectiveness of a specific repair system applied to damaged pipes. (author)

  16. Beyond repair foci: DNA double-strand break repair in euchromatic and heterochromatic compartments analyzed by transmission electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Lorat

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs generated by ionizing radiation pose a serious threat to the preservation of genetic and epigenetic information. The known importance of local chromatin configuration in DSB repair raises the question of whether breaks in different chromatin environments are recognized and repaired by the same repair machinery and with similar efficiency. An essential step in DSB processing by non-homologous end joining is the high-affinity binding of Ku70-Ku80 and DNA-PKcs to double-stranded DNA ends that holds the ends in physical proximity for subsequent repair. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using transmission electron microscopy to localize gold-labeled pKu70 and pDNA-PKcs within nuclear ultrastructure, we monitored the formation and repair of actual DSBs within euchromatin (electron-lucent and heterochromatin (electron-dense in cortical neurons of irradiated mouse brain. RESULTS: While DNA lesions in euchromatin (characterized by two pKu70-gold beads, reflecting the Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer are promptly sensed and rejoined, DNA packaging in heterochromatin appears to retard DSB processing, due to the time needed to unravel higher-order chromatin structures. Complex pKu70-clusters formed in heterochromatin (consisting of 4 or ≥ 6 gold beads may represent multiple breaks in close proximity caused by ionizing radiation of highly-compacted DNA. All pKu70-clusters disappeared within 72 hours post-irradiation, indicating efficient DSB rejoining. However, persistent 53BP1 clusters in heterochromatin (comprising ≥ 10 gold beads, occasionally co-localizing with γH2AX, but not pKu70 or pDNA-PKcs, may reflect incomplete or incorrect restoration of chromatin structure rather than persistently unrepaired DNA damage. DISCUSSION: Higher-order organization of chromatin determines the accessibility of DNA lesions to repair complexes, defining how readily DSBs are detected and processed. DNA lesions in heterochromatin appear to be more

  17. Study on Repaired Earthquake-Damaged Bridge Piers under Seismic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete bridge pier damaged during earthquakes need be repaired to meet the design standards. Steel tube as a traditional material or FRP as a novel material has become popular to repair the damaged reinforced concrete (RC bridge piers. In this paper, experimental and finite element (FE studies are employed to analyze the confinement effectiveness of the different repair materials. The FE method was used to calculate the hysteretic behavior of three predamaged circle RC bridge piers repaired with steel tube, basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP, respectively. Meanwhile, the repaired predamaged circle concrete bridge piers were tested by pseudo-static cyclic loading to study the seismic behavior and evaluate the confinement effectiveness of the different repair materials and techniques. The FE analysis and experimental results showed that the repaired piers had similar hysteretic curves with the original specimens and all the three repair techniques can restore the seismic performance of the earthquake-damaged piers. Steel tube jacketing can significantly improve the lateral stiffness and peak load of the damaged pier, while the BFRP and CFRP sheets cannot improve these properties due to their thin thickness.

  18. DNA Repair Profiling Reveals Nonrandom Outcomes at Cas9-Mediated Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overbeek, Megan; Capurso, Daniel; Carter, Matthew M; Thompson, Matthew S; Frias, Elizabeth; Russ, Carsten; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Nye, Christopher; Gradia, Scott; Vidal, Bastien; Zheng, Jiashun; Hoffman, Gregory R; Fuller, Christopher K; May, Andrew P

    2016-08-18

    The repair outcomes at site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by the RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 determine how gene function is altered. Despite the widespread adoption of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to induce DSBs for genome engineering, the resulting repair products have not been examined in depth. Here, the DNA repair profiles of 223 sites in the human genome demonstrate that the pattern of DNA repair following Cas9 cutting at each site is nonrandom and consistent across experimental replicates, cell lines, and reagent delivery methods. Furthermore, the repair outcomes are determined by the protospacer sequence rather than genomic context, indicating that DNA repair profiling in cell lines can be used to anticipate repair outcomes in primary cells. Chemical inhibition of DNA-PK enabled dissection of the DNA repair profiles into contributions from c-NHEJ and MMEJ. Finally, this work elucidates a strategy for using "error-prone" DNA-repair machinery to generate precise edits.

  19. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Xia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  20. Regulation of tissue repair and regeneration by electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG En-tong; ZHAO Min

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous electric fields(Efs)have been detected at wounds and damaged tissues.The potential roles of Efs in tissue repair and regeneration have been an intriguing topic for centuries.Recent researches have provided significant insights into how naturally occurring Efs may participate in the control of tissue repair and regeneration.Applied Efs equivalent to the size of fields measured in vivo direct cell migration,cell proliferation and nerve sprouting at wounds.More remarkably,physiological Efs are a guidance cue that directs cell migration which overrides other well accepted directional signals including initial injury stimulation,wound void,contact inhibition release,population pressure and chemotaxis.Efs activate many intracellular signaling pathways in a directional manner.Modulation of endogenous wound Efs affects epithelial cell migration,cell proliferation,and nerve growth at cornea wounds in vivo.Electric stimulation is being tested clinically for the treatments of bone fracture,wound healing and spinal cord injury.Efs thus may represent a novel type of signaling paradigm in tissue repair and regeneration.Combination of the electric stimulation and other well understood biochemical regulatory mechanisms may offer powerful and effective therapies for tissue repair and regeneration.This review introduces experimental evidence for the existence of endogenous Efs and discusses their roles in tissue repair and regeneration.

  1. Regulation of tissue repair and regeneration by electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-tong; Zhao, Min

    2010-02-01

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) have been detected at wounds and damaged tissues. The potential roles of EFs in tissue repair and regeneration have been an intriguing topic for centuries. Recent researches have provided significant insights into how naturally occurring EFs may participate in the control of tissue repair and regeneration. Applied EFs equivalent to the size of fields measured in vivo direct cell migration, cell proliferation and nerve sprouting at wounds. More remarkably, physiological EFs are a guidance cue that directs cell migration which overrides other well accepted directional signals including initial injury stimulation, wound void, contact inhibition release, population pressure and chemotaxis. EFs activate many intracellular signaling pathways in a directional manner. Modulation of endogenous wound EFs affects epithelial cell migration, cell proliferation, and nerve growth at cornea wounds in vivo. Electric stimulation is being tested clinically for the treatments of bone fracture, wound healing and spinal cord injury. EFs thus may represent a novel type of signaling paradigm in tissue repair and regeneration. Combination of the electric stimulation and other well understood biochemical regulatory mechanisms may offer powerful and effective therapies for tissue repair and regeneration. This review introduces experimental evidence for the existence of endogenous EFs and discusses their roles in tissue repair and regeneration.

  2. Measurements of prompt gamma-rays from fast-neutron induced fission with the LICORNE directional neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J N; Halipre, P; Oberstedt, S; Oberstedt, A

    2014-01-01

    At the IPN Orsay we have developed a unique, directional, fast neutron source called LICORNE, intended initially to facilitate prompt fission gamma measurements. The ability of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator to produce intense beams of $^7$Li is exploited to produce quasi-monoenergetic neutrons between 0.5 - 4 MeV using the p($^7$Li,$^7$Be)n inverse reaction. The available fluxes of up to 7 × 10$^7$ neutrons/second/steradian for the thickest hydrogen-rich targets are comparable to similar installations, but with two added advantages: (i) The kinematic focusing produces a natural neutron beam collimation which allows placement of gamma detectors adjacent to the irradiated sample unimpeded by source neutrons. (ii) The background of scattered neutrons in the experimental hall is drastically reduced. The dedicated neutron converter was commissioned in June 2013. Some preliminary results from the first experiment using the LICORNE neutron source at the IPN Orsay are presented. Prompt fission gamma rays from fas...

  3. Prompt signals and displaced vertices in sparticle searches for next-to-minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allanach, B.C. [University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Badziak, Marcin [University of Warsaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cottin, Giovanna [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Desai, Nishita [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Hugonie, Cyril [LUPM, UMR 5299, CNRS, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2016-09-15

    We study the LHC phenomenology of the next-to-minimal model of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, both for Run I and Run II. The Higgs phenomenology of the model is consistent with observations: a 125 GeV standard model-like Higgs which mixes with singlet-like state of mass around 90 GeV that provides a 2σ excess at LEP II. The model possesses regions of parameter space where a longer-lived lightest neutralino decays in the detector into a gravitino and a b-jet pair or a tau pair resulting in potential displaced vertex signatures. We investigate current bounds on sparticle masses and the discovery potential of the model, both via conventional searches and via searches for displaced vertices. The searches based on promptly decaying sparticles currently give a lower limit on the gluino mass 1080 GeV and could be sensitive up to 1900 GeV with 100 fb{sup -1}, whereas the current displaced vertex searches cannot probe this model due to b-quarks in the final state. We show how the displaced vertex cuts might be relaxed in order to improve signal efficiency, while simultaneously applied prompt cuts reduce background, resulting in a much better sensitivity than either strategy alone and motivating a fully fledged experimental study. (orig.)

  4. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  5. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  6. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  7. Comparing different energy partitions at scission used in prompt emission model codes GEF and Point-by-Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Visan, I.; Giubega, G.

    2015-08-01

    -Cameron formula. Different assumptions for the deformation energies of fragments (absolute deformation at scission, or extra-deformation at scission with respect to the full acceleration) impacting the sawtooth-like shape of the excitation energy E* (A) at full acceleration are discussed, too. Limitations and advantages of these methods are also mentioned. Both TXE partition methods applied in the PbP model lead to prompt emission results (e.g. ν (A) and Eγ (A)) describing well the experimental data.

  8. Increasing following headway with prompts, goal setting, and feedback in a driving simulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Michelle L; Van Houten, Ron

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of prompting, goal setting, and feedback on following headway of young drivers in a simulated driving environment and assessed whether changes produced in following headway...

  9. Further Study of Prompt Neutrino Production in a Proton Beam Dump Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In previous beam dump experiments at CERN, the production of prompt @n^e and @n(@m) in proton-nucleus collisions has been established. A difference in the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes which would indicate new physics, cannot be ruled out on the basis of existing data.\\\\ \\\\ The main aim of this beam dump experiment is to check with much better accuracy the equality of the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes. The use of two copper dumps with average density 1 and 1/3 permits the separation of the prompt and conventional neutrino fluxes by extrapolation to infinite density. The dumps will be located at the downstream end of the decay tunnel of the SPS neutrino facility.

  10. Fading teacher prompts from peer-initiation interventions for young children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, S L; Chandler, L K; Ostrosky, M; McConnell, S R; Reaney, S

    1992-01-01

    This study examined a system for fading teacher prompts to children who served as peers in peer-initiation interventions for young children with disabilities. A teacher taught peers to direct social initiations to children with disabilities, provided verbal prompts for those initiations, and introduced a system that provided peers with visual feedback about the social interactions of the children with disabilities. She then systematically withdrew the verbal prompts to peers, and subsequently faded the visual feedback system. Peer initiations increased when the intervention began and resulted in increases in social interaction for the children with disabilities. As the teacher systematically faded the prompts and visual feedback to the peers, social interaction continued at the levels found during intervention and was maintained during a short maintenance period.

  11. Prompt photon and W/Z production in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy Science, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [Skobeltsin Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    In the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach we study the production of prompt photons and electroweak gauge bosons in high energy proton-(anti)proton collisions at energy of modern colliders.

  12. 78 FR 33008 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Radioactivity During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of public Webinar and... potential rulemaking to address prompt remediation of residual radioactivity during the operational phase of... radioactivity during the operational phase with the objective of avoiding complex decommissioning...

  13. Deciphering Core Collapse Supernovae Is Convection the Key?; 1, prompt convection

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzacappa, A; Bruenn, S W; Blondin, J M; Guidry, M W; Strayer, M R; Umar, A S

    1996-01-01

    We couple two-dimensional hydrodynamics to detailed one-dimensional multigroup flux-limited diffusion neutrino transport to investigate prompt convection in core collapse supernovae. Our initial conditions, time-dependent boundary conditions, and neutrino distributions for computing neutrino heating, cooling, and deleptonization rates are obtained from one-dimensional simulations that implement multigroup flux-limited diffusion neutrino transport and one-dimensional hydrodynamics. The development and evolution of prompt convection and its ramifications for the shock dynamics are investigated for both 15 and 25 solar mass models, representative of the two classes of stars with compact and extended iron cores, respectively. In the absence of neutrino transport, prompt convection develops and dissipates on a time scale $\\sim$15 ms for both models. Prompt convection seeds convection behind the shock, which causes distortions in the shock's sphericity, but on the average, the shock radius is not boosted significan...

  14. An Investigation of Luria's Hypothesis on Prompting in Aphasic Naming Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edith Chin; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated A. R. Luria's hypothesis that aphasic subgroups (Broca's, conduction, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasics) would respond differentially to phonemic prompts. Results, with the exception of the anomic aphasic group, supported Luria's predictions. (Author/DB)

  15. An Investigation of Luria's Hypothesis on Prompting in Aphasic Naming Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edith Chin; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated A. R. Luria's hypothesis that aphasic subgroups (Broca's, conduction, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasics) would respond differentially to phonemic prompts. Results, with the exception of the anomic aphasic group, supported Luria's predictions. (Author/DB)

  16. 76 FR 42074 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 20 Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity... information pertinent to its considerations. II. Discussion Currently, there are no NRC regulations...

  17. A measurement of single and double prompt photon production at the CERN overlinepp collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitti, J.; Ambrosini, G.; Ansari, R.; Autiero, D.; Bareyre, P.; Bertram, I. A.; Blaylock, G.; Bonamy, P.; Borer, K.; Bourliaud, M.; Buskulic, D.; Carboni, G.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cenci, P.; Chollet, J. C.; Conta, C.; Costa, F.; Costantini, F.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Curatolo, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; DelPrete, T.; DeWolf, R. S.; DiLella, L.; Ducros, Y.; Egan, G. F.; Einsweiler, K. F.; Esposito, B.; Fayard, L.; Federspiel, A.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Froidevaux, D.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J. M.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Gössling, C.; Goggi, V. G.; Grünendahl, S.; Hara, K.; Hellman, S.; Hřivnáč, J.; Hufnagel, H.; Hugentobler, E.; Hultqvist, K.; Iacopini, E.; Incandela, J.; Jakobs, K.; Jenni, P.; Kluge, E. E.; Kurz, N.; Lami, S.; Lariccia, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Linssen, L.; Livan, M.; Lubrano, P.; Magneville, C.; Malgeri, L.; Mandelli, L.; Mapelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Meier, K.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Moniez, M.; Moning, R.; Morganti, M.; Müller, L.; Munday, D. J.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Onions, C.; Pal, T.; Parker, M. A.; Parrour, G.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Pentney, J. M.; Pepe, M.; Perini, L.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Polesello, G.; Poppleton, A.; Pretzl, K.; Primavera, M.; Punturo, M.; Repellin, J. P.; Rimoldi, A.; Sacchi, M.; Scampoli, P.; Schacher, J.; Schmidt, B.; Šimák, V.; Singh, S. L.; Sondermann, V.; Spiwoks, R.; Stapnes, S.; Talamonti, C.; Tondini, F.; Tovey, S. N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Unal, G.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vercesi, V.; Weidberg, A. R.; Wells, P. S.; White, T. O.; Wood, D. R.; Wotton, S. A.; Zaccone, H.; Zylberstejn, A.; UA2 Collaboration

    1992-08-01

    A measurement of the cross-sections for single and double prompt photon production in overlinepp interactions at s = 630 GeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 13.2 pb -1. The results are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD. The signal from double prompt photon production has a statistical significance of 4.3 standard deviations.

  18. A feasibility study for a clinical decision support system prompting HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D R; Hall, C; Rae, C; Rayment, Ml; Branch, M; Littlewood, J; Sullivan, A

    2017-07-01

    Levels of undiagnosed HIV infection and late presentation remain high globally despite attempts to increase testing. The objective of this study was to evaluate a risk-based prototype application to prompt HIV testing when patients undergo routine blood tests. Two computer physician order entry (CPOE) systems were modified using the application to prompt health care workers (HCWs) to add an HIV test when other tests selected suggested that the patient was at higher risk of HIV infection. The application was applied for a 3-month period in two areas, in a large London hospital and in general practices in Teesside/North Yorkshire. At the end of the evaluation period, HCWs were interviewed to assess the usability and acceptability of the prompt. Numbers of HIV tests ordered in the general practice areas were also compared before and after the prompt's introduction. The system was found to be both useable and generally acceptable to hospital doctors, general practitioners and nurse practitioners, with little evidence of prompt/alert fatigue. The issue of the prompt appearing late in the patient consultation did lead to some difficulties, particularly around discussion of the test and consent. In the general practices, around 1 in 10 prompts were accepted and there was a 6% increase in testing rates over the 3-month study period (P = 0.169). Using a CPOE-based clinical decision support application to prompt HIV testing appears both feasible and acceptable to HCWs. Refining the application to provide more accurate risk stratification is likely to make it more effective. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  19. Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, D.C., E-mail: pacedc@fusion.gat.com; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Fishler, B.; Murphy, C.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Neutral beam prompt losses place appreciable power on an in-vessel tokamak antenna. • Simulations predict prompt loss power and inform protective tile design. • Experiments confirm the validity of the prompt loss simulations. - Abstract: Neutral beam prompt losses (injected neutrals that ionize such that their first poloidal transit intersects with the wall) can put appreciable power on the outer wall of tokamaks, and this power may damage the wall or other internal components. These prompt losses are simulated including a protruding helicon antenna installation in the DIII-D tokamak and it is determined that 160 kW of power will impact the antenna during the injection of a particular neutral beam. Protective graphite tiles are designed in response to this modeling and the wall shape of the installed antenna is precisely measured to improve the accuracy of these calculations. Initial experiments confirm that the antenna component temperature increases according to the amount of neutral beam energy injected into the plasma. In this case, only injection of beams that are aimed counter to the plasma current produce an appreciable power load on the outer wall, suggesting that the effect is of little concern for tokamaks featuring only co-current neutral beam injection. Incorporating neutral beam prompt loss considerations into the design of this in-vessel component serves to ensure that adequate protection or cooling is provided.

  20. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/crUreWGQdGo.

  1. An Evaluation of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures in Skill Acquisition for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Julie A. Ackerlund; Weinkauf, Sara; Zeug, Nicole; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that various prompting procedures are effective in teaching skills to children and adults with developmental disabilities. Simultaneous prompting includes proving a prompt immediately following an instruction; whereas constant time-delay procedures include a set time delay (i.e., 5 s or 10 s) prior to delivering a…

  2. Short-term outcome after Onstep versus Lichtenstein technique for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Burcharth, J; Fonnes, S;

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high number of patients with chronic pain following inguinal hernia repair, a new, simple and safe method of repair is needed. Onstep is a new type of inguinal hernia repair that might be able to reduce postoperative acute and chronic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate...... patients, > 18 years, with a primary inguinal hernia. Experimental treatment in this study was the Onstep technique, which was compared with the Lichtenstein repair. Primary outcome was postoperative pain during the first 10 days following surgery. Secondary outcomes included duration of surgery, period...... between the groups regarding early postoperative pain or minor postoperative complications. Four patients had a recurrence within the first 10 days of follow-up, one patient in the Lichtenstein group and three patients in the Onstep group, p = 0.30. The Onstep technique for inguinal hernia repair was safe...

  3. Modeling the response of a fast ion loss detector using orbit tracing techniques in a neutral beam prompt-loss study on the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, D. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fisher, R. K.; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Garcia-Munoz, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Darrow, D. S.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A numerical model describing the expected measurements of neutral beam prompt-losses by a newly commissioned fast ion loss detector (FILD) in DIII-D is presented. This model incorporates the well understood neutral beam deposition profiles from all eight DIII-D beamlines to construct a prompt-loss source distribution. The full range of detectable ion orbit phase space available to the FILD is used to calculate ion trajectories that overlap with neutral beam injection footprints. Weight functions are applied to account for the level of overlap between these detectable orbits and the spatial and velocity (pitch) properties of ionized beam neutrals. An experimental comparison is performed by firing each neutral beam individually in the presence of a ramping plasma current. Fast ion losses determined from the model are in agreement with measured losses.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt gamma-ray spectra from depleted uranium under D-T neutron irradiation and electron recoil spectra in a liquid scintillator detector

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jianguo; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Tonghua; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the problem of inefficient computing time and unreliable results in MCNP5 calculation, a two-step method is adopted to calculate the energy deposition of prompt gamma-rays in detectors for depleted uranium spherical shells under D-T neutrons irradiation. In the first step, the gamma-ray spectrum for energy below 7 MeV is calculated by MCNP5 code; secondly, the electron recoil spectrum in a BC501A liquid scintillator detector is simulated based on EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code with the gamma-ray spectrum from the first step as input. The comparison of calculated results with experimental ones shows that the simulations agree well with experiment in the energy region 0.4-3 MeV for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum and below 4 MeVee for the electron recoil spectrum. The reliability of the two-step method in this work is validated.

  5. Vehicle implementation and cold start calibration of a port injected M100 engine using plasma jet ignition and prompt EGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, D.P.; Mallory, R.W.; Rao, V.K.; Bardon, M.F.; Battista, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the vehicle implementation and cold start calibration of a neat methanol (M100) fueled port injected engine equipped with plasma jet ignition and prompt exhaust gas recirculation. Test results are presented in which the influence of various factors on fuel enrichment requirements were studied with the aim of identifying strategies to reduce enrichment and lower start-up emissions. Vehicle cold starting has been demonstrated down to {minus}30 C and studied in detail circa {minus}20 C. Reductions in start-up CO emissions at {minus}7 C have been achieved by means of early closed loop fuel control. Experimental results are also presented which indicate that the potential exists to reduce start-up hydrocarbon emissions at 25 C when appropriate calibration strategies are employed.

  6. Effect of exogenous transforming growth factor-beta1 on radius defects healing of experimental rabbits repaired by coralline hydroxyapatite%转化生长因子-β1对珊瑚羟基磷灰石修复兔桡骨骨缺损的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董耀武; 于绍斌; 蔡亚夫; 陈建强; 戎利民

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察局部注射不同剂量转化生长因子(TGF)-β1对珊瑚羟基磷灰石(CHA)修复兔桡骨骨缺损的影响.方法 48只兔随机分为A、B、C组,每组16只;构建桡骨骨缺损模型;缺损区均植入CHA;A、B、C组分别每日局部持续注射TGF-β1 0、20、200 ng,连续4周;术后2、4、8、16周切取植入物,苏木素-伊红(HE)染色观察组织学改变,并应用Lane-Sandhu评分标准对各组植入物手术后16周进行组织学和X-线影像评分,并检测各组桡骨生物力学性能.结果 手术后16周,A、B、C组影像学评分分别为(1.50、1.91、4.80)、骨愈合质量评分(0.51、0.88、1.70)、骨皮质重塑及改建评分(0.50、0.82、2.39)、新骨形成评分(0.00、1.22、4.56),各项评分组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);手术后16周,生物力学检测:A、B、C组最大载荷(N)分别为(180.14、251.17、273.20),各组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);刚性(N/mm)(348.83、549.18、689.19),各组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 外源性应用TGF-β1可加速CHA修骨缺损的修复,且具有明显剂量依赖性.%Objective To investigate the effect of local injection of different doses of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the radius defects healing of experimental rabbits repaired by coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA). Methods Forty-eight rabbits were randomly divided into groups A (n = 16), B (n = 16) and C (n = 16). After the models of repairing defect of the radii were established, CHA was implanted. Each repairing defect of the radii was locally injected with TGFβ1 (0 for group A, 20 for group B, and 200 ng for group C) for 4 weeks. At the 2nd, 4th, 8th and 16th week after surgery the implantments were harvested. The histological changes were observe by HE staining, and the defects healing was evaluated by radiograph, biomechanical tests at the 16th week after surgery and biomechanics of the radii was measured. Results In groups A, B and C

  7. T-odd angular correlations in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilyan, G. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Klenke, J. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Meier-Leibnitz (FRM II) (Germany); Krakhotin, V. A.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Study of the T-odd three-vector correlation in the emission of prompt neutrons from {sup 235}U fission by polarized cold neutrons has been continued at the facility MEPHISTO of the FRM II reactor (Technical University of Munich). The sought correlation was not found within experimental error of 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. The upper limit for the asymmetry coefficient has been set to vertical bar D{sub n} vertical bar < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} at 99% confidence level, whereas for ternary fission correlation coefficient D{sub {alpha}} = (170{+-}20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. This limit casts doubt on a model that explains the three-vector correlation in ternary fission by the Coriolis mechanism. At the same time, five-vector correlation in the emission of prompt fission neutrons has been measured, which describes the rotation of the fissioning nucleus at the moment it breaks (ROT effect). At the angle 22.5 Degree-Sign to the fission axis, the correlation coefficient was found to be (1.57 {+-} 0.20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, while at the angle of 67.5 Degree-Sign it is zero within the experimental uncertainty. The existence of ROT effect in the emission of prompt fission neutrons can be explained by the anisotropy of neutron emission in the rest frame of the fragment (fission fragments are aligned with respect to the axis of deformation of the fissioning nucleus), similar to the mechanism of ROT effect in the emission of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  8. The Effect of Consciousness-Raising Listening Prompts on the Development of the Speech Act of Apology in an Iranian EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zangoei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In line with the previous bodies of research, the present study in interlanguage pragmatics (ILP proved that some aspects of pragmatics were amenable to instruction even in foreign language (FL contexts. However, there are still controversies over the best convenient teaching techniques and appropriate materials. Moreover, production-oriented approaches to teaching pragmatics caused scant practical studies over the perception of the frequent speech acts such as apology conducted to date. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relative effectiveness of consciousness-raising (C-R listening prompts on the development of the speech act of apology on 64 (34 male and 30 female ranging in age from 17 to 27 upper-intermediate Persian learners of English who were randomly assigned to two groups of 32. While the experimental group took advantages of listening prompts with C-R or input enhancement activities, the control group received the same listening prompts without any C-R activities. The two groups were then exposed to 20 conversation extracts during 10 sessions of instruction including different apology situations taken from Interchange Series, Tactics for Listening Series, American Headway, and Top Notch. The results of the multiple-choice discourse completion task (MDCT indicated that learners in the experimental group benefited more from C-R activities via listening prompts and outperformed the control group. In addition, the results revealed that male and female learners’ development in this pragmatic aspect of language did differ significantly. The findings throw light on practical as well as pedagogical implications of ILP and provide suggestions for English as a second language/English as a foreign language (ESL/EFL teachers and materials developers.

  9. Prompt gamma ray imaging for verification of proton boron fusion therapy: A Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Han-Back; Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Moo-Sub; Suh, Tae Suk

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify acquisition feasibility of a single photon emission computed tomography image using prompt gamma rays for proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and to confirm an enhanced therapeutic effect of PBFT by comparison with conventional proton therapy without use of boron. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to acquire reconstructed image during PBFT. We acquired percentage depth dose (PDD) of the proton beams in a water phantom, energy spectrum of the prompt gamma rays, and tomographic images, including the boron uptake region (BUR; target). The prompt gamma ray image was reconstructed using maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (MLEM) with 64 projection raw data. To verify the reconstructed image, both an image profile and contrast analysis according to the iteration number were conducted. In addition, the physical distance between two BURs in the region of interest of each BUR was measured. The PDD of the proton beam from the water phantom including the BURs shows more efficient than that of conventional proton therapy on tumour region. A 719keV prompt gamma ray peak was clearly observed in the prompt gamma ray energy spectrum. The prompt gamma ray image was reconstructed successfully using 64 projections. Different image profiles including two BURs were acquired from the reconstructed image according to the iteration number. We confirmed successful acquisition of a prompt gamma ray image during PBFT. In addition, the quantitative image analysis results showed relatively good performance for further study. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  11. Absolute prompt-gamma yield measurements for ion beam therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M.; Bajard, M.; Brons, S.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; De Rydt, M.; Freud, N.; Krimmer, J.; La Tessa, C.; Létang, J. M.; Parodi, K.; Pleskač, R.; Prieels, D.; Ray, C.; Rinaldi, I.; Roellinghoff, F.; Schardt, D.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Prompt-gamma emission detection is a promising technique for hadrontherapy monitoring purposes. In this regard, obtaining prompt-gamma yields that can be used to develop monitoring systems based on this principle is of utmost importance since any camera design must cope with the available signal. Herein, a comprehensive study of the data from ten single-slit experiments is presented, five consisting in the irradiation of either PMMA or water targets with lower and higher energy carbon ions, and another five experiments using PMMA targets and proton beams. Analysis techniques such as background subtraction methods, geometrical normalization, and systematic uncertainty estimation were applied to the data in order to obtain absolute prompt-gamma yields in units of prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, unit of field of view, and unit of solid angle. At the entrance of a PMMA target, where the contribution of secondary nuclear reactions is negligible, prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, per millimetre and per steradian equal to (124 ± 0.7stat ± 30sys) × 10-6 for 95 MeV u-1 carbon ions, (79 ± 2stat ± 23sys) × 10-6 for 310 MeV u-1 carbon ions, and (16 ± 0.07stat ± 1sys) × 10-6 for 160 MeV protons were found for prompt gammas with energies higher than 1 MeV. This shows a factor 5 between the yields of two different ions species with the same range in water (160 MeV protons and 310 MeV u-1 carbon ions). The target composition was also found to influence the prompt-gamma yield since, for 300/310 MeV u-1 carbon ions, a 42% greater yield ((112 ± 1stat ± 22sys) × 10-6 counts ion-1 mm-1 sr-1) was obtained with a water target compared to a PMMA one.

  12. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  13. Intraoperative evaluation of transmitral pressure gradients after edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan N Hilberath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve (MV has been described as a viable option used for the surgical management of mitral regurgitation (MR. Based on the significant changes in MV geometry associated with this technique, we hypothesized that edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative transmitral pressure gradients (TMPG compared to conventional methods. METHODS: Patient records and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE examinations of 552 consecutive patients undergoing MV repair at a single institution over a three year period were assessed. After separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, peak and mean TMPG were recorded for each patient and subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: 84 patients (15% underwent edge-to-edge MV repair. Peak and mean TMPG were significantly higher compared to gradients in patients undergoing conventional repairs: 10.7 ± 0.5 mmHg vs 7.1 ± 0.2 mmHg; P<0.0001 and 4.3 ± 0.2 mmHg vs 2.8 ± 0.1 mmHg; P<0.0001. Only patients with mean TMPG ≥ 7 mmHg (n = 9 required prompt reoperation for iatrogenic mitral stenosis (MS. No differences in peak and mean TMPG were observed among edge-to-edge repairs performed in isolation, compared to those performed in combination with annuloplasty: 11.0 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mmHg and 4.4 ± 0.3 mmHg vs 4.3 ± 0.3 mmHg. There were no differences in TMPG between various types of annuloplasty techniques used in combination with the edge-to-edge repairs. CONCLUSIONS: Edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative peak and mean TMPG after separation from CPB compared to conventional repair techniques. Unless gradients are severely elevated, these findings are not necessarily suggestive of iatrogenic MS. Thus, in the immediate postoperative period mildly elevated TMPG can be expected and tolerated after edge-to-edge mitral repairs.

  14. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  15. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovacevic, David; Rodeo, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site...

  16. Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000004.htm Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge To use the sharing ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 8. Read More Cleft lip and palate Cleft lip and palate repair Review Date 5/9/ ...

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000240.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge To use the sharing features ... References Orandi BJ, Black JH. Open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  18. Performance of Styrene Butadiene Rubber as a Concrete Repair Material in tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Prakash, V. Syam; Thampan, C. K.; Varma, Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Deterioration of Concrete due to variety of reasons like corrosion of steel, inferior quality of materials as well as workmanship and exposure to aggressive environment like thermal cycling affect the performance or damage a number of Reinforced cement concrete structures. In order to repair these structures for enhancing the service life, number of methods and materials are available. But the degree of success of any repair in concrete depends mainly on the correct choice and the method of application of repair materials. This paper discusses the details of an experimental investigation on the performance of Styrene ñ Butadiene Rubber (SBR) as a concrete repair material in tropical climatic conditions. Resistance to water penetration and tensile cracking are two important performance criteria for any repair material. Cement mortar cubes of mix proportion 1:3 with SBR added at the rate of 20% of the weight of cement, and control specimens without SBR were made. Compressive strength and sorptivity values of the cubes were determined. Shear Bond strength (by slant shear test) and splitting tensile strength of the repaired cylinder specimens of standard dimensions, in which SBR used as a bonding agent were determined. These values were compared with the values obtained for the similar specimens, in which the bonding agent applied was conventional cement slurry. The influence of thermal cycling on the properties of repaired concrete specimens were also studied. A comparison has also been made with the values required to meet the standard specifications of a repair material.

  19. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  20. Comparative tissue transcriptomics reveal prompt inter-organ communication in response to local bacterial kidney infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhen Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal infections elicit inflammatory responses via regulated signaling pathways. Infection outcome depends strongly on early events occurring immediately when bacteria start interacting with cells in the mucosal membrane. Hitherto reported transcription profiles on host-pathogen interactions are strongly biased towards in vitro studies. To detail the local in vivo genetic response to infection, we here profiled host gene expression in a recent experimental model that assures high spatial and temporal control of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC infection within the kidney of a live rat. Results Transcriptional profiling of tissue biopsies from UPEC-infected kidney tissue revealed 59 differentially expressed genes 8 h post-infection. Their relevance for the infection process was supported by a Gene Ontology (GO analysis. Early differential expression at 3 h and 5 h post-infection was of low statistical significance, which correlated to the low degree of infection. Comparative transcriptomics analysis of the 8 h data set and online available studies of early local infection and inflammation defined a core of 80 genes constituting a "General tissue response to early local bacterial infections". Among these, 25% were annotated as interferon-γ (IFN-γ regulated. Subsequent experimental analyses confirmed a systemic increase of IFN-γ in rats with an ongoing local kidney infection, correlating to splenic, rather than renal Ifng induction and suggested this inter-organ communication to be mediated by interleukin (IL-23. The use of comparative transcriptomics allowed expansion of the statistical data handling, whereby relevant data could also be extracted from the 5 h data set. Out of the 31 differentially expressed core genes, some represented specific 5 h responses, illustrating the value of comparative transcriptomics when studying the dynamic nature of gene regulation in response to infections. Conclusion Our hypothesis