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Sample records for repair system decreases

  1. Composite Repair System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL has developed an innovative composite repair methodology known as the Composite Repair System (CRS). In this phase I effort, CRS is being developed for the...

  2. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA molecule which makes it ideal for storage and propagation of genetic information. ... of these errors are broadly referred to as DNA repair. DNA can ... changes occur in the human genome per day. ..... nails, frequent physical and mental.

  3. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  4. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  5. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, I.T.; Perez-Ocon, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures

  6. A geometric process repair model for a repairable cold standby system with priority in use and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Wang Guanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. For each component, assume that the successive working times form a decreasing geometric process while the consecutive repair times constitute an increasing geometric process, and component 1 has priority in use and repair. Under these assumptions, we consider a replacement policy N based on the number of repairs of component 1 under which the system is replaced when the number of repairs of component 1 reaches N. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy N* such that the average cost rate (i.e. the long-run average cost per unit time) of the system is minimized. The explicit equation of the average cost rate of the system is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy N* can be determined analytically or numerically. Finally, a numerical example with Weibull distribution is given to illustrate some theoretical results in this paper.

  7. Analysis for a two-dissimilar-component cold standby repairable system with repair priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kit Nam Francis; Zhang Yuanlin; Lai, Kin Keung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. Assume that working time distributions and repair time distributions of the two components are both exponential, and Component 1 has repair priority when both components are broken down. After repair, Component 1 follows a geometric process repair while Component 2 obeys a perfect repair. Under these assumptions, using the perfect repair model, the geometric process repair model and the supplementary variable technique, we not only study some important reliability indices, but also consider a replacement policy T, under which the system is replaced when the working age of Component 1 reaches T. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy T* such that the long-run average loss per unit time (i.e. average loss rate) of the system is minimized. The explicit expression for the average loss rate of the system is derived, and the corresponding optimal replacement policy T* can be found numerically. Finally, a numerical example for replacement policy T is given to illustrate some theoretical results and the model's applicability. - Highlights: → A two-dissimilar-component cold standby system with repair priority is formulated. → The successive up/repair times of Component 1 form a decreasing/increasing geometric process. → Not only some reliability indices but also a replacement policy are studied.

  8. Double-Row Capsulolabral Repair Increases Load to Failure and Decreases Excessive Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lucas S; Thompson, Matthew; Altchek, David W; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q; Rocchi, Vanna J; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-11-01

    Using a cadaver shoulder instability model and load-testing device, we compared biomechanical characteristics of double-row and single-row capsulolabral repairs. We hypothesized a greater reduction in glenohumeral motion and translation and a higher load to failure in a mattress double-row capsulolabral repair than in a single-row repair. In 6 matched pairs of cadaveric shoulders, a capsulolabral injury was created. One shoulder was repaired with a single-row technique, and the other with a double-row mattress technique. Rotational range of motion, anterior-inferior translation, and humeral head kinematics were measured. Load-to-failure testing measured stiffness, yield load, deformation at yield load, energy absorbed at yield load, load to failure, deformation at ultimate load, and energy absorbed at ultimate load. Double-row repair significantly decreased external rotation and total range of motion compared with single-row repair. Both repairs decreased anterior-inferior translation compared with the capsulolabral-injured condition, however, no differences existed between repair types. Yield load in the single-row group was 171.3 ± 110.1 N, and in the double-row group it was 216.1 ± 83.1 N (P = .02). Ultimate load to failure in the single-row group was 224.5 ± 121.0 N, and in the double-row group it was 373.9 ± 172.0 N (P = .05). Energy absorbed at ultimate load in the single-row group was 1,745.4 ± 1,462.9 N-mm, and in the double-row group it was 4,649.8 ± 1,930.8 N-mm (P = .02). In cases of capsulolabral disruption, double-row repair techniques may result in decreased shoulder rotational range of motion and improved load-to-failure characteristics. In cases of capsulolabral disruption, repair techniques with double-row mattress repair may provide more secure fixation. Double-row capsulolabral repair decreases shoulder motion and increases load to failure, yield load, and energy absorbed at yield load more than single-row repair. Published by

  9. Using repair priorities in systems with redundacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleptchenko, A.V.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Van Houtum, G.-J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and analyze a mathematical model for the computation of the system availability for a system of parallel machines with redundancies and repair priorities. Using the presented models, we show that the repair priorities have a strong effect on the performance of the system.

  10. Stochastic Modelling Of The Repairable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejczak Karol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available All reliability models consisting of random time factors form stochastic processes. In this paper we recall the definitions of the most common point processes which are used for modelling of repairable systems. Particularly this paper presents stochastic processes as examples of reliability systems for the support of the maintenance related decisions. We consider the simplest one-unit system with a negligible repair or replacement time, i.e., the unit is operating and is repaired or replaced at failure, where the time required for repair and replacement is negligible. When the repair or replacement is completed, the unit becomes as good as new and resumes operation. The stochastic modelling of recoverable systems constitutes an excellent method of supporting maintenance related decision-making processes and enables their more rational use.

  11. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  12. Regression Models for Repairable Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-972 ISSN 1387-5841 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Reliability analysis * Repair models * Regression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/novak-0450902.pdf

  13. On some steady-state characteristics of systems with gradual repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim; Ludick, Zani

    2014-01-01

    We consider a repairable system with continuous output that alternates between states of operation and repair. The output of the system in the operating state is represented by a continuous, decreasing function of time. We assume that during the repair state, the system can produce output that is modelled by an increasing stochastic process. The repair action gradually restores the output of the system to its initial level and it returns to the operating state. We obtain and analyse expressions for the generalized availability and related characteristics of systems with gradual repair and consider several meaningful examples

  14. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  15. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  16. Self-repair of cracks in brittle material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most effective uses for self repair is in material systems that crack because the cracks can allow the repair chemical to flow into the crack damage sites in all three dimensions. In order for the repair chemical to stay in the damage site and flow along to all the crack and repair there must be enough chemical to fill the entire crack. The repair chemical must be designed appropriately for the particular crack size and total volume of cracks. In each of the three examples of self repair in crackable brittle systems, the viscosity and chemical makeup and volume of the repair chemicals used is different for each system. Further the chemical delivery system has to be designed for each application also. Test results from self repair of three brittle systems are discussed. In "Self Repair of Concrete Bridges and Infrastructure" two chemicals were used due to different placements in bridges to repair different types of cracks- surface shrinkage and shear cracks, In "Airplane Wings and Fuselage, in Graphite" the composite has very different properties than the concrete bridges. In the graphite for airplane components the chemical also had to survive the high processing temperatures. In this composite the cracks were so definite and deep and thin that the repair chemical could flow easily and repair in all layers of the composite. In "Ceramic/Composite Demonstrating Self Repair" the self repair system not only repaired the broken ceramic but also rebounded the composite to the ceramic layer

  17. A model system for DNA repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.; Perlmutter, E.

    1984-01-01

    The search for the ''lethal lesion:'' which would yield a molecular explanation of biological survival curves led to attempts to correlate unrepaired DNA lesions with loss of reproductive integrity. Such studies have shown the crucial importance of DNA repair systems. The unrepaired DSB has been sought for such correlation, but in such study the DNA was too large, polydisperse, and/or structurally complex to permit precise measurement of break induction and repair. Therefore, an analog of higher order systems but with a genome of readily measurable size, is needed. Bacteriophage T4 is such an analog. Both its biological (PFU) and molecular (DNA) survival curves are exponentials. Its aerobic /sub PFU/D/sub 37///sub DNA/D/sub 37/ ratio, (410 +- 4.5Gy/540 +- 25 Gy) indicates that 76 +- 4% of lethality at low multiplicity infection (moi 1) the survival is greater than can be explained if the assumption of no parental DSB repair were valid. Both T4 and its host have DSB repair systems which can be studied by the infectious center method. Results of such studies are discussed

  18. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W.; Rensen, Sander S.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Claessen, Sandra M.; Greve, Jan W.; Driessen, Ann; Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A.; Schooten, Frederik J. van; Chiu, Roland K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M 1 dG adducts. No differences in M 1 dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX). This reduction in γH2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  19. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Rensen, Sander S. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Godschalk, Roger W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco [Cancer Risk Factor Branch, ISPO Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Greve, Jan W. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Driessen, Ann [Department of Pathology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik J. van [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K., E-mail: r.k.chiu@med.umcg.nl [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M{sub 1}dG adducts. No differences in M{sub 1}dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX). This reduction in {gamma}H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  20. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell is difficult to control, the damage can be possibly delayed and controlled by use of a suitable repair material. The lattice fracture model is used in this paper to investigate the performance of strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC in concrete repair systems exposed to ongoing corrosion. Numerical results were verified by experimental tests when SHCC, nonreinforced material (repair mortar, and commercial repair mortar are used as repair materials. In experiments, reinforcement bars (surrounded by a repair material were exposed to accelerated corrosion tests. The influence of the substrate surface preparation, the type of repair material, the interface, and the substrate strength on the resulting damage and failure mode of repair systems are discussed. In general, SHCC repair enables distributed cracking with small crack widths, up to several times smaller compared to repair mortar. Furthermore, more warning signs prior to the final failure are present in the SHCC repair system.

  1. Availability and mean life time prediction of multistage degraded system with partial repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Hoang; Suprasad, A.; Misra, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    In some environments, components might not always fail fully, but can degrade, and there can be multiple stages of degradation. In such cases, the efficiency of the system may decrease. After a certain stage of degradation the efficiency of the system may decrease to an unacceptable limit and can be considered as a total failure. However, the system can fail randomly from any stage. and can be repaired. Further, the repair action cannot bring the system to the good stage, but can make it operational and the failure rate of the system will, therefore, remain the same as before the failure. In this study, we present a model for predicting the reliability, availability, mean life time, and mean time to first failure of multistage degraded systems with partial repairs. In the analysis, state dependent transition rates for the degradation process, as well as repair processes, are considered. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the results

  2. Aged blood factors decrease cellular responses associated with delayed gingival wound repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Saldías

    Full Text Available Aging is a gradual biological process characterized by a decrease in cell and organism functions. Gingival wound healing is one of the impaired processes found in old rats. Here, we studied the in vivo wound healing process using a gingival repair rat model and an in vitro model using human gingival fibroblast for cellular responses associated to wound healing. To do that, we evaluated cell proliferation of both epithelial and connective tissue cells in gingival wounds and found decreased of Ki67 nuclear staining in old rats when compared to their young counterparts. We next evaluated cellular responses of primary gingival fibroblast obtained from young subjects in the presence human blood serum of individuals of different ages. Eighteen to sixty five years old masculine donors were classified into 3 groups: "young" from 18 to 22 years old, "middle-aged" from 30 to 48 years old and "aged" over 50 years old. Cell proliferation, measured through immunofluorescence for Ki67 and flow cytometry for DNA content, was decreased when middle-aged and aged serum was added to gingival fibroblast compared to young serum. Myofibroblastic differentiation, measured through alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, was stimulated with young but not middle-aged or aged serum both the protein levels and incorporation of α-SMA into actin stress fibers. High levels of PDGF, VEGF, IL-6R were detected in blood serum from young subjects when compared to middle-aged and aged donors. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and TNF were increased in the serum of aged donors. In old rat wound there is an increased of staining for TNF compared to young wound. Moreover, healthy gingiva (non injury shows less staining compared to a wound site, suggesting a role in wound healing. Moreover, serum from middle-aged and aged donors was able to stimulate cellular senescence in young cells as determined by the expression of senescence associated beta-galactosidase and histone H2

  3. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  4. Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent or Embryonic Stem Cells Decreases the DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Mujoo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nitric oxide (NO-cyclic GMP pathway contributes to human stem cell differentiation, but NO free radical production can also damage DNA, necessitating a robust DNA damage response (DDR to ensure cell survival. How the DDR is affected by differentiation is unclear. Differentiation of stem cells, either inducible pluripotent or embryonic derived, increased residual DNA damage as determined by γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci, with increased S-phase-specific chromosomal aberration after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, suggesting reduced homologous recombination (HR repair as supported by the observation of decreased HR-related repair factor foci formation (RAD51 and BRCA1. Differentiated cells also had relatively increased fork stalling and R-loop formation after DNA replication stress. Treatment with NO donor (NOC-18, which causes stem cell differentiation has no effect on double-strand break (DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining but reduced DSB repair by HR. Present studies suggest that DNA repair by HR is impaired in differentiated cells.

  5. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory, operation, and repair of drum brakes, disc brakes, and brake system components. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Brake Systems, (2) Master Cylinder, (3) Drum Brakes, (4) Disc Brakes, (5) Power Brakes, and (6)…

  6. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  7. Closed-loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  8. Reducing costs of repairable inventory supply systems via dynamic scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, H.G.H.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    We study a system consisting of one repair shop and one stockpoint, where spare parts of multiple critical repairables are kept on stock to serve an installed base of technical systems. Part requests are met from stock if possible, and backordered otherwise. The objective is to minimize aggregate

  9. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

  10. mei-9/sup a/ mutant of Drosophila melanogaster increases mutagen sensitivity and decreases excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.B.; Golino, M.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The mei-9/sup a/ mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, which reduces meiotic recombination in females, is deficient in the excision of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in both sexes. Assays were performed in primary cultures and established cell lines derived from embryos. An endonuclease preparation from M. luteus, which is specific for pyrimidine dimers, was employed to monitor uv-induced dimers in cellular DNA. The rate of disappearance of endonuclease-sensitive sites from DNA of control cells is 10-20 times faster than that from mei-9/sup a/ cells. The mutant mei-218, which is also deficient in meiotic recombination, removes nuclease-sensitive sites at control rates. The mei-9/sup a/ cells exhibit control levels of photorepair, postreplication repair and repair of single strand breaks. In mei-9 cells DNA synthesis and possibly postreplication repair are weakly sensitive to caffeine. Larvae which are hemizygous for either of the two mutants that define the mei-9 locus are hypersensitive to killing by the mutagens methyl methanesulfonate, nitrogen mustard and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Larvae hemizygous for the mei-218 mutant are insensitive to each of these reagents. These data demonstrate that the mei-9 locus is active in DNA repair of somatic cells. Thus functions involved in meiotic recombination are also active in DNA repair in this higher eukaryote. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestions that the mei-9 locus functions in the exchange events of meiosis. The mei-218 mutation behaves differently in genetic tests and our data suggest its function may be restricted to meiosis. These studies demonstrate that currently recognized modes of DNA repair can be efficiently detected in primary cell cultures derived from Drosophila embryos

  11. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  12. In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength between Ceramic Repair Systems and Ceramic Materials and Evaluation of the Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan; Manav, Taha; Albayrak, Haydar

    2017-04-01

    When fracture of an all-ceramic restoration occurs, it can be necessary to repair without removing the restoration. Although there are many studies about the repair of metal-ceramic restorations, there are few about all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between ceramic repair systems and esthetic core materials and to evaluate the wettability of all-ceramic core materials. Disk-like specimens (N = 90) made of three dental ceramic infrastructure materials (zirconia ceramic, alumina ceramic, glass ceramic) were polished with silicon carbide paper, prepared for bonding (abrasion with 30 μm diamond rotary cutting instrument). Thirty specimens of each infrastructure were obtained. Each infrastructure group was divided into three subgroups; they were bonded using 3 repair systems: Bisco Intraoral Repair Kit, Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System, and Clearfil Repair System. After 1200 thermocycles, shear bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. In addition, the contact angle values of the infrastructures after surface treatments were examined for wettability. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Although there were no significant differences among the repair systems (p > 0.05) in the glass ceramic and zirconia groups, a significant difference was found among the repair systems in alumina infrastructure (p 0.05); however, a statistically significant difference was found among the repair systems (p < 0.05). No difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems in terms of contact angle values. Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System had higher bond strength values than the other repair systems. Although no difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems, contact wettability angle was decreased by surface treatments compared with polished surfaces. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Uetake, Naoto; Hara, Teruo.

    1997-01-01

    Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

  14. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Geary

    Full Text Available Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1 expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1. Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism

  15. Capacitated two-echelon inventory models for repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsar, Z.M.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Gershwin, S.B.; Dallery, Y.; Papadopoulos, C.; Smith, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two-echelon maintenance systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location. Each repair facility may be considered to be a job shop and is modeled as a (limited capacity) open queuing network, while any

  16. Repair systems for deteriorated bridge piles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop a durable repair system for deteriorated steel bridge piles that : can be implemented without the need for dewatering. A rigorous survey of the relevant practice nationwide was : conducted to infor...

  17. Dacryoscintigraph evaluation of the repaired lacrimal drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, J.G.; Vitale, P.; Elliott, R.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    We have used dacryoscintigraphy to study the efficiency of the lacrimal system following the repair of a divided lower canaliculus in 4 children. This test has been reliable in evaluating lacrimal function and suggests that a canaliculus can be repaired and splinted satisfactorily. Our experience with dacryoscintigraphy confirms that it is a safe comfortable, and reliable method for studying the patency of the lacrimal drainage system

  18. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  19. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Yang, Qiang; Xie, Qing; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  20. A bivariate optimal replacement policy for a multistate repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Yam, Richard C.M.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating simple repairable system with k+1 states, including k failure states and one working state, is studied. It is assumed that the system after repair is not 'as good as new' and the deterioration of the system is stochastic. We consider a bivariate replacement policy, denoted by (T,N), in which the system is replaced when its working age has reached T or the number of failures it has experienced has reached N, whichever occurs first. The objective is to determine the optimal replacement policy (T,N)* such that the long-run expected profit per unit time is maximized. The explicit expression of the long-run expected profit per unit time is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy can be determined analytically or numerically. We prove that the optimal policy (T,N)* is better than the optimal policy N* for a multistate simple repairable system. We also show that a general monotone process model for a multistate simple repairable system is equivalent to a geometric process model for a two-state simple repairable system in the sense that they have the same structure for the long-run expected profit (or cost) per unit time and the same optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  1. Performance evaluation of multi-state degraded systems with minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soro, Isaac W.; Nourelfath, Mustapha; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model for evaluating the availability, the production rate and the reliability function of multi-state degraded systems subjected to minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance. The status of the system is considered to degrade with use. These degradations may lead to decrease in the system efficiency. It is assumed that the system can consecutively degrade into several discrete states, which are characterized by different performance rates, ranging from perfect functioning to complete failure. The latter is observed when the degradation level reaches a certain critical threshold such as the system efficiency may decrease to an unacceptable limit. In addition, the system can fail randomly from any operational or acceptable state and can be repaired. This repair action brings the system to its previous operational state without affecting its failure rate (i.e., minimal repair). The used preventive maintenance policy suggests that if the system reaches the last acceptable degraded state, it is brought back to one of the states with higher efficiency. Considering customer demand as constant, the system is modeled as a continuous-time Markov process to assess its instantaneous and stationary performance measures. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model.

  2. ADHESIVE SYSTEM AFFECTS REPAIR BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür IRMAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive systems on repair bond strength of aged resin composites. Materials and Methods: Ninety composite discs were built and half of them were subjected to thermal aging. Aged and non-aged specimens were repaired with resin composite using three different adhesive systems; a two-step self-etch adhesive, a two-step total-etch adhesive and a one-step self-etch adhesive; then they were subjected to shear forces. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Adhesive type and aging significantly affected the repair bond strengths (p<0.0001. No statistical difference was found in aged composite groups repaired with two-step self- etch or two-step total-etch adhesive. One-step self-etch adhesive showed lower bond strength values in aged composite repair (p<0.0001. Conclusion: In the repair of aged resin composite, two-step self-etch and two-step total-etch adhesives exhibited higher shear bond strength values than that of one-step self-etch adhesive.

  3. Cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoliang Liu; Lirong Cui; Yanqing Wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption. The repairman’s multiple vacations policy, the working vacations policy and the vacation interruption are considered simultaneously. The lifetime of components fol ows a phase-type (PH) distribution. The repair time in the regular repair period and the working vacation period fol ow other two PH distributions at different rates. For this sys-tem, the vector-valued Markov process governing the system is constructed. We obtain several important performance measures for the system in transient and stationary regimes applying matrix-analytic methods. Final y, a numerical example is given to il ustrate the results obtained.

  4. Inducible DNA-repair systems in yeast: competition for lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, R E; Morrison, D P

    1987-03-01

    DNA lesions may be recognized and repaired by more than one DNA-repair process. If two repair systems with different error frequencies have overlapping lesion specificity and one or both is inducible, the resulting variable competition for the lesions can change the biological consequences of these lesions. This concept was demonstrated by observing mutation in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to combinations of mutagens under conditions which influenced the induction of error-free recombinational repair or error-prone repair. Total mutation frequency was reduced in a manner proportional to the dose of 60Co-gamma- or 254 nm UV radiation delivered prior to or subsequent to an MNNG exposure. Suppression was greater per unit radiation dose in cells gamma-irradiated in O2 as compared to N2. A rad3 (excision-repair) mutant gave results similar to wild-type but mutation in a rad52 (rec-) mutant exposed to MNNG was not suppressed by radiation. Protein-synthesis inhibition with heat shock or cycloheximide indicated that it was the mutation due to MNNG and not that due to radiation which had changed. These results indicate that MNNG lesions are recognized by both the recombinational repair system and the inducible error-prone system, but that gamma-radiation induction of error-free recombinational repair resulted in increased competition for the lesions, thereby reducing mutation. Similarly, gamma-radiation exposure resulted in a radiation dose-dependent reduction in mutation due to MNU, EMS, ENU and 8-MOP + UVA, but no reduction in mutation due to MMS. These results suggest that the number of mutational MMS lesions recognizable by the recombinational repair system must be very small relative to those produced by the other agents. MNNG induction of the inducible error-prone systems however, did not alter mutation frequencies due to ENU or MMS exposure but, in contrast to radiation, increased the mutagenic effectiveness of EMS. These experiments demonstrate

  5. Service water system repair/replacement guidelines: Planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.J.; Gandy, D.W.; Peterson, A.G. Jr.; Findlan, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Service water system failures have prompted concerns related to extended power plant operating life and plant availability. Selection and procurement of materials for repair or replacement of piping and components may be the most important factors in improving service water system reliability. The authors examined factors that contribute to reduced SWS reliability. The factors include material selection inadequacies, water treatment problems, operational/maintenance practices, fabrication procedures, environmental degradation mechanisms, and coating problems. The authors investigated material selection for replacement and repair, taking into account fabrication practices, environmental concerns, and cost comparisons of materials. They examined specific components such as piping, pumps, valves, and heat exchangers with regard to material selection and fabrication practice. Although proper material selection is essential in upgrading and maintaining the designed functions of a SWS, it is critical to address SWS repair/replacement activities with a systemwide approach. Degradation of materials in SWS applications are plant specific, depending on factors unique to each site such as geographic location, existing materials, operating procedures, and environment. All these characteristics must be addressed in making repair/replacement decisions. Criteria that must be integrated for successful long-term operation of SWS include the following: Materials selection (upgrade or in-kind replacement), Evaluation of root cause or nature of the failure mechanism, Scope of the repair/replacement activities, Material compatibility of the existing materials, Operational and maintenance procedures, Code or jurisdictional requirements, Economic considerations, Water treatment programs, System design improvements or modifications

  6. Balancing flexibility and inventory in repair inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de H.F.M.; Martin, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    In repair inventory systems, failed units are exchanged for serviceable units upon failure. The probability that serviceable units are available to support the exchange process can be used as a measure for the performance of the system. This measure is commonly called the expected fill rate. The

  7. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ix I. Introduction ...RELIABILITY OF REPAIRABLE USAF SYSTEMS I. Introduction General Issue The United States relies on complex systems to protect and project the national...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Implementing a Lifecycle Mangement Framework, Washington DC, DC: DoD, 2008

  8. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Liberopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Tan, B.; MacGregor Smith, J.; Gershwin, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon epairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  9. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  10. Iterative Repair Planning for Spacecraft Operations Using the Aspen System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, G.; Knight, R.; Chien, S.; Fukunaga, A.; Govindjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN). ASPEN encodes complex spacecraft knowledge of operability constraints, flight rules, spacecraft hardware, science experiments and operations procedures to allow for automated generation of low level spacecraft sequences. Using a technique called iterative repair, ASPEN classifies constraint violations (i.e., conflicts) and attempts to repair each by performing a planning or scheduling operation. It must reason about which conflict to resolve first and what repair method to try for the given conflict. ASPEN is currently being utilized in the development of automated planner/scheduler systems for several spacecraft, including the UFO-1 naval communications satellite and the Citizen Explorer (CX1) satellite, as well as for planetary rover operations and antenna ground systems automation. This paper focuses on the algorithm and search strategies employed by ASPEN to resolve spacecraft operations constraints, as well as the data structures for representing these constraints.

  11. Repair of uv damaged DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beighlie, D J; Teplitz, R L

    1975-06-01

    The NZB NZW hybrid mouse is an animal model of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Two breeding schemes were devised using NZB, NZW, B/W, and CBA mice, which permit definitive decisions regarding genetic and/or viral origin of the disease. It is proposed that at least two factors must be involved: a genetic abnormality producing hyper-responsiveness to nucleic acid antigens, and a DNA repair defect which results in liberation of DNA and RNA when cells are lethally injured. Evidence is presented for a DNA repair deficit in human SLE lymphocytes following in vitro irradiation with ultraviolet (uv) light. Lymphocytes from adult New Zealand and control mice were found to lack normal amounts of endonuclease necessary for repairing uv damage.

  12. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ...

  13. DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Estela; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2017-10-30

    Living organisms are usually exposed to various DNA damaging agents so the mechanisms to detect and repair diverse DNA lesions have developed in all organisms with the result of maintaining genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair machinery contribute to cancer, certain diseases, and aging. Therefore, conserving the genomic sequence in organisms is key for the perpetuation of life. The machinery of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar. Plants also share mechanisms for DNA repair with animals, although they differ in other important details. Plants have, surprisingly, been less investigated than other living organisms in this context, despite the fact that numerous lethal mutations in animals are viable in plants. In this manuscript, a worldwide bibliometric analysis of DDR systems and DDR research in plants was made. A comparison between both subjects was accomplished. The bibliometric analyses prove that the first study about DDR systems in plants (1987) was published thirteen years later than that for other living organisms (1975). Despite the increase in the number of papers about DDR mechanisms in plants in recent decades, nowadays the number of articles published each year about DDR systems in plants only represents 10% of the total number of articles about DDR. The DDR research field was done by 74 countries while the number of countries involved in the DDR & Plant field is 44. This indicates the great influence that DDR research in the plant field currently has, worldwide. As expected, the percentage of studies published about DDR systems in plants has increased in the subject area of agricultural and biological sciences and has diminished in medicine with respect to DDR studies in other living organisms. In short, bibliometric results highlight the current interest in DDR research in plants among DDR studies and can open new perspectives in the research field of DNA damage repair.

  14. Decreased transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair capacity is associated with increased p53- and MLH1-independent apoptosis in response to cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbert, Lawton J; Smith, Jennifer M; McKay, Bruce C

    2010-01-01

    One of the most commonly used classes of anti-cancer drugs presently in clinical practice is the platinum-based drugs, including cisplatin. The efficacy of cisplatin therapy is often limited by the emergence of resistant tumours following treatment. Cisplatin resistance is multi-factorial but can be associated with increased DNA repair capacity, mutations in p53 or loss of DNA mismatch repair capacity. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to reduce the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) capacity of several prostate and colorectal carcinoma cell lines with specific defects in p53 and/or DNA mismatch repair. The effect of small inhibitory RNAs designed to target the CSB (Cockayne syndrome group B) transcript on TC-NER and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined. These prostate and colon cancer cell lines were initially TC-NER proficient and RNAi against CSB significantly reduced their DNA repair capacity. Decreased TC-NER capacity was associated with an increase in the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, even in p53 null and DNA mismatch repair-deficient cell lines. The present work indicates that CSB and TC-NER play a prominent role in determining the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin even in the absence of p53 and DNA mismatch repair. These results further suggest that CSB represents a potential target for cancer therapy that may be important to overcome resistance to cisplatin in the clinic

  15. Decreased UV-induced DNA repair synthesis in peripheral leukocytes from patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringborg, U.; Lambert, B.; Landergen, J.; Lewensohn, R.

    1981-01-01

    The uv-induced DNA repair synthesis in peripheral leukocytes from 7 patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome was compared to that in peripheral leukocytes from 5 patients with basal cell carcinomas and 39 healthy subjects. A dose response curve was established for each individual, and maximum DNA repair synthesis was used as a measure of the capacity for DNA repair. The patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome had about 25% lower level of maximum DNA repair synthesis as compared to the patients with basal cell carcinomas and control individuals. The possibility that DNA repair mechanisms may be involved in the etiology to the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is discussed

  16. Optimal Inspection and Repair Strategies for Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, A. M.; Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1992-01-01

    and a design variable as optimization variables. A model for estimating the total expected costs for structural systems is given including the costs associated with the loss of individual structural members as well as the costs associated with the loss of at least one element of a particular group......A model for reliability-based repair and maintenance strategies of structural systems is described. The total expected costs in the lifetime of the structure are minimized with the number of inspections, the number and positions of the inspected points, the inspection efforts, the repair criteria...... of structural members and the costs associated with the simultaneous loss of all members of a specific group of structural members. The approach is based on the pre-posteriori analysis from the classical decision theory. Special emphasis is given to the problem of selecting the number of points in the structure...

  17. Development of management system for plant repairing work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    In the fast breeder reactor, ''Monju'', in order to conduct nuclear plant repairing works securely and effectively, development of a computer system to assist management business on plant repairing work was begun on 1993. The system has been applied to about 5,000 times of operational management through past four times of plant inspection and to daily inspections and maintenance, and is daily used at working places of ''Monju'' such as issue/management of about 110,000 times of operational prohibition tag in isolated management. And, by automation of issue/management on working sheets and operational prohibition tag and others conducted hitherto by hand, the management business has been largely rationalized. (G.K.)

  18. Moisture movement in cement-based repair systems monitored by X-ray absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties in the repair material and interface are greatly influenced by the initial moisture content of the concrete (or mortar) substrate. In order to quantify moisture profiles inside the repair system, X-ray absorption was used. Preliminary studies are

  19. The development of a remote repair system for deep water pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, Ian; Giles, John [Stolt Offshore MS Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The ability to maintain a high level of flexibility within the contingency plans for sub sea pipeline repair is a critical issue normally achieved by basing the repair plans on diver intervention. This allows the pipeline operator flexibility to respond to particular repair situations as they occur, minimize up front planning and optimize the investment in repair equipment and stock. However for deep water pipelines all intervention must be performed by remote methods, which require the development of suitable equipment and more detailed repair procedures. This paper describes the development of a remotely operated pipeline repair system capable of working down to 3000 m and allowing a relatively high level of flexibility with minimum investment in repair stock. The repair system is based upon the Modular Advanced Tie-In System (MATIS) which has been successfully developed for the tie-in of deep water flow lines. The MATIS repair system is based on the use of standard flanges to replace a damaged section of pipe with a spool piece in a similar manner to a hyperbaric welded repair. Various repair scenarios are discussed in the paper together with the equipment and the procedures used to perform the repair. The paper will also discuss the other remote repair options such as hot tapping and friction stitch welding. (author)

  20. Endovascular aneurysm repair simulation can lead to decreased fluoroscopy time and accurately delineate the proximal seal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H; Kendrick, Daniel E; Moorehead, Pamela A; Nagavalli, Anil; Miller, Claire P; Liu, Nathaniel T; Wang, John C; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-07-01

    The use of simulators for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is not widespread. We examined whether simulation could improve procedural variables, including operative time and optimizing proximal seal. For the latter, we compared suprarenal vs infrarenal fixation endografts, right femoral vs left femoral main body access, and increasing angulation of the proximal aortic neck. Computed tomography angiography was obtained from 18 patients who underwent EVAR at a single institution. Patient cases were uploaded to the ANGIO Mentor endovascular simulator (Simbionix, Cleveland, Ohio) allowing for three-dimensional reconstruction and adapted for simulation with suprarenal fixation (Endurant II; Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) and infrarenal fixation (C3; W. L. Gore & Associates Inc, Newark, Del) deployment systems. Three EVAR novices and three experienced surgeons performed 18 cases from each side with each device in randomized order (n = 72 simulations/participant). The cases were stratified into three groups according to the degree of infrarenal angulation: 0° to 20°, 21° to 40°, and 41° to 66°. Statistical analysis used paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Mean fluoroscopy time for participants decreased by 48.6% (P time decreased by 33.8% (P zone coverage in highly angulated aortic necks was significantly decreased. The infrarenal device resulted in mean aortic neck zone coverage of 91.9%, 89.4%, and 75.4% (P zone coverage. The side of femoral access for the main body did not influence proximal seal zone coverage regardless of infrarenal angulation. Simulation of EVAR leads to decreased fluoroscopy times for novice and experienced operators. Side of femoral access did not affect precision of proximal endograft landing. The angulated aortic neck leads to decreased proximal seal zone coverage regardless of infrarenal or suprarenal fixation devices. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  2. Decreased transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair capacity is associated with increased p53- and MLH1-independent apoptosis in response to cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jennifer M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most commonly used classes of anti-cancer drugs presently in clinical practice is the platinum-based drugs, including cisplatin. The efficacy of cisplatin therapy is often limited by the emergence of resistant tumours following treatment. Cisplatin resistance is multi-factorial but can be associated with increased DNA repair capacity, mutations in p53 or loss of DNA mismatch repair capacity. Methods RNA interference (RNAi was used to reduce the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER capacity of several prostate and colorectal carcinoma cell lines with specific defects in p53 and/or DNA mismatch repair. The effect of small inhibitory RNAs designed to target the CSB (Cockayne syndrome group B transcript on TC-NER and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined. Results These prostate and colon cancer cell lines were initially TC-NER proficient and RNAi against CSB significantly reduced their DNA repair capacity. Decreased TC-NER capacity was associated with an increase in the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, even in p53 null and DNA mismatch repair-deficient cell lines. Conclusion The present work indicates that CSB and TC-NER play a prominent role in determining the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin even in the absence of p53 and DNA mismatch repair. These results further suggest that CSB represents a potential target for cancer therapy that may be important to overcome resistance to cisplatin in the clinic.

  3. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  4. Availability estimation of repairable systems using reliability graph with general gates (RGGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Gyoung Tae

    2009-02-01

    By performing risk analysis, we may obtain sufficient information about the system to redesign it and lower the probability of the occurrence of an accident or mitigate the ensuing consequences. The concept of reliability is widely used to express risk of systems. The reliability is used for non-repairable systems. But nuclear power plant systems are repairable systems. With repairable systems, repairable components can improve the availability of a system because faults that are generated in components can be recovered. Hence, the availability of the system is more proper concept in case of repairable systems. Reliability graph with general gate (RGGG) is one of the system reliability analysis methods. The RGGG is a very intuitiveness method as compared with other methods. But the RGGG has not been applied to repairable systems yet. The objective of this study is to extend the RGGG in order to enable one to analyze repairable system. Determining the probability table for each node is a critical process to calculate the system availability in the RGGG method. Therefore finding the proper algorithms and making probability tables in various situations are the major a part of this study. The other part is an example of applying RGGG method to a real system. We find the proper algorithms and probability tables for independent repairable systems, dependent series repairable systems, and k-out-of-m (K/M) redundant parallel repairable systems in this study. We can evaluate the availability of real system using these probability tables. An example for a real system is shown in the latter part of this study. For the purpose of this analysis, the charging pumps subsystem of the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) was selected. The RGGG method extended for repairable systems has the same characteristic of intuitiveness as the original RGGG method and we can confirm that the availability analysis result from the repairable RGGG method is exact

  5. Knockdown of αII spectrin in normal human cells by siRNA leads to chromosomal instability and decreased DNA interstrand cross-link repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Laura W.; Zhang Pan; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Lefferts, Joel A.; Lambert, Muriel W.

    2009-01-01

    Nonerythroid α-spectrin (αIISp) is a structural protein involved in repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and is deficient in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which are defective in ability to repair cross-links. In order to further demonstrate the importance of the role that αIISp plays in normal human cells and in the repair defect in FA, αIISp was knocked down in normal cells using siRNA. Depletion of αIISp in normal cells by siRNA resulted in chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents. An increased number of chromosomal aberrations were observed and, following treatment with a DNA interstrand cross-linking agent, mitomycin C, cells showed decreased cell growth and survival and decreased formation of damage-induced αIISp and XPF nuclear foci. Thus depletion of αIISp in normal cells leads to a number of defects observed in FA cells, such as chromosome instability and a deficiency in cross-link repair.

  6. Reliability analysis for a circular consecutive-2-out-of-n:F repairable system with priority in repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Zuo, Ming J.; Yam, Richard C.M.

    2000-01-01

    A circular consecutive-2-out-of-n:F repairable system with one repairman is studied in this paper. When there are more than one failed component, priorities are assigned to the failed components. Both the working time and the repair time of each component is assumed to be exponentially distributed. Every component after repair is as good as new. By using the definition of generalized transition probability and the concept of critical component, we derive the state transition probability matrix of the system. Methodologies are then presented for the derivation of system reliability indexes such as availability, rate of occurrence of failure, mean time between failures, reliability, and mean time to first failure

  7. Effects of caffeine or maternal repair systems in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, C.; Zimmering, S.

    1979-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster females were treated with 1% caffeine, mated with X-rayed males and the frequencies of induced sex-chromosome loss, translocations between the major autosomes and between the Y-chromosome and the major autosomes determined. In a reversal of the results obtained previously with 0.2% caffeine by Mendelson and Sobels, treatment of females with 1% caffeine led to a decrease in sex-chromosome loss, confirming preliminary data of Zimmering and Osgood and in increase in autosome-autosome translocations. It is suggested that the higher concentration of caffeine inhibits replication permitting more time available for chromosome-type restitutions by means of caffeine-insensitive repair mechanisms. In contrast with results for autosome-autosome translocation, the fequency of Y-autosome translocations was depressed below controls suggesting an isolation (by any one of several means) of Y-chromosome breaks from those in the autosomes. (Auth.)

  8. Direct Self-Repairing Control for Quadrotor Helicopter Attitude Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.

  9. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  10. Guardians of the mycobacterial genome: A review on DNA repair systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep

    2017-12-01

    The genomic integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is continuously threatened by the harsh survival conditions inside host macrophages, due to immune and antibiotic stresses. Faithful genome maintenance and repair must be accomplished under stress for the bacillus to survive in the host, necessitating a robust DNA repair system. The importance of DNA repair systems in pathogenesis is well established. Previous examination of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed homologues of almost all the major DNA repair systems, i.e. nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, recent developments in the field have pointed to the presence of novel proteins and pathways in mycobacteria. Homologues of archeal mismatch repair proteins were recently reported in mycobacteria, a pathway previously thought to be absent. RecBCD, the major nuclease-helicase enzymes involved in HR in E. coli, were implicated in the single-strand annealing (SSA) pathway. Novel roles of archeo-eukaryotic primase (AEP) polymerases, previously thought to be exclusive to NHEJ, have been reported in BER. Many new proteins with a probable role in DNA repair have also been discovered. It is now realized that the DNA repair systems in M. tuberculosis are highly evolved and have redundant backup mechanisms to mend the damage. This review is an attempt to summarize our current understanding of the DNA repair systems in M. tuberculosis.

  11. Injectable systems and implantable conduits for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Chih; Marra, Kacey G

    2012-01-01

    Acute sensory problems following peripheral nerve injury include pain and loss of sensation. Approximately 360 000 people in the United States suffer from upper extremity paralytic syndromes every year. Restoration of sufficient functional recovery after long-gap peripheral nerve damage remains a clinical challenge. Potential nerve repair therapies have increased in the past decade as the field of tissue engineering expands. The following review describes the use of biomaterials in nerve tissue engineering. Namely, the use of both synthetic and natural biomaterials, including non-degradable and degradable nerve grafts, is addressed. The enhancement of axonal regeneration can be achieved by further modification of the nerve guides. These approaches include injectable hydrogel fillers, controlled drug delivery systems, and cell incorporation. Hydrogels are a class of liquid–gel biomaterials with high water content. Injectable and gelling hydrogels can serve as growth factor delivery vehicles and cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. While natural hydrogels and polymers are suitable for short gap nerve repair, the use of polymers for relatively long gaps remains a clinical challenge. (paper)

  12. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in lymphoma patients is associated with a decrease in the double strand break repair capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Sandrine; Bhatia, Smita; Chen, Yanjun; Bhatia, Ravi; O'Connor, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Patients who undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHCT) for treatment of a relapsed or refractory lymphoma are at risk of developing therapy related- myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML). Part of the risk likely resides in inherent interindividual differences in their DNA repair capacity (DRC), which is thought to influence the effect chemotherapeutic treatments have on the patient's stem cells prior to aHCT. Measuring DRC involves identifying small differences in repair proficiency among individuals. Initially, we investigated the cell model in healthy individuals (primary lymphocytes and/or lymphoblastoid cell lines) that would be appropriate to measure genetically determined DRC using host-cell reactivation assays. We present evidence that interindividual differences in DRC double-strand break repair (by non-homologous end-joining [NHEJ] or single-strand annealing [SSA]) are better preserved in non-induced primary lymphocytes. In contrast, lymphocytes induced to proliferate are required to assay base excision (BER) or nucleotide excision repair (NER). We established that both NHEJ and SSA DRCs in lymphocytes of healthy individuals were inversely correlated with the age of the donor, indicating that DSB repair in lymphocytes is likely not a constant feature but rather something that decreases with age (~0.37% NHEJ DRC/year). To investigate the predictive value of pre-aHCT DRC on outcome in patients, we then applied the optimized assays to the analysis of primary lymphocytes from lymphoma patients and found that individuals who later developed t-MDS/AML (cases) were indistinguishable in their DRC from controls who never developed t-MDS/AML. However, when DRC was investigated shortly after aHCT in the same individuals (21.6 months later on average), aHCT patients (both cases and controls) showed a significant decrease in DSB repair measurements. The average decrease of 6.9% in NHEJ DRC observed among aHCT patients was much higher

  13. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in lymphoma patients is associated with a decrease in the double strand break repair capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Lacoste

    Full Text Available Patients who undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHCT for treatment of a relapsed or refractory lymphoma are at risk of developing therapy related- myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML. Part of the risk likely resides in inherent interindividual differences in their DNA repair capacity (DRC, which is thought to influence the effect chemotherapeutic treatments have on the patient's stem cells prior to aHCT. Measuring DRC involves identifying small differences in repair proficiency among individuals. Initially, we investigated the cell model in healthy individuals (primary lymphocytes and/or lymphoblastoid cell lines that would be appropriate to measure genetically determined DRC using host-cell reactivation assays. We present evidence that interindividual differences in DRC double-strand break repair (by non-homologous end-joining [NHEJ] or single-strand annealing [SSA] are better preserved in non-induced primary lymphocytes. In contrast, lymphocytes induced to proliferate are required to assay base excision (BER or nucleotide excision repair (NER. We established that both NHEJ and SSA DRCs in lymphocytes of healthy individuals were inversely correlated with the age of the donor, indicating that DSB repair in lymphocytes is likely not a constant feature but rather something that decreases with age (~0.37% NHEJ DRC/year. To investigate the predictive value of pre-aHCT DRC on outcome in patients, we then applied the optimized assays to the analysis of primary lymphocytes from lymphoma patients and found that individuals who later developed t-MDS/AML (cases were indistinguishable in their DRC from controls who never developed t-MDS/AML. However, when DRC was investigated shortly after aHCT in the same individuals (21.6 months later on average, aHCT patients (both cases and controls showed a significant decrease in DSB repair measurements. The average decrease of 6.9% in NHEJ DRC observed among aHCT patients was

  14. Extending minimal repair models for repairable systems: A comparison of dynamic and heterogeneous extensions of a nonhomogeneous Poisson process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfaw, Zeytu Gashaw; Lindqvist, Bo Henry

    2015-01-01

    For many applications of repairable systems, the minimal repair assumption, which leads to nonhomogeneous Poisson processes (NHPP), is not adequate. We review and study two extensions of the NHPP, the dynamic NHPP and the heterogeneous NHPP. Both extensions are motivated by specific aspects of potential applications. It has long been known, however, that the two paradigms are essentially indistinguishable in an analysis of failure data. We investigate the connection between the two approaches for extending NHPP models, both theoretically and numerically in a data example and a simulation study. - Highlights: • Review of dynamic extension of a minimal repair model (LEYP), introduced by Le Gat. • Derivation of likelihood function and comparison to NHPP model with heterogeneity. • Likelihood functions and conditional intensities are similar for the models. • ML estimation is considered for both models using a power law baseline. • A simulation study illustrates and confirms findings of the theoretical study

  15. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Perez-Ocon, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs

  16. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Escuela Politecnica de Linares, Universidad de Jaen, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs.

  17. DNA repair systems and the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: varying activities at different stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorna, Alina E; Bowater, Richard P; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2010-05-25

    Mycobacteria, including most of all MTB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), cause pathogenic infections in humans and, during the infectious process, are exposed to a range of environmental insults, including the host's immune response. From the moment MTB is exhaled by infected individuals, through an active and latent phase in the body of the new host, until the time they reach the reactivation stage, MTB is exposed to many types of DNA-damaging agents. Like all cellular organisms, MTB has efficient DNA repair systems, and these are believed to play essential roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. As different stages of infection have great variation in the conditions in which mycobacteria reside, it is possible that different repair systems are essential for progression to specific phases of infection. MTB possesses homologues of DNA repair systems that are found widely in other species of bacteria, such as nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair and repair by homologous recombination. MTB also possesses a system for non-homologous end-joining of DNA breaks, which appears to be widespread in prokaryotes, although its presence is sporadic within different species within a genus. However, MTB does not possess homologues of the typical mismatch repair system that is found in most bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA repair genes are expressed differentially at each stage of infection. In the present review, we focus on different DNA repair systems from mycobacteria and identify questions that remain in our understanding of how these systems have an impact upon the infection processes of these important pathogens.

  18. DNA repair in B. subtilis: an inducible dimer-specific W-reactivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, P.I.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The W-reactivation system of Bacillus subtilis can repair pyrimidine dimers in bacteriophage DNA. This inducible repair system can be activated by treatment of the bacteria with uv, alkylating agents, cross-linking agents and gamma irradiation. However, bacteriophage treated with agents other than those that cause pyrimidine dimers to be produced was not repaired by this unique form of W-reactivation. In contrast, the W-reactivation system of Escherichia coli can repair a variety of damages placed in the bacteriophage DNA

  19. ARCHER-Advanced System for RPVH Inspection and Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasic, Tomislav; Vukovic, Igor; Bakic, Ante

    2014-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel head (RPVH) is an integral part of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Its integrity is important for the safe and reliable operation of the nuclear power plant (NPP). After detection of the leakage and cracks in French NPP, followed by another that occurred in NPP in USA, methods and frequency of inspection were defined, and are strictly regulated by the US NRC Order EA-03-009 (substituted lately by ASME Code Case N-791-1) since 2003. Usual scope of inspection from inner side of RPVH comprises of visual inspection of the surface, ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) of the penetration nozzle and ET of the J-groove weld and nozzle outside surface below the weld. ARCHER, new INETEC's manipulator, is designed to provide full scope inspection of the RPVH, by use of various test modules and by performing the surface repair action on J-groove weld. It is adjustable to work with different types of penetration nozzles and thermal sleeves on both VVER and PWR type of NPP. Due to complex geometry each module is specially designed for particular type of examination. Modules are exchanged through the docking system without need for personnel to enter under the head region, thus reducing the personnel's exposure to the ionizing radiation. The end effectors are used to determine the surface flaws or cracks on inner diameter surface of penetration nozzle gap. It guides a slim sword-like probe which carries a pair of TOFD transducers for detection and sizing of circumferential and axial cracks, an eddy current cross-wounded coil, and a zero-degree UT probe through a gap between the penetration nozzle and thermal sleeve. In case of a non-sleeved penetration nozzle, an open housing module is used. J-groove module is designed to fit geometry of the J-groove weld of penetration nozzle, vent pipe and funnel guide. The whole weld area (2' mm on shell side and 1/2' on nozzle side) is covered by two specially designed

  20. Repairable system analysis in presence of covariates and random effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.; Guida, M.; Pulcini, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the failure pattern of repairable systems in presence of explained and unexplained heterogeneity. The failure pattern of each system is described by a Power Law Process. Part of the heterogeneity among the patterns is explained through the use of a covariate, and the residual unexplained heterogeneity (random effects) is modeled via a joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters. The proposed approach is applied to a real set of failure time data of powertrain systems mounted on 33 buses employed in urban and suburban routes. Moreover, the joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters estimated from the data is used as an informative prior to make Bayesian inference on the future failure process of a generic system belonging to the same population and employed in an urban or suburban route under randomly chosen working conditions. - Highlights: • We describe the failure process of buses powertrain system subject to heterogeneity. • Heterogeneity due to different service types is explained by a covariate. • Random effect is modeled through a joint pdf on failure process parameters. • The powertrain reliability under new future operating conditions is estimated

  1. The Design of Intelligent Repair Welding Mechanism and Relative Control System of Big Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective repair of worn big gear has large influence on ensuring safety production and enhancing economic benefits. A kind of intelligent repair welding method was put forward mainly aimed at the big gear restriction conditions of high production cost, long production cycle and high- intensity artificial repair welding work. Big gear repair welding mechanism was designed in this paper. The work principle and part selection of big gear repair welding mechanism was introduced. The three dimensional mode of big gear repair welding mechanism was constructed by Pro/E three dimensional design software. Three dimensional motions can be realized by motor controlling ball screw. According to involute gear feature, the complicated curve motion on curved gear surface can be transformed to linear motion by orientation. By this way, the repair welding on worn gear area can be realized. In the design of big gear repair welding mechanism control system, Siemens S7-200 series hardware was chosen. Siemens STEP7 programming software was chosen as system design tool. The entire repair welding process was simulated by experiment simulation. It provides a kind of practical and feasible method for the intelligent repair welding of big worn gear.

  2. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio

  3. Repair systems with exchangeable items and the longest queue mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravid, R.; Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a repair facility consisting of one repairman and two arrival streams of failed items, from bases 1 and 2. The arrival processes are independent Poisson processes, and the repair times are independent and identically exponentially distributed. The item types are exchangeable, and a

  4. Repair systems with exchangeable items and the longest queue mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravid, R.; Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a repair facility consisting of one repairman and two arrival streams of failed items, from bases 1 and 2. The arrival processes are independent Poisson processes, and the repair times are independent and identically exponentially distributed. The item types are exchangeable, and a

  5. Life forms employ different repair strategies of repair single- and double strand DNA breaks caused by different qualities of radiation: criticality of RecA mediated repair system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharan, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    Different qualities of radiation, either through direct or indirect pathway, induce qualitative different spectrum of damages in DNA, which are also different in in vitro and in vivo systems. The single- and double strand breaks of DNA are of special interest as they lead to serious biological consequences. The implications of such damage to DNA and their processing by various inherent repair pathways together decide the fate of the living form

  6. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  7. Integrated analysis of mismatch repair system in malignant astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rodríguez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.

  8. Decreased cell survival and DNA repair capacity after UVC irradiation in association with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP in human RSa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Ling; Kita, Kazuko; Wano, Chieko; Wu Yuping; Sugaya, Shigeru; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on the roles of molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, there are only a few reports about the roles of GRP78/BiP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced molecular chaperone, in mammalian cell responses to DNA-damaging stresses. To investigate whether GRP78/BiP is involved in resistance to a DNA-damaging agent, UVC (principally 254 nm in wavelength), we established human cells with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP by transfection of human RSa cells with antisense cDNA for GRP78/BiP. We found that the transfected cells showed higher sensitivity to UVC-induced cell death than control cells transfected with the vector alone. In the antisense-cDNA transfected cells, the removal capacities of the two major types of UVC-damaged DNA (thymine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts) in vivo and DNA synthesis activity of whole cell extracts to repair UVC-irradiated plasmids in vitro were remarkably decreased compared with those in the control cells. Furthermore, the antisense-cDNA transfected cells also showed slightly higher sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cell death than the control cells. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage is primarily repaired by nucleotide excision repair, like UVC-induced DNA damage. The present results suggest that GRP78/BiP plays a protective role against UVC-induced cell death possibly via nucleotide excision repair, at least in the human RSa cells tested

  9. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  10. Analysis of a carbon composite overwrap pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, J.M.; Wilson, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104 (United States); Kessler, M.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)], E-mail: mkessler@iastate.edu

    2008-11-15

    A relatively new method has been developed to stop external corrosion and structurally reinforce steel pipes by external wrapping of damaged sections using fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials. Several different defect geometries representing corrosion patches on steel pipe were characterized using finite-element analysis, by changing the circumferential length of the defect. Pipe vessels containing these defects along with the composite structural repairs were modeled and the results were compared to field tests to determine the effectiveness of the repairs. It was found that the defect width around the circumference had little impact on the ultimate rupture pressure of the repaired vessel, but influenced the stress state in the underlying pipe substrate.

  11. An optimal replacement policy for a repairable system based on its repairman having vacations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Li [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Jian, E-mail: xujian@tongji.edu.c [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with two different components and one repairman who can take multiple vacations. If there is a component which fails and the repairman is on vacation, the failed component will wait for repair until the repairman is available. In the system, assume that component 1 has priority in use. After repair, component 1 follows a geometric process repair, while component 2 can be repaired as good as new after failures. Under these assumptions, a replacement policy N based on the failed times of component 1 is studied. The system will be replaced if the failure times of component 1 reach N. The explicit expression of the expected cost rate is given, so that the optimal replacement time N{sup *} is determined. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results of the model.

  12. Modeling imperfectly repaired system data via grey differential equations with unequal-gapped times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Renkuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that grey differential equation models are useful in repairable system modeling. The arguments starts with the review on GM(1,1) model with equal- and unequal-spaced stopping time sequence. In terms of two-stage GM(1,1) filtering, system stopping time can be partitioned into system intrinsic function and repair effect. Furthermore, we propose an approach to use grey differential equation to specify a semi-statistical membership function for system intrinsic function times. Also, we engage an effort to use GM(1,N) model to model system stopping times and the associated operating covariates and propose an unequal-gapped GM(1,N) model for such analysis. Finally, we investigate the GM(1,1)-embed systematic grey equation system modeling of imperfectly repaired system operating data. Practical examples are given in step-by-step manner to illustrate the grey differential equation modeling of repairable system data

  13. In-Space Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Thermal Protection System Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2006-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation system as well as for future Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV). The damage to these components could be caused by impact during ground handling or due to falling of ice or other objects during launch. In addition, in-orbit damage includes micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during simulated entry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, integrated system for tile and leading edge repair (InSTALER) have been developed. In this presentation, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges as well as various issues and complexities will be discussed along with the plasma performance and post test characterization of repaired RCC materials.

  14. A modelling study of drying shrinkage damage in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.; Ye, G.; van Breugel, K.

    2014-01-01

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems (Martinola, Sadouki et al. 2001, Beushausen and Alexander 2007). Magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the amount of restraint,

  15. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Ye, G.; van Breugel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions,

  16. Single-Molecule Methods for Nucleotide Excision Repair: Building a System to Watch Repair in Real Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Muwen; Beckwitt, Emily C; Springall, Luke; Kad, Neil M; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule approaches to solving biophysical problems are powerful tools that allow static and dynamic real-time observations of specific molecular interactions of interest in the absence of ensemble-averaging effects. Here, we provide detailed protocols for building an experimental system that employs atomic force microscopy and a single-molecule DNA tightrope assay based on oblique angle illumination fluorescence microscopy. Together with approaches for engineering site-specific lesions into DNA substrates, these complementary biophysical techniques are well suited for investigating protein-DNA interactions that involve target-specific DNA-binding proteins, such as those engaged in a variety of DNA repair pathways. In this chapter, we demonstrate the utility of the platform by applying these techniques in the studies of proteins participating in nucleotide excision repair. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability analysis of repairable safety systems of a reprocessing plant allowing for tolerable system downtimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1987-01-01

    GRS has been engaged in safety analysises of the German Reprocessing Plant for several years. The development and verification of appropriate reliability analysis methods, the generation of data as well as the search for an adequate structural presentation of the results to form a basis of recommendations for technical or administrative measures or contributions to risk oriented evaluations have been or are in the process of being established. In contrast to NPP-studies, the reliability assessment of safety systems of a reprocessing plant is applied to repairable and often relatively small systems allowing for tolerable system downtimes. A sketch of the diverse cooling systems of a vessel containing a selfheating solution is given. The interruption of the cooling function for about one day might be tolerable before boiling will be reached. This interval is suitable for transfer of the solution to a spare vessel or for repairing the failed components, thus restoring the cooling function

  18. Targeting DNA repair systems in antitubercular drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Alina; Brzostek, Anna; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2018-01-28

    Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, are difficult to treat using currently available chemotherapeutics. Clinicians agree on the urgent need for novel drugs to treat tuberculosis. In this mini review, we summarize data that prompts the consideration of DNA repair-associated proteins as targets for the development of new antitubercular compounds. We discuss data, including gene expression data, that highlight the importance of DNA repair genes during the pathogenic cycle as well as after exposure to antimicrobials currently in use. Specifically, we report experiments on determining the essentiality of DNA repair-related genes. We report the availability of protein crystal structures and summarize discovered protein inhibitors. Further, we describe phenotypes of available gene mutants of M. tuberculosis and model organisms Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. We summarize experiments regarding the role of DNA repair-related proteins in pathogenesis and virulence performed both in vitro and in vivo during the infection of macrophages and animals. We detail the role of DNA repair genes in acquiring mutations, which influence the rate of drug resistance acquisition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Reliability analysis of Markov history-dependent repairable systems with neglected failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Shijia; Zeng, Zhiguo; Cui, Lirong; Kang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Markov history-dependent repairable systems refer to the Markov repairable systems in which some states are changeable and dependent on recent evolutional history of the system. In practice, many Markov history-dependent repairable systems are subjected to neglected failures, i.e., some failures do not affect system performances if they can be repaired promptly. In this paper, we develop a model based on the theory of aggregated stochastic processes to describe the history-dependent behavior and the effect of neglected failures on the Markov history-dependent repairable systems. Based on the developed model, instantaneous and steady-state availabilities are derived to characterize the reliability of the system. Four reliability-related time distributions, i.e., distribution for the k th working period, distribution for the k th failure period, distribution for the real working time in an effective working period, distribution for the neglected failure time in an effective working period, are also derived to provide a more comprehensive description of the system's reliability. Thanks to the power of the theory of aggregated stochastic processes, closed-form expressions are obtained for all the reliability indexes and time distributions. Finally, the developed indexes and analysis methods are demonstrated by a numerical example. - Highlights: • Markovian history-dependent repairable systems with neglected failures is modeled. • Aggregated stochastic processes are used to derive reliability indexes and time distributions. • Closed-form expressions are derived for the considered indexes and distributions.

  20. The Over-expression of the β2 Catalytic Subunit of the Proteasome Decreases Homologous Recombination and Impairs DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Collavoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By a human cDNA library screening, we have previously identified two sequences coding two different catalytic subunits of the proteasome which increase homologous recombination (HR when overexpressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effect of proteasome on spontaneous HR and DNA repair in human cells. To determine if the proteasome has a role in the occurrence of spontaneous HR in human cells, we overexpressed the β2 subunit of the proteasome in HeLa cells and determined the effect on intrachromosomal HR. Results showed that the overexpression of β2 subunit decreased HR in human cells without altering the cell proteasome activity and the Rad51p level. Moreover, exposure to MG132 that inhibits the proteasome activity reduced HR in human cells. We also found that the expression of the β2 subunit increases the sensitivity to the camptothecin that induces DNA double-strand break (DSB. This suggests that the β2 subunit has an active role in HR and DSB repair but does not alter the intracellular level of the Rad51p.

  1. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  2. Self-Repairing Flight Control System for Online Health Monitoring and Recovery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a reliable self-repairing Flight Control System (FCS) will be developed. To achieve this goal, an artificial Neural Network based Sensor...

  3. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†,

  4. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions, type of repair material, etc. Numerical simulations combined with experimental observations can be of great use when determining the influence of these parameters on the performance of repair systems. In this work, a lattice type model was used to simulate first the moisture transport inside a repair system and then the resulting damage as a function of time. 3D simulations were performed, and damage patterns were qualitatively verified with experimental results and cracking tendencies in different brittle and ductile materials. The influence of substrate surface preparation, bond strength between the two materials, and thickness of the repair material were investigated. Benefits of using a specially tailored fibre reinforced material, namely strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC, for controlling the damage development due to drying shrinkage in concrete repairs was also examined.

  5. Shear Bond Strength of a Novel Porcelain Repair System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Each fracture type was examined under a stereomicroscope .... fracture types. Statistical analysis. The normal distribution of data was examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Shear bond strength data of repaired CAD/CAM .... adhesives to enamel, dentine, and porcelain surfaces can be compared.

  6. Damage induced by continued corrosion in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. After the repair, corrosion of the steel might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell depends on many parameters and is difficult to control, the occurrence of

  7. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Šavija, B.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion

  8. Decreased UV light resistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis strains deficient in pyrimidine dimer repair and small, acid-soluble spore proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, B.; Setlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    Loss of small, acid-soluble spore protein alpha reduced spore UV resistance 30- to 50-fold in Bacillus subtilis strains deficient in pyrimidine dimer repair, but gave only a 5- to 8-fold reduction in UV resistance in repair-proficient strains. However, both repair-proficient and -deficient spores lacking this protein had identical heat and gamma-radiation resistance

  9. Left cardiac chambers reverse remodeling after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Salvatore; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Capranzano, Piera; Caggegi, Anna; Sarkar, Kunal; Cammalleri, Valeria; Mangiafico, Sarah; Chiarandà, Marta; Immè, Sebastiano; Di Pasqua, Fabio; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Millan, Giovanni; Tamburino, Corrado

    2012-10-01

    Successful mitral valve surgical repair, decreasing volume overload, has been shown to provide reverse left ventricular (LV) and/or left atrial remodeling in most patients. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL) has been associated with favorable clinical outcomes in patients with mitral regurgitation at high risk of surgery. However, specific data on left cardiac chambers reverse remodeling after such procedures are limited. This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients at high risk of surgery, with moderate-to-severe or severe mitral regurgitation undergoing MitraClip system implantation. Follow-up echocardiography was performed at 6 months. The evaluated parameters were the LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes, LV sphericity index, LV ejection fraction, and left atrial volume index. Reverse LV remodeling was defined as a decrease of 10% in the LV end-diastolic volume index. The study population included 44 patients: 14 with degenerative and 30 with functional mitral regurgitation. At 6 months of follow-up, significant reductions in the median and interquartile range of the sphericity index (from 0.57 [interquartile range 0.54-0.62] to 0.54 [interquartile range 0.50-0.58]; P interquartile range 63.0-102.2] to 60.7 mL/m(2) [50.8-84.4]; P interquartile range 28.2-70.5] to 28.9 mL/m(2) [interquartile range 22.2-55.8]; P interquartile range 30.0-55.0%] to 46.0% [interquartile range 35.0-58.0%]; P < .001) from baseline to 6 months. Minor differences in the left atrial volume index were observed. Reverse remodeling, according to the specified definition, was observed in 77.3% of the patients. The present study reports positive LV reshape effects after mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system, showing significant improvements in LV size and function. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamiz, M.L.; Roman, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform

  11. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz, M.L. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)], E-mail: mgamiz@ugr.es; Roman, Y. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform.

  12. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  13. Control and repair system for radioactive nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Hornak, L.P.; Desmarchais, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiated fuel, especially such containing Pu-239, are put in a shielding container for inspection or repair. This container consists of an inner and outer tube of, for example, stainless steel, between which there is a gap filled with water, mineral oil, or polyethylene. At the upper end of the shielding container a rotating sleeve is positioned, by means of a bearing. It contains, for instance, an access opening and an inspection opening which are shielded by means of plexiglass. The access hole is opened only for repair work. In oder to prevent radiation from escaping to the environment during withdrawal and inspection of the fuel elements a second shielding container or shielding tube may be put over the sleeve. (DG/PB) [de

  14. Stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with maximum repair time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to analyze the stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with concept of preventive maintenance, priority and maximum repair time. For this purpose, a stochastic model is developed in which initially one unit is operative and other is kept as cold standby. There is a single server who visits the system immediately as and when required. The server takes the unit under preventive maintenance after a maximum operation time at normal mode if one standby unit is available for operation. If the repair of the failed unit is not possible up to a maximum repair time, failed unit is replaced by new one. The failure time, maximum operation time and maximum repair time distributions of the unit are considered as exponentially distributed while repair and maintenance time distributions are considered as arbitrary. All random variables are statistically independent and repairs are perfect. Various measures of system effectiveness are obtained by using the technique of semi-Markov process and RPT. To highlight the importance of the study numerical results are also obtained for MTSF, availability and profit function.

  15. Reliability analysis of a repairable k-out-of-n system with some components being suspended when the system is down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohu; Zuo, Ming J.; Yam, Richard C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A k-out-of-n system with independent exponential components is investigated. It is assumed that some working components are suspended as soon as the system is down, repair starts immediately when a component fails and repair times are independent and exponentially distributed. Formulas for various reliability indices of the system including mean time between failures, mean working time in a failure-repair cycle, and mean down time in a failure-repair cycle are derived

  16. Control of a maintenance system when failure and repair times have phase type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decassiamenesesrodrigues, Rita

    1990-09-01

    In the model of machine repair discussed there are M + R identical machines, M operating, and R spares. All machines are independent of one another. When an operating machine fails, it is sent to a single server repair station and immediately replaced by a spare machine, if one is available. The server has two available service types to choose from. There are waiting costs, repair costs, lost production costs, and switch-over costs. The following decision problem is treated: to obtain a stationary policy which determines the service type as a function of the state of the system in order to minimize the long-run average cost when failure and repair times have second-order Coxian distribution. This control problem is represented by a semi-Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are used to obtain the optimal policy. Numerical results are given for these two optimization methods.

  17. Reliability analysis of repairable multi-state system with common bus performance sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huan; Yang, Jun; Mo, Huadong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an instantaneous availability model for repairable multi-state system (MSS) with common bus performance sharing is proposed. The repairable MSS consists of some multi-state units and a common bus performance redistribution system. Each unit in the system has several performance levels and must satisfy its individual random demand. A unit can transmit the surplus performance to other units in real time through the common bus performance redistribution system, if it has a performance that exceeds its demand. The entire system fails if the demand of any unit is not satisfied. A new method based on the combination of the stochastic process method and the universal generating function technique is suggested to evaluate the instantaneous availability and the mean instantaneous performance deficiency of the proposed repairable MSS. Two examples are given for applications in the end

  18. Optimal preventive maintenance and repair policies for multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Shey-Huei; Chang, Chin-Chih; Chen, Yen-Luan; George Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal preventive maintenance (PM) policies for multi-state systems. The scheduled PMs can be either imperfect or perfect type. The improved effective age is utilized to model the effect of an imperfect PM. The system is considered as in a failure state (unacceptable state) once its performance level falls below a given customer demand level. If the system fails before a scheduled PM, it is repaired and becomes operational again. We consider three types of major, minimal, and imperfect repair actions, respectively. The deterioration of the system is assumed to follow a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov process (NHCTMP) with finite state space. A recursive approach is proposed to efficiently compute the time-dependent distribution of the multi-state system. For each repair type, we find the optimal PM schedule that minimizes the average cost rate. The main implication of our results is that in determining the optimal scheduled PM, choosing the right repair type will significantly improve the efficiency of the system maintenance. Thus PM and repair decisions must be made jointly to achieve the best performance

  19. Decreasing the LHC impedance with a nonlinear collimation system

    CERN Document Server

    Resta-López, J; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage nonlinear collimation system based on a pair of skew sextupoles is presented for the LHC.We show the details of the optics design and study the halo cleaning efficiency of such a system. This nonlinear collimation system would allow opening up collimator gaps, and thereby reduce the collimator impedance, which presently limits the LHC beam intensity. Assuming the nominal LHC beam at 7 TeV, the transverse coherent tune shifts of rigid-dipole coupled-bunch modes are computed for both the baseline linear collimation system and the proposed nonlinear one. In either case, the tune shifts of the most unstable modes are compared with the stability diagrams for Landau damping.

  20. The effect of caffeine on repair systems in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiated males were mated to females that had received treatment with caffeine or honey (by feeding), and the frequencies of sex-chromosome losses and chromosome rearrangements induced in mature spermatozoa of the males were compared. Caffeine treatment led to an enhancement of the frequencies of sex-chromosome loss and a decrease in those of rearrangements. These findings can be interpreted on the assumption that caffeine inhibits repair and misrepair processes that are active in the oocytes. Caffeine treatment administered to one of the female stocks used in these studies was without any effect, presumably because of the absence of a caffeine-sensitive repair mechanism in the oocytes

  1. Repair system and mitomycin mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuji, N; Murayama, I [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1974-03-01

    Ultraviolet light sensitive mutants of E. coli defective at the uvrA, uvrB or uvrC locus showed increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of monofunctional mitomycin, 7-methoxymitosene (7-MMT) or decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DCMTC), as well as mitomycin C (MTC). (1) Treatment of wild type bacteria with these monofunctional mitomycins resulted in the production of single-strand breaks in DNA, which were repaired upon incubation in a growth medium. Such breaks in DNA were not produced in the UvrA and the UvrB mutants. In the UvrC mutant, single-strand breaks were produced by 7-MMT or by DCMTC, but these breaks were not repaired upon incubation. (2) Exposure of E. coli to MTC caused cross-linkage between DNA strands, which converted to a normally denaturable form during further incubation after treatment. This was not occurred in the UvrB strain. In the UvrC mutant, a portion of the cross-links was removed upon incubation. (3) 7-MMT and DCMTC induced mutation in UV sensitive UvrB and UvrC mutants with much higher frequency than in wild type bacteria, while MTC did not induce mutation in these Uvr-strains.

  2. Repair system and mitomycin mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, Nozomu; Murayama, Ichiko

    1974-01-01

    Ultraviolet light sensitive mutants of E. coli defective at the uvrA, uvrB or uvrC locus showed increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of monofunctional mitomycin, 7-methoxymitosene (7-MMT) or decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DCMTC), as well as mitomycin C (MTC). (1) Treatment of wild type bacteria with these monofunctional mitomycins resulted in the production of single-strand breaks in DNA, which were repaired upon incubation in a growth medium. Such breaks in DNA were not produced in the UvrA and the UvrB mutants. In the UvrC mutant, single-strand breaks were produced by 7-MMT or by DCMTC, but these breaks were not repaired upon incubation. (2) Exposure of E. coli to MTC caused cross-linkage between DNA strands, which converted to a normally denaturable form during further incubation after treatment. This was not occurred in the UvrB strain. In the UvrC mutant, a portion of the cross-links was removed upon incubation. (3) 7-MMT and DCMTC induced mutation in UV sensitive UvrB and UvrC mutants with much higher frequency than in wild type bacteria, while MTC did not induce mutation in these Uvr-strains. (author)

  3. Flexible Software Solution for Information System of Maintenance and Repair in Armenian NPP Medzamor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilova Yordanova, V.; Manchev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving high performance in maintenance and repair activities in nuclear facilities and good results in this area is not possible without proper planning. This includes long-term, medium-term and annual planning. A computerized information maintenance management system is a tool widely used by nuclear operators to achieve safe, reliable, stable and predictable plant operation. Development and implementation of such a system in the Armenian NPP Medzamor (ANPP) was initiated by the European Commission (EC) in August 2013 based on the decision of ANPP management to improve practice in terms of planning and carrying out maintenance and repair of plant structures, systems and components (SSCs). The main purpose for the development and deployment of information maintenance management system in ANPP is creation of a systematic approach to the distribution of tasks between the maintenance personnel as well as the timing and methods of their implementation - on which systems, structures and components, maintenance frequency, while the ultimate goal is to optimize the use of resources for maintenance and to ensure plant safe operation and reliability. In November 2013 a contract between European Commission and consortium Risk Engineering -David Holding was signed, including the following supplies: Hardware for the information system of ANPP (called us Archimed MRO); Specification, design and development of the software of Archimed MRO, installation of the system, data migration, training of ANPP staff operating the system, and 9 months trial operation. In the process of specifying the functionality of the system the main purpose was to provide modern information tools to help improve the work of ANPP personnel in the following areas: Optimization of ANPP maintenance program; Planning of maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) activities; Effective management of the processes of MRO; Analysis of the MRO results (trend analysis, recurrence of repairs, quality of the repairs

  4. Circulating surfactant protein D is decreased in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Voss, Anne; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Deficiencies of innate immune molecules like mannan binding lectin (MBL) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and MBL belong to the same family of innate immune molecules - the collectins, which share important...

  5. Self-repair in a Bidirectionally Coupled Astrocyte-Neuron (AN System based on Retrograde Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eWade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that retrograde signaling via astrocytes may underpin self-repair in the brain. Faults manifest themselves in silent or near silent neurons caused by low transmission probability synapses; the enhancement of the transmission probability of a healthy neighbouring synapse by retrograde signaling can enhance the transmission probability of the faulty synapse (repair. Our model of self-repair is based on recent research showing that retrograde signaling via astrocytes can increase the probability of neurotransmitter release at damaged or low transmission probability synapses. The model demonstrates that astrocytes are capable of bidirectional communication with neurons which leads to modulation of synaptic activity, and that indirect signaling through retrograde messengers such as endocannabinoids leads to modulation of synaptic transmission probability. Although our model operates at the level of cells, it provides a new research direction on brain-like self-repair which can be extended to networks of astrocytes and neurons. It also provides a biologically inspired basis for developing highly adaptive, distributed computing systems that can, at fine levels of granularity, fault detect, diagnose and self-repair autonomously, without the traditional constraint of a central fault detect/repair unit.

  6. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  7. The role of the bacterial mismatch repair system in SOS-induced mutagenesis: a theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, O.V.; Kapralov, M.I.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Sweilam, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical study is performed of the possible role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair system in the ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis of Escherichia coli bacterial cells. For this purpose, a mathematical model of the bacterial mismatch repair system is developed. Within this model, the key pathways of this type of repair are simulated on the basis of modern experimental data related to its mechanisms. Here we have modelled in detail five main pathways of DNA misincorporation removal with different DNA exonucleases. Using our calculations, we have tested the hypothesis that the bacterial mismatch repair system is responsible for the removal of the nucleotides misincorporated by DNA polymerase V (the UmuD' 2 C complex) during ultraviolet-induced SOS response. For the theoretical analysis of the mutation frequency, we have combined the proposed mathematical approach with the model of SOS-induced mutagenesis in the E.coli bacterial cell developed earlier. Our calculations support the hypothesis that methyl-directed mismatch repair influences the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation

  8. Robotics in the nuclear environment-inspection and repairs inside the primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Marcel Tortolano

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the lifetime of the power plants and the ageing of materials require the intervention inside the components to carry out controls and possibly repairs in the event of discovered defects. Within this framework, EDF is investigating the feasibility of robotized repairs of the components and pipes of the main primary coolant system of a nuclear power plant. For several years, EDF R and D has engaged projects whose subject of study is the possibility of repairing components such as the main vessel; the pressurizer or the primary coolant pipes with the help of robots and dedicated tools. INTERVENTIONS INSIDE PRIMARY COOLANT PIPES: Studies undertaken by EDF highlighted that certain zones, particularly in pipe connections, can be affected by thermal fatigue which causes crackling defects or crackings. In anticipation of this phenomenon which would affect primary pipes and to avoid their replacements, EDF R and D has been studying the feasibility of examining and repairing these zones using robots. Robotized repair consists in introducing into the pipe while passing by the vessel, a 6 degrees of freedom manipulator mounted on a mobile carrier. This robot implements and carries out the trajectories of the different processes of repair: - Precise localization of the defects, - Elimination (possibly sampling) of the defects by machining, - Control that the defects were eliminated, - Weld metal buildup if the repair cavity is too deep, - Grinding followed by a new control of the surface. These studies and tests were conducted in the laboratory of EDF R and D in Chatou. The sequence of operations included machining by grinding and milling, profilometric control, dye penetrant testing, TIG welding and ultrasonic examinations. The results of the tests, executed on full scale models of components, are satisfactory and show the advantages of robotics compared with classical methods. ROBOTIZED INTERVENTIONS IN THE REACTOR VESSEL: Another difficult issue is the

  9. Gemfibrozil not fenofibrate decreases systemic glucose level via PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Danjun; Chu, Zanbo; Min, Luo; Zhen, Tan; Li, Pengxu; Han, Liyuan; Bu, Shizhong; yang, Julin; Gonzale, F J; Liu, Aiming

    2016-04-01

    Concurrence of high glucose or diabetes in patients with dyslipidemia is presenting major challenges for clinicians. Although sporadically reported, a rational basis for the use of fibrates for the treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent metabolic syndrome has not been established. In this study, wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null (KO) mice were fed a serial gemfibrozil- and fenofibrate-containing diet under the same experimental conditions for 14 days. Glucose level in the blood, glycogen storage in the liver tissues, and the potential toxic responses were assayed. Genes involved in glucose metabolism were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both the blood glucose level and the glycogen content in the liver were down-regulated by gemfibrozil but not by fenofibrate in WT mice, in a dose-dependent manner. This decrement did not occur in KO mice for either fibrate agent. Secondary regulation on the transcription of pyruvate kinase, and gluconolactonase were observed following gemfibrozil treatment, which was differential between WT mice and KO mice. Gemfibrozil, not fenofibrate, down-regulates systemic glucose level and glycogen storage in the liver dependent on PPARα, suggesting its potential value for treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent diabetes or high glucose levels.

  10. Knockdown of αII spectrin in normal human cells by siRNA leads to chromosomal instability and decreased DNA interstrand cross-link repair

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Laura W.; Zhang, Pan; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Lefferts, Joel A.; Lambert, Muriel W.

    2009-01-01

    Nonerythroid α-spectrin (αIISp) is a structural protein involved in repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and is deficient in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which are defective in ability to repair cross-links. In order to further demonstrate the importance of the role that αIISp plays in normal human cells and in the repair defect in FA, αIISp was knocked down in normal cells using siRNA. Depletion of αIISp in normal cells by siRNA resulted in chromosomal instability and cellu...

  11. The bases for optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems to improve the NPP productive efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilej, D.V.; Vasil'chenko, S.V.; Vlasenko, N.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    In the frames of risk-informed approaches the paper proposed the theoretical bases for methods of optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems at nuclear power plants. The optimisation criterion is the objective risk function minimising. This function depends on the scheduled repairs/tests periodicity and the allowed time to bring the system channel to a state of non-operability. The main optimisation direct is to reduce the repair time with the purpose of enhancement of productive efficiency

  12. RESTART simulation of non-Markov consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villen-Altamirano, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The reliability of consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems and (k-1)-step Markov dependence is studied. The model analyzed in this paper is more general than those of previous studies given that repair time and component lifetimes are random variables that follow a general distribution. The system has one repair service which adopts a priority repair rule based on system failure risk. Since crude simulation has proved to be inefficient for highly dependable systems, the RESTART method was used for the estimation of steady-state unavailability, MTBF and unreliability. Probabilities up to the order of 10 -16 have been accurately estimated with little computational effort. In this method, a number of simulation retrials are performed when the process enters regions of the state space where the chance of occurrence of a rare event (e.g., a system failure) is higher. The main difficulty for the application of this method is to find a suitable function, called the importance function, to define the regions. Given the simplicity involved in changing some model assumptions with RESTART, the importance function used in this paper could be useful for dependability estimation of many systems.

  13. The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Therapy on the DNA Base Excision Repair System of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarny, Piotr; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Szemraj, Janusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz; Karwowski, Bolesław

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect extrahepatic tissues, including lymphocytes, creating reservoir of the virus. Moreover, HCV proteins can interact with DNA damage response proteins of infected cells. In this article we investigated the influence of the virus infection and a new ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) anti-HCV therapy on the PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes) DNA base excision repair (BER) system. BER protein activity was analyzed in the nuclear and mitochondrial extracts (NE and ME) of PBMC isolated from patients before and after therapy, and from subjects without HCV, using modeled double-strand DNA, with 2'-deoxyuridine substitution as the DNA damage. The NE and ME obtained from patients before therapy demonstrated lower efficacy of 2'-deoxyuridine removal and DNA repair polymerization than those of the control group or patients after therapy. Moreover, the extracts from the patients after therapy had similar activity to those from the control group. However, the efficacy of apurinic/apyrimidinic site excision in NE did not differ between the studied groups. We postulate that infection of lymphocytes by the HCV can lead to a decrease in the activity of BER enzymes. However, the use of novel therapy results in the improvement of glycosylase activity as well as the regeneration of endonuclease and other crucial repair enzymes.

  14. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Lukovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d, the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning. From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  15. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mladena; Ye, Guang

    2015-12-22

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c). This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  16. Evaluation of temporary non-code repairs in safety class 3 piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godha, P.C.; Kupinski, M.; Azevedo, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Temporary non-ASME Code repairs in safety class 3 pipe and piping components are permissible during plant operation in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letter 90-05. However, regulatory acceptance of such repairs requires the licensee to undertake several timely actions. Consistent with the requirements of GL 90-05, this paper presents an overview of the detailed evaluation and relief request process. The technical criteria encompasses both ductile and brittle piping materials. It also lists appropriate evaluation methods that a utility engineer can select to perform a structural integrity assessment for design basis loading conditions to support the use of temporary non-Code repair for degraded piping components. Most use of temporary non-code repairs at a nuclear generating station is in the service water system which is an essential safety related system providing the ultimate heat sink for various plant systems. Depending on the plant siting, the service water system may use fresh water or salt water as the cooling medium. Various degradation mechanisms including general corrosion, erosion/corrosion, pitting, microbiological corrosion, galvanic corrosion, under-deposit corrosion or a combination thereof continually challenge the pressure boundary structural integrity. A good source for description of corrosion degradation in cooling water systems is provided in a cited reference

  17. [Studies on the repair of damaged DNA in bacteriophage, bacterial and mammalian systems]: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, E.C.

    1987-08-01

    This study sought to exploit the use of uv radiation as a source of genomic damage. We explored the molecular mechanism of the repair of DNA damage at a number of different levels of biological organization, by investigating bacteriophage, bacterial, yeast and mammalian cells. Not only have observations obtained in one biological system suggested specific experimental approaches in others, but we have also learned that some biochemical pathways for DNA repair are unique to specific organisms. Our studies are summarized in terms of 4 major areas of research activity that span the past 16 years. 86 refs

  18. Prediction of Repair Work Duration for Gas Transport Systems Based on Small Data Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnykh, Valery; Litvin, Yuri; Kozin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the duration of a repair and maintenance project of a gas transport system is an important part of planning activities. There exist numerous sources of uncertainties that may result in time overruns possibly leading to multiple negative consequences. Our experience in planning...... this work suggests that accepting the stochastic nature of the project duration is a constructive step towards the preparedness to contingencies and defining penalties for repair companies. To support this approach, one needs to construct probability distributions of the durations of the projects...

  19. A new technique for repair of a dislocated sternoclavicular joint using a sternal tension cable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Jacques T; Rossouw, Gawie J

    2013-02-01

    An unstable anterior or posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation can cause severe morbidity with poor shoulder movement and strength. These dislocations need to be repaired, which can be challenging. Many different procedures have been described to obtain a stable joint fixation with varying results. We report a new technique for repairing a sternoclavicular joint dislocation by using a figure-of-eight sternal cable system. This procedure is relatively simple and reproducible to create a stable and functional sternoclavicular joint. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Injecting a liquid bacteria-based repair system to make porous network conrete healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria induced calcite precipitation has been proven to be effective in making concrete structure self-healing. In Microlab TU Delft, the concept has been enhanced by developing a liquid bacteria-based concrete repair system. The solution contains calcite precipitating bacteria, nutrients and

  1. Six types Monte Carlo for estimating the current unavailability of Markov system with dependent repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Li Zhizhong

    2004-01-01

    Based on integral equaiton describing the life-history of Markov system, six types of estimators of the current unavailability of Markov system with dependent repair are propounded. Combining with the biased sampling of state transition time of system, six types of Monte Carlo for estimating the current unavailability are given. Two numerical examples are given to deal with the variances and efficiencies of the six types of Monte Carlo methods. (authors)

  2. An artificial neural network for modeling reliability, availability and maintainability of a repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpal, P.S.; Shishodia, K.S.; Sekhon, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores the application of artificial neural networks to model the behaviour of a complex, repairable system. A composite measure of reliability, availability and maintainability parameters has been proposed for measuring the system performance. The artificial neural network has been trained using past data of a helicopter transportation facility. It is used to simulate behaviour of the facility under various constraints. The insights obtained from results of simulation are useful in formulating strategies for optimal operation of the system

  3. Clustered DNA lesions containing 5-formyluracil and AP site: repair via the BER system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A Belousova

    Full Text Available Lesions in the DNA arise under ionizing irradiation conditions or various chemical oxidants as a single damage or as part of a multiply damaged site within 1-2 helical turns (clustered lesion. Here, we explored the repair opportunity of the apurinic/apyrimidinic site (AP site composed of the clustered lesion with 5-formyluracil (5-foU by the base excision repair (BER proteins. We found, that if the AP site is shifted relative to the 5-foU of the opposite strand, it could be repaired primarily via the short-patch BER pathway. In this case, the cleavage efficiency of the AP site-containing DNA strand catalyzed by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (hAPE1 decreased under AP site excursion to the 3'-side relative to the lesion in the other DNA strand. DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase lambda was more accurate in comparison to the one catalyzed by DNA polymerase beta. If the AP site was located exactly opposite 5-foU it was expected to switch the repair to the long-patch BER pathway. In this situation, human processivity factor hPCNA stimulates the process.

  4. Planning of Maintenance and Repair of Complicated Technical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Liseychikov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expedient to use mathematical models for substantiation of operational material consumption at maintenance of complicated technical systems. The appropriate tasks have been considered: minimization of operational material consumption; determination of maximum scope of work to be executed while maintaining one system; optimization of operational material consumption while organizing maintenance of a system group; planning of technical maintenance and determination of a number of systems to be maintained. Formalization and solution of the above problems have been accomplished.

  5. The necessity of a theory of biology for tissue engineering: metabolism-repair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Suman; Hunt, C Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Since there is no widely accepted global theory of biology, tissue engineering and bioengineering lack a theoretical understanding of the systems being engineered. By default, tissue engineering operates with a "reductionist" theoretical approach, inherited from traditional engineering of non-living materials. Long term, that approach is inadequate, since it ignores essential aspects of biology. Metabolism-repair systems are a theoretical framework which explicitly represents two "functional" aspects of living organisms: self-repair and self-replication. Since repair and replication are central to tissue engineering, we advance metabolism-repair systems as a potential theoretical framework for tissue engineering. We present an overview of the framework, and indicate directions to pursue for extending it to the context of tissue engineering. We focus on biological networks, both metabolic and cellular, as one such direction. The construction of these networks, in turn, depends on biological protocols. Together these concepts may help point the way to a global theory of biology appropriate for tissue engineering.

  6. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  7. Present status of DNA repair mechanisms in uv irradiated yeast taken as a model eukaryotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustacchi, E.; Waters, R.; Heude, M.; Chanet, R.

    1975-01-01

    The repair mechanisms of altered DNA are generally less well understood for eukaryotes than they are for prokaryotes and bacteriophages. For mammalian cell lines cultured in vitro the specific labelling of DNA has allowed the biochemical analysis of some of the steps of the repair processes whereas the determination of their genetic controls is, with a few exceptions, obviously difficult. On the other hand, with fungi and more specifically with yeast taken as a model unicellular eukaryotic system, the genetic approach has been extensively explored: radiosensitive mutants are readily detected and genetically analyzed, double and multiple mutants can be constructed and from their responses to irradiation the number of repair pathways involved can be suggested. The lack of thymidine kinase in these organisms has hampered for a certain time the biochemical analysis of repair. However, the recent isolation of yeast strains capable of taking up and incorporating thymidine 5'-monophosphate into their DNA opens new possibilities for the future. In spite of this difficulty, attempts to measure the induction and removal of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers were performed by several groups during the last three years. The two main repair pathways described for E. coli, i.e., the excision-resynthesis and post-replicative recombinational repair pathways, do exist in yeast. The existence of the former pathway is supported not only by indirect evidence but also by biochemical analysis. The rad 1 and rad 2 mutants for instance have been shown to be blocked in the excision of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers. Other loci are epistatic to rad 1 and rad 2 (rad 3 , rad 4 ) and are likely to act on this excision pathway. The genetic control of the mitochondrial response to a uv treatment involves nuclear genes and mitochondrial determinants

  8. Statistical evaluation of failures and repairs of the V-1 measuring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinec, R.; Korec, J.; Mitosinka, J.; Zarnovican, V.

    1984-01-01

    A failure record card system was introduced for evaluating the reliability of the measurement and control equipment of the V-1 nuclear power plant. The SPU-800 microcomputer system is used for recording data on magnetic tape and their transmission to the central data processing department. The data are used for evaluating the reliability of components and circuits and a selection is made of the most failure-prone components, and the causes of failures are evaluated as are failure identification, repair and causes of outages. The system provides monthly, annual and total assessment data since the system was commissioned. The results of the statistical evaluation of failures are used for planning preventive maintenance and for determining optimal repair intervals. (E.S.)

  9. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  10. Modelling open pit shovel-truck systems using the Machine Repair Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, A.; Musingwini, C. [CBH Resources Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Endeaver Mine

    2007-08-15

    Shovel-truck systems for loading and hauling material in open pit mines are now routinely analysed using simulation models or off-the-shelf simulation software packages, which can be very expensive for once-off or occasional use. The simulation models invariably produce different estimations of fleet sizes due to their differing estimations of cycle time. No single model or package can accurately estimate the required fleet size because the fleet operating parameters are characteristically random and dynamic. In order to improve confidence in sizing the fleet for a mining project, at least two estimation models should be used. This paper demonstrates that the Machine Repair Model can be modified and used as a model for estimating truck fleet size in an open pit shovel-truck system. The modified Machine Repair Model is first applied to a virtual open pit mine case study. The results compare favourably to output from other estimation models using the same input parameters for the virtual mine. The modified Machine Repair Model is further applied to an existing open pit coal operation, the Kwagga Section of Optimum Colliery as a case study. Again the results confirm those obtained from the virtual mine case study. It is concluded that the Machine Repair Model can be an affordable model compared to off-the-shelf generic software because it is easily modelled in Microsoft Excel, a software platform that most mines already use.

  11. Formal definition of coherency and computation of minimal cut sequences for binary dynamic and repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaux, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Preventive risk assessment of a complex system rely on a dynamic models which describe the link between the system failure and the scenarios of failure and repair events from its components. The qualitative analyses of a binary dynamic and repairable system is aiming at computing and analyse the scenarios that lead to the system failure. Since such systems describe a large set of those, only the most representative ones, called Minimal Cut Sequences (MCS), are of interest for the safety engineer. The lack of a formal definition for the MCS has generated multiple definitions either specific to a given model (and thus not generic) or informal. This work proposes i) a formal framework and definition for the MCS while staying independent of the reliability model used, ii) the methodology to compute them using property extracted from their formal definition, iii) an extension of the formal framework for multi-states components in order to perform the qualitative analyses of Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes (BDMP) models. Under the hypothesis that the scenarios implicitly described by any reliability model can always be represented by a finite automaton, this work is defining the coherency for dynamic and repairable systems as the way to give a minimal representation of all scenarios that are leading to the system failure. (author)

  12. RNA damage in biological conflicts and the diversity of responding RNA repair systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Aravind, L.

    2016-01-01

    RNA is targeted in biological conflicts by enzymatic toxins or effectors. A vast diversity of systems which repair or ‘heal’ this damage has only recently become apparent. Here, we summarize the known effectors, their modes of action, and RNA targets before surveying the diverse systems which counter this damage from a comparative genomics viewpoint. RNA-repair systems show a modular organization with extensive shuffling and displacement of the constituent domains; however, a general ‘syntax’ is strongly maintained whereby systems typically contain: a RNA ligase (either ATP-grasp or RtcB superfamilies), nucleotidyltransferases, enzymes modifying RNA-termini for ligation (phosphatases and kinases) or protection (methylases), and scaffold or cofactor proteins. We highlight poorly-understood or previously-uncharacterized repair systems and components, e.g. potential scaffolding cofactors (Rot/TROVE and SPFH/Band-7 modules) with their respective cognate non-coding RNAs (YRNAs and a novel tRNA-like molecule) and a novel nucleotidyltransferase associating with diverse ligases. These systems have been extensively disseminated by lateral transfer between distant prokaryotic and microbial eukaryotic lineages consistent with intense inter-organismal conflict. Components have also often been ‘institutionalized’ for non-conflict roles, e.g. in RNA-splicing and in RNAi systems (e.g. in kinetoplastids) which combine a distinct family of RNA-acting prim-pol domains with DICER-like proteins. PMID:27536007

  13. Generalized renewal process for repairable systems based on finite Weibull mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, B.; Nagode, M.; Fajdiga, M.

    2008-01-01

    Repairable systems can be brought to one of possible states following a repair. These states are: 'as good as new', 'as bad as old' and 'better than old but worse than new'. The probabilistic models traditionally used to estimate the expected number of failures account for the first two states, but they do not properly apply to the last one, which is more realistic in practice. In this paper, a probabilistic model that is applicable to all of the three after-repair states, called generalized renewal process (GRP), is applied. Simplistically, GRP addresses the repair assumption by introducing the concept of virtual age into the stochastic point processes to enable them to represent the full spectrum of repair assumptions. The shape of measured or design life distributions of systems can vary considerably, and therefore frequently cannot be approximated by simple distribution functions. The scope of the paper is to prove that a finite Weibull mixture, with positive component weights only, can be used as underlying distribution of the time to first failure (TTFF) of the GRP model, on condition that the unknown parameters can be estimated. To support the main idea, three examples are presented. In order to estimate the unknown parameters of the GRP model with m-fold Weibull mixture, the EM algorithm is applied. The GRP model with m mixture components distributions is compared to the standard GRP model based on two-parameter Weibull distribution by calculating the expected number of failures. It can be concluded that the suggested GRP model with Weibull mixture with an arbitrary but finite number of components is suitable for predicting failures based on the past performance of the system

  14. A decision dependent stochastic process model for repairable systems with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Zantek

    2015-12-01

    This paper mathematically formalizes the notion of how management actions impact the functioning of a repairable system over time by developing a new stochastic process model for such systems. The proposed model is illustrated using both simulated and real data. The proposed model compares favorably to other models for well-known data on Boeing airplanes. The model is further illustrated and compared to other models on failure time and maintenance data stemming from the South Texas Project nuclear power plant.

  15. Multi-echelon Repair Inventory Systems: Select Issues in Modular Electronic Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Amik Garg; S. G. Deshmukh

    2010-01-01

    Flow of modules/printed circuit boards (PCBs) in a multi-echelon repair inventory system pertaining to modular electronic equipment for large maintenance organisations having large inventory in range and depth, like defence has been critically examined using a case study. Desirable features of the proposed system are identified and a general framework suggested for examining its feasibility and implementation in an organisation. An analytical model with an objective to reduce number of echelo...

  16. Application of Rapid Prototyping Technique and Intraoperative Navigation System for the Repair and Reconstruction of Orbital Wall Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Lee, Yong Hae; Ruy, Wan Chul; Roe, Young; Moon, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Restoring the orbital cavity in large blow out fractures is a challenge for surgeons due to the anatomical complexity. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes and orbital volume after orbital wall fracture repair using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique and intraoperative navigation system. Methods This prospective study was conducted on the medical records and radiology records of 12 patients who had undergone a unilateral blow out fracture reconstruction using a RP technique and an intraoperative navigation system from November 2014 to March 2015. The surgical results were assessed by an ophthalmic examination and a comparison of the preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. Results All patients had a successful treatment outcome without complications. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant decrease in the mean OVR from 1.0952±0.0662 (ranging from 0.9917 to 1.2509) preoperatively to 0.9942±0.0427 (ranging from 0.9394 to 1.0680) postoperatively. Conclusion The application of a RP technique for the repair of orbital wall fractures is a useful tool that may help improve the clinical outcomes by understanding the individual anatomy, determining the operability, and restoring the orbital cavity volume through optimal implant positioning along with an intraoperative navigation system. PMID:28913272

  17. The role of the HCR system in the repair of lethal lesions of Bacillus subtilis phages and their transfecting DNA damaged by radiation and alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizdalova, M.; Janovska, E.; Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The role of the HCR system in the repair of prelethal lesions induced by UV light, γ radiation and alkylating agents was studied in the Bacillus subtilis SPP1 phage, its heat sensitive mutants (N3, N73 nad ts 1 ) and corresponding infectious DNA. The survival of phages and their transfecting DNA after treatment with UV light is substantially higher in hcr + cells than in hcr cells, the differences being more striking in intact phages than in their transfecting DNA's. Repair inhibitors reduce survival in hcr + cells: caffeine lowers the survival of UV-irradiated phage SPP1 in exponentially growing hcr + cells but has no effect on its survival in competent hcr + cells; acriflavin and ethidium bromide decrease the survival of the UV-irradiated SPP1 phage in both exponentially growing and competent hcr + cells to the level of survival observed in hcr cells; moreover, ethidium bromide lowers the number of infective centres in hcr + cells of the UV-irradiated DNA of the SPP1 phage. Repair inhibitors do not lower the survival of the UV-irradiated phages or their DNA in hcr cells. The repair mechanism under study also effectively repairs lesions induced by polyfunctional alkylating agents in the transfecting DNA's of B. subtilis phages but is not functional with lesions induced by these agents in free phages and lesions caused in the phages and their DNA by ethyl methanesulphonate or γ radiation. (author)

  18. Non-periodic preventive maintenance with reliability thresholds for complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zu-Liang; Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Fang, Chih-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    In general, a non-periodic condition-based PM policy with different condition variables is often more effective than a periodic age-based policy for deteriorating complex repairable systems. In this study, system reliability is estimated and used as the condition variable, and three reliability-based PM models are then developed with consideration of different scenarios which can assist in evaluating the maintenance cost for each scenario. The proposed approach provides the optimal reliability thresholds and PM schedules in advance by which the system availability and quality can be ensured and the organizational resources can be well prepared and managed. The results of the sensitivity anlysis indicate that PM activities performed at a high reliability threshold can not only significantly improve the system availability but also efficiently extend the system lifetime, although such a PM strategy is more costly than that for a low reliabiltiy threshold. The optimal reliability threshold increases along with the number of PM activities to prevent future breakdowns caused by severe deterioration, and thus substantially reduces repair costs. - Highlights: • The PM problems for repairable deteriorating systems are formulated. • The structural properties of the proposed PM models are investigated. • The corresponding algorithms to find the optimal PM strategies are provided. • Imperfect PM activities are allowed to reduce the occurences of breakdowns. • Provide managers with insights about the critical factors in the planning stage

  19. Reliability Analysis of 6-Component Star Markov Repairable System with Spatial Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Star repairable systems with spatial dependence consist of a center component and several peripheral components. The peripheral components are arranged around the center component, and the performance of each component depends on its spatial “neighbors.” Vector-Markov process is adapted to describe the performance of the system. The state space and transition rate matrix corresponding to the 6-component star Markov repairable system with spatial dependence are presented via probability analysis method. Several reliability indices, such as the availability, the probabilities of visiting the safety, the degradation, the alert, and the failed state sets, are obtained by Laplace transform method and a numerical example is provided to illustrate the results.

  20. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  1. A shock and wear system under environmental conditions subject to internal failures, repair, and replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Pérez-Ocón, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A system in a random environment is considered. The influence of the external conditions is governed by a Markovian arrival process. The internal structure of failure and repair are governed by phase-type distributions. The maintenance is performed by policy N. Under these assumptions, the Markov process governing the system is constructed, and it is studied in transient and stationary regime, calculating the availability and the rate of occurrence of failures. The renewal process due to the replacements of the system is studied, and expressions for the number of replacements and for the number of repairs between replacements are calculated. This paper extends other previously published since it incorporates a shock arrival process with dependence among the interarrival times and the renewal process associated to the replacements. A numerical application illustrates the calculations.

  2. Rare event simulation for highly dependable systems with fast repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic model checking has been used recently to assess, among others, dependability measures for a variety of systems. However, the employed numerical methods, as, e.g., supported by model checking tools such as PRISM and MRMC, suffer from the state-space explosion problem. The main alternative

  3. Rare event simulation for highly dependable systems with fast repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Probabilistic model checking has been used recently to assess, among others, dependability measures for a variety of systems. However, the numerical methods employed, such as those supported by model checking tools such as PRISM and MRMC, suffer from the state-space explosion problem. The main

  4. Automated TIG welding system with visual sensor for repairing nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kondoh, Yoshihide.

    1986-01-01

    An automated TIG welding system has been developed. This system is to be used for repairing nuclear plants, whose work environment is highly radioactive, so should have the automatic self control function and the remote controllable function. For this purpose, the visual sensor, a TV camera and an image processor, is installed and the image processing technique is applied to the all-position TIG welding system. In this system, all controls are made with microprocessors and every necessary information is displayed on the screen of the remote control unit. The excellent performance was obtained as the application of this system to the practical field. (author)

  5. Fragile DNA Repair Mechanism Reduces Ageing in Multicellular Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe Søgaard; Trusina, Ala

    2012-01-01

    increases the amount of unrepaired DNA damage. Despite this vicious circle, we ask, can cells maintain a high DNA repair capacity for some time or is repair capacity bound to continuously decline with age? We here present a simple mathematical model for ageing in multicellular systems where cells subjected...... to DNA damage can undergo full repair, go apoptotic, or accumulate mutations thus reducing DNA repair capacity. Our model predicts that at the tissue level repair rate does not continuously decline with age, but instead has a characteristic extended period of high and non-declining DNA repair capacity......DNA damages, as well as mutations, increase with age. It is believed that these result from increased genotoxic stress and decreased capacity for DNA repair. The two causes are not independent, DNA damage can, for example, through mutations, compromise the capacity for DNA repair, which in turn...

  6. Uncertain multiobjective redundancy allocation problem of repairable systems based on artificial bee colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jiansheng; Wang Zutong; Zheng Mingfa; Wang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the uncertainty theory, this paper is devoted to the redundancy allocation problem in repairable parallel-series systems with uncertain factors, where the failure rate, repair rate and other relative coefficients involved are considered as uncertain variables. The availability of the system and the corresponding designing cost are considered as two optimization objectives. A crisp multiobjective optimization formulation is presented on the basis of uncertainty theory to solve this resultant problem. For solving this problem efficiently, a new multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to search the Pareto efficient set, which introduces rank value and crowding distance in the greedy selection strategy, applies fast non-dominated sort procedure in the exploitation search and inserts tournament selection in the onlooker bee phase. It shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms NSGA-II greatly and can solve multiobjective redundancy allocation problem efficiently. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.

  7. Cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d, promotes cell survival and decreases chromosomal aberrations after genotoxic insult due to enhanced DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassa, María E; Marazita, Mariela C; Ceruti, Julieta M; Carcagno, Abel L; Sirkin, Pablo F; González-Cid, Marcela; Pignataro, Omar P; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2007-05-01

    Genome integrity and cell proliferation and survival are regulated by an intricate network of pathways that includes cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and recombination, and programmed cell death. It makes sense that there should be a coordinated regulation of these different processes, but the components of such mechanisms remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that p19INK4d expression enhances cell survival under genotoxic conditions. By using p19INK4d-overexpressing clones, we demonstrated that p19INK4d expression correlates with the cellular resistance to UV treatment with increased DNA repair activity against UV-induced lesions. On the contrary, cells transfected with p19INK4d antisense cDNA show reduced ability to repair DNA damage and increased sensitivity to genotoxic insult when compared with their p19INK4d-overexpressing counterparts. Consistent with these findings, our studies also show that p19INK4d-overexpressing cells present not only a minor accumulation of UV-induced chromosomal aberrations but a lower frequency of spontaneous chromosome abnormalities than p19INK4d-antisense cells. Lastly, we suggest that p19INK4d effects are dissociated from its role as CDK4/6 inhibitor. The results presented herein support a crucial role for p19INK4d in regulating genomic stability and overall cell viability under conditions of genotoxic stress. We propose that p19INK4d would belong to a protein network that would integrate DNA repair, apoptotic and checkpoint mechanisms in order to maintain the genomic integrity.

  8. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  9. A systems approach to inventory management of repairables in the Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Apple, Chris Leon

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops an inventory model for repairable items which integrates the shipboard protection level into the wholesale stock level computations. It uses mean supply response time (MSRT) as its measure of effectiveness and provides methods for computing either the required wholesale stock level given a MSRT goal or for minimizing the system MSRT subject to budgetary constraints. Examples are provided which demons...

  10. Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System after Optic Nerve Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System After Optic Nerve Damage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biological functions such as metabolism, growth, cell cycle, and survival ( Cardone et al., 1998; Diehl, Cheng, Roussel, & Sherr, 1998; Hers, Vincent...of injured adult sensory neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 7161–7170. Cardone , M. H., Roy, N., Stennicke, H. R., Salvesen, G. S., Franke, T. F

  11. On the optimal degree of imperfect repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    A simple cost-wise comparison between the minimal and perfect repair of a system is discussed first using a relevant example. The main focus of this note, however, is on imperfect (general) repair. The best repair for our system in this case is defined as the one that corresponds to the optimal level (extent) of repair actions that minimize the long-run expected cost per unit of time. This complex optimization problem is considered for a specific imperfect repair model (Kijima II), using the developed earlier asymptotic approach to the corresponding virtual age modelling. It is shown that the optimal solution exists when the failure rate of a system tends to infinity as t tends to infinity and the corresponding cost function decreases sufficiently fast. An example illustrating the optimization procedure is considered

  12. An application of modulated poisson processes to the reliability analysis of repairable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Pedro L.C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Reatores]. E-mail: saldanha@cnen.gov.br; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: frutuoso@con.ufrj.br; Noriega, Hector C. [Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), Valdivia (Chile). Faculdad de Ciencias de la Ingeniaria]. E-mail: hnoriega@uach.cl

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the application of the modulated power law process (MPLP) model to the rate of occurrence of failures of active repairable systems in reliability engineering. Traditionally, two ways of modeling repairable systems, in what concerns maintenance policies, are: a pessimistic approach (non-homogeneous process - NHPP), and a very optimistic approach (renewal processes - RP). It is important to build a generalized model that might consider characteristics and properties both of the NHPP and of the RP models as particular cases. In practice, by considering the pattern of times between failures, the MPLP appears to be more realistic to represent the occurrence of failures of repairable systems in order to define whether they can be modeled by a homogeneous or a non-homogeneous process. The study has shown that the model can be used to make decisions concerning the evaluation of the qualified life of plant equipment. By controlling and monitoring two of the three parameters of the MPLP model during the equipment operation, it is possible to check whether and how the equipment is following the basis of its qualification process, and so identify how the effects of time, degradation and operation modes are influencing the equipment performance. The discussion is illustrated by an application to the service water pumps of a typical PWR plant. (author)

  13. A New Approach for Analyzing the Reliability of the Repair Facility in a Series System with Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the renewal process theory we develop a decomposition method to analyze the reliability of the repair facility in an n-unit series system with vacations. Using this approach, we study the unavailability and the mean replacement number during (0,t] of the repair facility. The method proposed in this work is novel and concise, which can make us see clearly the structures of the facility indices of a series system with an unreliable repair facility, two convolution relations. Special cases and numerical examples are given to show the validity of our method.

  14. Interactions of radiation repair systems in escherichia colt with antineoplastic anthracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacinski, B.M.; Rupp, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have studied the interactions of several anthracylines with the UVR DN*a repair system of E. coli. The authors found that doxorubicin is quite toxic for uvr- but not for uvr+strains. They also found that exposure of cells carrying a multicopy plasmid to this agent yielded plasmid DNA molecules with lesions which were recognized and cleaved by purified E. coli UVRABC DNA repair endonuclease. A derivative of doxorubicin was not measurably toxic for either uvr+ or uvr- strains but nevertheless produced lesions which were substrates for the UVRABC endonuclease. The authors propose that anthracycline toxicity in uvr- E. coli may correlate with clinical toxicity while anthracylcine antineopolastic activity may correlate with their ability to produce UVRABC endonuclease-sensitive DNA damage

  15. Bioactive Molecule-loaded Drug Delivery Systems to Optimize Bone Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Joao Augusto; Sato, Mariana Rillo; Scardueli, Cassio Rocha; Lopes de Oliveira, Guilherme Jose Pimentel; Abucafy, Marina Paiva; Chorilli, Marlus

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive molecules such as peptides and proteins can optimize the repair of bone tissue; however, the results are often unpredictable when administered alone, owing to their short biological half-life and instability. Thus, the development of bioactive molecule-loaded drug delivery systems (DDS) to repair bone tissue has been the subject of intense research. DDS can optimize the repair of bone tissue owing to their physicochemical properties, which improve cellular interactions and enable the incorporation and prolonged release of bioactive molecules. These characteristics are fundamental to favor bone tissue homeostasis, since the biological activity of these factors depends on how accessible they are to the cell. Considering the importance of these DDS, this review aims to present relevant information on DDS when loaded with osteogenic growth peptide and bone morphogenetic protein. These are bioactive molecules that are capable of modulating the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells in bone tissue cells. Moreover, we will present different approaches using these peptide and protein-loaded DDS, such as synthetic membranes and scaffolds for bone regeneration, synthetic grafts, bone cements, liposomes, and micelles, which aim at improving the therapeutic effectiveness, and we will compare their advantages with commercial systems. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. THE WORK SIMULATION OF FLOW RATE FOR CARRIAGES' REPAIR AS A MULTIPHASE, MULTIPLEX AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY SYSTEM OF MASS SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of computer simulation of the flexible flow for repair of cars as a multiphase polychannel manyobject queuing system is presented. The basic operators of the model are given and their work is described.

  17. Reflex test reminders in required cancer synoptic templates decrease order entry error: An analysis of mismatch repair immunohistochemical orders to screen for Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometrial carcinoma (EC is the most common extracolonic malignant neoplasm associated with Lynch syndrome (LS. LS is caused by autosomal dominant germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Screening for LS in EC is often evaluated by loss of immunohistochemical (IHC expression of DNA MMR enzymes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (MMR IHC. In July 2013, our clinicians asked that we screen all EC in patients ≤60 for loss of MMR IHC expression. Despite this policy, several cases were not screened or screening was delayed. We implemented an informatics-based approach to ensure that all women who met criteria would have timely screening. Subjects and Methods: Reports are created in PowerPath (Sunquest Information Systems, Tucson, AZ with custom synoptic templates. We implemented an algorithm on March 6, 2014 requiring pathologists to address MMR IHC in patients ≤60 with EC before sign out (S/O. Pathologists must answer these questions: is patient ≤60 (yes/no, if yes, follow-up questions (IHC done previously, ordered with addendum to follow, results included in report, N/A, or not ordered, if not ordered, one must explain. We analyzed cases from July 18, 2013 to August 31, 2016 preimplementation (PreImp and postimplementation (PostImp that met criteria. Data analysis was performed using the standard data package included with GraphPad Prism® 7.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA. Results: There were 147 patients who met criteria (29 PreImp and 118 PostImp. IHC was ordered in a more complete and timely fashion PostImp than PreImp. PreImp, 4/29 (13.8% cases did not get any IHC, but PostImp, only 4/118 (3.39% were missed (P = 0.0448. Of cases with IHC ordered, 60.0% (15/25 were ordered before or at S/O PreImp versus 91.2% (104/114 PostImp (P = 0.0004. Relative to day of S/O, the mean days of order delay were longer and more variable PreImp versus PostImp (12.9 ± 40.7 vs. -0.660 ± 1.15; P = 0.0227, with the average

  18. Reflex test reminders in required cancer synoptic templates decrease order entry error: An analysis of mismatch repair immunohistochemical orders to screen for Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Mark R; McIlwain, Carrie A; Schmidt, Rodney A; Norquist, Barbara M; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Garcia, Rochelle L; Rendi, Mara H

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common extracolonic malignant neoplasm associated with Lynch syndrome (LS). LS is caused by autosomal dominant germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Screening for LS in EC is often evaluated by loss of immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of DNA MMR enzymes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (MMR IHC). In July 2013, our clinicians asked that we screen all EC in patients ≤60 for loss of MMR IHC expression. Despite this policy, several cases were not screened or screening was delayed. We implemented an informatics-based approach to ensure that all women who met criteria would have timely screening. Reports are created in PowerPath (Sunquest Information Systems, Tucson, AZ) with custom synoptic templates. We implemented an algorithm on March 6, 2014 requiring pathologists to address MMR IHC in patients ≤60 with EC before sign out (S/O). Pathologists must answer these questions: is patient ≤60 (yes/no), if yes, follow-up questions (IHC done previously, ordered with addendum to follow, results included in report, N/A, or not ordered), if not ordered, one must explain. We analyzed cases from July 18, 2013 to August 31, 2016 preimplementation (PreImp) and postimplementation (PostImp) that met criteria. Data analysis was performed using the standard data package included with GraphPad Prism ® 7.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). There were 147 patients who met criteria (29 PreImp and 118 PostImp). IHC was ordered in a more complete and timely fashion PostImp than PreImp. PreImp, 4/29 (13.8%) cases did not get any IHC, but PostImp, only 4/118 (3.39%) were missed ( P = 0.0448). Of cases with IHC ordered, 60.0% (15/25) were ordered before or at S/O PreImp versus 91.2% (104/114) PostImp ( P = 0.0004). Relative to day of S/O, the mean days of order delay were longer and more variable PreImp versus PostImp (12.9 ± 40.7 vs. -0.660 ± 1.15; P = 0.0227), with the average being before S/O PostImp. This algorithm

  19. Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

  20. Role of the immune system in cardiac tissue damage and repair following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Arman; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Nurgozhin, Talgat; Chen, William C W; Mansurov, Nurlan; Issabekova, Assel; Zhakupova, Jamilya

    2017-09-01

    The immune system plays a crucial role in the initiation, development, and resolution of inflammation following myocardial infarction (MI). The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes the death of cardiomyocytes and leads to the exposure of danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by the immune system to initiate inflammation. At the initial stage of post-MI inflammation, the immune system further damages cardiac tissue to clear cell debris. The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by immune cells and the inability of the anti-oxidant system to neutralize ROS cause oxidative stress that further aggravates inflammation. On the other hand, the cells of both innate and adaptive immune system and their secreted factors are critically instrumental in the very dynamic and complex processes of regulating inflammation and mediating cardiac repair. It is important to decipher the balance between detrimental and beneficial effects of the immune system in MI. This enables us to identify better therapeutic targets for reducing the infarct size, sustaining the cardiac function, and minimizing the likelihood of heart failure. This review discusses the role of both innate and adaptive immune systems in cardiac tissue damage and repair in experimental models of MI.

  1. Molecular mechanism of short-patch repair of radiation-damaged DNA by in vitro reconstituted systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Kim, K.; Biade, S.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Short-patch excision repair is the major pathway to correct DNA damage such as modified bases, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and single-strand breaks. Recently this repair reaction was demonstrated to proceed by two alternative pathways: DNA polymerase β (pol β)-dependent pathway and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-dependent pathway. In this work, we focused to compare substrate specificity of these two repair pathways and elucidate their roles in cellular responses to radiation damage. Materials and Methods: Three protein fractions, AP endonuclease, pol β, and BE-1B, which are required for the pol β-dependent pathway, and five protein fractions, AP endonuclease, BE-1B (these two are common to the pol β-dependent pathway), PCNA, pol δ, and BE-2, which are essential for the PCNA-dependent pathway were obtained from Xenopus laevis ovaries through column chromatography. The circular DNA containing either one of the following three lesions: a natural AP site, its synthetic analog, 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran (tetrahydrofuran), and 5-iododeoxyuridine (IdU), was prepared by in vitro ligation of oligonucleotides to a gapped circular DNA. The IdU-containing DNA was irradiated with 312 nm UV light prior to repair reaction. In addition, DNA carrying a single-strand break was obtained by Cs-137 irradiation. Repair reactions of these substrate DNAs were conducted with either the reconstituted system for the pol β-dependent pathway or the one for the PCNA-dependent pathway. After the reaction, repaired and unrepaired DNAs were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantitated. Results: The pol β-dependent reconstituted system was able to repair natural AP sites but not tetrahydrofuran sites or UV-irradiated IdU. The single-strand breaks generated by γ-irradiation were partially repaired by thepol β-dependent pathway. The PCNA-dependent system was able to repair natural AP sites, tetrahydrofuran sites, and most of the single

  2. Calcium Carbonate Formation in Water Distribution Systems and Autogenous Repair of Leaks by Inert Particle Clogging

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Colin Scott

    2016-01-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (i.e. scale) in potable water systems has long been a concern in water treatment and distribution. A literature review reveals that CaCO3 scaling issues are re-emerging due to climate change, temperature increases in hot water systems and lower use of scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Moreover, we have gathered insights that suggest CaCO3 coatings can be beneficial and stop pipeline leaks via self-repair or clogging. Ironically, the actions we are ta...

  3. An Inducible, Isogenic Cancer Cell Line System for Targeting the State of Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Julie M.; Gordon, Marcia L.; Gurgel, Jesse L.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.; Kirsch, Ilan R.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) maintains genome stability through recognition and repair of single-base mismatches and small insertion-deletion loops. Inactivation of the MMR pathway causes microsatellite instability and the accumulation of genomic mutations that can cause or contribute to cancer. In fact, 10-20% of certain solid and hematologic cancers are MMR-deficient. MMR-deficient cancers do not respond to some standard of care chemotherapeutics because of presumed increased tolerance of DNA damage, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic drugs. Toward this goal, we generated isogenic cancer cell lines for direct comparison of MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells. We engineered NCI-H23 lung adenocarcinoma cells to contain a doxycycline-inducible shRNA designed to suppress the expression of the mismatch repair gene MLH1, and compared single cell subclones that were uninduced (MLH1-proficient) versus induced for the MLH1 shRNA (MLH1-deficient). Here we present the characterization of these MMR-inducible cell lines and validate a novel class of rhodium metalloinsertor compounds that differentially inhibit the proliferation of MMR-deficient cancer cells. PMID:24205301

  4. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cristóbal Conde-Pérezprina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”. The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others.

  5. Rotator cuff repair in the Brazilian Unified Health System: Brazilian trends from 2003 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Angeli Malavolta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the historical trend of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil between 2003 and 2015, using the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS] Department of Informatics (DataSUS. METHODS: Historical series using DataSUS. Surgeries performed between 2003 and 2015 were included and data relating to cuff tear repair were assessed, including decompression procedures were included. The numerator was the total number of rotator cuff repair and the denominator, the total population of the assessed locality. Population data were based on information from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. RESULTS: During the period, 50,207 surgeries were performed. The rate was presented as number of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants, and increased from 0.83 to 2.81, a growth of 238%. In 2015, the South region had the highest rate, 6.32, followed by the Southeast, 3.62, while the North had the lowest rate, 0.13. The growing trend can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast. CONCLUSION: The rate of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil performed through the SUS increased from 0.83 to 2.81 between 2003 and 2015, representing a growth of 238%, but remains lower than that of developed countries. A trend of growth can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast.

  6. [Direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis using a pedicle screw-laminar hook system by paramedian approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Tang, Yong-hua; Tang, Hong-chao; Jin, Cai-yi

    2011-08-01

    To discuss the indication and clinical effect of direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis by screw-laminar hook system. From August 2003 to December 2008, 28 patients (13 males and 15 females,ranging in age from 15 and 26 years, averaged 21.6 years) with lumbar spondylolysis were treated with isthmic bone grafting and internal fixation with a pedicle screw-laminar hook system. Three patients had spondylolysis at L3, L4; 5 patients had spondylolysis at L4, L5; 8 patients had spondylolysis at L4; and 12 patients had spondylolysis at L5. All the patients had low back pain and lasted over 6 months. According to preoperative and postoperative plain radiograph, CT scan and Macnab criteria, the fusion rate and clinical effect of this technique were evaluated. All the patients were followed up with a mean period of 14.9 months, ranging from 9 to 24 months. All the patients had bony union according to the X-rays and CT scan. According to the calculation results of Macnab criteria, 22 patients got an excellent result, 5 good and 1 fair. The direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis with pedicle screw-laminar hook system can shorten length of operation,decrease blood loss, preserve more posterior structures of spine and avoid iatrogenic instability of spine. The postoperative immediate stability of vertebral segment is acquired and the mobility of adjacent intervertebral discs is reserved. The screw-laminar hook system for the treatment of adolescent spondylolisthesis can get satisfactory clinical results.

  7. Asymptotics of decreasing solutions of coupled p-Laplacian systems in the framework of regular variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Matucci, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 3 (2014), s. 837-858 ISSN 0373-3114 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : decreasing solution * quasilinear system * Emden-Fowler system * Lane-Emden system * regular variation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-012-0303-9

  8. An asymptotic formula for decreasing solutions to coupled nonlinear differential systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucci, S.; Řehák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2012), s. 67-75 ISSN 1064-9735 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : system of quasilinear equations * strongly decreasing solutions * asymptotic equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  10. Ability of Bacillus subtilis protoplasts to repair irradiated bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid via acquired and natural enzymatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasbin, R.E.; Andersen, B.J.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    A novel form of enzyme therapy was achieved by utilizing protoplasts of Bacillus subtilis. Photoreactivating enzyme of Escherichia coli was successfully inserted into the protoplasts of B. subtilis treated with polyethylene glycol. This enzyme was used to photoreactivate ultraviolet-damaged bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Furthermore, in polyethylene glycol-treated protoplasts, ultraviolet-irradiated transfecting bacteriophage DNA was shown to be a functional substrate for the host DNA excision repair system. Previous results (R.E. Yasbin, J.D. Fernwalt, and P.I. Fields, J. Bacteriol.; 137: 391-396) showed that ultraviolet-irradiated bacteriophage DNA could not be repaired via the excision repair system of competent cells. Therefore, the processing of bacteriophage DNA by protoplasts and by competent cells must be different. This sensitive protoplast assay can be used to identify and to isolate various types of DNA repair enzymes

  11. A method of reactor power decrease by 2DOF control system during BWR power oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1998-09-01

    Occurrence of power oscillation events caused by void feedback effects in BWRs operated at low-flow and high-power condition has been reported. After thoroughly examining these events, BWRs have been equipped with the SRI (Selected Rod Insertion) system to avoid the power oscillation by decreasing the power under such reactor condition. This report presents a power control method for decreasing the reactor power stably by a two degree of freedom (2DOF) control. Performing a numerical simulation by utilizing a simple reactor dynamics model, it is found that the control system designed attains a satisfactory control performance of power decrease from a viewpoint of setting time and oscillation. (author)

  12. Reliability modelling of repairable systems using Petri nets and fuzzy Lambda-Tau methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, J.; Odoom, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is developed which uses Petri nets instead of the fault tree methodology and solves for reliability indices utilising fuzzy Lambda-Tau method. Fuzzy set theory is used for representing the failure rate and repair time instead of the classical (crisp) set theory because fuzzy numbers allow expert opinions, linguistic variables, operating conditions, uncertainty and imprecision in reliability information to be incorporated into the system model. Petri nets are used because unlike the fault tree methodology, the use of Petri nets allows efficient simultaneous generation of minimal cut and path sets

  13. Involvement of the DNA mismatch repair system in cisplatin sensitivity of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Christiane; Melau, Cecilie; Nielsen, John E.

    2017-01-01

    in the majority of tumours, although the underlying mechanism largely remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in the cisplatin sensitivity of TGCT. MethodsThe expression pattern of key MMR proteins, including MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2...... proteins, in particular MSH2 and MLH1, which are involved in the recognition of cisplatin adducts and in activation of the DNA damage response pathway to initiate apoptosis....

  14. Efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks repair in breast cancer is decreased in carriers of the variant allele of the UBC9 gene c.73G>A polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synowiec, Ewelina [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Krupa, Renata [Laboratory of DNA Repair, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland); Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wasylecka, Maja [Department of Surgical Oncology, N. Copernicus Hospital, Lodz (Poland); Dziki, Lukasz; Morawiec, Jan [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Blasiak, Janusz [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Wozniak, Katarzyna, E-mail: wozniak@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Laboratory of DNA Repair, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-12-10

    UBC9 (E2) SUMO conjugating enzyme plays an important role in the maintenance of genome stability and integrity. In the present work we examined the association between the c.73G>A (Val25Met) polymorphism of the UBC9 gene (rs11553473) and efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair (DRE) in breast cancer patients. We determined the level of endogenous (basal) and exogenous (induced by {gamma}-irradiation) DSBs and efficacy of their repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 breast cancer patients and 70 healthy individuals. DNA damage and repair were studied by neutral comet assay. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by allele-specific PCR (ASO-PCR). We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients. We observed a strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the variant allele carried genotypes in patients with elevated level of basal as well as induced DNA damage (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.27-20.0 and OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.81-15.7, respectively). We also found statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference in DRE related to the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene in breast cancer patients. Carriers of variant allele have decreased DNA DRE as compared to wild type genotype carriers. We did not find any association with the UBC9 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status. The variant allele of the UBC9 gene polymorphism was strongly inversely related to HER negative breast cancer patients (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.23). Our results suggest that the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene may affect DNA DSBs repair efficacy in breast cancer patients.

  15. Efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks repair in breast cancer is decreased in carriers of the variant allele of the UBC9 gene c.73G>A polymorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synowiec, Ewelina; Krupa, Renata; Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wasylecka, Maja; Dziki, Lukasz; Morawiec, Jan; Blasiak, Janusz; Wozniak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    UBC9 (E2) SUMO conjugating enzyme plays an important role in the maintenance of genome stability and integrity. In the present work we examined the association between the c.73G>A (Val25Met) polymorphism of the UBC9 gene (rs11553473) and efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair (DRE) in breast cancer patients. We determined the level of endogenous (basal) and exogenous (induced by γ-irradiation) DSBs and efficacy of their repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 breast cancer patients and 70 healthy individuals. DNA damage and repair were studied by neutral comet assay. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by allele-specific PCR (ASO-PCR). We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients. We observed a strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the variant allele carried genotypes in patients with elevated level of basal as well as induced DNA damage (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.27-20.0 and OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.81-15.7, respectively). We also found statistically significant (p A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene in breast cancer patients. Carriers of variant allele have decreased DNA DRE as compared to wild type genotype carriers. We did not find any association with the UBC9 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status. The variant allele of the UBC9 gene polymorphism was strongly inversely related to HER negative breast cancer patients (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.23). Our results suggest that the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene may affect DNA DSBs repair efficacy in breast cancer patients.

  16. Cell sensitivity to irradiation and DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new model of oxygen effect realisation is proposed for E.coli cells. The model explains differencies in oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) between wild type cells and repair deficient mutants. These differencies are logically linked to corresponding defects in repair systems. A quantitative analysis has been performed. The dependence of OER and cell sensitivity on the properties of cultivation medium is considered, too. Decreasing OER and increasing sensitivity in poor conditions are explained as the consequence of the shift of repair capacity from slow to fast repair system

  17. Bond strength of the porcelain repair system to all-ceramic copings and porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J; Cheong, Chan Wook; Wright, Robert F; Chang, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of the porcelain repair system on alumina and zirconia core ceramics, comparing this strength with that of veneering porcelain. Veneering ceramic (n = 12), alumina core (n = 24), and zirconia core (n = 24) blocks measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm(3) were fabricated. Veneering ceramic blocks were used as the control. Alumina and zirconia core blocks were divided into 2 groups (n = 12 each), and a slot (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) filled with veneering ceramics was prepared into one of the alumina and zirconia core groups (n = 12). Followed by surface treatments of micro-abrasion with 30 μm alumina particles, etching with 35% phosphoric acid and silane primer and bond, composite resin blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3)) were built up and light polymerized onto the treated surfaces by 3 configurations: (a) composite blocks bonded onto veneering ceramic surface alone, (b) composite blocks bonded onto alumina core or zirconia core surfaces, (c) a 50% surface area of the composite blocks bonded to veneering ceramics and the other 50% surface area of the composite blocks to alumina core or zirconia core surfaces. The shear bond strength of the composite to each specimen was tested by a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The shear bond strength was analyzed by unpaired t-tests for within the configuration groups and ANOVA for among the different configuration groups. When the mean shear bond strength was compared within groups of the same configuration, there were no statistically significant differences. Comparison of the shear bond strength among groups of different configurations revealed statistically significant differences. The mean shear bond strength of composite onto 100% veneering ceramic surface and composite onto 50% veneering 50% all-ceramic cores was statistically higher than that of composite onto 100% all-ceramic cores; however, the differences of the shear bond strength of composite bonded

  18. Repair mechanisms inducible to the DNA in I.M.M.S. biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, J.; Arceo, C.; Cortinas, C.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Olvera, O.; Cruces, M.; Pimentel, E.

    1990-03-01

    Given the characteristics of the MMS and the relative antecedents to the repair mechanisms in eucariontes are sought to determine the effect of the MMS on the genetic material and their repair in Drosophila melanogaster. (Author)

  19. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  20. [The quality of patient care under the German DRG system using as example the inguinal hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, C; Schweins, M; Heiss, M M

    2008-02-01

    The DRG system in Germany was introduced to improve and at the same time simplify the reimbursement of costs in German hospitals. Cost effectiveness and economic efficiency were the declared goals. Structural changes and increased competition among different hospitals were the consequences. The effect on the qualitiy of patient care has been discussed with some concern. Furthermore, doubts have been expressed about the correct representation of the various diagnoses and treatments in the coding system and the financial revenue. Inguinal hernia repair serves as an example to illustrate some common problems with the reimbursement in the DRG system. Virtual patients were grouped using a "Web Grouper" and analysed using the cost accounting from the G-DRG-Browser of the InEK. Additionally, the reimbursement for ambulant hernia repair was estimated. The DRG coding did not differentiate the various operative procedures for inguinal hernia repair. They all generated the same revenues. For example, the increased costs for bilateral inguinal hernia repair are not represented in the payment. Furthermore, no difference is made between primary and recurrent inguinal hernia. In the case of a short-term hospital stay, part of the revenue is retained. In the case of ambulatory treatment of inguinal hernia, the reimbursement is by far not a real compensation for the actual costs. The ideal patient in the DRG system suffers from a primary inguinal hernia, undergoes an open hernia repair without mesh, and remains for 2-3 days in hospital. Minimally invasive procedures, repair of bilateral inguinal hernia and ambulant operation are by far less profitable--if at all. The current revenues for inguinal hernia repair require improvement and adjustment to reality in order to accomplish the goals which the DRG system in Germany aims at.

  1. A Mobile Robotic System for the Inspection and Repair of SG Tubes in NPPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chil Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and performance of a steam generator (SG is one of the serious concerns in the operation of pressurized water nuclear power plants. Because of high levels of radiation, robotic systems have been used to inspect and repair SG tubes. In this paper, we present a mobile robotic system that positions the inspection and repair tools while hanging down from the tube sheets where the tubes are fixed. All of the driving mechanisms of the mobile robot are actuated by electric motors to start its works, providing that the electric power is prepared without the additional need for an on-site air services. A special tube-holding mechanism with a high holding force has been developed to prevent falling from the tube sheets, even in the case of an electric power failure. We have also developed a quick installation guide device that guides the mobile robot to desired initial positions in the tube sheet exactly and quickly, which helps to reduce the radiation exposure of human workers during the installation work. This paper also provides on-site experimental results and lessons learned.

  2. The phytochemical 3,3'-diindolylmethane decreases expression of AR-controlled DNA damage repair genes through repressive chromatin modifications and is associated with DNA damage in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomera-Sanchez, Zoraya; Watson, Gregory W; Wong, Carmen P; Beaver, Laura M; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Ho, Emily

    2017-09-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor involved in normal prostate physiology and prostate cancer (PCa) development. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a promising phytochemical agent against PCa that affects AR activity and epigenetic regulators in PCa cells. However, whether DIM suppresses PCa via epigenetic regulation of AR target genes is unknown. We assessed epigenetic regulation of AR target genes in LNCaP PCa cells and showed that DIM treatment led to epigenetic suppression of AR target genes involved in DNA repair (PARP1, MRE11, DNA-PK). Decreased expression of these genes was accompanied by an increase in repressive chromatin marks, loss of AR occupancy and EZH2 recruitment to their regulatory regions. Decreased DNA repair gene expression was associated with an increase in DNA damage (γH2Ax) and up-regulation of genomic repeat elements LINE1 and α-satellite. Our results suggest that DIM suppresses AR-dependent gene transcription through epigenetic modulation, leading to DNA damage and genome instability in PCa cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. An assessment of composite repair system in offshore platform for corroded circumferential welds in super duplex steel pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Barros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a composite repair system in severely corroded circumferential welds in super duplex stainless steel pipes as a preventive measure against the premature corrosion damage at the welds. Artificial defects were fabricated on the super duplex steel tube in order to reproduce the localized corrosion damage defects found in real welded joints. Three kinds of through thickness defects were considered: 25%, 50% and 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. The performance of the repaired pipe was assessed by hydrostatic tests as per ISO 24817 standard. The results showed that the composite repair system can sustain the designed failure pressure even for the pipe damaged with through-wall defect up to 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. Hence, the composite repair system can be used as a preliminary tool to protect the unexpected or premature failure at the welds and maintain an adequate level of mechanical strength for a given operating pressure. This composite repair system can assure that the pipe will not leak until a planned maintenance of the line. Nevertheless, further work is still desirable to improve the confidence in the long-term performance of bonded composite

  4. Atucha I nuclear power plant: repair works in QK02W01 moderator system heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, Luis E.; Zanni, Pablo A.

    2000-01-01

    Atucha I nuclear power plant moderator system operates with highly radioactive heavy water, a pressure of 115 Bar and temperatures of about 200 C degrees. In March 2000, an increasing leakage of heavy water to the conventional thermal circuit was detected, conducting the plant to a shut down. The development of a number of actions and measures were taken, in order to plug this leakage. The leakage was found in a heat exchanger, which is located in a place of difficult access, with a high radiological yield and which, according to design, it was not considered to be mechanically repaired. It is a U bend tubes heat exchanger, weighting about 20 tons, and with a heavy water flow of 800 tons/h on the primary circuit, and 950 tons/h of ordinary water on the secondary side. Foreseeing this event, it had been designed and constructed special equipment and procedures, by means of a contract, with the Company INVAP SA. Repair works were carried out within a period of eighty-six (86) days, from which, forty five days were used to repair the component itself. A considerable amount of time was used to prepare simulators and the training of personnel. Due to the high radiological yield and the strict care of radiological standards, it was necessary the participation of 300 persons, integrating a collective dose of 4,86 Sv-m. It was necessary the construction of platforms and auxiliary stairs so as to make the work place accessible, as well as lifting and movement devices for heavy components, since this area does not have such kind of facilities. Welding and cutting machines remote controlled as well as manipulators which operated in front of the exchanger tube sheet were used. The aim was the reduction of dose values as much as possible. Special shielding were developed and in some cases it was necessary the adoption of drastic measures such as the cutting of bolts or pipes. The failure was detected and the tube was plugged. Also were plugged those tubes with wall thickness

  5. A method for the calculation of the cumulative failure probability distribution of complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.

    1976-01-01

    A method is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the cumulative failure probability distribution of complex repairable systems. The method is based on a set of integral equations each one referring to a specific minimal cut set of the system. Each integral equation links the unavailability of a minimal cut set to its failure probability density distribution and to the probability that the minimal cut set is down at the time t under the condition that it was down at time t'(t'<=t). The limitations for the applicability of the method are also discussed. It has been concluded that the method is applicable if the process describing the failure of a minimal cut set is a 'delayed semi-regenerative process'. (Auth.)

  6. A real-time expert system for self-repairing flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, S. A.; Agarwal, A. K.; Shah, S. C.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated environment for specifying, prototyping, and implementing a self-repairing flight-control (SRFC) strategy is described. At an interactive workstation, the user can select paradigms such as rule-based expert systems, state-transition diagrams, and signal-flow graphs and hierarchically nest them, assign timing and priority attributes, establish blackboard-type communication, and specify concurrent execution on single or multiple processors. High-fidelity nonlinear simulations of aircraft and SRFC systems can be performed off-line, with the possibility of changing SRFC rules, inference strategies, and other heuristics to correct for control deficiencies. Finally, the off-line-generated SRFC can be transformed into highly optimized application-specific real-time C-language code. An application of this environment to the design of aircraft fault detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithms is presented in detail.

  7. Evolution and Adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Driven by Mismatch Repair System-Deficient Mutators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luján, Adela M.; Maciá, María D.; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    , which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic...... infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition...... diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution...

  8. Building an adaptive agent to monitor and repair the electrical power system of an orbital satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecuci, Gheorghe; Hieb, Michael R.; Dybala, Tomasz

    1995-01-01

    Over several years we have developed a multistrategy apprenticeship learning methodology for building knowledge-based systems. Recently we have developed and applied our methodology to building intelligent agents. This methodology allows a subject matter expert to build an agent in the same way in which the expert would teach a human apprentice. The expert will give the agent specific examples of problems and solutions, explanations of these solutions, or supervise the agent as it solves new problems. During such interactions, the agent learns general rules and concepts, continuously extending and improving its knowledge base. In this paper we present initial results on applying this methodology to build an intelligent adaptive agent for monitoring and repair of the electrical power system of an orbital satellite, stressing the interaction with the expert during apprenticeship learning.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of repairable redundant system with switching failure and geometric reneging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the performance modeling and reliability analysis of a redundant machining system composed of several functional machines. To analyze the more realistic scenarios, the concepts of switching failure and geometric reneging are included. The time-to-breakdown and repair time of operating and standby machines are assumed to follow the exponential distribution. For the quantitative assessment of the machine interference problem, various performance measures such as mean-time-to-failure, reliability, reneging rate, etc. have been formulated. To show the practicability of the developed model, a numerical illustration has been presented. For the practical justification and validity of the results established, the sensitivity analysis of reliability indices has been presented by varying different system descriptors.

  10. Lethal effects of solar radiation in proficient and deficient bacteria in repair systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Neto, A. de.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the lethal action of solar radiation on strains of E.coli K12, proficient or deficient in repair systems, as well as the wild type strain gene products are involved in repair of damage induced by solar radiation. The inactivation of the various bacterial strains (normalized to a dose equivalent to radiation at a wavelength 254 nm) suggests that the more energetic wavelengths of the solar spectrum (290-320 nm) could be responsible for the primary damage that occurs in the DNA. The reduction in the shoulder of the survival curve in wild type strains in indicative of induction of sub-lethal damage in this region of the curve. Analysing solar inactivation curves of the bacterial strains (normalised by spore dosimetry) together with those of the same strains irradiated with UV at 254 nm, it was evident that 254 nm is not the ideal wavelength for comparison. This analysis also indicated that in addition to damage to DNA, other factors are involved in the solar radiation inactivation of wild type strains. (author)

  11. An Injury Paradigm to Investigate Central Nervous System Repair in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Hidalgo, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    An experimental method has been developed to investigate the cellular responses to central nervous system (CNS) injury using the fruit-fly Drosophila. Understanding repair and regeneration in animals is a key question in biology. The damaged human CNS does not regenerate, and understanding how to promote the regeneration is one of main goals of medical neuroscience. The powerful genetic toolkit of Drosophila can be used to tackle the problem of CNS regeneration. A lesion to the CNS ventral nerve cord (VNC, equivalent to the vertebrate spinal cord) is applied manually with a tungsten needle. The VNC can subsequently be filmed in time-lapse using laser scanning confocal microscopy for up to 24 hr to follow the development of the lesion over time. Alternatively, it can be cultured, then fixed and stained using immunofluorescence to visualize neuron and glial cells with confocal microscopy. Using appropriate markers, changes in cell morphology and cell state as a result of injury can be visualized. With ImageJ and purposely developed plug-ins, quantitative and statistical analyses can be carried out to measure changes in wound size over time and the effects of injury in cell proliferation and cell death. These methods allow the analysis of large sample sizes. They can be combined with the powerful genetics of Drosophila to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying CNS regeneration and repair. PMID:23567253

  12. Space Transportation System (STS)-117 External Tank (ET)-124 Hail Damage Repair Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Barth, Timothy S.; Minute, Stephen A.; Flowers, Cody P.; Hamilton, David A.; Null, Cynthia H.; Schafer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms with associated hail and high winds struck the STS-117 stack on February 26, 2007. Peak winds were recorded at 62 knots with hail sizes ranging from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch in diameter. As a result of the storm, the North Carolina Foam Institute (NCFI) type 24-124 Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam on the liquid oxygen (LO2) ogive acreage incurred significant impact damage. The NCFI on the ET intertank and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) acreage sustained hail damage. The Polymer Development Laboratory (PDL)-1034 foam of the LO2 ice frost ramps (IFRs) and the Super-Lightweight Ablator (SLA) of the LO2 cable tray also suffered minor damage. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to assess the technical feasibility of repairing the ET TPS, the reasonableness of conducting those repairs with the vehicle in a vertical, integrated configuration at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assemble Building (VAB), and to address attendant human factors considerations including worker fatigue and the potential for error. The outcome of the assessment is recorded in this document.

  13. Availability of K-out-of-N:G systems with non-identical components subject to repair priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatab, A.; Nahas, N.; Nourelfath, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a K-out-of-N:G system with N categories of components is studied. Each component category is characterized by its own failure and repair rates. There are R repair facilities, and repair priorities are specified between the N non-identical components. An algorithm for automatic construction of the system state transition diagram is presented. The stationary availability of each component and that of the system are evaluated by using a multi-dimensional Markov model. We show how this model can be represented as a network of stochastic automata with state-dependent transitions that can be implemented via generalized tensor (or Kronecker) algebra. For the efficiency assessment, an analog Monte Carlo simulation model is developed. Experiments are then conducted and simulation results are compared to those obtained by the proposed approach

  14. Dynamic reliability assessment and prediction for repairable systems with interval-censored data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yizhen; Wang, Yu; Zi, YanYang; Tsui, Kwok-Leung; Zhang, Chuhua

    2017-01-01

    The ‘Test, Analyze and Fix’ process is widely applied to improve the reliability of a repairable system. In this process, dynamic reliability assessment for the system has been paid a great deal of attention. Due to instrument malfunctions, staff omissions and imperfect inspection strategies, field reliability data are often subject to interval censoring, making dynamic reliability assessment become a difficult task. Most traditional methods assume this kind of data as multiple normal distributed variables or the missing mechanism as missing at random, which may cause a large bias in parameter estimation. This paper proposes a novel method to evaluate and predict the dynamic reliability of a repairable system subject to interval-censored problem. First, a multiple imputation strategy based on the assumption that the reliability growth trend follows a nonhomogeneous Poisson process is developed to derive the distributions of missing data. Second, a new order statistic model that can transfer the dependent variables into independent variables is developed to simplify the imputation procedure. The unknown parameters of the model are iteratively inferred by the Monte Carlo expectation maximization (MCEM) algorithm. Finally, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, a simulation and a real case study for gas pipeline compressor system are implemented. - Highlights: • A new multiple imputation strategy was developed to derive the PDF of missing data. • A new order statistic model was developed to simplify the imputation procedure. • The parameters of the order statistic model were iteratively inferred by MCEM. • A real cases study was conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  16. Joint optimisation of spare part inventory, maintenance frequency and repair capacity for k-out-of-N systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smidt-Destombes, Karin S.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a high system availability at minimal costs, relevant decisions include the choice of preventive maintenance frequency, spare part inventory levels and spare part repair capacity. We develop heuristics for the joint optimisation of these variables for (a) a single k-out-of-N system under

  17. Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Holger, Dana; Bui, Anh Tuyet; Craddock, Travis J A; Tartar, Jaime L

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD) in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived) redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09) underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness) uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.

  18. Failure mechanism dependence and reliability evaluation of non-repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Liu; Ye, Cui; Kang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Reliability study of electronic system with the physics-of-failure method has been promoted due to the increase knowledge of electronic failure mechanisms. System failure initiates from independent failure mechanisms, have effect on or affect by other failure mechanisms and finally result in system failure. Failure mechanisms in a non-repairable system have many kinds of correlation. One failure mechanism developing to a certain degree will trigger, accelerate or inhibit another or many other failure mechanisms, some kind of failure mechanisms may have the same effect on the failure site, component or system. The destructive effect will be accumulated and result in early failure. This paper presents a reliability evaluation method considering correlativity among failure mechanisms, which includes trigger, acceleration, inhibition, accumulation, and competition. Based on fundamental rule of physics of failure, decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. With a case, reliability of electronic system is evaluated considering failure mechanism dependence. - Highlights: • Five types of failure mechanism correlations are described. • Decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. • A reliability evaluation method considering mechanism dependence is proposed. • Results are quite different to results under failure independence assumption

  19. Reliability Analysis of a Cold Standby System with Imperfect Repair and under Poisson Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the reliability analysis of a two-component cold standby system with a repairman who may have vacation. The system may fail due to intrinsic factors like aging or deteriorating, or external factors such as Poisson shocks. The arrival time of the shocks follows a Poisson process with the intensity λ>0. Whenever the magnitude of a shock is larger than the prespecified threshold of the operating component, the operating component will fail. The paper assumes that the intrinsic lifetime and the repair time on the component are an extended Poisson process, the magnitude of the shock and the threshold of the operating component are nonnegative random variables, and the vacation time of the repairman obeys the general continuous probability distribution. By using the vector Markov process theory, the supplementary variable method, Laplace transform, and Tauberian theory, the paper derives a number of reliability indices: system availability, system reliability, the rate of occurrence of the system failure, and the mean time to the first failure of the system. Finally, a numerical example is given to validate the derived indices.

  20. Propagated failure analysis for non-repairable systems considering both global and selective effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chaonan; Xing Liudong; Levitin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for the reliability analysis of non-repairable binary systems subject to competing failure propagation and failure isolation events with both global and selective failure effects. A propagated failure that originates from a system component causes extensive damage to the rest of the system. Global effect happens when the propagated failure causes the entire system to fail; whereas selective effect happens when the propagated failure causes only failure of a subset of system components. In both cases, the failure propagation that originates from some system components (referred to as dependent components) can be isolated because of functional dependence between the dependent components and a component that prevents the failure propagation (trigger components) when the failure of the trigger component happens before the occurrence of the propagated failure. Most existing studies focus on the analysis of propagated failures with global effect. However, in many cases, propagated failures affect only a subset of system components not the entire system. Existing approaches for analyzing propagated failures with selective effect are limited to series-parallel systems. This paper proposes a combinatorial method for the propagated failure analysis considering both global and selective effects as well as the competition with the failure isolation in the time domain. The proposed method is not limited to series-parallel systems and has no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. The method is verified using the Markov-based method. An example of computer memory systems is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

  1. The on-line repair, improvement and expansion of a working multicomputer control system for the CERN SPS accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaber, J.; Beck, F.; Collins, M.; Crowley-Milling, M.C.; Rausch, R.

    1979-01-01

    The 400 GeV proton synchrotron at CERN was first commissioned in 1976. Those of its features which are pertinent to the design of the control system are summarized. The paper then proceeds as follows: changes to the control system (changes to applications programs, equipment handling routines, system software changes); hardware increases and repairs; changes to the character of the system (hardware changes, microprocessors); conclusions. (U.K.)

  2. The cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting Epac1-mediated proteasomal degradation of XRCC1 protein in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun-Ah [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Juhnn, Yong-Sung, E-mail: juhnn@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits DNA damage repair by decreasing XRCC1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system decreases XRCC1 expression by promoting its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The promotion of XRCC1 degradation by cAMP signaling system is mediated by Epac1. -- Abstract: Cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cellular growth and proliferation. Recently, the cAMP signaling system was found to modulate DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and inhibitors of apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the cAMP signaling may modulate DNA repair activity, and we investigated the effects of the cAMP signaling system on {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage repair in lung cancer cells. Transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of stimulatory G protein (G{alpha}sQL) or treatment with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, augmented radiation-induced DNA damage and inhibited repair of the damage in H1299 lung cancer cells. Expression of G{alpha}sQL or treatment with forskolin or isoproterenol inhibited the radiation-induced expression of the XRCC1 protein, and exogenous expression of XRCC1 abolished the DNA repair-inhibiting effect of forskolin. Forskolin treatment promoted the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in a significant decrease in the half-life of the protein after {gamma}-ray irradiation. The effect of forskolin on XRCC1 expression was not inhibited by PKA inhibitor, but 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analog, increased ubiquitination of XRCC1 protein and decreased XRCC1 expression. Knockdown of Epac1 abolished the effect of 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP and restored XRCC1 protein level following {gamma}-ray irradiation. From

  3. In vitro Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage by Human Nucleotide Excision Repair System: Possible Explanation for Neurodegeneration in Xeroderma Pigmentosum Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Kung, Hsiang Chuan; Bolton, Philip H.; Sancar, Aziz

    1997-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients fail to remove pyrimidine dimers caused by sunlight and, as a consequence, develop multiple cancers in areas exposed to light. The second most common sign, present in 20-30% of XP patients, is a set of neurological abnormalities caused by neuronal death in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neural tissue is shielded from sunlight-induced DNA damage, so the cause of neurodegeneration in XP patients remains unexplained. In this study, we show that two major oxidative DNA lesions, 8-oxoguanine and thymine glycol, are excised from DNA in vitro by the same enzyme system responsible for removing pyrimidine dimers and other bulky DNA adducts. Our results suggest that XP neurological disease may be caused by defective repair of lesions that are produced in nerve cells by reactive oxygen species generated as by-products of an active oxidative metabolism.

  4. Recombinant erythropoietin acutely decreases renal perfusion and decouples the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aachmann-Andersen, Niels J; Christensen, Soren J; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Oturai, Peter; Johansson, Pär I; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Olsen, Niels V

    2018-03-01

    The effect of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) on renal and systemic hemodynamics was evaluated in a randomized double-blinded, cross-over study. Sixteen healthy subjects were tested with placebo, or low-dose rhEPO for 2 weeks, or high-dose rhEPO for 3 days. Subjects refrained from excessive salt intake, according to instructions from a dietitian. Renal clearance studies were done for measurements of renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the segmentel tubular handling of sodium and water (lithium clearance). rhEPO increased arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, and renal vascular resistance, and decreased renal plasma flow in the high-dose rhEPO intervention and tended to decrease GFR. In spite of the decrease in renal perfusion, rhEPO tended to decrease reabsorption of sodium and water in the proximal tubule and induced a prompt decrease in circulating levels of renin and aldosterone, independent of changes in red blood cell mass, blood volumes, and blood pressure. We also found changes in biomarkers showing evidence that rhEPO induced a prothrombotic state. Our results suggest that rhEPO causes a direct downregulation in proximal tubular reabsorption that seems to decouple the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system from changes in renal hemodynamics. This may serve as a negative feed-back mechanism on endogenous synthesis of EPO when circulating levels of EPO are high. These results demonstrates for the first time in humans a direct effect of rhEPO on renal hemodynamics and a decoupling of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Convective plasma stability consistent with MHD equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a decreasing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsventoukh, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    A study is made of the convective (interchange, or flute) plasma stability consistent with equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a magnetic field decreasing outward and large curvature of magnetic field lines. Algorithms are developed which calculate convective plasma stability from the Kruskal-Oberman kinetic criterion and in which the convective stability is iteratively consistent with MHD equilibrium for a given pressure and a given type of anisotropy in actual magnetic geometry. Vacuum and equilibrium convectively stable configurations in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field are calculated. It is shown that, in convectively stable equilibrium, the possibility of achieving high plasma pressures in the central region is restricted either by the expansion of the separatrix (when there are large regions of a weak magnetic field) or by the filamentation of the gradient plasma current (when there are small regions of a weak magnetic field, in which case the pressure drops mainly near the separatrix). It is found that, from the standpoint of equilibrium and of the onset of nonpotential ballooning modes, a kinetic description of convective stability yields better plasma confinement parameters in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than a simpler MHD model and makes it possible to substantially improve the confinement parameters for a given type of anisotropy. For the Magnetor experimental compact device, the maximum central pressure consistent with equilibrium and stability is calculated to be as high as β ∼ 30%. It is shown that, for the anisotropy of the distribution function that is typical of a background ECR plasma, the limiting pressure gradient is about two times steeper than that for an isotropic plasma. From a practical point of view, the possibility is demonstrated of achieving better confinement parameters of a hot collisionless plasma in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than those

  6. Real-Time Multifault Rush Repairing Strategy Based on Utility Theory and Multiagent System in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of multifault rush repair in distribution networks (DNs is a multiobjective dynamic combinatorial problem with topology constraints. The problem consists of archiving an optimal faults’ allocation strategy to squads and an admissible multifault rush repairing strategy with coordinating switch operations. In this article, the utility theory is introduced to solve the first problem and a new discrete bacterial colony chemotaxis (DBCC algorithm is proposed for the second problem to determine the optimal sequence for each squad to repair faults and the corresponding switch operations. The above solution is called the two-stage approach. Additionally, a double mathematical optimization model based on the fault level is proposed in the second stage to minimize the outage loss and total repairing time. The real-time adjustment multiagent system (RA-MAS is proposed to provide facility to achieve online multifault rush repairing strategy in DNs when there are emergencies after natural disasters. The two-stage approach is illustrated with an example from a real urban distribution network and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the two-stage approach.

  7. Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malav S Trivedi

    Full Text Available Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09 underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's < 0.01. Parallel to the well-recognized fact that sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.

  8. Two methods for decreasing the flexibility gap in national energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batas Bjelić, Ilija; Rajaković, Nikola; Krajačić, Goran; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    More variable renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures create an additional flexibility gap and require a novel energy planning method for sustainable national energy systems. The firstly presented method uses only EnergyPLAN tool in order to decrease the flexibility gap in a national energy system. Generic Optimization program (GenOpt"®) is an optimization program for the minimization of a cost function that is evaluated by an external simulation program, such as EnergyPLAN, which was used as the second method in this research. Successful strategies to decrease the flexibility gap are verified on the case of the Serbian national energy system using two methods for its structure design: (1) the iterative method, based on heuristics and manual procedure of using only EnergyPLAN, and (2) the optimization method, based on soft-linking of EnergyPLAN with GenOpt"®. The latter method, named EPOPT (EnergyPlan-genOPT), found the solution for the structure of the sustainable national energy system at the total cost of 8190 M€, while the iterative method was only able to find solutions at the cost in the range of 8251–8598 M€ by targeting only one sustainability goal. The advantages of the EPOPT method are its accuracy, user-friendliness and minimal costs, are valuable for planners. - Highlights: • Heuristic and optimization method for sustainable national energy system structure. • The same input assumptions resulting in different energy system structure. • Both methods are successful in decreasing of the flexibility gap. • The EPOPT method advantages are in the speed, accuracy and planner comfort. • Advanced method for the sustainable national energy policy planning.

  9. Karolinska institutet 200-year anniversary. Symposium on traumatic injuries in the nervous system: injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system - injuries and repair, pain problems, lesions to brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Mattias K; Svensson, Mikael; Tsao, Jack; Hultgren, Thomas; Landegren, Thomas; Carlstedt, Thomas; Cullheim, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The Karolinska Institutet 200-year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting covered findings on adult neural stem cells that when transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat could integrate with its host and promote neuron survival. Studies on vascularization after intraspinal replantation of ventral nerve roots and microarray studies in ventral root replantation as a tool for mapping of biological patterns typical for neuronal regeneration were discussed. Different immune molecules in neurons and glia and their very specific roles in synapse plasticity after injury were presented. Novel strategies in repair of injured peripheral nerves with ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive showed functional recovery comparable to that of conventional epineural sutures. Various aspects on surgical techniques which are available to improve function of the limb, once the nerve regeneration after brachial plexus lesions and repair has reached its limit were presented. Moreover, neurogenic pain after amputation and its treatment with mirror therapy were shown to be followed by dramatic decrease in phantom limb pain. Finally clinical experiences on surgical techniques to repair avulsed spinal nerve root and the motoric as well as sensoric regain of function were presented.

  10. Karolinska Institutet 200-Year Anniversary. Symposium on Traumatic Injuries in the Nervous System: Injuries to the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System – Injuries and Repair, Pain Problems, Lesions to Brachial Plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Mattias K.; Svensson, Mikael; Tsao, Jack; Hultgren, Thomas; Landegren, Thomas; Carlstedt, Thomas; Cullheim, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The Karolinska Institutet 200-year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting covered findings on adult neural stem cells that when transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat could integrate with its host and promote neuron survival. Studies on vascularization after intraspinal replantation of ventral nerve roots and microarray studies in ventral root replantation as a tool for mapping of biological patterns typical for neuronal regeneration were discussed. Different immune molecules in neurons and glia and their very specific roles in synapse plasticity after injury were presented. Novel strategies in repair of injured peripheral nerves with ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive showed functional recovery comparable to that of conventional epineural sutures. Various aspects on surgical techniques which are available to improve function of the limb, once the nerve regeneration after brachial plexus lesions and repair has reached its limit were presented. Moreover, neurogenic pain after amputation and its treatment with mirror therapy were shown to be followed by dramatic decrease in phantom limb pain. Finally clinical experiences on surgical techniques to repair avulsed spinal nerve root and the motoric as well as sensoric regain of function were presented. PMID:21629875

  11. Liquid-vapor phase transition upon pressure decrease in the lead-bismuth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.

    2009-11-01

    The liquid-vapor phase transitions boundaries were calculated on the basis of the values of vapor pressure of the components in the lead-bismuth system during the stepwise pressure decrease by one order of magnitude from 105 down to 1 Pa. The emergence of azeotropic liquid under pressure lower than 19.3 kPa was ascertained. The emergence of azeotropic mixture near the lead edge of the phase diagram was concluded to be the reason for technological difficulties in the distillation separation of the system into the components in a vacuum.

  12. On the interaction between maintenance, spare part inventories and repair capacity for a k-out-of-N-system with wear-out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smidt-Destombes, Karin S.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a k-out-of-N system with identical, repairable components under a condition-based maintenance policy. Maintenance consists of replacing all failed and/or aged components. Next, the replaced components have to be repaired. The system availability can be controlled by the

  13. On the interaction between maintenance, spare part inventories and repair capacity for a k-out-of-N system with wear-out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt-Destombes, K.S. de; Heijden, M.C. van der; Harten, A. van

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a k-out-of-N system with identical, repairable components under a condition-based maintenance policy. Maintenance consists of replacing all failed and/or aged components. Next, the replaced components have to be repaired. The system availability can be controlled by the

  14. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  15. Early passage bone marrow stromal cells express genes involved in nervous system development supporting their relevance for neural repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe Tewarie, R.D.S.; Bossers, K.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Blits, B.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Verhaagen, J.; Oudega, M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The assessment of the capacity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to repair the nervous system using gene expression profiling. The evaluation of effects of long-term culturing on the gene expression profile of BMSC. METHODS: Fourty four k whole genome rat microarrays were used to study

  16. Study of the performance of four repairing material systems for hydraulic structures of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormann A. C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four types of repairing materials are studied as function of either a conventional concrete or a reference-concrete (RefC, these are: polymer-modified cement mortar (PMor, steel fiber concrete (SFco, epoxy mortar (EMor and silica fume mortar (SFmo, to be applied in hydraulic structures surfaces subjected to a high velocity water flow. Besides the mechanical requests and wearing resistance of hydraulic concrete dam structures, especially the spillway surfaces, the high solar radiation, the environmental temperature and wet and dry cycles, contribute significantly to the reduction of their lifespan. RefC and the SFco were developed based on a usual concrete mixture used in slabs of spillways. The average RefC mixture used was 1: 1.61: 2.99: 0.376, with Pozzolan-modified Portland cement consumption of 425 kg/m³. EMor and PMor mixtures followed the information given by the manufacturers and lab experience. Tests on concrete samples were carried out in laboratory simulating normally found environmental situations in order to control the mechanical resistance and the aging imposed conditions, such as solar radiation and humidity. Also, physicochemical characterizing tests were made for all used materials. From the analyzed results, two of them presented a higher performance: the EMor and SFmo. SFco presented good adherence to the RefC and good mechanical performance. However, it also presented apparent metal corrosion in humidity tests, being indicated for use, with caution, as an intermediate layer in underwater repairs. In a general classification, considering all tests, including their field applications, the better performance material systems were EMor- SFmo> SFco> PMor.

  17. MULTI-AGENT APPROACH TO BUILDING AN INTELLIGENT VEHICLE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavlenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of the car, early detection and prevention of the occurrence and development of failures is required in order to reduce the costs of maintenance and repair. Multi-agent technologies make it possible to raise the level of technical reliability of cars and minimize the costs of performing repair and maintenance operations.

  18. 36. Anesthesia for high risk patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair with the mitraclip system in the catheterization laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soliman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MitraClip system implantation is used inhigh-risk patients with severe mitral regurgitation.anesthetic management for mitral clip implantation. The study included 34patients scheduled for MitraClip implantations in the catheterization laboratory. An arterial line and central venous line were inserted under local anesthesia before induction. Epinephrine was started before induction and milrinone infusion was started after induction. The anesthetic technique for induction and maintenance was the same for all patients. All patients were hemodynamically stable intra- and postoperatively. The intervention was successful in 33 cases and aborted in one case because of severe posteromedial leaflet tethering. The epinephrine and milrinone were weaned and all patients were extubated, except, one case mortality happened within the first 8 hours postoperatively. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip implantation is a successful alternative in high-risk patients with symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation. Starting epinephrine before anesthetic induction and milrinone infusion induction resulted in decreased pulmonary artery pressure, increased ejection fraction and maintained arterial blood pressure during procedure inspite of worse preoperative conditions.

  19. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly

  1. Multipurpose expert-robot system model for control, diagnosis, maintenance, and repairs at the steam generators of the NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, I.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the model concept for a multipurpose expert-robot system for control, diagnosis, forecast, maintenance, and repairs at the steam generators of CANDU type nuclear power plants. The system has two separate parts: the expert system and the robot (manipulator) system. These parts compose a hierarchic structure with the expert system on the upper level. The expert system has a blackboard architecture, to which tree interfaces with the robot system, with the control system of the NPP and with the methods and techniques of control, maintenance and repairs system of the steam generator are added. Due to complex nature of its activities the expert-robot system model combines the deterministic type reasons with probabilistic, fuzzy, and neural-networks type ones. The information that enter the expert system comes from the robot system, from process, from user, and human expert. The information that enter robot system comes from the expert system, from the human operator (when connected) and from process. Control maintenance and repair operations take place by means of the robot system that can be monitored either directly by the expert system or by the human operator who follows its activity. All these activities are performed in parallel with the adequate information of the expert system directly, by the human operator, about the status parameters and, possibly, operating parameters of the steam generator components. The expert-robot system can work independently, but it can be connected and integrated in the control system of NPP, to take over and develop some of its functions. The activities concerning diagnosis and characterization of the state of steam generator components subsequent to control, as well as the forecast of their future behavior, are performed by means of the expert system. Due to these characteristics the expert-robot system can be used successfully in personnel training activities. (Author)

  2. Model System for Live Imaging of Neuronal Responses to Injury and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gravel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been well established that induction of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43 during development coincides with axonal outgrowth and early synapse formation, the existence of neuronal plasticity and neurite outgrowth in the adult central nervous system after injuries is more controversial. To visualize the processes of neuronal injury and repair in living animals, we generated reporter mice for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging bearing the luc (luciferase and gfp (green fluorescent protein reporter genes under the control of the murine GAP-43 promoter. Reporter functionality was first observed during the development of transgenic embryos. Using in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we visualized induction of the GAP-43 signals from live embryos starting at E10.5, as well as neuronal responses to brain and peripheral nerve injuries (the signals peaked at 14 days postinjury. Moreover, three-dimensional analysis of the GAP-43 bioluminescent signal confirmed that it originated from brain structures affected by ischemic injury. The analysis of fluorescence signal at cellular level revealed colocalization between endogenous protein and the GAP-43-driven gfp transgene. Taken together, our results suggest that the GAP-43-luc/gfp reporter mouse represents a valid model system for real-time analysis of neurite outgrowth and the capacity of the adult nervous system to regenerate after injuries.

  3. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2014-08-30

    Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).

  4. Single-Molecule Methods for Nucleotide Excision Repair: Building a System to Watch Repair in Real Time

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Muwen; Beckwitt, Emily C.; Springall, Luke; Kad, Neil M.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule approaches to solving biophysical problems are powerful tools that allow static and dynamic real-time observations of specific molecular interactions of interest in the absence of ensemble-averaging effects. Here, we provide detailed protocols for building an experimental system that employs atomic force microscopy and a single-molecule DNA tightrope assay based on oblique angle illumination fluorescence microscopy. Together with approaches for engineering site-specific lesion...

  5. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. The zebrafish as a gerontology model in nervous system aging, disease, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houcke, Jessie; De Groef, Lies; Dekeyster, Eline; Moons, Lieve

    2015-11-01

    Considering the increasing number of elderly in the world's population today, developing effective treatments for age-related pathologies is one of the biggest challenges in modern medical research. Age-related neurodegeneration, in particular, significantly impacts important sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, seriously constraining life quality of many patients. Although our understanding of the causal mechanisms of aging has greatly improved in recent years, animal model systems still have much to tell us about this complex process. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained enormous popularity for this research topic over the past decade, since their life span is relatively short but, like humans, they are still subject to gradual aging. In addition, the extensive characterization of its well-conserved molecular and cellular physiology makes the zebrafish an excellent model to unravel the underlying mechanisms of aging, disease, and repair. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in zebrafish gerontology, with special emphasis on nervous system aging. We review the evidence that classic hallmarks of aging can also be recognized within this small vertebrate, both at the molecular and cellular level. Moreover, we illustrate the high level of similarity with age-associated human pathologies through a survey of the functional deficits that arise as zebrafish age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic defects in DNA repair system and enhancement of intergenote transformation efficiency in Bacillus subtilis Marburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Takahashi, H.; Saito, H.; Ikeda, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Mechanisms of inefficiency in heterospecies transformation were studied with a transformation system consisting of Bacillus subtilis 168TI (trpC2thy) as recipient and of DNA prepared from partially hybrid strains of B. subtilis which had incorporated trp + DNA of B. amyloliquefaciens 203 (formerly, B. megaterium 203) in the chromosome (termed intergenote). The intergenote transformation was not so efficient as the corresponding homospecies transformation and the efficiency appeared to relate inversely with the length of heterologous portion in the intergenote. When a variety of ultraviolet light (UV) sensitive mutants, deficient in host-cell reactivation capacity, were used as recipients for the intergenote transformation, 2 out of 16 mutants exhibited significantly enhanced transformation efficiency of the trpC marker. Genetic studies by transformation showed that the trait relating to the enhancement of intergenote-transformation efficiency was always associated with the UV sensitivity, suggesting that these two traits are determined by a single gene. The efficiency of intergenote transformation was highly affected also by DNA concentration; the lower the concentration, the less the efficiency. When, however, the UV sensitive mutant was used as recipient, the effect of DNA concentration was largely diminished, suggesting the reduction of DNA-inactivating activity in the UV sensitive recipient. These results were discussed in relation to a possible excision-repair system selectively correcting the mismatched DNA in the course of intergenote transformation. (orig.) [de

  8. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela M Luján

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  9. NAXE Mutations Disrupt the Cellular NAD(P)HX Repair System and Cause a Lethal Neurometabolic Disorder of Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Laura S; Danhauser, Katharina; Herebian, Diran; Petkovic Ramadža, Danijela; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Seibt, Annette; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang; Haack, Tobias B; Płoski, Rafał; Lohmeier, Klaus; Schneider, Dominik; Klee, Dirk; Rokicki, Dariusz; Mayatepek, Ertan; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas; Pronicka, Ewa; Mayr, Johannes A; Baric, Ivo; Distelmaier, Felix; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-10-06

    To safeguard the cell from the accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic intermediates, specific repair mechanisms have evolved. APOA1BP, now renamed NAXE, encodes an epimerase essential in the cellular metabolite repair for NADHX and NADPHX. The enzyme catalyzes the epimerization of NAD(P)HX, thereby avoiding the accumulation of toxic metabolites. The clinical importance of the NAD(P)HX repair system has been unknown. Exome sequencing revealed pathogenic biallelic mutations in NAXE in children from four families with (sub-) acute-onset ataxia, cerebellar edema, spinal myelopathy, and skin lesions. Lactate was elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of all affected individuals. Disease onset was during the second year of life and clinical signs as well as episodes of deterioration were triggered by febrile infections. Disease course was rapidly progressive, leading to coma, global brain atrophy, and finally to death in all affected individuals. NAXE levels were undetectable in fibroblasts from affected individuals of two families. In these fibroblasts we measured highly elevated concentrations of the toxic metabolite cyclic-NADHX, confirming a deficiency of the mitochondrial NAD(P)HX repair system. Finally, NAD or nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) supplementation might have therapeutic implications for this fatal disorder. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic characterization of cells of homocystinuria patients with disrupted DNA repair system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinel'shchikova, T.A.; L'vova, G.N.; Shoniya, N.N.; Zasukhina, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Fibroblasts obtained from biopsy material and lymphocytes of patients with homocystinuria were investigated for repair activity according to the following criteria: rejoined DNA breaks, induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and γ-radiation; indices of reactivation and induced mutagenesis of smallpox vaccine virus treated with these mutagens. In lymphocytes a defect of DNA repair was observed according to all criteria investigated. During passage of fibroblast cultures, inhibition of repair activity of cells was preserved according to γ-type. Increase in the number of spontaneous and γ-induced mutations of virus was noted according to degree of passage of fibroblasts

  11. Application of a System-Based Inventory Model to Marine Corps Repairable Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Craig

    2001-01-01

    ... isolation of the inventories and because of mathematical flaws in the Marine Corps' sparing methodology The Marine Corps is seeking to centralize the management of secondary repairables and is considering...

  12. New ultrasound stone locking system in extracorporeal lithotripsy: Decreased duration of fluoroscopy and radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, N.; Ravier, E.; Codas, R.; Crouzet, S.; Martin, X.

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the most common method of treatment for kidney stones. Both fluoroscopy and ultrasound imaging can be used to locate stones, but fluoroscopy is more frequently employed. Evaluation of a new stereotaxic navigational system: the stone was located using an ultrasound probe, and its 3D location was saved. The table automatically moved to position the stone at the focal point. A real-time follow-up was possible during treatment. Our objective was to demonstrate a decrease in the use of fluoroscopy to locate kidney stones for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy through the use of a 3D ultrasound stone locking system. Prospective analysis of the case records of the 20 patients preceding and the 20 patients succeeding the arrival of the ultrasound stone locking system Visio-Track (EDAP-TMS). We used a Student test to compare age, BMI, kidney stone size, number of shock waves and administered energy. Patient characteristics were comparable. The average age was 55 years old and the average kidney stone size was 10.7 mm. Radiation duration was 174.8 seconds in the group without Visio-Track versus 57.1 seconds in the group with it (P < 0.0001). A similar result was observed for radiation doses: 5197.25 mGy.cm 2 for the group without versus 1987.6 mGy.cm 2 for the group with Visio-Track (P ≡ 0.0033). The stone locking system Visio-Track reduced fluoroscopy in our first group of patients, which decreased the patient's individual absorbed irradiation dose. (authors)

  13. The effect of caffeine on repair systems in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Genetic analysis was performed to locate the factors involved in the defective repair mechanism in the oocytes of Ubx e 4 /Payne ca females. The results demonstrate that at least three third-chromosome factors may be involved in the control of maternal repair, the two most effective ones being located on the right arm of the third chromosome, one near the Ubx locus and the other near the ca locus

  14. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  15. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-01-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events. (paper)

  16. Cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue repair and regeneration in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Donaghue, Irja; Tam, Roger; Sefton, Michael V; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-09-28

    Tissue engineering frequently involves cells and scaffolds to replace damaged or diseased tissue. It originated, in part, as a means of effecting the delivery of biomolecules such as insulin or neurotrophic factors, given that cells are constitutive producers of such therapeutic agents. Thus cell delivery is intrinsic to tissue engineering. Controlled release of biomolecules is also an important tool for enabling cell delivery since the biomolecules can enable cell engraftment, modulate inflammatory response or otherwise benefit the behavior of the delivered cells. We describe advances in cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue regeneration, with emphasis on the central nervous system (CNS). In the first section, the focus is on encapsulated cell therapy. In the second section, the focus is on biomolecule delivery in polymeric nano/microspheres and hydrogels for the nerve regeneration and endogenous cell stimulation. In the third section, the focus is on combination strategies of neural stem/progenitor cell or mesenchymal stem cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue regeneration and repair. In each section, the challenges and potential solutions associated with delivery to the CNS are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Flexor tendon repair: a comparative study between a knotless barbed suture repair and a traditional four-strand monofilament suture repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, C W

    2014-01-01

    We compared the tensile strength of a novel knotless barbed suture method with a traditional four-strand Adelaide technique for flexor tendon repairs. Forty fresh porcine flexor tendons were transected and randomly assigned to one of the repair groups before repair. Biomechanical testing demonstrated that the tensile strengths between both tendon groups were very similar. However, less force was required to create a 2 mm gap in the four-strand repair method compared with the knotless barbed technique. There was a significant reduction in the cross-sectional area in the barbed suture group after repair compared with the Adelaide group. This would create better gliding within the pulley system in vivo and could decrease gapping and tendon rupture.

  18. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs.

  19. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok.

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs

  20. Decreased Daily Melatonin Levels in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa Robeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neuroendocrine system is known to influence immunity, but the precise interactions between different hormones and autoimmune disorders remain obscure. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the role of daily serum melatonin concentrations in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: One-hundred and eleven SLE female patients and 46 healthy women were included in the study. Daily serum melatonin levels were investigated in all participants. Results: SLE patients showed significantly lower daily melatonin levels in comparison to healthy women during the short photoperiod (17.75±7.13 pg/mL [16.05] vs. 21.63±6.60 pg/mL [20.10], p=0.012. Hormone concentrations were inversely related to the SLE activity index (SLEDAI (r= -0.268, p=0.004, but they did not correlate to any particular American College Rheumatology (ACR criterion (p>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Daily melatonin levels were decreased in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and correlated inversely to the activity of the autoimmune disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of the pineal and extrapineal melatonin secretion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as the interrelations between hormones and autoimmunity.

  1. Decrease in medical command errors with use of a "standing orders" protocol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliman, C J; Wuerz, R C; Meador, S A

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physician medical command error rates and paramedic error rates after implementation of a "standing orders" protocol system for medical command. These patient-care error rates were compared with the previously reported rates for a "required call-in" medical command system (Ann Emerg Med 1992; 21(4):347-350). A secondary aim of the study was to determine if the on-scene time interval was increased by the standing orders system. Prospectively conducted audit of prehospital advanced life support (ALS) trip sheets was made at an urban ALS paramedic service with on-line physician medical command from three local hospitals. All ALS run sheets from the start time of the standing orders system (April 1, 1991) for a 1-year period ending on March 30, 1992 were reviewed as part of an ongoing quality assurance program. Cases were identified as nonjustifiably deviating from regional emergency medical services (EMS) protocols as judged by agreement of three physician reviewers (the same methodology as a previously reported command error study in the same ALS system). Medical command and paramedic errors were identified from the prehospital ALS run sheets and categorized. Two thousand one ALS runs were reviewed; 24 physician errors (1.2% of the 1,928 "command" runs) and eight paramedic errors (0.4% of runs) were identified. The physician error rate was decreased from the 2.6% rate in the previous study (P < .0001 by chi 2 analysis). The on-scene time interval did not increase with the "standing orders" system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Improving the Repair Planning System for Mining Equipment on the Basis of Non-destructive Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygin, Michael; Kuryshkin, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    The article tells about forming a new concept of scheduled preventive repair system of the equipment at coal mining enterprises, based on the use of modem non-destructive evaluation methods. The approach to the solution for this task is based on the system-oriented analysis of the regulatory documentation, non-destructive evaluation methods and means, experimental studies with compilation of statistics and subsequent grapho-analytical analysis. The main result of the work is a feasible explanation of using non-destructive evaluation methods within the current scheduled preventive repair system, their high efficiency and the potential of gradual transition to condition-based maintenance. In practice wide use of nondestructive evaluation means w;ill allow to reduce significantly the number of equipment failures and to repair only the nodes in pre-accident condition. Considering the import phase-out policy, the solution for this task will allow to adapt the SPR system to Russian market economy conditions and give the opportunity of commercial move by reducing the expenses for maintenance of Russian-made and imported equipment.

  3. Dependability estimation for non-Markov consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems by fast simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Li Zhizhong; Li Ting

    2007-01-01

    A model of consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable system with non-exponential repair time distribution and (k-1)-step Markov dependence is introduced in this paper along with algorithms of three Monte Carlo methods, i.e. importance sampling, conditional expectation estimation and combination of the two methods, to estimate dependability of the non-Markov model including reliability, transient unavailability, MTTF, and MTBF. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the efficiencies of above methods. The results show that combinational method has the highest efficiency for estimation of unreliability and unavailability, while conditional expectation estimation is the most efficient method for estimation of MTTF and MTBF. Conditional expectation estimation seems to have overall higher speedups in estimating dependability of such systems

  4. Comparison of the Mismatch Repair System between Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancers Using Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoon Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Approximately 10%–15% of the CRC cases have defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Although the high level of microsatellite instability status is a predictor of favorable outcome in primary CRC, little is known about its frequency and importance in secondary CRC. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC for MMR proteins (e.g., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 has emerged as a useful technique to complement polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses. Methods In this study, comparison between the MMR system of primary CRCs and paired liver and lung metastatic lesions was done using IHC and the correlation with clinical outcomes was also examined. Results Based on IHC, 7/61 primary tumors (11.4% showed deficient MMR systems, while 13/61 secondary tumors (21.3% showed deficiencies. In total, 44 cases showed proficient expression in both the primary and metastatic lesions. Three cases showed deficiencies in both the primary and paired metastatic lesions. In 10 cases, proficient expression was found only in the primary lesions, and not in the corresponding metastatic lesions. In four cases, proficient expression was detected in the secondary tumor, but not in the primary tumor. Conclusions Although each IHC result and the likely defective genes were not exactly matched between the primary and the metastatic tumors, identical results for primary and metastatic lesions were obtained in 77% of the cases (47/61. These data are in agreement with the previous microsatellite detection studies that used PCR and IHC.

  5. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  6. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state

  7. Selected technological problems of repair of hydraulic drive systems for shearer loaders with the example of A2V-107 pumps and SHT-630W motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusak, E.; Paluch, J.

    1983-07-01

    Major elements of hydraulic drive systems as well as their wear and repair characteristics are described. Types of wear and standardized repair methods are comparatively evaluated. The evaluations are aimed at development of standardized procedures for use in large repair shops. The following stages of repair operations of A2V-107 pumps and SHT-630W motors are analyzed: disassembling hydraulic systems, washing and cleaning, classification of equipment elements (elements for scrapping and for regeneration), regeneration, assembling and final tests. The following regeneration methods are discussed: cutting, burnishing, bushing (e.g. the Heli Coil method), regeneration using copper, tin or zinc dusts and a temperature from 950 to 1,000 K under inert atmosphere, heat treatments. Methods are reviewed for comparative evaluations of repair efficiency and repair quality as well as documents used for recording repair in the shops. Economic aspects of using standardized procedures for repair of hydraulic equipment for shearer loaders are discussed and recommendations are made. (6 refs.)

  8. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  9. PMS2 gene mutation results in DNA mismatch repair system failure in a case of adult granulosa cell tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-01-01

    Background Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable indolent growth with malignant potential and late recurrence. Approximately 95% are of adult type. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C?>?G mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor. Our previous case report showed that unique FOXL2 402C?>?G mutation and defective DNA mismatch repair system are associated with the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. Findings In...

  10. A Preliminary Study: Human Fibroid Stro-1+/CD44+ Stem Cells Isolated From Uterine Fibroids Demonstrate Decreased DNA Repair and Genomic Integrity Compared to Adjacent Myometrial Stro-1+/CD44+ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinski Fernung, Lauren E; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Yang, Qiwei

    2018-01-01

    Although uterine fibroids (UFs) continue to place a major burden on female reproductive health, the mechanisms behind their origin remain undetermined. Normal myometrial stem cells may be transformed into tumor-initiating stem cells, causing UFs, due to unknown causes of somatic mutations in MED12, found in up to 85% of sporadically formed UFs. It is well established in other tumor types that defective DNA repair increases the risk of such tumorigenic somatic mutations, mechanisms not yet studied in UFs. To examine the putative cause(s) of this stem cell transformation, we analyzed DNA repair within stem cells from human UFs compared to those from adjacent myometrium to determine whether DNA repair in fibroid stem cells is compromised. Human fibroid (F) and adjacent myometrial (Myo) stem cells were isolated from fresh tissues, and gene expression relating to DNA repair was analyzed. Fibroid stem cells differentially expressed DNA repair genes related to DNA double- (DSBs) and single-strand breaks. DNA damage was measured using alkaline comet assay. Additionally, DNA DSBs were induced in these stem cells and DNA DSB repair evaluated (1) by determining changes in phosphorylation of DNA DSB-related proteins and (2) by determining differences in γ-H2AX foci formation and relative DNA repair protein RAD50 expression. Overall, F stem cells demonstrated increased DNA damage and altered DNA repair gene expression and signaling, suggesting that human F stem cells demonstrate impaired DNA repair. Compromised F stem cell DNA repair may contribute to further mutagenesis and, consequently, further growth and propagation of UF tumors.

  11. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks by a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji; Ikeda, Shogo; Tsutui, Ken; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    1990-01-01

    Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks of DNA was studied in vitro using an exonuclease purified from mouse ascites sarcoma (SR-C3H/He) cells. X-ray-dose-dependent unscheduled DNA synthesis was primed by the exonuclease. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in pUC19 plasmid DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis after incubating the damaged DNA with the exonuclease, DNA polymerase (Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I or DNA polymerase β purified from SR-C3H/He cells), four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, ATP and DNA ligase (T4 DNA ligase or DNA ligase I purified from calf thymus). The present results suggested that the exonuclease is involved in the initiation of repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in removing 3' ends of X-ray-damaged DNA. (author)

  12. Outcomes of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair using the Ovation Stent Graft System in Adverse Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Moore, Aiden; Seriki, Dare; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    The aim was the evaluation of mid-term efficacy and safety outcome measures for the Ovation (Endologix, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) stent graft system in the management of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (iAAA) with adverse anatomy. A retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing elective iAAA repair was carried out from 2012 to 2017 using Ovation Prime or iX stent grafts with a minimum of 3 months follow-up at a single UK vascular centre. Post-operative surveillance involved computed tomography scans at 3 months and 1 year, with duplex ultrasound yearly thereafter. Outcome measures were established with retrospective analysis of pre- and post-operative imaging, and included peri-operative mortality, major adverse events, limb complications, aneurysm diameter change, and endoleak rates. All patients were within Ovation instructions for use (IFU), and assessment was made to determine whether aneurysms had anatomical features considered adverse for other commonly used stent graft platforms. Ovation stent grafts were implanted in 52 patients (79% male, mean age 75.7 years) with a mean aneurysm diameter of 62.5 mm (range 55-107 mm). There was 100% technical deployment success. The 30 day mortality was 0% and there was no aneurysm related mortality during follow-up (median 24 months, range 3-48 months). There were no type I or III endoleaks, but 19% developed type II endoleaks with one patient requiring re-intervention. No iliac limb occlusions were identified but one case required relining for limb kinking. All 52 cases were within the IFU for Ovation but only 12% met the IFU criteria for the Cook and Medtronic devices. The mid-term experience with Ovation demonstrates safe, durable treatment of iAAAs, including those with unfavourable anatomy, frequently off IFU for other commonly used devices. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation based analysis and an application to an offshore oil and gas production system of the Natvig measures of component importance in repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natvig, Bent; Eide, Kristina A.; Gasemyr, Jorund; Huseby, Arne B.; Isaksen, Stefan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the Natvig measures of component importance for repairable systems, and its extended version are analyzed for two three-component systems and a bridge system. The measures are also applied to an offshore oil and gas production system. According to the extended version of the Natvig measure a component is important if both by failing it strongly reduces the expected system uptime and by being repaired it strongly reduces the expected system downtime. The results include a study of how different distributions affect the ranking of the components. All numerical results are computed using discrete event simulation. In a companion paper [Huseby AB, Eide KA, Isaksen SL, Natvig B, Gasemyr, J. Advanced discrete event simulation methods with application to importance measure estimation. 2009, submitted for publication] the advanced simulation methods needed in these calculations are described.

  14. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  15. PMS2 gene mutation results in DNA mismatch repair system failure in a case of adult granulosa cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-03-27

    Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable indolent growth with malignant potential and late recurrence. Approximately 95% are of adult type. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C > G mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor. Our previous case report showed that unique FOXL2 402C > G mutation and defective DNA mismatch repair system are associated with the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. In this study, the DNA sequences of four genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2, in the DNA mismatch repair system were determined via direct sequencing to elucidate the exact mechanism for the development of this granulosa cell tumor. The results showed that two missense germline mutations, T485K and N775L, inactivate the PMS2 gene. The results of this case study indicated that although FOXL2 402C > G mutation determines the development of granulosa cell tumor, PMS2 mutation may be the initial driver of carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemistry-based tumor testing for mismatch repair gene expression may be necessary for granulosa cell tumors to determine their malignant potential or if they are part of Lynch syndrome.

  16. Endoscopic augmentation of the lower esophageal sphincter for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Multicenter study of the gatekeeper reflux repair system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, P.; Bruno, M. J.; Gabbrielli, A.; Odegaard, S.; Hatlebakk, J.; Allescher, H. D.; Rösch, T.; Rhodes, M.; Bastid, C.; Rey, J.; Boyer, J.; Muehldorffer, S.; van den Hombergh, U.; Costamagna, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: The safety and effectiveness of the Gatekeeper Reflux Repair System (Medtronic Europe, Tolochenaz, Switzerland) in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was evaluated. This new, reversible treatment modality involves the endoscopic introduction of

  17. Complex catalysts from self-repairing ensembles to highly reactive air-based oxidation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Hill; Laurent Delannoy; Dean C. Duncan; Ira A. Weinstock; Roman F. Renneke; Richard S. Reiner; Rajai H. Atalla; Jong Woo Han; Daniel A. Hillesheim; Rui Cao; Travis M. Anderson; Nelya M. Okun; Djamaladdin G. Musaev; Yurii V. Geletii

    2007-01-01

    Progress in four interrelated catalysis research efforts in our laboratory are summarized: (1) catalytic photochemical functionalization of unactivated CeH bonds by polyoxometalates (POMs); (2) self-repairing catalysts; (3) catalysts for air-based oxidations under ambient conditions; and (4) terminal oxo complexes of the late-transition metal elements and their...

  18. The development of remote repairing system, decontamination and in-cell remote inspection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yuzo; Toyoda, Osamu; Haginoya, Isao; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1993-01-01

    PNC has been developing remote repair and inspection technologies for in-cell components in reprocessing Plants. In this report, several remote technologies such as remote dismantling and removal, decontamination, remote pipe maintenance and remote in-cell inspection equipment are described. (author)

  19. DNA repair in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Kusano, I.; Furuno-Fukushi, I.; Dunn, W.C. Jr.; Francis, A.A.; Lee, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Our primary objective is to elucidate the molecular events in human cells when cellular macromolecules such as DNA are damaged by radiation or chemical agents. We study and characterize (i) the sequence of DNA repair events, (ii) the various modalities of repair, (iii) the genetic inhibition of repair due to mutation, (iv) the physiological inhibition of repair due to mutation, (v) the physiological inhibition of repair due to biochemical inhibitors, and (vi) the genetic basis of repair. Our ultimate goals are to (i) isolate and analyze the repair component of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic event in human cells, and (ii) elucidate the magnitude and significance of this repair component as it impinges on the practical problems of human irradiation or exposure to actual or potential chemical mutagens and carcinogens. The significance of these studies lies in (i) the ubiquitousness of repair (most organisms, including man, have several complex repair systems), (ii) the belief that mutagenic and carcinogenic events may arise only from residual (nonrepaired) lesions or that error-prone repair systems may be the major induction mechanisms of the mutagenic or carcinogenic event, and (iii) the clear association of repair defects and highly carcinogenic disease states in man [xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

  20. Inhibition of DNA repair by trifluoperazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charp, P.A.; Regan, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the possible role of calmodulin in the excision repair of ultraviolet light-induced pyrimidine dimers in damaged DNA by means of specialized assay systems. These assays included bromodeoxyuridine photolysis, dimer chromatography and cytosine arabinoside incorporation in conjunction with hydroxyurea. The calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine, and the calcium-chelating agent, EGTA, were employed to ascertain what affect calmodulin played in the repair process. Normal human fibroblast cells are used in all studies described in this report. After exposure to 10 J/m2 of 254 nm light, the authors observed a decrease of about 30% in the number of single-strand breaks produced in the presence of 25 M trifluoperazine (1.9 vs. 3.3) in controls although the numbers of bases re-inserted in the repaired regions were similar (64 vs. 72). Measurement of thymine-containing dimers remaining throughout a 24 h time period indicated a 30% difference decrease in the number of cytosine arabinoside arrested repair sites in the presence of either EGTA or trifluoperazine. The results are discussed with relation to the possibility of calmodulin altering the initial incision by repair endonuclease. 27 references, 3 figures.

  1. Evaluation of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system to decrease bacterial contamination in operating rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ghantoji, Shashank S; Stibich, Mark; Fleming, Jason B; Segal, Cindy; Ware, Kathy M; Chemaly, Roy F

    2017-10-10

    Environmental cleanliness is one of the contributing factors for surgical site infections in the operating rooms (ORs). To decrease environmental contamination, pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV), an easy and safe no-touch disinfection system, is employed in several hospital environments. The positive effect of this technology on environmental decontamination has been observed in patient rooms and ORs during the end-of-day cleaning but so far, no study explored its feasibility between surgical cases in the OR. In this study, 5 high-touch surfaces in 30 ORs were sampled after manual cleaning and after PX-UV intervention mimicking between-case cleaning to avoid the disruption of the ORs' normal flow. The efficacy of a 1-min, 2-min, and 8-min cycle were tested by measuring the surfaces' contaminants by quantitative cultures using Tryptic Soy Agar contact plates. We showed that combining standard between-case manual cleaning of surfaces with a 2-min cycle of disinfection using a portable xenon pulsed ultraviolet light germicidal device eliminated at least 70% more bacterial load after manual cleaning. This study showed the proof of efficacy of a 2-min cycle of PX-UV in ORs in eliminating bacterial contaminants. This method will allow a short time for room turnover and a potential reduction of pathogen transmission to patients and possibly surgical site infections.

  2. Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Schottlaender

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases.Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37 as well as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 7, dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20, corticobasal degeneration (n = 15 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 18 patients were used as comparison groups. CoQ10 was measured in cerebellar and frontal cortex tissue by high performance liquid chromatography.We detected a statistically significant decrease (by 3-5% in the level of CoQ10 in the cerebellum of MSA cases (P = 0.001, specifically in OPCA (P = 0.001 and mixed cases (P = 0.005, when compared to controls as well as to other neurodegenerative diseases [dementia with Lewy bodies (P<0.001, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (P<0.001, corticobasal degeneration (P<0.001, and cerebellar ataxia (P = 0.001].Our results suggest that a perturbation in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of MSA but the mechanism behind this finding remains to be elucidated.

  3. Involvement of the DNA mismatch repair system in cisplatin sensitivity of testicular germ cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Christiane; Melau, Cecilie; Nielsen, John E; Vile Jensen, Kristina; Liu, Dekang; Pena-Diaz, Javier; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Jørgensen, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but patients with tumours containing differentiated teratoma components are less responsive to this treatment. The cisplatin sensitivity in TGCT has previously been linked to the embryonic phenotype in the majority of tumours, although the underlying mechanism largely remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in the cisplatin sensitivity of TGCT. The expression pattern of key MMR proteins, including MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2, were investigated during testis development and in the pathogenesis of TGCT, including germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). The TGCT-derived cell line NTera2 was differentiated using retinoic acid (10 μM, 6 days) after which MMR protein expression and activity, as well as cisplatin sensitivity, were investigated in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Finally, the expression of MSH2 was knocked down by siRNA in NTera2 cells after which the effect on cisplatin sensitivity was examined. MMR proteins were expressed in proliferating cells in the testes, while in malignant germ cells MMR protein expression was found to coincide with the expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4, with no or low expression in the more differentiated yolk sac tumours, choriocarcinomas and teratomas. In differentiated NTera2 cells we found a significantly (p cisplatin sensitivity, compared to undifferentiated NTera2 cells. Also, we found that partial knockdown of MSH2 expression in undifferentiated NTera2 cells resulted in a significantly (p cisplatin sensitivity. This study reports, for the first time, expression of the MMR system in fetal gonocytes, from which GCNIS cells are derived. Our findings in primary TGCT specimens and TGCT-derived cells suggest that a reduced sensitivity to cisplatin in differentiated TGCT components could result from a reduced expression of MMR proteins, in

  4. Development and applications of Bacillus subtilis test systems for mutagens, involving DNA-repair deficiency and suppressible auxotrophic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.

    1977-01-01

    A mutagen-tester of Bacillus subtilis was constructed and tested with known carcinogens. The parental strain HA101 of Okubo and Yanagida carrying suppressible nonsense mutations in his and met genes was transformed to carry an excision-repair deficiency mutation. The constructed strain TKJ5211 showed a 20-30-fold higher sensitivity for His + reversion than the parental strain when treated with UV and UV-mimetic chemicals but unchanged mutation frequency with X-rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The tester strain was used in a spot test of 30 selected chemicals and also for testing with liver homogenate activation. The results showed an almost equivalent but somewhat broader detection spectrum than the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 system. Another test method used a pair of B. subtilis strains differing in their DNA-repair capacity, i.e. the most UV-sensitive mutant HJ-15 and a wild-type strain, to detect repair-dependent DNA damage produced by chemicals. Spores could be used in either test

  5. Discrete event simulation methods applied to advanced importance measures of repairable components in multistate network flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseby, Arne B.; Natvig, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Discrete event models are frequently used in simulation studies to model and analyze pure jump processes. A discrete event model can be viewed as a system consisting of a collection of stochastic processes, where the states of the individual processes change as results of various kinds of events occurring at random points of time. We always assume that each event only affects one of the processes. Between these events the states of the processes are considered to be constant. In the present paper we use discrete event simulation in order to analyze a multistate network flow system of repairable components. In order to study how the different components contribute to the system, it is necessary to describe the often complicated interaction between component processes and processes at the system level. While analytical considerations may throw some light on this, a simulation study often allows the analyst to explore more details. By producing stable curve estimates for the development of the various processes, one gets a much better insight in how such systems develop over time. These methods are particulary useful in the study of advanced importancez measures of repairable components. Such measures can be very complicated, and thus impossible to calculate analytically. By using discrete event simulations, however, this can be done in a very natural and intuitive way. In particular significant differences between the Barlow–Proschan measure and the Natvig measure in multistate network flow systems can be explored

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea decreases central nervous system-derived proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yo-El S; Finn, Mary Beth; Sutphen, Courtney L; Herries, Elizabeth M; Jerome, Gina M; Ladenson, Jack H; Crimmins, Daniel L; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group. Other neuronally derived proteins, but not total protein, were also decreased in the OSA group, suggesting that OSA may affect the interaction between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Neurol 2016;80:154-159. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  7. Multiobjective optimization of availability and cost in repairable systems design via genetic algorithms and discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a more realistic approach to the characterization of system reliability when handling redundancy allocation problems: it considers repairable series-parallel systems comprised of components subjected to corrective maintenance actions with failure-repair cycles modeled by renewal processes. A multiobjective optimization approach is applied since increasing the number of redundancies not only enlarges system reliability but also its associated costs. Then a multiobjective genetic algorithm is coupled with discrete event simulation and its solutions present the compromise between system reliability and cost. Two examples are provided. In the first one, the proposed algorithm is validated by comparison with results obtained from a system devised as to allow for analytical solutions of the objective functions. The second case analyzes a repairable system subjected to perfect repairs. Results from both examples show that the proposed method can be a valuable tool for the decision maker when choosing the system design.Esse artigo utiliza uma abordagem mais realista para a caracterização da confiabilidade de sistemas em problemas de alocação de redundâncias: são considerados sistemas série-paralelo formados por componentes sujeitos a ações de manutenção corretiva com ciclos de falha-reparo modelados por processos de renovação. É aplicada uma abordagem de otimização multiobjetivo, pois o aumento de redundâncias eleva a confiabilidade do sistema e também os seus custos. Assim, um algoritmo genético multiobjetivo é integrado com simulação discreta de eventos e suas soluções apresentam o compromisso entre confiabilidade e custo do sistema. Dois exemplos são fornecidos. No primeiro, o algoritmo proposto é validado através da comparação com resultados obtidos de um sistema criado de forma a permitir soluções analíticas das funções-objetivo. No segundo, analisa-se um sistema reparável sujeito a

  8. Polarization of TH2 response is decreased during pregnancy in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tincani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated some cytokines involved in the Th1-Th2 shift during pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and healthy women. Twenty-seven consecutive successful pregnancies in 26 SLE patients and 28 pregnancies in 28 matched healthy subjects, as controls, were enrolled and prospectively studied. Sera obtained at first and third trimesters of pregnancy were tested for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, INF-γ, and TNF-α with a highly sensitive, multiplexed sandwich ELISA (SearchLight Human Inflammatory Cytokine Array. Statistics were performed by SPSS package. IL-8 serum levels were higher in the first (P<0.0001 and third (P=0.003 trimesters of pregnancy in SLE patients compared with controls, INF-γ serum levels in the third trimester (P=0.009, and IL-10 serum levels in the first and third trimesters (P=0.055 and P<0.0001, respectively. IL-2 (r=0.524 P=0.010, IL-12 (r=0.549 P=0.007, IFN-γ (r=0.492 P=0.017, and IL-6 (r=0.515 P=0.020 serum levels correlated with disease activity in SLE patients in the first trimester of pregnancy. Cytokine profile was similar in patients with and without lupus nephritis both in the first and in the third trimesters of pregnancy. IL-8 serum levels were lower in patients with a previous diagnosis of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome compared with those without, both in the first and in the third trimesters of pregnancy. In SLE patients, a lower than expected decrease in Th1 cytokine serum levels was observed in the third trimester of gestation which could contribute to a lower Th2 cytokine polarization during pregnancy.

  9. Molecular dialogues between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: Dualistic roles in injury and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A.; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialogue between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. PMID:24374228

  10. Molecular dialogs between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: dualistic roles in injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A; Leak, Rehana K; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialog between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial

  12. The role of DNA repair in the realization of oxygen effect in bacteria Escherichia coli irradiated with various types of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The role of the balance of E. coli repair systems in the sensitivity to ionizing radiation of different LETs is considered. The influence of modifying factors on the balance between fast (2) and slow (3) repair systems is analysed. It is shown that in the case of γg-irradiation of aerobic cells the decreased power of repair 3 in some limits can be compensated by increased power of repair 2 so that the sensitivity remains constant. In anaerobic conditions decreasing power of repair 3 leads inevitably to markedly increased sensitivity. Different mechanisms of the action of radioprotectors on the repair balance in aerobic or anaerobic state are discussed. The role of repair balance in the radiosensitivity of irradiated wild type cells is shown to become unimportant for high LET radiation owing to the presence of markedly increased ratio of direct double-strand breaks

  13. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaji, E.N.; Johnson, R.T.; Downes, C.S.; Eveno, E.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Menck, C.F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2) that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, po...

  14. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  15. Meningocele repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is surgery to repair birth defects of the spine and spinal membranes. Meningocele and myelomeningocele ... is covered by a sterile dressing. Your child may then be transferred to a neonatal intensive ...

  16. Incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems under random conditions: The effect on the maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems that operates under random environmental conditions on the costs of a periodic replacement maintenance. The motivation of this paper is given by a recently published paper, where a wrong formulation of the expected cost for unit time under a periodic replacement policy is obtained. This wrong formulation is due to the incorrect assumption that the intensity function of minimally repaired systems that operate under random conditions has the same functional form as the failure rate of the first failure time. This produced an incorrect optimization of the replacement maintenance. Thus, in this note the conceptual differences between the intensity function and the failure rate of the first failure time are first highlighted. Then, the correct expressions of the expected cost and of the optimal replacement period are provided. Finally, a real application is used to measure how severe can be the economical consequences caused by the incorrect modeling of the failure process.

  17. Influence of repair length on residual stress in the repair weld of a clad plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenchun; Xu, X.P.; Gong, J.M.; Tu, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate is investigated. ► The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied. ► Large tensile residual stress is generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone. ► With the increase of repair length, transverse stress is decreased. ► Repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress. - Abstract: A 3-D sequential coupling finite element simulation is performed to investigate the temperature field and residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate. The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied, aiming to provide a reference for repairing the cracked clad plate. The results show that large tensile residual stresses are generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone (HAZ), and then decrease gradually away from the weld and HAZ. The residual stresses through thickness in the clad layer are relative uniform, while they are non-uniform in the base metal. A discontinuous stress distribution is generated across the interface between weld metal and base metal. The repair length has a great effect on transverse stress. With the increase of repair length, the transverse stress is decreased. When the repair length is increased to 14 cm, the peak of transverse stress has been decreased below yield strength, and the transverse stress in the weld and HAZ has also been greatly decreased. But the repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress.

  18. Endovascular repair of arterial iliac vessel wall lesions with a self-expandable nitinol stent graft system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Mensel

    Full Text Available To assess the therapeutic outcome after endovascular repair of iliac arterial lesions (IALs using a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft system.Between July 2006 and March 2013, 16 patients (13 males, mean age: 68 years with a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft. A total of 19 lesions were treated: nine true aneurysms, two anastomotic aneurysms, two dissections, one arteriovenous fistula, two type 1B endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair, one pseudoaneurysm, and two perforations after angioplasty. Pre-, intra-, and postinterventional imaging studies and the medical records were analyzed for technical and clinical success and postinterventional complications.The primary technical and clinical success rate was 81.3% (13/16 patients and 75.0% (12/16, respectively. Two patients had technical failure due to persistent type 1A endoleak and another patient due to acute stent graft thrombosis. One patient showed severe stent graft kinking on the first postinterventional day. In two patients, a second intervention was performed. The secondary technical and clinical success rate was 87.5% (14/16 and 93.8% (15/16. The minor complication rate was 6.3% (patient with painful hematoma at the access site. The major complication rate was 6.3% (patient with ipsilateral deep vein thrombosis. During median follow-up of 22.4 months, an infection of the aneurysm sac in one patient and a stent graft thrombosis in another patient were observed.Endovascular repair of various IALs with a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft is safe and effective.

  19. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0

  20. Evidence for a role of KISS-1/GPR54 system in decreased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short fasting has been shown to suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in ewes, however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not clear. Based on recent discovery of the crucial role of KiSS-1/GPR54 system in the central control of the GnRH axis, we hypothesized that KiSS-1/GPR54 system was ...

  1. Inhibition of the central melanocortin system decreases brown adipose tissue activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, S.; Boon, M.R.; Parlevliet, E.T.; Geerling, J.J.; Pol, V. van de; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Meurs, I.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system is an important regulator of energy balance, and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency is the most common monogenic cause of obesity. We investigated whether the relationship between melanocortin system activity and energy expenditure (EE) is mediated by brown adipose

  2. Subsequent Shoulder Surgery After Isolated Arthroscopic SLAP Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Brent; Mahure, Siddharth A; Ensor, Kelsey L; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Kwon, Young W; Rokito, Andrew S

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the incidence of and identify the risk factors for subsequent shoulder procedures after isolated SLAP repair. New York's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was searched between 2003 and 2014 to identify individuals with the sole diagnosis of a SLAP lesion who underwent isolated arthroscopic SLAP repair. Patients were longitudinally followed up for a minimum of 3 years to analyze for subsequent ipsilateral shoulder procedures. Between 2003 and 2014, 2,524 patients met our inclusion criteria. After 3 to 11 years of follow-up, 10.1% of patients (254 of 2,524) underwent repeat surgical intervention on the same shoulder as the initial SLAP repair. The mean time to repeat shoulder surgery was 2.3 ± 2.1 years. Subsequent procedures included subacromial decompression (35%), debridement (26.7%). repeat SLAP repair (19.7%), and biceps tenodesis or tenotomy (13.0%). After isolated SLAP repair, patients aged 20 years or younger were more likely to undergo arthroscopic Bankart repair (odds ratio [OR], 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-6.21; P = .005), whereas age older than 30 years was an independent risk factor for subsequent acromioplasty (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P surgery after isolated SLAP repair, often related to an additional diagnosis, suggesting that clinicians should consider other potential causes of shoulder pain when considering surgery for patients with SLAP lesions. In addition, the number of isolated SLAP repairs performed has decreased over time, and management of failed SLAP repair has shifted toward biceps tenodesis or tenotomy over revision SLAP repair in more recent years. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J C; Hechinger, R F; Wood, A C; Stewart, T E; Kuris, A M; Lafferty, K D

    2017-08-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk at local scales. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail-density-trematode-prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (California, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective

  4. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  5. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a series of DNA repair pathways are discussed which are available to the cell to cope with the problem of DNA damaged by chemical or physical agents. In the case of microorganisms our knowledge about the precise mechanism of each DNA repair pathway and the regulation of it has been improved considerably when mutants deficient in these repair mechanisms became available. In the case of mammalian cells in culture, until recently there were very little repair deficient mutants available, because in almost all mammalian cells in culture at least the diploid number of chromosomes is present. Therefore the frequency of repair deficient mutants in such populations is very low. Nevertheless because replica plating techniques are improving some mutants from Chinese hamsters ovary cells and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells are now available. In the case of human cells, cultures obtained from patients with certain genetic diseases are available. A number of cells appear to be sensitive to some chemical or physical mutagens. These include cells from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome. However, only in the case of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, has the sensitivity to ultraviolet light been clearly correlated with a deficiency in excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore the work with strains obtained from biopsies from man is difficult because these cells generally have low cloning efficiencies and also have a limited lifespan in vitro. It is therefore very important that more repair deficient mutants will become available from established cell lines from human or animal origin

  6. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc B.; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Ouellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2007-12-18

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  7. Design structure for in-system redundant array repair in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Quellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-11-25

    A design structure for repairing an integrated circuit during operation of the integrated circuit. The integrated circuit comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The design structure provides the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The design structure further passes the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  8. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A [Croton-on-Hudson, NY; Crumley, Paul G [Yorktown Heights, NY; Dombrowa, Marc B [Bronx, NY; Douskey, Steven M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Oakland, Steven F [Colchester, VT; Ouellette, Michael R [Westford, VT; Strissel, Scott A [Byron, MN

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  9. Arthroscopic Double-Row Transosseous Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair with a Knotless Self-Reinforcing Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, William R; Greenspoon, Joshua A; Millett, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder morbidity. Surgical techniques for repair have evolved to optimize the biologic and mechanical variables critical to tendon healing. Double-row repairs have demonstrated superior biomechanical advantages to a single-row. The preferred technique for rotator cuff repair of the senior author was reviewed and described in a step by step fashion. The final construct is a knotless double row transosseous equivalent construct. The described technique includes the advantages of a double-row construct while also offering self reinforcement, decreased risk of suture cut through, decreased risk of medial row overtensioning and tissue strangulation, improved vascularity, the efficiency of a knotless system, and no increased risk for subacromial impingement from the burden of suture knots. Arthroscopic knotless double row rotator cuff repair is a safe and effective method to repair rotator cuff tears.

  10. A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel J; Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Alwan, Nura; Donovan, Timothy; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Stewart, Claire; Close, Graeme L

    2015-12-15

    Skeletal muscle is a direct target for vitamin D. Observational studies suggest that low 25[OH]D correlates with functional recovery of skeletal muscle following eccentric contractions in humans and crush injury in rats. However, a definitive association is yet to be established. To address this gap in knowledge in relation to damage repair, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 20 males with insufficient concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (45 ± 25 nmol/l). Prior to and following 6 wk of supplemental vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/day) or placebo (50 mg of cellulose), participants performed 20 × 10 damaging eccentric contractions of the knee extensors, with peak torque measured over the following 7 days of recovery. Parallel experimentation using isolated human skeletal muscle-derived myoblast cells from biopsies of 14 males with low serum 25(OH)D (37 ± 11 nmol/l) were subjected to mechanical wound injury, which enabled corresponding in vitro studies of muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy in the presence and absence of 10 or 100 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3. Supplemental vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D and improved recovery of peak torque at 48 h and 7 days postexercise. In vitro, 10 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3 improved muscle cell migration dynamics and resulted in improved myotube fusion/differentiation at the biochemical, morphological, and molecular level together with increased myotube hypertrophy at 7 and 10 days postdamage. Together, these preliminary data are the first to characterize a role for vitamin D in human skeletal muscle regeneration and suggest that maintaining serum 25(OH)D may be beneficial for enhancing reparative processes and potentially for facilitating subsequent hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Recombinant erythropoietin acutely decreases renal perfusion and decouples the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aachmann-Andersen, Niels J.; Christensen, Soren J.; Lisbjerg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    The effect of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) on renal and systemic hemodynamics was evaluated in a randomized double-blinded, cross-over study. Sixteen healthy subjects were tested with placebo, or low-dose rhEPO for 2 weeks, or high-dose rhEPO for 3 days. Subjects refrained from excessive salt...... that seems to decouple the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system from changes in renal hemodynamics. This may serve as a negative feed-back mechanism on endogenous synthesis of EPO when circulating levels of EPO are high. These results demonstrates for the first time in humans a direct effect...... of rhEPO on renal hemodynamics and a decoupling of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system....

  12. Internal audit of costs on fixed assets repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Samchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the approaches to the process and methods of expenditure audit on repair and modernization of fixed assets and the author considers that there is no single approach to understanding the issue. The author improves the organizational and methodological support of internal audit of expenditures on the fixed assets repair and modernization that forms the accurate information for management repair and modernization of fixed assets. The paper specifies the goals and objectives of internal expenditures on repair and modernization of fixed assets, depending on the sources of such facilities to the company, allowing the author to determine the documentary control methods to be applied by an auditor to perform each task. The article determines the areas of risk components of internal control that can lead to ineffective implementation of authority by officials of an enterprise in the process of fixed assets repair, which can cause inefficient use of resources and, consequently, decrease in the efficiency of the work of fixed assets repair and modernization. The author proposes the list of auditor’s questions to assess the internal control system in the repair of fixed assets and these questions will help identify the significant drawbacks of control means.

  13. Hydroxychloroquine decreases Th17-related cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cruz da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial agent that has been used in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis treatment for many years. Recently, novel mechanisms of action have been proposed, thereby broadening the therapeutic perspective of this medication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of hydroxychloroquine in T helper 17 (Th17 cytokines in healthy individuals and patients. METHODS: Eighteen female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean age 39.0±12.9 years and 13 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (mean age 51.5±7.7 years were recruited from Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-Brazil. The patients were included after fulfilling four classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis from the American College of Rheumatology. After being stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in the absence or presence of different concentrations of hydroxychloroquine, the interleukin 6, 17 and 22 levels were quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals and patients. RESULTS: We demonstrated that in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis patients, there was a significant reduction in the IL-6, IL-17 and IL-22 supernatant levels after adding hydroxychloroquine. CONCLUSIONS Our in vitro results demonstrated that hydroxychloroquine inhibits IL-6, IL-17 and IL-22 production and contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this medication.

  14. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  15. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation

  16. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-01-09

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  17. Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Owashi, Chisato; Nagai, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Issei; Arihara, Keizo

    2018-02-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF. It is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Alternate wetting and drying decreases methylmercury in flooded rice (Oryza sativa) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, K. Christy; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Fleck, Jacob; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    In flooded soils, including those found in rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields, microbes convert inorganic Hg to more toxic methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury is accumulated in rice grain, potentially affecting health. Methylmercury in rice field surface water can bioaccumulate in wildlife. We evaluated how introducing aerobic periods into an otherwise continuously flooded rice growing season affects MeHg dynamics. Conventional continuously flooded (CF) rice field water management was compared with alternate wetting and drying, where irrigation was stopped twice during the growing season, allowing soil to dry to 35% volumetric moisture content, at which point plots were reflooded (AWD-35). Methylmercury studies began at harvest in Year 3 and throughout Year 4 of a 4-yr replicated field experiment. Bulk soil, water, and plant samples were analyzed for MeHg and total Hg (THg), and iron (Fe) speciation was measured in soil samples. Rice grain yield over 4 yr did not differ between treatments. Soil chemistry responded quickly to AWD-35 dry-downs, showing significant oxidation of Fe(II) accompanied by a significant reduction of MeHg concentration (76% reduction at harvest) compared with CF. Surface water MeHg decreased by 68 and 39% in the growing and fallow seasons, respectively, suggesting that the effects of AWD-35 management can last through to the fallow season. The AWD-35 treatment reduced rice grain MeHg and THg by 60 and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that the more aerobic conditions caused by AWD-35 limited the activity of Hg(II)-methylating microbes and may be an effective way to reduce MeHg concentrations in rice ecosystems.

  19. A method of constructing geo-object ontology in disaster system for prevention and decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Shi, Lihong; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2009-10-01

    A kind of formal system, which can express clearly a certain entity or information, is needed to express geographical concept. Besides, some rules explaining the interrelationship and action between different components are also required. Therefore, the conception of geo-object ontology is introduced. It is a shared formalization and display specification of conceptual knowledge system in the field of concrete application of spatial information science. It can constitute hierarchy structure, which derives from the concept classification system in the geographical area. Its concepts can be described by the property. Property sets can form a vector space with multi-dimensional characteristics. Geographic space is composed of different types of geographic entities. And its concept is formed by a series of geographic entities with the same properties and actions. Moreover, each of the geographic entities can be mapped to an object, and each object has its spatial property, time information and topology, semantic relationships associated with other objects. The biggest difference between ecumenical information ontology and geo-ontology is that the latter has the spatial characteristics. During the construction process of geo-object ontology, some important components, such as geographic type, spatial relation, spatial entity type and coordinates, time, should be included to make further research. Here, taking disaster as an example, by using Protégé and OWL, combined methods used by constructing the geo-object ontology in the form of being manual made by domanial experts and semi-automatic are investigated oriented to disaster to serve ultimately geographic information retrieval service driven by ontology.

  20. The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni depends on the AddAB DNA repair system to defend against bile in the intestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Christopher R; Negretti, Nicholas M; Konkel, Michael E

    2017-10-31

    Accurate repair of DNA damage is crucial to ensure genome stability and cell survival of all organisms. Bile functions as a defensive barrier against intestinal colonization by pathogenic microbes. Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness, possess strategies to mitigate the toxic components of bile. We recently found that growth of C. jejuni in medium with deoxycholate, a component of bile, caused DNA damage consistent with the exposure to reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that C. jejuni must repair DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species to restore chromosomal integrity. Our efforts focused on determining the importance of the putative AddAB DNA repair proteins. A C. jejuni addAB mutant demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to deoxycholate and was impaired in DNA double strand break repair. Complementation of the addAB mutant restored resistance to deoxycholate, as well as function of the DNA double strand break repair system. The importance of these findings translated to the natural host, where the AddAB system was found to be required for efficient C. jejuni colonization of the chicken intestine. This research provides new insight into the molecular mechanism utilized by C. jejuni, and possibly other intestinal pathogens, to survive in the presence of bile.

  1. Motor System Interactions in the Beta Band Decrease during Loss of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Nicole C; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Maher, Ryan B; Stapleton, Catherine A; Meng, Lingzhong; Gelb, Adrian W; Starr, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Communication between brain areas and how they are influenced by changes in consciousness are not fully understood. One hypothesis is that brain areas communicate via oscillatory processes, utilizing network-specific frequency bands, that can be measured with metrics that reflect between-region interactions, such as coherence and phase amplitude coupling (PAC). To evaluate this hypothesis and understand how these interactions are modulated by state changes, we analyzed electrophysiological recordings in humans at different nodes of one well-studied brain network: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops of the motor system during loss of consciousness induced by anesthesia. We recorded simultaneous electrocorticography over primary motor cortex (M1) with local field potentials from subcortical motor regions (either basal ganglia or thalamus) in 15 movement disorder patients during anesthesia (propofol) induction as a part of their surgery for deep brain stimulation. We observed reduced coherence and PAC between M1 and the subcortical nuclei, which was specific to the beta band (∼18-24 Hz). The fact that this pattern occurs selectively in beta underscores the importance of this frequency band in the motor system and supports the idea that oscillatory interactions at specific frequencies are related to the capacity for normal brain function and behavior.

  2. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies.

  3. Minimal access direct spondylolysis repair using a pedicle screw-rod system: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohi Eldin Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Symptomatic spondylolysis is always challenging to treat because the pars defect causing the instability needs to be stabilized while segmental fusion needs to be avoided. Direct repair of the pars defect is ideal in cases of spondylolysis in which posterior decompression is not necessary. We report clinical results using segmental pedicle-screw-rod fixation with bone grafting in patients with symptomatic spondylolysis, a modification of a technique first reported by Tokuhashi and Matsuzaki in 1996. We also describe the surgical technique, assess the fusion and analyze the outcomes of patients. Case presentation At Cairo University Hospital, eight out of twelve Egyptian patients’ acute pars fractures healed after conservative management. Of those, two young male patients underwent an operative procedure for chronic low back pain secondary to pars defect. Case one was a 25-year-old Egyptian man who presented with a one-year history of axial low back pain, not radiating to the lower limbs, after falling from height. Case two was a 29-year-old Egyptian man who presented with a one-year history of axial low back pain and a one-year history of mild claudication and infrequent radiation to the leg, never below the knee. Utilizing a standardized mini-access fluoroscopically-guided surgical protocol, fixation was established with two titanium pedicle screws place into both pedicles, at the same level as the pars defect, without violating the facet joint. The cleaned pars defect was grafted; a curved titanium rod was then passed under the base of the spinous process of the affected vertebra, bridging the loose fragment, and attached to the pedicle screw heads, to uplift the spinal process, followed by compression of the defect. The patients were discharged three days after the procedure, with successful fusion at one-year follow-up. No rod breakage or implant-related complications were reported. Conclusions Where there is no

  4. ZVI Addition in Continuous Anaerobic Digestion Systems Dramatically Decreases P Recovery Potential: Dynamic Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puyol, D.; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Segura, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the preliminary results of a (dynamic) mathematical model describing the effects of zero valent iron (ZVI) addition during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems. A modified version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model...... No. 1 (ADM1) upgraded with an improved physico-chemical description, ZVI corrosion, propionate uptake enhancement and multiple mineral precipitation is used as a modelling platform. The proposed approach is tested against two case studies which correspond to two lab scale anaerobic digesters (AD2, AD....... Simulations demonstrate that the model is capable to satisfactorily reproduce the dynamics of hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis, nutrient release, pH and methanogenesis in the control anaerobic digester (AD1). This study also evidences the enhancement of methane production by the influence of ZVI...

  5. Some areas of reliability technique which have been neglected to some extent - maintainability - human reliability - mechanical reliability - repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akersten, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis consists of four papers, three of which are of a expositary nature and one more theoretical. The first two papers have a natural coupling to the man-machine interface. The first paper is devoted to the concept of maintainability and the role of man as maintenance technician. The second paper discusses aspects of human reliability, mainly studying man as operator. However, maintenance tasks can be studied in the same manner. The third paper concerns reliability prediction for mechanical components. This is an area of vital importance for the reliability practitioner, who needs realistic and easy-to-use mathematical models for different failure modes. The fourth paper discusses mathematical models for repairable systems, especially the problem of testing whether a constant event intensity model is adequate or not. (author)

  6. Repair process and a repaired component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.

    2018-02-20

    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component, and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.

  7. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  8. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  9. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  10. Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine E.; Bowen, Nikki; Graham, William J.; Goellner, Eva M.; Srivatsan, Anjana; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5′ nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3′ nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg2+ and Mn2+ for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR. PMID:26170454

  11. Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine E; Bowen, Nikki; Graham, William J; Goellner, Eva M; Srivatsan, Anjana; Kolodner, Richard D

    2015-08-28

    Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5' nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3' nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The role of the DNA repair system in increasing the viability of E.coli cells under the action of small UV doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Vilenchik, M.M.; Isakov, B.K.; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Botaniki)

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied the action of the ultraviolet light (UV) on the colony-forming ability of E.coli K12-HCR + cultured in a meat infusion broth in the presence of glucose. An unusual shape of the curve indicates that the number of viable cells increases under the action of low UV doses. The experiment was repeated seven times, and each time the phenomenon was fully asserted (p 0.01). So it was suggested that low UV doses (about 140 erg/mm 2 ) activate the system of dark DNA repair (induction of the synthesis of repair enzymes) which repairs 'spontaneous' DNA defects and increases the number of colony-forming cells. (orig.) [de

  13. Role of the DNA repair system in increasing the viability of E. coli cells under the action of small UV doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzin, A M; Vilenchik, M M; Isakov, B K [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Botaniki)

    1976-12-01

    The authors studied the action of the ultraviolet light (UV) on the colony-forming ability of E.coli K12-HCR/sup +/ cultured in a meat infusion broth in the presence of glucose. An unusual shape of the curve indicates that the number of viable cells increases under the action of low UV doses. The experiment was repeated seven times, and each time the phenomenon was fully asserted (p 0.01). So it was suggested that low UV doses (about 140 erg/mm/sup 2/) activate the system of dark DNA repair (induction of the synthesis of repair enzymes) which repairs 'spontaneous' DNA defects and increases the number of colony-forming cells.

  14. Development of an auto-welding system for CRD nozzle repair welds using a 3D laser vision sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.; Kim, Y.; Byeon, J.; Sung, K.; Yeom, C.; Rhee, S.

    2007-01-01

    A control rod device (CRD) nozzle attaches to the hemispherical surface of a reactor head with J-groove welding. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) causes degradation in these welds, which requires that these defect areas be repaired. To perform this repair welding automatically on a complicated weld groove shape, an auto-welding system was developed incorporating a laser vision sensor that measures the 3-dimensional (3D) shape of the groove and a weld-path creation program that calculates the weld-path parameters. Welding trials with a J-groove workpiece were performed to establish a basis for developing this auto-welding system. Because the reactor head is placed on a lay down support, the outer-most region of the CRD nozzle has restricted access. Due to this tight space, several parameters of the design, such as size, weight and movement of the auto-welding system, had to be carefully considered. The cross section of the J-groove weld is basically an oval shape where the included angle of the J-groove ranges from 0 to 57 degrees. To measure the complex shape, we used double lasers coupled to a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. We then developed a program to generate the weld-path parameters using the measured 3D shape as a basis. The program has the ability to determine the first and final welding positions and to calculate all weld-path parameters. An optimized image-processing algorithm was applied to resolve noise interference and diffused reflection of the joint surfaces. The auto-welding system is composed of a 4-axis manipulator, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) power supply, an optimized designed and manufactured GTAW torch and a 3D laser vision sensor. Through welding trials with 0 and 38-degree included-angle workpieces with both J-groove and U-groove weld, the performance of this auto-welding system was qualified for field application

  15. The INNOVATION Trial: four-year safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System for endovascular repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Giovanni; Pratesi, Carlo; Chiesa, Roberto; Coppi, Gioacchino; Scheinert, Dierk; Brunkwall, Jan S; van der Meulen, Stefaan; Torsello, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the 4-year safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System (Cordis Corp., Milpitas, CA, USA), an ultra-low-profile device for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The INNOVATION Trial is the prospective, first-in-human, multicenter trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® System. Patients underwent annual clinical and computed tomography angiography examination as part of the study protocol. The INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System is a customizable tri-modular design, with an ultra-low profile (14-Fr) delivery system. Patient were treated under approved protocol, the prescribed clinical and imaging follow-up at annually through 5 years. Results analyzed and adjudicated by a clinical events committee, independent core laboratory, and a data safety and monitoring board. This manuscript reports results through 4 years of follow-up. A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the trial, all of whom were successfully treated. Follow-up rates at 1 and 4 years were 93% (56/60) and 85% (51/60), respectively. All-cause mortality at 4 years was 17.6% and no death was AAA-, device-, or procedure-related. The secondary reintervention rate at 1 year was 4.6%, primarily the result of stent thrombosis. In total, 10 patients required 13 post-procedure interventions within 4-years of follow-up (2 to repair a type I endoleak, 4 to repair a type II endoleak, 1 for stent thrombosis, 1 for renal stenosis, 1 for aneurysm enlargement, 2 for limb migration and 2 for prosthesis stenosis or occlusion). There were 4 cases (10%) of aneurysm enlargement reported at the 4 year follow-up. At 4 years, 38 out of 39 patients were free from type I and III endoleaks. There were no proximal type I or type III endoleaks at 4-year follow-up. Core laboratory evaluation of the postoperative imaging studies indicated absence of endograft migration while a single fracture was demonstrated without any clinical sequelae. The INCRAFT® AAA Stent

  16. Implementation of the Continuous AutoTransfusion System (C.A.T.S) in open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: an observational comparative cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tawfick, Wael A

    2008-01-01

    The use of the Continuous AutoTransfusion System (C.A.T.S; Fresenius Hemotechnology, Bad Homburg v.d.H., Germany), which conserves allogenic blood, is reported in 187 patients having abdominal aortic aneurysm repair during a 9-year period. Patients were allocated to C.A.T.S if a Haemovigilance technician was available. A mean of 685 mL of retrieved blood was reinfused in 101 patients receiving C.A.T.S; 61% required 2 U or less. All control patients required 3 U or more of allogenic blood. Allogenic transfusion in C.A.T.S patients decreased significantly (P < .0001). Mean intensive care unit stay was significantly reduced in C.A.T.S patients (P = .042). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 18 days for C.A.T.S group and 25 days in control patients (P = .014). The respective 30-day mortality was 12% versus 19% (P = .199). The C.A.T.S markedly reduced the amount of blood transfused, was associated with reduced intensive care unit and postoperative hospital stay, and was cost-effective.

  17. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  18. Mitek Anchor System: a new technique for tenodesis and ligamentous repair of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, B; Tesoro, D; Wertheimer, S J; Coraci, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors present an alternative method for securing tendon and ligaments to bone, utilizing the Mitek Anchor System. The description of the Mitek system and technique of application is presented. Technical simplicity and ease of adaptability within the foot and ankle are distinct advantages of this System.

  19. On Birnbaum importance assessment for aging multi-state system under minimal repair by using the Lz-transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisnianski, Anatoly; Frenkel, Ilia; Khvatskin, Lev

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a reliability importance evaluation for components in an aging multi-state system. In practical reliability engineering a “curse of dimensionality” (the large number of states that should be analyzed for a multi-state system model) is a main obstacle for importance assessment. In order to challenge the problem, this paper proposes a new method that is based on an L Z -transform of the discrete-state continuous-time Markov process and on Ushakov's Universal Generating Operator. The paper shows that the proposed method can drastically reduce a computational burden. In order to illustrate the method, a solution of a real world problem is presented as a numerical example. - Highlights: • Aging multi-state system under minimal repair is studied. • A new method for Birnbaum importance assessment is developed. • The method is based on the L Z -transform. • The proposed method provides a drastic reduction of computation burden. • Numerical example is presented in order to illustrate the method

  20. Reliability measures of a computer system with priority to PM over the H/W repair activities subject to MOT and MRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the evaluation of reliability measures of a computer system of two-identical units having independent failure of h/w and s/w components. Initially one unit is operative and the other is kept as spare in cold standby. There is a single server visiting the system immediately whenever needed. The server conducts preventive maintenance of the unit after a maximum operation time. If server is unable to repair the h/w components in maximum repair time, then components in the unit are replaced immediately by new one. However, only replacement of the s/w components has been made at their failure. The priority is given to the preventive maintenance over repair activities of the h/w. The time to failure of the components follows negative exponential distribution whereas the distribution of preventive maintenance, repair and replacement time are taken as arbitrary. The expressions for some important reliability measures of system effectiveness have been derived using semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique. The graphical behavior of the results has also been shown for a particular case.

  1. A Robotic System for Inspection and Repair of Small Diameter Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Vorotnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the construction and control system of miniature robotic system that is designed to move and make inspection inside small diameter pipelines. It gives an overview of ways to move a microsize robotic system inside the small diameter pipe. The proposed design consists of information module and three traction modules, including modules for fixing, linear moving and angular positioning. This paper describes the design and operation of a robotic system and its different modules. Also are shown the structure of the robot control system, the basic calculations of construct and some simulation results of the individual modules of the robot.

  2. Discrete time analysis of a repairable machine

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa, Attahiru Sule; Castro, I. T.

    2002-01-01

    We consider, in discrete time, a single machine system that operates for a period of time represented by a general distribution. This machine is subject to failures during operations and the occurrence of these failures depends on how many times the machine has previously failed. Some failures are repairable and the repair times may or may not depend on the number of times the machine was previously repaired. Repair times also have a general distribution. The operating times...

  3. Molecular biological mechanisms I. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cells of all living systems possess a variety of mechanisms that allow to repair spontaneous and exogeneously induced DNA damage. DNA repair deficiencies may invoke enhanced sensitivity towards DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation. They may also enhance the risk of cancer development, both spontaneously or after induction. This article reviews several DNA repair mechanisms, especially those dealing with DNA double-strand breaks, and describes hereditary diseases associated with DNA repair defects. (orig.) [de

  4. Decreased Libido

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... an Endocrinologist Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  5. Meniscal repair devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A; Herbert, M A

    2000-09-01

    Meniscal repair devices not requiring accessory incisions are attractive. Many factors contribute to their clinical effectiveness including their biomechanical characteristics. This study compared several new meniscal repair devices with standard meniscal suture techniques. Using a porcine model, axis-of-insertion loads were applied to various meniscal sutures and repair devices. A single device or stitch was placed in a created meniscal tear and a load applied. Both loads and modes of failure were recorded. The load-to-failure data show stratification into 4 distinct statistical groups. Group A, 113 N for a double vertical stitch; group B, 80 N for a single vertical stitch; group C, 57 N for the BioStinger, 56 N for a horizontal mattress stitch, and 50 N for the T-Fix stitch; and group D, 33 N for the Meniscus Arrow (inserted by hand or gun), 32 N for the Clearfix screw, 31 N for the SDsorb staple, 30 N for the Mitek meniscal repair system, and 27 N for the Biomet staple. The failure mechanism varied. Sutures broke away from the knot. The Meniscus Arrow and BioStinger pulled through the inner rim with the crossbar intact. The Clearfix screw failed by multiple mechanisms, whereas 1 leg of the SDsorb staple always pulled out of the outer rim. The Mitek device usually failed by pullout from the inner rim. The Biomet staple always broke at the crosshead or just below it. Although the surgeon should be aware of the material properties of the repair technique chosen for a meniscal repair, this information is only an indication of device performance and may not correlate with clinical healing results.

  6. Quantitative MRI comparison of systemic hemodynamics in Mustard/Senning repaired patients and healthy volunteers at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, Eric; Jimenez, Maria; Choussat, Alain; Latrabe, Valerie; Ducassou, Dominique; Marthan, Roger; Laurent, Francois

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to non-invasively compare ascending aortic blood flow and cross-sectional area (CSA) variations vs time in Mustard or Senning repaired (MSR) patients against those of healthy volunteers at rest. Velocity-encoded MR imaging was performed in 10 male patients (age range 18-24 years, median age 20.5 years) late after a Mustard or Senning correction, and in 10 male healthy volunteers (age range 21-25 years, median age 22.5 years), at the upper part of the ascending aorta. Both aortic cross-sectional area (CSA) and blood-flow variations were recorded over a complete cardiac cycle, with a 30-ms time of resolution. The body-surface area (BSA), the mean CSA over the systolic phase, and the BSA-normalized systemic ventricle power and work were significantly lower in the patient series compared with those of the volunteer series. The BSA-normalized right ventricle (RV) power and work of MSR patients were equal to 87 and 83% on average of those of the left ventricle (LV) of healthy volunteers. We conclude that, at rest, the mechanical performance of the systemic RV in MSR patients is significantly lower than that of the LV in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the significantly lower aortic CSA found in MSR patients than in healthy volunteers may reveal an increase in the vasomotor tone. (orig.)

  7. Procedures for maintenance and repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.

    1981-01-01

    After a general review of the operation experience in the history of more than 12 operating years, the organization in the plant will be shown with special aspect to quality assurance, capacity of the workshops and connected groups as radiation protection, chemical laboratories etc. The number, time intervals and manpower effort for the repeating tests will be discussed. Reasons and examples for back-fitting activities in the plant are given. Besides special repair and maintenance procedures as repair of the steam generators, in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel, repair of a feed-water pipe and repair of the core structure in the pressure vessel, the general system to handle maintenance and repair-work in the KWO-plant will be shown. This includes also the detailed planning of the annual refueling and revision of the plant. (orig./RW)

  8. Impact of radiotherapy on PBMCs DNA repair capacity - Use of a multiplexed functional repair assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaigo, S.; Sarrazy, F.; Breton, J.; Caillat, S.; Chapuis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an essential part of cancer treatment as about 50% of patients will receive radiations at least once. Significant broad variation in radiosensitivity has been demonstrated in patients. About 5-10% of patients develop acute toxicity after radiotherapy. Therefore there is a need for the identification of markers able to predict the occurrence of adverse effects and thus adapt the radiotherapy regimen for radiosensitive patients. As a first step toward this goal, and considering the DNA repair defects associated with hypersensitivity radiation syndromes, we investigated the DNA repair phenotype of patients receiving radiotherapy. More precisely, we used a functional repair assay on support to follow the evolution of the glycosylases/AP endonuclease activities of PBMCs extracts of a series of patients during the time course of radiotherapy. For each patient, we collected one PBMCs sample before the first radiotherapy application (S1) and three samples after (S2 to S4) (one day and one week after application 1, and one at the end of the radiotherapy protocol). These four samples have been analysed for 11 donors. Clustering analyses of the results demonstrated a great heterogeneity of responses among the patients. Interestingly, this heterogeneity decreased between S1 and S4 where only 2 classes of patients remained if we except one patient that exhibited an atypical DNA repair phenotype. Furthermore, we showed that repair of several oxidized bases significantly increased between S1 and S3 or S4 (8oxoG, thymine glycol, A paired with 8oxoG), suggesting an adaptation of patients repair systems to the oxidative stress generated by the ionising radiations. Our preliminary results provided evidence that the DNA repair phenotype was impacted by the radiotherapy regimen. Further characterization of patients with known repair defects are needed to determine if atypical repair phenotypes could be associated with radiotherapy complications. Finally

  9. Inspection, maintenance, and repair of large pumps and piping systems using advanced robotic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.K.; Radigan, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Operating and maintaining large pumps and piping systems can be an expensive proposition. Proper inspections and monitoring can reduce costs. This was difficult in the past, since detailed pump inspections could only be performed by disassembly and many portions of piping systems are buried or covered with insulation. Once these components were disassembled, a majority of the cost was already incurred. At that point, expensive part replacement usually took place whether it was needed or not. With the completion of the Pipe Walkertrademark/LIP System and the planned development of the Submersible Walkertrademark, this situation is due to change. The specifications for these inspection and maintenance robots will ensure that. Their ability to traverse both horizontal and vertical, forward and backward, make them unique tools. They will open the door for some innovative approaches to inspection and maintenance of large pumps and piping systems

  10. Inducible error-prone repair in B. subtilis. Progress report, September 1, 1981-April 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasbin, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made on determining the mechanisms of mutagenesis in B. subtilis and on elucidating the interactions between DNA repair systems and mutagenesis in this bacterium. Specifically, the B. subtilis W-reactivation system has been shown to involve a damage-specific (pyrimidine dimer) repair mechanism which may or may not be error-free. On the other hand, error-prone repair (as defined by the ability of cells to be mutated by low doses of uv) has been definitively established in this bacterium. The investigation of the genes controlling the error-prone repair system has revealed that uv mutagenesis is significantly decreased in cells carrying the recG13 mutation. In addition, cells lacking a functional excision repair system are hypermutable to EMS, although these cells are not hypersensitive to the killing activity of EMS. Both EMS and uv generate the same spectrum of mutants (reversions vs suppressors); however, cells lacking a functional excision repair system apparently generate more suppressor mutations when exposed to uv as compared to the other strains tested. A genomic library for B. subtilis has been established. This library will be specifically used to isolate a cloned fragment of DNA which codes for the major subunit of the Bacillus DNA polymerase III. However, this bank can also be used to isolate Bacillus genes which control most of the repair functions. Furthermore, we have begun the process of cloning the E. coli phr + gene in to B. subtilis

  11. Decreased material-activation of the complement system using low-energy plasma polymerized poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.E.; Kolmos, H.J.; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2011-01-01

    In the current study we investigate the activation of blood complement on medical device silicone rubber and present a plasma polymerized vinyl pyrrolidone (ppVP) coating which strongly decreases surface-activation of the blood complement system. We show that uncoated silicone and polystyrene...... surface. The ppVP surface is furthermore characterized physically and chemically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which indicates preservation of chemical functionality by the applied plasma process. Overall, the pp...

  12. Alternative and augmentative communication systems (AACS as an instrument for decreasing challenging behaviour to students with ASD: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mira Pastor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An intervention based on the Benson Schaeffer’s Speak Signal Program, to provide an eight years old girl with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD with the Alternative and Augmentative Communication System (AACS is described. The intervention aims at promoting the use of signs to express her needs and through this achieve a decrease in challenging behaviors, mostly produced when trying to communicate. A qualitative single case study by objective methodology was used. The program was developed in the communication and language classroom of a public school for children in nursery and primary education in Valencia. Eight signs worked functionally in different contexts. Likewise, reduction of challenging behavior was evident.

  13. RISK DECREASE PROBLEM WITH MAKING ERRORS IN ACTIVITY OF OPERATORS DEALING WITH AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS OF GAS-DISTRIBUTION STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Egorov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of specific features pertaining to the activity of operators dealing with automatic control systems of gas-distribution stations. The professional operator’s activity is presented in the form of the developed data model. Possible conceptual approaches to the research are analyzed in the paper. The paper describes an author’s approach to studying a risk decrease problem in the activity of operators on the basis of the analytical research results. Technology for obtaining  research results is cited in the paper. 

  14. An Analysis of the Reflector Cooling System Repair Status after the Initial Operation of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Chul; Seo, Kyoung Woo; Chi, Dae Young; Yoon, Hyun Gi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Geun [Safety Evaluation Department, System D and D Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type multi-purpose research reactor of 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating normally since its initial criticality in February, 1995. During the last operation period of HANARO, when a trouble occurred, the trouble was fixed on site. As preventive maintenance can reduce the corrective maintenance, the reasons of the occurred troubles are reviewed to prepare preventive maintenance. About twelve hundred cases of work requests and nonconformance reports (NCRs) have been issued since the initial criticality of HANARO. The cases are analyzed according to the trouble status, the trouble equipment function and the cause of the major trouble for reflector cooling system (RCS, hereinafter) including cover gas system and leakage monitoring and collection system

  15. Comparison between state graphs and fault trees for sequential and repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussan, D.; Saignes, P.

    1996-01-01

    In French PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) 1300 for the 1300 Mwe PWR plants carried out by EDF, sequential and reparable systems are modeled with state graphs. This method is particularly convenient for modeling dynamic systems with long-term missions but induces a bad traceability and understandability of models. In the objective of providing elements for rewriting PSA 1300 with only boolean models, EDF has asked CEA to participate to a methodological study. The aim is to carry out a feasibility study of transposition of state graphs models into fault trees on Component Cooling System and Essential Service Water System (CCS/ESWS) and to draw a methodological guide for transposition. The study realized on CCS/ESWS involves two main axes: quantification of cold source loss (as an accident sequence initiating event, called H1); quantification of the CCS/ESWS missions in accident sequences. The subject of this article is to show that this transformation is applicable with minimum distortions of the results and to determine the hypotheses, the conditions and the limits of application of this conversion. (authors). 2 refs

  16. Nuclear power plant steam pipes repairing with TIRANT 3 robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Tomas, Marcelo; Curiel Nieva, Marceliano; Monzo Blasco, Enrique; Rodriguez, Salvador Pineda; Vaquer Perez, Juan I.

    2011-01-01

    A typical application functions covering the steam pipes inner surface in coal-fired power station and nuclear power plants. The results of this process are spectacular in terms of protection against corrosion and abrasion, but its application has conditioning factors, such as: Severe application conditions for workers. Due to the postural position (usually kneeling) in small diameter pipes and working with fireproof clothing and masks with outdoor air supplying, due to fumes, sparks and molten metal particles, radiological contamination, confined space, poor lighting... Coating uniformity. As metallization is a manual process, the carried out measurements show small variations in the thickness of the coating, always within the tolerance limits established by the applicable regulations and quality assurance. For all these reasons, Grupo Dominguis has developed the TIRANT 3 robot, a worldwide innovative system, for metallization of steam pipes inner surface. TIRANT 3 robot is teleoperated from outside of the pipe, so that human intervention is reduced to the operations of robot positioning and change of metallization wire. As it is an independent system of the human factor, metallization process performance is significantly increased by reducing rest periods due only to the robot maintenance. Likewise, TIRANT 3 system permits to increase resulting coating uniformity, and thus its resistance, keeping selected parameters constant depending on required type and thickness of wire. TIRANT 3 system has successfully worked in 2010 during the stops refueling of the Units I and II of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant in Mexico. (author)

  17. Incorporating Flexibility in the Design of Repairable Systems - Design of Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    MICROGRIDS Vijitashwa Pandey1 Annette Skowronska1,2...optimization of complex systems such as a microgrid is however, computationally intensive. The problem is exacerbated if we must incorporate...flexibility in terms of allowing the microgrid architecture and its running protocol to change with time. To reduce the computational effort, this paper

  18. Expert system for assisting the repair operations on the control racks of the control rods assembly in a 900 MW PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, B.; Doutre, J.L.; Franco, A.

    1990-01-01

    The expert system presented was developed for assisting the repair operations on the control equipment of the control rod assembly in a PWR type reactor. The expert system allows the representation of expert knowledge and diagnostic reasoning. The objective of the expert system is to achieve the most precise diagnostic and localizing of the breakdown elements, by processing the data acquired during breakdown. The development steps, the structure and the applications of the expert system are summarized. The expert system operates in an IBM PC equipped with a AMAIA 8 Mo card. A time schedule of 18 months is predicted [fr

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Steam Pipes repairing with Tirant 3R Robot System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Martinez, Jose-Tomas; Soto-Tomas, Marcelo; Curiel-Nieva, Marceliano; Monzo-Blasco, Enrique; Pineda-Rodriguez, Salvador; Vaquer-Perez, Juan-Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The metallization arc spray process is based on the projection of molten metal, supplied by means of different stainless alloys wire, over a surface of carbon steel usually, with the object of serving as protection against flow assisted corrosion (FAC), increasing resistance to abrasion and deteriorations. A typical application functions covering the steam pipes inner surface in Coal-fired power station and Nuclear Power Plants. The results of this process are spectacular in terms of protection against flow assisted corrosion and abrasion, but its application has conditioning factors, such as: Severe application conditions for workers. Due to the worker's postural position (usually kneeling) in 32' diameter pipes and working with fireproof clothing and masks with outdoor air supplying, due to fumes, sparks and molten metal particles, radiological contamination, confined space, poor lighting... Coating uniformity. As metallization is a manual process, the carried out measurements show small variations in the thickness of the coating, always within the tolerance limits established by the applicable regulations and Quality Assurance. An increase in the uniformity of the projected coating, increase the resistance and give a better surface protection. For all these reasons, Lainsa has developed the TIRANT 3 R system, a worldwide innovative system, for metallization of steam pipes inner surface. TIRANT 3 R system is tele-operated from outside of the pipe, so that human intervention is reduced to the operations of robot positioning and change of metallization wire. As it is an independent system of the human factor, metallization process performance is significantly increased by reducing rest periods due only to the robot maintenance. Likewise, TIRANT 3 R system permits to increase resulting coating uniformity and thus its resistance, keeping selected parameters constant (forward speed, rotation speed and inner surface distance) depending on required type and

  20. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  1. Metabolic modulation of mammalian DNA excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    First, ultraviolet light (UVL)- and dimethylsulfate (DMS)-induced excision repair was examined in quiescent and lectin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes. Upon mitogenic stimulation, UVL-induced repair increased by a factor of 2 to 3, and reached this maximum 2 days before the onset of DNA replication. However, DMS-induced repair increased sevenfold in parallel with DNA replication. Repair patch sizes were smaller for DMS-induced damage reflecting patches of 7 nucleotides in quiescent lymphocytes compared to 20 nucleotides induced by UVL. The patch size increased during lymphocyte stimulation until one day prior to the peak of DNA replication when patch sizes of 45 and 35 nucleotides were produced in response to UVL- and DMS-induced damage, respectively. At the peak of DNA replication, the patch sizes were equal for both damaging agents at 34 nucleotides. In the second study, a small amount of repair replication was observed in undamaged quiescent and concanavalin A-stimulated bovine lymphocytes as well as in human T98G glioblastoma cells. Repair incorporation doubled in the presence of hydroxyurea. Thirdly, the enhanced repair replication induced by the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide, (3-AB), could not be correlated either with an increased rate of repair in the presence of 3-AB or with the use of hydroxyurea in the repair protocol. Finally, treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with hyperthermia was accompanied by decreased repair replication while the repair patches remained constant at 20 nucleotides.

  2. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  3. Failure analysis of a repairable system: The case study of a cam-driven reciprocating pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald D.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis supplies a statistical and economic tool for analysis of the failure characteristics of one typical piece of equipment under evaluation: a cam-driven reciprocating pump used in the submarine's distillation system. Comprehensive statistical techniques and parametric modeling are employed to identify and quantify pump failure characteristics. Specific areas of attention include: the derivation of an optimal maximum replacement interval based on costs, an evaluation of the mission reliability for the pump as a function of pump age, and a calculation of the expected times between failures. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate current maintenance practices of time-based replacement and examine the consequences of different replacement intervals in terms of costs and mission reliability. Tradeoffs exist between cost savings and system reliability that must be fully understood prior to making any policy decisions.

  4. Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System Failures in Repair of Grade V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.-H. Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System® (LARS® represents a popular synthetic anatomical reduction method for acromioclavicular joint dislocation by means of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. To our knowledge, no early failure has been documented in the literature. We present two unusual cases of LARS failure, one at four months after implant and the other at three weeks, without obvious causes, requiring re-do reconstruction, and discuss potential contributory factors.

  5. Pelvic organ prolapse repair using the Uphold (TM) Vaginal Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Daniel; Mikkola, Tomi S.; Bek, Karl Moller; Rahkola-Soisalo, Paivi; Gunnarsson, Jonas; Engh, Marie Ellstrom; Falconer, Christian; Nordic TVM Grp

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to assess safety and clinical outcomes in women operated on using the Uphold (TM) Lite Vaginal Support System. We carried out a 1-year, multicenter, prospective, single cohort study of 207 women with symptomatic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage aeyen2 apical pelvic organ prolapse, with or without concomitant anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Safety data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anatomical outcome was assessed by the POP-Q and subject...

  6. Experimental Observation of the Skeletal Adaptive Repair Mechanism and Bionic Topology Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaysar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone adaptive repair theory considers that the external load is the direct source of bone remodeling; bone achieves its maintenance by remodeling some microscopic damages due to external load during the process. This paper firstly observes CT data from the whole self-repairing process in bone defects in rabbit femur. Experimental result shows that during self-repairing process there exists an interaction relationship between spongy bone and enamel bone volume changes of bone defect, that is when volume of spongy bone increases, enamel bone decreases, and when volume of spongy bone decreases, enamel bone increases. Secondly according to this feature a bone remodeling model based on cross-type reaction-diffusion system influenced by mechanical stress is proposed. Finally, this model coupled with finite element method by using the element adding and removing process is used to simulate the self-repairing process and engineering optimization problems by considering the idea of bionic topology optimization.

  7. Nuclear power plant steam pipes repairing with Tirant 3 Robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Lazaro, F. [Revestimientos Anticorrosivos Industriales, S. L. U., Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.soto@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The metallization arc spray process is based on the projection of molten metal, supplied by means of different stainless alloys wire, over a surface of carbon steel usually, with the object of serving as protection against erosion-corrosion, increasing resistance to abrasion and detrition. A typical application functions covering the steam pipes inner surface in coal-fired power station and nuclear power plants. The results of this process are spectacular in terms of protection against corrosion and abrasion, but its application has conditioning factors, such as: Severe application conditions for workers. Due to the worker's postural position (usually kneeling) in 32 diameter pipes and working with fireproof clothing and masks with outdoor air supplying, due to fumes, sparks and molten metal particles, radiological contamination, confined space, poor lighting, ... Coating uniformity. As metallization is a manual process, the carried out measurements show small variations in the thickness of the coating, always within the tolerance limits established by the applicable regulations and quality assurance. An increase in the uniformity of the projected coating, increase the resistance and give a better surface protection. For all these reasons, Lainsa has developed the Tirant 3 robot, a worldwide innovative system, for metallization of steam pipes inner surface. Tirant 3 robot is tele operated from outside of the pipe, so that human intervention is reduced to the operations of robot positioning and change of metallization wire. As it is an independent system of the human factor, metallization process performance is significantly increased by reducing rest periods due only to the robot maintenance. Likewise, Tirant 3 system permits to increase resulting coating uniformity and thus its resistance, keeping selected parameters constant (forward speed, rotation speed and inner surface distance) depending on required type and thickness of wire. (Author)

  8. Availability allocation to repairable systems with genetic algorithms: a multi-objective formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elegbede, Charles; Adjallah, Kondo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology based on genetic algorithms (GA) and experiments plan to optimize the availability and the cost of reparable parallel-series systems. It is a NP-hard problem of multi-objective combinatorial optimization, modeled with continuous and discrete variables. By using the weighting technique, the problem is transformed into a single-objective optimization problem whose constraints are then relaxed by the exterior penalty technique. We then propose a search of solution through GA, whose parameters are adjusted using experiments plan technique. A numerical example is used to assess the method

  9. Sensors Systems for the Automation of Operations in the Ship Repair Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro Javier; Muro, Juan Suardíaz; Alcover, Pedro María; Fernández-Isla, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and realistic approach to this problem, which has resulted in the development of several solutions that have been designed with different automation and operation range degrees. These solutions are fitted with most of the elements already available in many shipyards, so the installation of additional machinery in the workplace would not be necessary. This paper describes the evolutionary development of sensor systems for the automation of the preparation process of ship hull surfaces before the painting process is performed. Such evolution has given rise to the development of new technologies for coating removal. PMID:24064601

  10. Drug-Loadable Calcium Alginate Hydrogel System for Use in Oral Bone Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luyuan; Shen, Renze; Komasa, Satoshi; Xue, Yanxiang; Jin, Bingyu; Hou, Yepo; Okazaki, Joji; Gao, Jie

    2017-05-06

    This study developed a drug-loadable hydrogel system with high plasticity and favorable biological properties to enhance oral bone tissue regeneration. Hydrogels of different calcium alginate concentrations were prepared. Their swelling ratio, degradation time, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) release rate were measured. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured with both calcium alginate hydrogels and polylactic acid (PLA), and then we examined the proliferation of cells. Inflammatory-related factor gene expressions of hPDLCs and osteogenesis-related gene expressions of BMSCs were observed. Materials were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits to determine the biosecurity properties of the materials. The materials were also implanted in mandibular bone defects and then scanned using micro-CT. The calcium alginate hydrogels caused less inflammation than the PLA. The number of mineralized nodules and the expression of osteoblast-related genes were significantly higher in the hydrogel group compared with the control group. When the materials were implanted in subcutaneous tissue, materials showed favorable biocompatibility. The calcium alginate hydrogels had superior osteoinductive bone ability to the PLA. The drug-loadable calcium alginate hydrogel system is a potential bone defect reparation material for clinical dental application.

  11. Do river channels decrease in width downstream on Distributive Fluvial Systems? An evaluation of modern mega-fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, T. N.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on aggradational continental sedimentary basins globally show that fluvial deposits in most modern sedimentary basins are dominated Distributive Fluvial Systems (DFS). DFS's are identified by: (1) pattern of channels and floodplain deposits that radiate outward from an apex located where the river enters the sedimentary basin, (2) deposition where an alluvial system becomes unconfined upon entering the sedimentary basin, (3) broadly fan shaped deposit that is convex upward across the DFS and concave upward down-fan, and (4) if the DFS is incised, an intersection point above which the alluvial system is held in an incised valley and below which it distributes sediment across an active depositional lobe. Several papers about DFS hypothesized that rivers on DFS decrease in size down-fan. We are testing this hypothesis through evaluation of LANDSAT and STRM data from large DFS described by Hartley et al (2010). We use ArcGIS to: (1) open the images and merge them together if there are more than one image corresponding to the DFS being studied, (2) use a Maximum Likelihood Analysis in six classes to segment different features on the DFS (e.g. exposed sands, water, vegetation, and other fan environments), (3) isolate the classes that correspond to the active channel belt (e.g., exposed sand bars and water), (4) divide the active channel belt into 1000 m long sections, (5) determine the area of active channel belt in each section, and (6) calculate the average width of the river in each section (e.g., W = area/1000m). We present our result for each DFS river on a graph that shows the change in width downstream. Our final product will be a dataset that contains width versus distance down-fan from the apex for as many of the large DFS from Hartley et al (2010) as possible. If the hypothesis is supported, the decrease in width could have a substantial predictive significance on sandstone geometry in fluvial successions.

  12. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  13. Repairing Canada’s Mining-Tax System to Be Less Distorting and Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The province of Ontario ended its most recent fiscal year with a $12 billion deficit and the Fraser Institute has calculated that the province is in worse financial shape than even the fiscally appalling state of California. One would think that a province so financially debilitated would want to avoid giving unnecessary and wasteful tax breaks to resource companies. Yet, a review of the mining-tax regimes across the country finds that Ontario’s system — specifically its provincial resource allowance, which duplicates the allowances provided by Ottawa that shield miners from risk — is redundant, expensive and wasteful. Ontario is not the only province requiring a modernization of its mining-tax regime. In every province except Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, mining firms enjoy a lower marginal rate for taxes and royalties than for non-resource companies. The inevitable result has been a distortion of investment toward mining projects that might otherwise be economically inefficient. That means that in major oil-producing provinces, such as Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland, mining investment benefits from larger tax incentives than oil and gas investment. The reasons for favouring the mining of metal over oil are at least unclear and certainly economically unjustifiable. The federal government has already begun making several changes to its tax policies to scale back preferential and irrational inducements for mining investment, including, most recently, reducing accelerated depreciation allowances for certain mining assets and phasing out the corporate Mineral Exploration Tax Credit and the Atlantic Investment Tax Credit for resources. But Ottawa’s efforts to modernize Canada’s mining-tax structure can only go so far, when provinces continue to rely on what are often overly complex tax systems that have a distortionary effect on economic decisions being made by investors. The next step in modernizing Canada’s mining-tax system

  14. GLI1 interferes with the DNA mismatch repair system in pancreatic cancer through BHLHE41-mediated suppression of MLH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaguma, Shingo; Riku, Miho; Hashimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Murakami, Hideki; Saga, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kenji

    2013-12-15

    The mismatch repair (MMR) system is indispensable for the fidelity of DNA replication, the impairment of which predisposes to the development and progression of many types of cancers. To date, GLI1 transcription factor, a key molecule of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, has been shown to regulate the expression of several genes crucial for a variety of cancer cell properties in many types of cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but whether GLI1 could control the MMR system was not known. Here, we showed that GLI1 and GLI2 indirectly suppressed the expression of MLH1 in PDAC cells. Through GLI1 target gene screening, we found that GLI1 and GLI2 activated the expression of a basic helix-loop-helix type suppressor BHLHE41/DEC2/SHARP1 through a GLI-binding site in the promoter. Consistent with a previous report that BHLHE41 suppresses the MLH1 promoter activity, we found that the activation of GLI1 led to the BHLHE41-dependent suppression of MLH1, and a double knockdown of GLI1 and GLI2 conversely increased the MLH1 protein in PDAC cells. Using TALEN-based modification of the MLH1 gene, we further showed that GLI1 expression was indeed associated with an increased tolerance to a methylating agent, methylnitrosourea cooperatively with a lower copy number status of MLH1. Finally, GLI1 expression was immunohistochemically related positively with BHLHE41 and inversely with MLH1 in PDAC cells and precancerous lesions of the pancreas. On the basis of these results, we propose that GLI1 depresses the MMR activity and might contribute to the development and progression of PDAC. ©2013 AACR.

  15. Biomechanical comparison of a single-row versus double-row suture anchor technique for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David H; Elattrache, Neal S; Tibone, James E; Jun, Bong-Jae; DeLaMora, Sergai N; Kvitne, Ronald S; Lee, Thay Q

    2006-03-01

    Reestablishment of the native footprint during rotator cuff repair has been suggested as an important criterion for optimizing healing potential and fixation strength. A double-row rotator cuff footprint repair will demonstrate superior biomechanical properties compared with a single-row repair. Controlled laboratory study. In 9 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders, the supraspinatus tendon from 1 shoulder was repaired with a double-row suture anchor technique: 2 medial anchors with horizontal mattress sutures and 2 lateral anchors with simple sutures. The tendon from the contralateral shoulder was repaired using a single lateral row of 2 anchors with simple sutures. Each specimen underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 180 N for 200 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure. Gap formation and strain over the footprint area were measured using a video digitizing system; stiffness and failure load were determined from testing machine data. Gap formation for the double-row repair was significantly smaller (P row repair for the first cycle (1.67 +/- 0.75 mm vs 3.10 +/- 1.67 mm, respectively) and the last cycle (3.58 +/- 2.59 mm vs 7.64 +/- 3.74 mm, respectively). The initial strain over the footprint area for the double-row repair was nearly one third (P row repair. Adding a medial row of anchors increased the stiffness of the repair by 46% and the ultimate failure load by 48% (P row repair improved initial strength and stiffness and decreased gap formation and strain over the footprint when compared with a single-row repair. To achieve maximal initial fixation strength and minimal gap formation for rotator cuff repair, reconstructing the footprint attachment with 2 rows of suture anchors should be considered.

  16. Nanowired Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Central Nervous System Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Lafuente, José V; Sharma, Hari S

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within narrow limits. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the CNS fluid microenvironment healthy. However, noxious insults to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins alter the BBB function to small as well as large molecules e.g., proteins. When proteins enter the CNS fluid microenvironment, development of brain edema occurs due to altered osmotic balance between blood and brain. On the other hand, almost all neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic insults to the CNS and subsequent BBB dysfunction lead to edema formation and cell injury. To treat these brain disorders suitable drug therapy reaching their brain targets is needed. However, due to edema formation or only a focal disruption of the BBB e.g., around brain tumors, many drugs are unable to reach their CNS targets in sufficient quantity. This results in poor therapeutic outcome. Thus, new technology such as nanodelivery is needed for drugs to reach their CNS targets and be effective. In this review, use of nanowires as a possible novel tool to enhance drug delivery into the CNS in various disease models is discussed based on our investigations. These data show that nanowired delivery of drugs may have superior neuroprotective ability to treat several CNS diseases effectively indicating their role in future therapeutic strategies.

  17. Pelvic organ prolapse repair using the Uphold™ Vaginal Support System: a 1-year multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Mikkola, Tomi S; Bek, Karl Möller; Rahkola-Soisalo, Päivi; Gunnarsson, Jonas; Engh, Marie Ellström; Falconer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to assess safety and clinical outcomes in women operated on using the Uphold™ Lite Vaginal Support System. We carried out a 1-year, multicenter, prospective, single cohort study of 207 women with symptomatic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage ≥2 apical pelvic organ prolapse, with or without concomitant anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Safety data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anatomical outcome was assessed by the POP-Q and subjective outcomes by the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory after 2 months and 1 year using a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale. The overall rate of serious complications was 4.3 % (9 out of 207 patients), including 3 patients with bladder perforations, 1 with bleeding >1,000 ml, 2 who had undergone re-operations with complete mesh removal because of pain, and 3 surgical interventions during follow-up because of mesh exposure. POP-Q stage ≤1 after 1 year was 94 % and subjective symptom relief was reported by 91 % of patients (p transvaginal mesh kits.

  18. DECREASING OF WATER TROPHY IN CASCADE SYSTEMS, ON EXAMPLE OF THE SOŁA RIVER DAM CASCADE (SOUTHERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jachniak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis the subject of water self-purification in cascade systems of water reservoirs was engaged. The results of hydrobiological research of three dam reservoirs (Tresna, Porąbka and Czaniec, creating the Soła river dam cascade were presented. The trophic status of these reservoirs was defined on the grounds of the concentration of chlorophyll a, biomass of phytoplankton and occurrence of indicating species of planktonic algae. The results of research indicated on decreasing of water trophy in the layout from the highest into the lowest reservoir of the cascade. The average concentrations of chlorophyll a amounted appropriately 19,99 μg·dm-3, 8,74 μg·dm-3 and 4,29 μg·dm-3, instead the average biomass of phytoplankton amounted appropriately 4,1 mg·dm-3, 3,4 mg·dm-3 and 0,1 mg·dm-3. The observed species of algae confirmed occurrence of differences between reservoirs. In Tresna reservoir more species of phytoplankton indicating for eutrophy were thrived, instead in Porąbka and Czaniec reservoirs the species occurring in oligomesotrophic water thrived. Water self-purification in the Soła river dam cascade expressed decreasing of their fertility is important for water management of the region, because the Czaniec reservoir fulfill a function of water-supply reservoir.

  19. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  20. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  1. DNA repair , cell repair and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data obtained in laboratory of radiation cytology and literature data testifying to a considerable role of DNA repair in cell sensitivity to radiation and chemical DNA-tropic agents have been considered. Data pointing to the probability of contribution of inducible repair of DNA into plant cells sensitivity to X-rays are obtained. Certain violations of DNA repair do not result in the increase of radiosensitivity. It is assumed that in the cases unknown mechanisms of DNA repair operate

  2. Efficacy and safety of Elevate® system on apical and anterior compartment prolapse repair with personal technique modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Castellani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Anterior Elevate® mesh kit system (AES in woman with symptomatic stage 3 or 4 anterior and/or apical pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, monocentric, single surgeon study enrolled between May 2010 and January 2013 fifty-six woman experiencing symptomatic anterior vaginal prolapse with or without apical descent (POP-Q stage 3 or 4. All women received a AES and 7 (12.5% received a concomitant transvaginal hysterectomy. Primary endpoint was anatomic correction of prolapse; success was defined as POP-Q stage ≤ 1 or asymptomatic stage 2. Secondary endpoints were quality-of-life (QOL results and patients' safety outcomes, which were assessed by 3 validated self-reporting questionnaires at baseline and annually: ICIQ-UI short form, ICIQ-VS and P-QOL. All patients completed 2-years and 28 women 3-years of follow-up. Surgical approach was modified in women with uterus, moving the two-propylene strips anteriorly around the cervix itself crossing one another, so the left will take place in the right side and the right on the opposite. This modification was made in order to better support the uterus. Results: Vaginal mesh exposure was present in 3 (5,3% patients. Very good anatomical outcomes were seen, with one (1,8% failure at 6-months, 4 (7,1% at 1-year, 6 at 2-years (10,7%. Statistically significant improvements were seen in the ICIQ-VS and P-QOL questionnaires throughout follow-up. Conclusion: Our data suggest that AES is a minimally-invasive transvaginal procedure to repair anterior and apical POP, with good evidence related to mid-term safety and efficacy.

  3. Design and preliminary validation of a mobile application-based expert system to facilitate repair of medical equipment in resource-limited health settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong AL

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alison L Wong,1,2 Kelly M Lacob,1 Madeline G Wilson,1 Stacie M Zwolski,1 Soumyadipta Acharya1 1Center for Bioengineering, Innovation and Design, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: One of the greatest barriers to safe surgery is the availability of functional biomedical equipment. Biomedical technicians play a major role in ensuring that equipment is functional. Following in-field observations and an online survey, a mobile application was developed to aid technicians in troubleshooting biomedical equipment. It was hypothesized that this application could be used to aid technicians in equipment repair, as modeled by repair of a pulse oximeter.Methods: To identify specific barriers to equipment repair and maintenance for biomedical technicians, an online survey was conducted to determine current practices and challenges. These findings were used to guide the development of a mobile application system that guides technicians through maintenance and repair tasks. A convenience sample of technicians in Ethiopia tested the application using a broken pulse oximeter task and following this completed usability and content validity surveys.Results: Fifty-three technicians from 13 countries responded to the initial survey. The results of the survey showed that technicians find equipment manuals most useful, but these are not easily accessible. Many do not know how to or are uncomfortable reaching out to human resources. Thirty-three technicians completed the broken pulse oximeter task using the application. All were able to appropriately identify and repair the equipment, and post-task surveys of usability and content validity demonstrated highly positive scores (Agree to Strongly Agree on both scales.Discussion: This research demonstrates the need for improved access to resources for technicians and shows that a mobile application can be used to address a gap in

  4. Cortical Amyloid Beta in Cognitively Normal Elderly Adults is Associated with Decreased Network Efficiency within the Cerebro-Cerebellar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Stefanie C; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton; Wyss, Michael; Schreiner, Simon; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Kälin, Andrea; Leh, Sandra; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M; Prüssmann, Klaas P; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of cortical amyloid beta (Aβ) is a correlate of aging and a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). While several higher order cognitive processes involve functional interactions between cortex and cerebellum, this study aims to investigate effects of cortical Aβ deposition on coupling within the cerebro-cerebellar system. We included 15 healthy elderly subjects with normal cognitive performance as assessed by neuropsychological testing. Cortical Aβ was quantified using (11)carbon-labeled Pittsburgh compound B positron-emission-tomography late frame signals. Volumes of brain structures were assessed by applying an automated parcelation algorithm to three dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo T1-weighted images. Basal functional network activity within the cerebro-cerebellar system was assessed using blood-oxygen-level dependent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging at the high field strength of 7 T for measuring coupling between cerebellar seeds and cerebral gray matter. A bivariate regression approach was applied for identification of brain regions with significant effects of individual cortical Aβ load on coupling. Consistent with earlier reports, a significant degree of positive and negative coupling could be observed between cerebellar seeds and cerebral voxels. Significant positive effects of cortical Aβ load on cerebro-cerebellar coupling resulted for cerebral brain regions located in inferior temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that brain amyloidosis in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with decreased network efficiency within the cerebro-cerebellar system. While the identified cerebral regions are consistent with established patterns of increased sensitivity for Aβ-associated neurodegeneration, additional studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between dysfunction of the cerebro-cerebellar system and risk for AD.

  5. Repair of potentially lethal damage following irradiation with x rays or cyclotron neutrons: response of the EMT-6/UW tumor system treated under various growth conditions in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasey, J.S.; Nelson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    Postirradiation potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair was examined in the EMT-6/UW tumor system under a variety of in vitro and in vivo growth conditions. Following x irradiation, surviving fraction increased in fed and unfed plateau cultures if subculture and plating were delayed; in exponentially growing cultures if they were covered with depleted medium for the first 6 h postirradiation; and in tumors in vivo if excision for preparation of a cell suspension was delayed. Following irradiation with 21.5 meV (d + → Be) neutrons, PLD repair was measurable only in unfed plateau cultures when subculture was delayed and in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted culture medium immediately after irradiation. In x-irradiated EMT-6/UW cells, the greatest repair capacity and the highest surviving fraction ratios were measured in unfed plateau cultures; the least repair was observed in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted medium. Thus post-neutron repair was not limited to situations where the amount of repair of photon PLD is large. The demonstration of PLD repair in tumors irradiated in vivo with X rays and the absence of such repair after neutrons could have important implications in radiotherapy if this is a general phenomenon

  6. On a Batch Arrival Queuing System Equipped with a Stand-by Server during Vacation Periods or the Repairs Times of the Main Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.

  7. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Jing Piao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC, a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1, which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1 and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  8. DNA repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Vultos, Tiago; Mestre, Olga; Tonjum, Tone; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2009-05-01

    Our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms is still poor compared with that of other bacterial organisms. However, the publication of the first complete M. tuberculosis genome sequence 10 years ago boosted the study of DNA repair systems in this organism. A first step in the elucidation of M. tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms was taken by Mizrahi and Andersen, who identified homologs of genes involved in the reversal or repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and related organisms. Genes required for nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, recombination, and SOS repair and mutagenesis were identified. Notably, no homologs of genes involved in mismatch repair were identified. Novel characteristics of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair machinery have been found over the last decade, such as nonhomologous end joining, the presence of Mpg, ERCC3 and Hlr - proteins previously presumed to be produced exclusively in mammalian cells - and the recently discovered bifunctional dCTP deaminase:dUTPase. The study of these systems is important to develop therapeutic agents that can counteract M. tuberculosis evolutionary changes and to prevent adaptive events resulting in antibiotic resistance. This review summarizes our current understanding of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair system.

  9. High levels of BRC4 induced by a Tet-On 3G system suppress DNA repair and impair cell proliferation in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takuya; Branzei, Dana

    2014-10-01

    Transient induction or suppression of target genes is useful to study the function of toxic or essential genes in cells. Here we apply a Tet-On 3G system to DT40 lymphoma B cell lines, validating it for three different genes. Using this tool, we then show that overexpression of the chicken BRC4 repeat of the tumor suppressor BRCA2 impairs cell proliferation and induces chromosomal breaks. Mechanistically, high levels of BRC4 suppress double strand break-induced homologous recombination, inhibit the formation of RAD51 recombination repair foci, reduce cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents and induce a G2 damage checkpoint-mediated cell-cycle arrest. The above phenotypes are mediated by BRC4 capability to bind and inhibit RAD51. The toxicity associated with BRC4 overexpression is exacerbated by chemotherapeutic agents and reversed by RAD51 overexpression, but it is neither aggravated nor suppressed by a deficit in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double strand break repair. We further find that the endogenous BRCA2 mediates the cytotoxicity associated with BRC4 induction, thus underscoring the possibility that BRC4 or other domains of BRCA2 cooperate with ectopic BRC4 in regulating repair activities or mitotic cell division. In all, the results demonstrate the utility of the Tet-On 3G system in DT40 research and underpin a model in which BRC4 role on cell proliferation and chromosome repair arises primarily from its suppressive role on RAD51 functions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of diagnosis and repair system for steelmaking refractories; Seikoyo taikabutsu no shindan hoshu gijutsu no kakuritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, S.; Harada, S.; Tsutsui, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The latest measurement equipment and repair method were introduced into the work area of all refractories in the process of torpedo cars, hot metal preliminary treatment, hot metal pans, secondary refining, and cast pans so as to improve the cost of the newest advanced steelmaking refractories. As a result, the refractory cost could be reduced by 10%. This paper introduces the improvement in RH refractories and refractories for hot metal preliminary treatment. As for basic items, in addition to the visual observation, the thickness of refractories was quantified using equipment (laser profile meter, thermotracer, and NS sensor) for the furnace stop in the minimum remaining length. An ITV was also installed in the facilities where the visual check is difficult to carry out. Repair is mainly done by spraying. A thermal spraying repair method with high durability was used for the repair. A method that relieves a thermal shock was used for preheating. Moreover, measures that make the temperature gradient in the thickness direction uniform by using newly developed microwave drying equipment were taken for drying of unburned refractories. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Increased p53 and decreased p21 accompany apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, Gabriela; Linden, Rafael; Giangrande, Angela; Allodi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper characterizes molecular pathways of cell responses to environmental doses of UV in brain tissue of a crab species. • The UV radiation changes levels of proteins which trigger apoptotic or cell cycle arrest pathways and also it changes neurotrophins which lead to apoptosis of neural cell in the central nervous system (CNS) of the crab Ucides cordatus. • The UVB wavelengths in the solar simulator damaged the DNA, either directly or indirectly, by increasing ROS, and induced the increase of p53 and AKT, which blocked p21 and increased the expression of activated caspase-3, triggering apoptosis. The signs of death increased the expression of neurotrophins (BDNF and GDNF), which continued to stimulate the apoptosis signaling mediated by caspase-3. • In the brain of the crab U. cordatus, p53/p21 relationship in response to UV radiation is different from that of most mammals. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, leading the cell to apoptosis by the p53 pathway. This study evaluated some molecular markers of the apoptosis pathway induced by UVA, UVB and UVA+ UVB (Solar Simulator, SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) by immunoblotting the content of proteins p53, p21, phosphorylated AKT, BDNF, GDNF, activated caspase-3 (C3) and phosphohistone H3 (PH3); and by immunohistochemical tests of the cells labeled for PH3 and C3. After the fifth day of exposure, UVB radiation and SIM increased the protein content of p53, increasing the content of AKT and, somehow, blocking p21, increasing the content of activated caspase-3, which led the cells to apoptosis. The signs of death affected the increase in neurotrophins, such as BDNF and GDNF, stimulating the apoptotic cascade of events. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting showed that apoptosis was present in the brains of all UV groups, while

  12. Increased p53 and decreased p21 accompany apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, Gabriela, E-mail: gabrielahollmann@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Linden, Rafael, E-mail: rlinden@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Giangrande, Angela, E-mail: angela.giangrande@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire-IGBMC, INSERM, Strasbourg (France); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: sallodi@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The paper characterizes molecular pathways of cell responses to environmental doses of UV in brain tissue of a crab species. • The UV radiation changes levels of proteins which trigger apoptotic or cell cycle arrest pathways and also it changes neurotrophins which lead to apoptosis of neural cell in the central nervous system (CNS) of the crab Ucides cordatus. • The UVB wavelengths in the solar simulator damaged the DNA, either directly or indirectly, by increasing ROS, and induced the increase of p53 and AKT, which blocked p21 and increased the expression of activated caspase-3, triggering apoptosis. The signs of death increased the expression of neurotrophins (BDNF and GDNF), which continued to stimulate the apoptosis signaling mediated by caspase-3. • In the brain of the crab U. cordatus, p53/p21 relationship in response to UV radiation is different from that of most mammals. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, leading the cell to apoptosis by the p53 pathway. This study evaluated some molecular markers of the apoptosis pathway induced by UVA, UVB and UVA+ UVB (Solar Simulator, SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) by immunoblotting the content of proteins p53, p21, phosphorylated AKT, BDNF, GDNF, activated caspase-3 (C3) and phosphohistone H3 (PH3); and by immunohistochemical tests of the cells labeled for PH3 and C3. After the fifth day of exposure, UVB radiation and SIM increased the protein content of p53, increasing the content of AKT and, somehow, blocking p21, increasing the content of activated caspase-3, which led the cells to apoptosis. The signs of death affected the increase in neurotrophins, such as BDNF and GDNF, stimulating the apoptotic cascade of events. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting showed that apoptosis was present in the brains of all UV groups, while

  13. Application of nonhomogeneous Poisson process to reliability analysis of repairable systems of a nuclear power plant with rates of occurrence of failures time-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Pedro L.C.; Simone, Elaine A. de; Melo, Paulo Fernando F.F. e

    1996-01-01

    Aging is used to mean the continuous process which physical characteristics of a system, a structure or an equipment changes with time or use. Their effects are increases in failure probabilities of a system, a structure or an equipment, and their are calculated using time-dependent failure rate models. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of the nonhomogeneous Poisson process as a model to study rates of occurrence of failures when they are time-dependent. To this application, an analysis of reliability of service water pumps of a typical nuclear power plant is made, as long as the pumps are effectively repaired components. (author)

  14. Implementation of a simple electronic transfusion alert system decreases inappropriate ordering of packed red blood cells and plasma in a multi-hospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Triulzi, Darrell J; Yazer, Mark H; Rollins-Raval, Marian A; Waters, Jonathan H; Raval, Jay S

    2014-12-01

    Prescriber adherence to institutional blood component ordering guidelines can be low. The goal of this study was to decrease red blood cell (RBC) and plasma orders that did not meet institutional transfusion guidelines by using data within the laboratory information system to trigger alerts in the computerized order entry (CPOE) system at the time of order entry. At 10 hospitals within a regional health care system, discernment rules were created for RBC and plasma orders utilizing transfusion triggers of hemoglobin 1.6, respectively, with subsequent alert generation that appears within the CPOE system when a prescriber attempts to order RBCs or plasma on a patient whose antecedent laboratory values do not suggest that a transfusion is indicated. Orders and subsequent alerts were tracked for RBCs and plasma over evaluation periods of 15 and 10 months, respectively, along with the hospital credentials of the ordering health care providers (physician or nurse). Alerts triggered which were heeded remained steady and averaged 11.3% for RBCs and 19.6% for plasma over the evaluation periods. Overall, nurses and physicians canceled statistically identical percentages of alerted RBC (10.9% vs. 11.5%; p = 0.78) and plasma (21.3% vs. 18.7%; p = 0.22) orders. Implementing a simple evidence-based transfusion alert system at the time of order entry decreased non-evidence based transfusion orders by both nurse and physician providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase administration in newborns decreases systemic inflammatory cytokine expression in a neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Liedel, Jennifer L; Fredrich, Katherine; Welak, Scott R; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Oldham, Keith T; Simpson, Pippa M; Gourlay, David M

    2012-10-01

    Supplementation of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an endogenous protein expressed in the intestines, decreases the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-associated intestinal injury and permeability. We hypothesized that IAP administration is protective in a dose-dependent manner of the inflammatory response in a neonatal rat model. Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on day of life 3. Control pups were vaginally delivered and dam fed. Preterm pups were delivered via cesarean section and exposed to intermittent hypoxia and formula feeds containing lipopolysaccharide (NEC) with and without IAP. Three different standardized doses were administered to a group of pups treated with 40, 4, and 0.4U/kg of bovine IAP (NEC+IAP40, IAP4, or IAP0.4U). Reverse transcription-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on liver and lung tissues and serum cytokine analysis for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were performed. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, expressed as mean±standard error of the mean and P≤0.05 considered significant. Levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased significantly in NEC versus control, returning to control levels with increasing doses of supplemental enteral IAP. Hepatic and pulmonary TNF-α and iNOS messenger ribonucleic acid expressions increased in NEC, and the remaining elevated despite IAP supplementation. Proinflammatory cytokine expression is increased systemically with intestinal NEC injury. Administration of IAP significantly reduces systemic proinflammatory cytokine expression in a dose-dependent manner. Early supplemental enteral IAP may reduce NEC-related injury and be useful for reducing effects caused by a proinflammatory cascade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaji E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2 that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, possibly indicating a defect in preferential repair of actively transcribed genes, and a slower cell proliferation rate, including a longer S-phase. This phenotype reinforces the present notion that control of key mechanisms in cell metabolism, such as cell cycle control, repair, transcription and cell death, can be linked.

  17. Investigations of DNA-repair in New Zealand mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschl, H; Kovac, R; Altmann, H

    1974-09-01

    DNA repair was investigated in New Zealand mice strains which developed murine lupus and compared with Swiss control mice. Unscheduled DNA synthesis demonstrated by autoradiography was used to measure the repair capacity of spleen cells. After gamma-irradiation DNA repair was decreased in the autoimmune strains, while it was significantly increased after UV-irradiation. A possible relationship between repair capacity after gamma-respectively UV-irradiation and the etiologic factor of autoimmunity is discussed. (auth)

  18. Plasma biomarkers of decreased vesicular storage distinguish Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension from the parkinsonian form of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S; Kopin, Irwin J; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Holmes, Courtney

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension (PD + OH) and the parkinsonian form of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) can be difficult to distinguish clinically. Recent studies indicate that PD entails a vesicular storage defect in catecholaminergic neurons. Although cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging by (18)F-dopamine positron emission tomography can identify decreased vesicular storage, this testing is not generally available. We assessed whether plasma biomarkers of a vesicular storage defect can separate PD + OH from MSA-P. We conceptualized that after F-dopamine injection, augmented production of F-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (F-DOPAC) indicates decreased vesicular storage, and we therefore predicted that arterial plasma F-DOPAC would be elevated in PD + OH but not in MSA-P. We measured arterial plasma F-DOPAC after (18)F-dopamine administration (infused i.v. over 3 min) in patients with PD + OH (N = 12) or MSA-P (N = 21) and in healthy control subjects (N = 26). Peak F-DOPAC:dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) was also calculated to adjust for effects of denervation on F-DOPAC production. Plasma F-DOPAC accumulated rapidly after initiation of (18)F-dopamine infusion. Peak F-DOPAC (5-10 min) in PD + OH averaged three times that in MSA-P (P 300 nCi-kg/cc-mCi, in contrast with 7 of 12 PD + OH patients (χ(2) = 16.6, P < 0.0001). DHPG was lower in PD + OH (3.83 ± 0.36 nmol/L) than in MSA-P (5.20 ± 0.29 nmol/L, P = 0.007). All MSA-P patients had peak F-DOPAC:DHPG < 60, in contrast with 9 of 12 PD + OH patients (χ(2) = 17.5, P < 0.0001). Adjustment of peak F-DOPAC for DHPG increased test sensitivity from 58 to 81% at similar high specificity. After F-dopamine injection, plasma F-DOPAC and F-DOPAC:DHPG distinguish PD + OH from MSA-P.

  19. The experience from operation of electronic personal dosimetry system at Dukovany, Temelin and Mochovce NPPs after repair of Siemens dosemeters eliminating false doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysak, J.; Kocvara, S.; Jurochova, B.; Zelenka, Z.; Schacherl, M.; Zrubec, M.; Kaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the operational experience of the Electronic Personal Dosimetry Systems installed at Dukovany, Temelin and Mochovce NPPs. The system consists of three basic parts: Electronic personal dosemeters (EPD); Physical layer (HW); Logical layer (SW). Number of false doses before and after correction is presented. This presentation has demonstrated the possibilities of SEOD system and the possibility of easy dose comparison between the individual NPPs after introducing this electronic dosimetry system. Basically, the results of film and electronic dosimetry systems are according to our findings nearly identical. Electronic dosemeter sensitivity to interfering electromagnetic fields is a problem which is easily re-movable. In addition, if we know this problem, these false doses in the SEOD system can be easily revealed (e.g. by investigation of histograms) and repaired

  20. Underwater coating repair cuts nuclear maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the cleaning and recoating/repair of condensate tanks or other vessels in a nuclear power plant. The topics of the article include the safety and regulatory need for this system of repair, a description of the work done on the Brown's Ferry MK-1 suppression chamber, coating failure mechanisms, qualitative inspection, quantitative inspection, quantitative inspection results, spot repairs, and economic considerations

  1. Suture spanning augmentation of single-row rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Nicholas A; Elias, John J; Lippitt, Steven B; Filipkowski, Danielle E; Pedowitz, Robert A; Ciccone, William J

    2017-02-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the biomechanical benefit of adding spanning sutures to single-row rotator cuff repair. Mechanical testing was performed to evaluate 9 pairs of cadaveric shoulders with complete rotator cuff repairs, with a single-row technique used on one side and the suture spanning technique on the other. The spanning technique included sutures from 2 lateral anchors securing tendon near the musculotendinous junction, spanning the same anchor placement from single-row repair. The supraspinatus muscle was loaded to 100 N at 0.25 Hz for 100 cycles, followed by a ramp to failure. Markers and a video tracking system measured anterior and posterior gap formation across the repair at 25-cycle intervals. The force at which the stiffness decreased by 50% and 75% was determined. Data were compared using paired t-tests. One single-row repair failed at row repairs than for the suture spanning technique. The difference was statistically significant at all cycles for the posterior gap formation (P ≤ .02). The trends were not significant for the anterior gap (P ≥ .13). The loads at which the stiffness decreased by 50% and 75% did not differ significantly between the 2 types of repair (P ≥ .10). The suture spanning technique primarily improved posterior gap formation. Decreased posterior gap formation could reduce failure rates for rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective decrease of components of the creatine kinase system and ATP synthase complex in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Camillo Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC is an inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy with a worse prognosis than other cardiomyopathies. CCC occurs in 30 % of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Heart failure is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which may be correlated to contractile dysfunction. We thus analyzed the myocardial gene and protein expression, as well as activity, of key mitochondrial enzymes related to ATP production, in myocardial samples of end-stage CCC, idiopathic dilated (IDC and ischemic (IC cardiomyopathies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myocardium homogenates from CCC (N=5, IC (N=5 and IDC (N=5 patients, as well as from heart donors (N=5 were analyzed for protein and mRNA expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKMit and muscular creatine kinase (CKM and ATP synthase subunits aplha and beta by immunoblotting and by real-time RT-PCR. Total myocardial CK activity was also assessed. Protein levels of CKM and CK activity were reduced in all three cardiomyopathy groups. However, total CK activity, as well as ATP synthase alpha chain protein levels, were significantly lower in CCC samples than IC and IDC samples. CCC myocardium displayed selective reduction of protein levels and activity of enzymes crucial for maintaining cytoplasmic ATP levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The selective impairment of the CK system may be associated to the loss of inotropic reserve observed in CCC. Reduction of ATP synthase alpha levels is consistent with a decrease in myocardial ATP generation through oxidative phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that the energetic deficit is more intense in the myocardium of CCC patients than in the other tested dilated cardiomyopathies.

  4. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (pdifferent in cosmonauts and in subjects participating in the head down tilted bed rest study (170± 29% (Mean± SEM) vs. 57± 7%, respectively; presponse to combined effects of a reduced plasma volume and an increased vascular capacity in flight.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  6. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization.

  7. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization. PMID:26251592

  8. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371.118 Section 1371.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause...

  9. Nucleotide excision repair II: From yeast to mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn intricate network of repair systems safeguards the integrity of genetic material, by eliminating DNA lesions induced by numerous environmental and endogenous genotoxic agents. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the most versatile DNA repair systems. Deficiencies in this

  10. A k-out-of-n reliability system with an unreliable server and phase type repairs and services: the (N,T policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas R. Chakravarthy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a k-out-of-n reliability system in which a single unreliable server maintains n identical components. The reliability system is studied under the (N,T policy. An idle server takes a vacation for a random amount of time T and then attends to any failed component waiting in line upon completion of the vacation. The vacationing server is recalled instantaneously upon the failure of the Nth component. The failure times of the components are assumed to follow an exponential distribution. The server is subject to failure with failure times exponentially distributed. Repair times of the component, fixing times of the server, and vacationing times of the server are assumed to be of phase type. Using matrix-analytic methods we perform steady state analysis of this model. Time spent by a failed component in service, total time in the repair facility, vacation time of the server, non-vacation time of the server, and time until failure of the system are all shown to be of phase type. Several performance measures are evaluated. Illustrative numerical examples are presented.

  11. Optimal control of M/M/1 two-phase queueing system with state-dependent arrival rate, server breakdowns, delayed repair, and N-policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hanumantha; Kumar, Vasanta; Srinivasa Rao, T.; Srinivasa Kumar, B.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we examine a two-stage queueing system where the arrivals are Poisson with rate depends on the condition of the server to be specific: vacation, pre-service, operational or breakdown state. The service station is liable to breakdowns and deferral in repair because of non-accessibility of the repair facility. The service is in two basic stages, the first being bulk service to every one of the customers holding up on the line and the second stage is individual to each of them. The server works under N-policy. The server needs preliminary time (startup time) to begin batch service after a vacation period. Startup times, uninterrupted service times, the length of each vacation period, delay times and service times follows an exponential distribution. The closed form of expressions for the mean system size at different conditions of the server is determined. Numerical investigations are directed to concentrate the impact of the system parameters on the ideal limit N and the minimum base expected unit cost.

  12. Repair mechanisms inducible to the DNA in I.M.M.S. biological systems; Mecanismos de reparacion inducible del ADN en sistemas biologicos I.M.M.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, J; Arceo, C; Cortinas, C; Rosa, M.E. De la; Olvera, O; Cruces, M; Pimentel, E

    1990-03-15

    Given the characteristics of the MMS and the relative antecedents to the repair mechanisms in eucariontes are sought to determine the effect of the MMS on the genetic material and their repair in Drosophila melanogaster. (Author)

  13. Technology of Double Thermal Insulation for the Repair and Energy Optimization of Existing Thermal Insulation Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belániová, Barbora; Antošová, Naďa

    2017-06-01

    The theme of improvement thermal proprieties of external cladding according to the New EU Directive is still a hot topic, which needs to be answered necessarily till December 2020. Maintenance and repair of existing ETICS became to also an actual open theme in search solutions for existing constructions. The aim of the research in this review is to analyze influence of layers the alternative thermal materials in technology "double thermal insulation". Humidity and temperature conditions will be further examined in connection with the development and colonization of microorganisms on surface construction.

  14. Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  15. Retinal detachment repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines Problems breathing You may not recover full vision. ... detachments can be repaired. Failure to repair the retina always results in loss of vision to some degree. After surgery, the quality of ...

  16. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    for regulation of nuclear import that is necessary for proper localization of the repair proteins. This review summarizes the current knowledge on nuclear import mechanisms of DNA excision repair proteins and provides a model that categorizes the import by different mechanisms, including classical nuclear import......DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA......, it is evident that proteins from the different DNA repair pathways interact [Y. Wang, D. Cortez, P. Yazdi, N. Neff, S.J. Elledge, J. Qin, BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures, Genes Dev. 14 (2000) 927-939; M. Christmann, M...

  17. Self repairing composites for drone air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of impact-initiated delivery of repair chemicals through hollow fiber architectures embedded within graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, representative of advanced drone aircraft component material systems. Self-repairing structures through coupon and elements were demonstrated, and evaluated.

  18. Influence of percutaneous mitral valve repair using the MitraClip® system on renal function in patients with severe mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaf, Tienush; Balzer, Jan; Rammos, Christos; Zeus, Tobias; Hellhammer, Katharina; v Hall, Silke; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kelm, Malte

    2015-04-01

    In patients with mitral regurgitation (MR), changes in cardiac stroke volume, and thus renal preload and afterload may affect kidney function. Percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) with the MitraClip® system can be a therapeutic alternative to surgical valve repair. The influence of MitraClip® therapy on renal function and clinical outcome parameters is unknown. Sixty patients with severe MR underwent PMVR using the MitraClip® system in an open-label observational study. Patients were stratified according to their renal function. All clips have been implanted successfully. Effective reduction of MR by 2-3 grades acutely improved KDOQI class. Lesser MR reduction (MR reduction of 0-1 grades) led to worsening of renal function in patients with pre-existing normal or mild (KDOQI 1-2) compared to severe (KDOQI 3-4) renal dysfunction. Reduction of MR was associated with improvement in Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), NYHA-stadium, and 6-minute walk test. Successful PMVR was associated with an improvement in renal function. The improvement in renal function was associated with the extent of MR reduction and pre-existing kidney dysfunction. Our data emphasize the relevance of PVMR to stabilize the cardiorenal axis in patients with severe MR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Promoting peripheral myelin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the target of myelin repair strategies in acute injuries and chronic diseases, such as hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In one approach, the endogenous regenerative capacity of Schwann cells is enhanced through interventions such as exercise, electrical stimulation or pharmacological means. Alternatively, Schwann cells derived from healthy nerves, or engineered from different tissue sources have been transplanted into the PNS to support remyelination. These transplant approaches can then be further enhanced by exercise and/or electrical stimulation, as well as by the inclusion of biomaterial engineered to support glial cell viability and neurite extension. Advances in our basic understanding of peripheral nerve biology, as well as biomaterial engineering, will further improve the functional repair of myelinated peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenomenology of an inducible mutagenic DNA repair pathway in Escherichia coli: SOS repair hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radman, M.

    1974-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed according to which E. coli possesses an inducible DNA repair system. This hypothetical repair, which we call SOS repair, is manifested only following damage to DNA, and requires de novo protein synthesis. SOS repair in E. coli requires some known genetic elements: recA + , lex + and probably zab + . Mutagenesis by ultraviolet light is observed only under conditions of functional SOS repair: we therefore suspect that this is a mutation-prone repair. A number of phenomena and experiments is reviewed which at this point can best be interpreted in terms of an inducible mutagenic DNA repair system. Two recently discovered phenomena support the proposed hypothesis: existence of a mutant (tif) which, after a shift to elevated temperature, mimicks the effect of uv irradiation in regard to repair of phage lambda and uv mutagenesis, apparent activation of SOS repair by introduction into the recipient cell of damaged plasmid or Hfr DNA. Several specific predictions based on SOS repair hypothesis are presented in order to stimulate further experimental tests. (U.S.)

  1. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts

  2. Atucha I nuclear power plant: repair works in QK02W01 moderator system heat exchanger; Central nuclar Atucha I. Intervencion al intercambiador nro2 del moderador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, Luis E; Zanni, Pablo A [Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA (NASA), Lima (Argentina). Central Nuclear Atucha 1

    2000-07-01

    Atucha I nuclear power plant moderator system operates with highly radioactive heavy water, a pressure of 115 Bar and temperatures of about 200 C degrees. In March 2000, an increasing leakage of heavy water to the conventional thermal circuit was detected, conducting the plant to a shut down. The development of a number of actions and measures were taken, in order to plug this leakage. The leakage was found in a heat exchanger, which is located in a place of difficult access, with a high radiological yield and which, according to design, it was not considered to be mechanically repaired. It is a U bend tubes heat exchanger, weighting about 20 tons, and with a heavy water flow of 800 tons/h on the primary circuit, and 950 tons/h of ordinary water on the secondary side. Foreseeing this event, it had been designed and constructed special equipment and procedures, by means of a contract, with the Company INVAP SA. Repair works were carried out within a period of eighty-six (86) days, from which, forty five days were used to repair the component itself. A considerable amount of time was used to prepare simulators and the training of personnel. Due to the high radiological yield and the strict care of radiological standards, it was necessary the participation of 300 persons, integrating a collective dose of 4,86 Sv-m. It was necessary the construction of platforms and auxiliary stairs so as to make the work place accessible, as well as lifting and movement devices for heavy components, since this area does not have such kind of facilities. Welding and cutting machines remote controlled as well as manipulators which operated in front of the exchanger tube sheet were used. The aim was the reduction of dose values as much as possible. Special shielding were developed and in some cases it was necessary the adoption of drastic measures such as the cutting of bolts or pipes. The failure was detected and the tube was plugged. Also were plugged those tubes with wall thickness

  3. A Geometry-Based Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method with Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP for a Single Frequency Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system.

  4. Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes: A powerful modeling framework for Model-Based Safety Analysis of dynamic repairable and reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriou, Pierre-Yves; Faure, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling framework that permits to describe in an integrated manner the structure of the critical system to analyze, by using an enriched fault tree, the dysfunctional behavior of its components, by means of Markov processes, and the reconfiguration strategies that have been planned to ensure safety and availability, with Moore machines. This framework has been developed from BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes), a previous framework for dynamic repairable systems. First, the contribution is motivated by pinpointing the limitations of BDMP to model complex reconfiguration strategies and the failures of the control of these strategies. The syntax and semantics of GBDMP (Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) are then formally defined; in particular, an algorithm to analyze the dynamic behavior of a GBDMP model is developed. The modeling capabilities of this framework are illustrated on three representative examples. Last, qualitative and quantitative analysis of GDBMP models highlight the benefits of the approach.

  5. Lethal effects of solar radiation in proficient and deficient bacteria in repair systems; Efeitos letais da luz solar em bacterias proficientes e deficientes em reparos: acoes e interacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa Neto, A de

    1981-12-31

    A study of the lethal action of solar radiation on strains of E.coli K12, proficient or deficient in repair systems, as well as the wild type strain gene products are involved in repair of damage induced by solar radiation. The inactivation of the various bacterial strains (normalized to a dose equivalent to radiation at a wavelength 254 nm) suggests that the more energetic wavelengths of the solar spectrum (290-320 nm) could be responsible for the primary damage that occurs in the DNA. The reduction in the shoulder of the survival curve in wild type strains in indicative of induction of sub-lethal damage in this region of the curve. Analysing solar inactivation curves of the bacterial strains (normalised by spore dosimetry) together with those of the same strains irradiated with UV at 254 nm, it was evident that 254 nm is not the ideal wavelength for comparison. This analysis also indicated that in addition to damage to DNA, other factors are involved in the solar radiation inactivation of wild type strains. (author).

  6. Numerical simulation of CFRP-repaired reinforced concrete columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to investigate the influence of repair to individual reinforced concrete bridge columns on the : post-repair seismic performance of the bridge system. A method was developed to rapidly repair an earthquake-damag...

  7. A heart team's perspective on interventional mitral valve repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treede, Hendrik; Schirmer, Johannes; Rudolph, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair carries an elevated perioperative risk in the presence of severely reduced ventricular function and relevant comorbidities. We sought to assess the feasibility of catheter-based mitral valve repair using a clip-based percutaneous edge-to-edge repair system in selected...

  8. Performance of shcc with bacteria for concrete patch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of concrete patch repair systems depends on the durability of and compatibility between the concrete substrate and the repair material. This paper investigates the performance of a new type of SHCC material with embedded bacteria as a repair material. The bacteria are a

  9. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  10. High-dose mode of mortality in Tribolium: A model system for study of radiation injury and repair in non-proliferative tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chihing Christina.

    1989-01-01

    With appropriate doses of ionizing radiation, both the acute, or lethal-midlethal, dose-independent pattern of mortality, and the hyperacute, dose-dependent pattern, were demonstrated within a single insect genus (Tribolium). This demonstration provides resolution of apparently contradictory reports of insect radiation responses in terms of doses required to cause lethality and those based on survival time as a function of dose. A dose-dependent mortality pattern was elicited in adult Tribolium receiving high doses, viz., 300 Gy or greater; its time course was complete in 10 days, before the dose-independent pattern of mortality began. Visual observations of heavily-irradiated Tribolium suggested neural and/or neuromuscular damage, as had been previously proposed by others for lethally-irradiated wasps, flies, and mosquitoes. Results of experiments using fractionated high doses supported the suggestion that the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death is the result of damage to nonproliferative tissues. Relative resistance of a strain to the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death was not correlated with resistance to the midlethal mode, which is believed to be the result of damage to the proliferative cells of the midgut. Using the high-dose mode of death as a model of radiation damage to nonproliferative tissues, the effects of age, and of a moderate priming dose were assessed. Beetles showed age-related increase in sensitivity to the high-dose mode of death, suggesting a decline in capacity to repair radiation damage to postmitotic tissue. This correlated with a decrease (50%) in the amount of repair reflected in the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (SDF) between the age of 1 to 3 months. The age related increase in radiosensitivity was reduced by a moderate priming dose (40 or 65 Gy) given at a young age

  11. The effect of higher order chromatin structure on DNA damage and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, L.S.; Warters, R.L.; Higashikubo, R.

    1985-01-01

    Alterations in chromatin structure are thought to play an important role in various radiobiological end points, i.e., DNA damage, DNA damage repair and cell survival. The authors use here the isoleucine deprivation technique to decondense higher order chromatin structure and asses X-ray induced DNA damage, DNA damage repair and cell survival on cells with decondensed chromatin as compared to controls. This chromatin decondensation manifests itself as a 30 fold decrease in nuclear area occupied by heterochromatin, an increased rate of Micrococcal nuclease digestion, 15% increased ethidium bromide intercalation and an altered binding capacity of Hl histone. These chromatin/nuclear changes do not affect X-ray induced DNA damage as measured by the alkaline elution technique or cell survival but slows DNA damage repair by 2 fold. Therefore, even though the chromatin appears more accessible to DNA damage and repair processes, these particular nuclear changes do not affect the DNA damaging effects of X-rays and in addition, repair is not enhanced by the ''relaxed'' state of chromatin. It is proposed that the altered metabolic state of isoleucine deprived cells provides a less efficient system for the repair of X-ray induced DNA damage

  12. Echocardiographic knowledge-based reconstruction for quantification of the systemic right ventricle in young adults with repaired D-transposition of great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Shelby; Li, Ling; Polak, Amanda; Gribben, Paul; Danford, David A

    2012-03-15

    The systemic right ventricle (RV) in congenital heart disease is susceptible to progressive dilation and dysfunction. A 2-dimensional echocardiographic means for serial monitoring of the RV would be of great value in this clinical setting. We used 2-dimensional echocardiography with knowledge-based reconstruction (2DE-KBR) for evaluation of systemic RV. Patients with d-transposition of great arteries repaired with an atrial switch and without implanted pacemakers were prospectively recruited for same-day 2DE-KBR and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. RV images were acquired in various 2-dimensional imaging planes using a 3-dimensional space-localizing device attached to the imaging transducer and 3-dimensional reconstruction was performed. RV end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated and compared to volumetric CMR analysis. Fifteen patients (7 women, 8 men, 24 ± 7 years old, weight 67 ± 12 kg) were studied. There was good agreement of 2DE-KBR and CMR measurements. Mean RV end-diastolic volume was 221 ± 39 ml with 2DE-KBR and 231 ± 35 ml with CMR (r = 0.80); mean end-systolic volume was 129 ± 35 ml with KBR and 132 ± 30 ml with CMR (r = 0.82), and EF was 42 ± 10% with KBR and 43 ± 7% with CMR (r = 0.86). For 2DE-KBR mean interobserver variabilities were 4.6%, 2.6%, and 4.3%; intraobserver variabilities were 3.2%, 3.1%, and 2.3%, respectively, for end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and EF. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the clinical feasibility of quantifying systemic RV volumes and function using 2DE-KBR in adolescents and young adults with repaired d-transposition of great arteries and good agreement of measurements with CMR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  14. Decreasing the Thermal Load on the Environment with the Help of Thermal Pumps in the Sewage Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovetskii, V. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Cherkina, V. M.; Ivanchuk, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We propose designs for practical use of residual heat of sewage by means of thermal-pump transformation of thermal energy in plants operating on inverse Rankine and Lorentz cycles, as well as a method for sewage heat removal in drainage canals of water removal systems based on the application of double-pipe heat exchangers known as Field tubes.

  15. An M[X]/G(a,b/1 Queueing System with Breakdown and Repair, Stand-By Server, Multiple Vacation and Control Policy on Request for Re-Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ayyappan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a non-Markovian batch arrival general bulk service single-server queueing system with server breakdown and repair, a stand-by server, multiple vacation and re-service. The main server’s regular service time, re-service time, vacation time and stand-by server’s service time are followed by general distributions and breakdown and repair times of the main server with exponential distributions. There is a stand-by server which is employed during the period in which the regular server remains under repair. The probability generating function of the queue size at an arbitrary time and some performance measures of the system are derived. Extensive numerical results are also illustrated.

  16. Situation-dependent repair of DNA damage in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Borstel, R.C.; Hastings, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of channelling of lesions in DNA into defined repair systems has been used to explain many aspects of induced and spontaneous mutation. The channelling hypothesis states that lesions excluded from one repair process will be taken up by another repair process. This is a simplification. The three known modes of repair of damage induced by radiation are not equivalent modes of repair; they are, instead, different solutions to the problem of replacement of damaged molecules with new molecules which have the same informational content as those that were damaged. The mode of repair that is used is the result of the response to the situation in which the damage takes place. Thus, when the most likely mode of repair does not take place, then the situation changes with respect to the repair of the lesion; the lesion may enter the replication fork and be reparable by another route

  17. Hepatopancreaticobiliary Values after Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Darrell; Coselli, Joseph S.; Johnson, Michael L.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: After thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair, blood tests assessing hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) organs commonly have abnormal results. The clinical significance of such abnormalities is difficult to determine because the expected postoperative levels have not been characterized. Therefore, we sought to establish expected trends in HPB laboratory values after TAAA repair. Methods: This 5-year study comprised 155 patients undergoing elective Crawford extent II TAAA repair. In accordance with a prospective study protocol, all repairs involved left-sided heart bypass, selective visceral perfusion, and cold renal perfusion. Blood levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin, amylase, and lipase were measured before TAAA repair and for 7 days afterward. Ratios between postoperative and baseline levels were compared for each time point with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Temporal patterns for the laboratory values varied greatly. Amylase, lipase, and AST underwent significant early increases before decreasing to preoperative levels. LDH increased immediately and remained significantly elevated, whereas ALT increased more gradually. GGT remained near baseline through postoperative day 4, and then increased to more than twice baseline. Total bilirubin never differed significantly from baseline. After adjusted analysis, the ischemic time predicted the maximum AST, lipase, GGT, and LDH values. Conclusions: Although most HPB laboratory values increase significantly after elective TAAA repair, the temporal trends for different values vary substantially. The ischemic time predicts the maximum AST, lipase, GGT, and LDH levels. These trends should be considered when laboratory values are assessed after TAAA repair. PMID:26798731

  18. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  19. Decreasing Off-Task Behavior through a Dot/Point Reward System and Portfolio Reflection with Second, Fifth, and Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Lisa M.; Giacone, Maria V.; Wagner, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project report was to decrease off-task behavior through a dot/point reward system and portfolio reflections. Students involved in this research were in second, fifth, and sixth grade. There were a total of 85 student participants and 35 teacher participants. The dates of this research began on September 4, 2007…

  20. Cytogenetic Response to Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Human Fibroblasts with Suppressed Expression of Non-DSB Repair Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Mehta, Satish K.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and micronuclei formation. In the study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine the efficiency of cytogenetic repair, and the fraction of bi-nucleated cells in the MN analysis was used as a marker for cell cycle progression. In response to gamma radiation, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR

  1. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, R.

    1968-01-01

    In the first part of the report, the author attempts to draw an historical scheme of successive research working hypotheses in radiobiology since 1924. Less than a generation ago the effect of radiation exposure were viewed as being direct, immediate, irreparable and unmodifiable. Now it is generally accepted that radiation lesion can also be indirect, delayed, reparable and often modified with appropriate chemical or biochemical treatment. It was however in 1962-1964 that came the decisive breakthrough in radiobiology with the discovery that the cell possesses a natural active self-defense mechanism against whatever stress would affect the integrity of the genetic message contained in the DNA structure itself. The existence of what could be considered as a fourth DNA function i.e. self-repair by enzymatic action under genetic control-brings at least to radiobiology the missing molecular biology basis it needed to get out of its 'phenomenological night' after abandon of the generalization of Lea's theory through lack of experimental evidence. In the second part, which is a prospective one, the author tries to set an enlarged synthesis considering the possible role of DNA repair system not only in cell survival - in presence or absence of dose modifiers or mutagens - but also in the artificial and natural evolution of biological system exposed to sub-lethal doses of radiation. Most recent data from the literature fit well with what must be still considered as a general working hypothesis. Studies dealing with phenotypic and genotypic characters linked with the acquisition of gamma and UV radiation resistance in 'Escherichia coli K12' has been started by the author, in collaboration with O. Tremeau, in order to bring a new experimental contribution in this respect. (author) [fr

  2. Safety and short term outcomes of a new truly minimally-invasive mesh-less and dissection-less anchoring system for pelvic organ prolapse apical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Y. Weintraub

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the safety and short term outcomes of a new, truly minimally-invasive, mesh-less and dissection-less anchoring system for pelvic floor apical repair. Methods A prospective study was conducted using the NeuGuide™ device system for pelvic floor apical repair. The primary effectiveness outcome was centro-apical pelvic floor prolapse by POP-Q after six months. The primary safety outcome was intra-operative, immediate (first 48 h post-operative complications and adverse effects after six months. A standardized questionnaire (UDI-6 to assess quality of life at entry and during follow-up visits was used. Patients’ six months-follow-up and evaluation are reported. Results The mean age of the study population (n=10 was 63.8±12.0 years. All patients had a previous prolapse surgery. Five had a previous hysterectomy and two had stress urinary incontinence symptoms. During surgery six patients had a concurrent colporrhaphy. There was no injury to the bladder, rectum, pudendal nerves, or major pelvic vessels and no febrile morbidity was recorded. At six months, no cases of centro-apical recurrence were noted. Patients were satisfied with the procedure and had favorable quality of life scores. Using the UDI-6 questionnaire an improvement, in all domains was seen. Moreover, although the sample size was small, the improvement in urge and overflow incontinence related domains were demonstrated to be statistically significant. Conclusions This new NeuGuide™ device allows rapid and safe introduction of a suspending suture through the sacrospinous ligament and makes sacrospinous ligament fixation easy to perform, while avoiding dissection and mesh complications.

  3. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  4. DNA apoptosis and stability in B-cell chronic lymphoid leukaemia: implication of the DNA double-strand breaks repair system by non homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriano, L.

    2005-01-01

    After an introduction presenting the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphoid leukaemia, its molecular and genetic characteristics, and its cellular origin and clonal evolution, this research thesis describes the apoptosis (definition and characteristics, cancer and chemotherapy, apoptotic ways induced by gamma irradiation), the genotoxic stresses, the different repair mechanisms for different damages, and the DNA repair processes. It reports how human chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B cells can escape DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway, and presents non-homologous end-joining DNA repair as a potent mutagenic process in human chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B cells

  5. Repair kinetics in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Monoexponential repair kinetics is based on the assumption of a single, dose-independent rate of repair of sublethal injury in the target cells for tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptions of the available data based on this assumption have proved fairly successful for both acutely responding (skin, lip mucosa, gut) and late-responding (lung, spinal cord) normal tissues. There are indications of biphasic exponential repair in both categories, however. Unfortunately, the data usually lack sufficient resolution to permit unambiguous determination of the repair rates. There are also indications that repair kinetics may depend on the size of the dose. The data are conflicting on this account, however, with suggestions of both faster and slower repair after larger doses. Indeed, experiments that have been explicitly designed to test this hypothesis show either no effect (gut, spinal cord), faster repair after higher doses (lung, kidney), or slower repair after higher doses (skin). Monoexponential repair appears to be a fairly accurate description that provides an approximation to a more complicated picture, the elucidation of whose details will, however, require very careful and extensive experimental study. (author). 30 refs.; 1 fig

  6. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

  7. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings; Combined geothermal and gas district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    The City of Oradea, Romania, has a population of about 230 000 inhabitants. Almost 70% of the total heat demand, including industrial, is supplied by a classical East European type district heating system. The heat is supplied by two low grade coal fired co-generation power plants. The oldest distribution networks and substitutions, as well as one power plant, are 35 years old and require renovation or even reconstruction. The geothermal reservoir located under the city supplies at present 2,2% of the total heat demand. By generalizing the reinjection, the production can be increased to supply about 8% of the total heat demand, without any significant reservoir pressure or temperature decline over 25 years. Another potential energy source is natural gas, a main transport pipeline running close to the city. Two possible scenarios are envisaged to replace the low grade coal by natural gas and geothermal energy as heat sources for Oradea. In one scenario, the geothermal energy supplies the heat for tap water heating and the base load for space heating in a limited number of substations, with peak load being produced by natural gas fired boilers. In the other scenario, the geothermal energy is only used for tap water heating. In both scenarios, all substations are converted into heat plants, natural gas being the main energy source. The technical, economic, and environmental assessment of the two proposed scenarios are compared with each other, as well as with the existing district heating system. Two other possible options, namely to renovate and convert the existing co-generation power plants to natural gas fired boilers or to gas turbines, are only briefly discussed, being considered unrealistic, at least for the short and medium term future. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of possible occurrence of mutation in MMR repair system genes in resistant and sensitiveclinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosisby using sequencing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirPoyan Afzali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:during recent years, the incidence and spread of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium causing tuberculosis, has set this disease in World Health Organizationpriorities alignment of diseases like AIDS and hepatitis. Study of close examination of resistant and susceptible clinical strains genotypes is necessary to overcome drug resistance. Among the numerous repair systems, only there are limited number of encoding genes of DNA repair enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Commonly these genes have been conserved and any changes among them likely increasethe mutation occurance due to the impossibility of correctionof spontaneous mutations insensitive strains of this bacteria.mut genes encodeDNA repairable enzymes.This study investigated the mutations in these genes and the effect of these mutations on tuberculosis drug resistance. Materials&Methods: In this study,of 29 available specimens,we were selected 8 susceptible strains and 21 resistantstrains andafter ordering appropriate primers and performing the proliferation reaction two types of amplicons produced which includingfragments of genes mut T2 and mut T4 and they were sent inorder to sequencing. Results:The results of chain reactionprimer represents an appropriate choice of primerswhich were investigated. Sequencing results showed that overall 73% of resistant strains that had been selected for study of mutT4gene, have no mutations in codons 48of mutT4 gene, and 70% of resistant strains have no GGA >>> CGA mutation at codon 58 of mutT2 gene. Conclusion: One of the strategies to overcome tuberculosis drug resistance is a close examination of genotypes of resistant and susceptible clinical strains. Results of this study was performedby examining changes in mut T2 and mut T4 gene sequence. The mutation in mut T2 always associated with mutation in mut T4, in this way, the first mutation may occurs in mut T4and after that, the second mutationmay occurs in mut T

  9. GROWTH ENHANCEMENT, SURVIVAL AND DECREASE OF ECTOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN MASCULINIZED NILE TILAPIA FRY IN A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jiménez García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Under lab conditions, tilapia fry at culture densities of 8 fish/L-1 can reach a body weight of 0.5 to 1.0 g after the masculinization phase. In commercial hatcheries, the stocking density is four to six times higher, and consequently the occurrence of ectoparasitic infections also rises. The aim of this study was to examine the growth and survival of masculinized Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fry in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The fry, which were naturally parasitized by protozoan of the genera Trichodina, Ambiphrya and Chilodonella, weighed 0.013 ± 0.003 g and were reared in replicated tanks (N = 3 during 32 days at density of 18 fish/L-1 in the RAS to maintain good water quality, which was achieved especially during the first 22 days of fish rearing. The infection parameters and growth were monitored twice a week. The final fish weight was 1.17 ± 0. 6 g and survival 99.5%. The most frequent parasites were Trichodina and Gyrodactylus cichlidarum (Monogenea. Although nitrogen compounds increased significantly over the last 10 days of fry rearing, final growth and survival were higher than those reported, additionally, the ectoparasitic infections were relatively low.

  10. Effect of gender on results of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Settergren, Magnus; Winter, Reidar; Jacobsen, Per; Dall'Ara, Gianni; Sondergaard, Lars; Cheung, Gary; Pighi, Michele; Ghione, Matteo; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Moat, Neil E; Price, Susanna; Streit Rosenberg, Tine; Di Mario, Carlo; Franzen, Olaf

    2015-07-15

    Knowledge regarding gender-specific results of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in outcomes in a cohort of patients treated with MitraClip implantation. A multicenter registry of 173 patients treated with MitraClip prostheses from 2009 to 2012 at 3 experienced centers was performed. One hundred nine patients (63%) were men. Men were younger (mean age 73 ± 10 vs 79 ± 9 years, p = 0.001) and had a higher prevalence of previous coronary bypass graft surgery (34% vs 13%, p = 0.002), previous myocardial infarction (46% vs 20%, p = 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (26% vs 11%, p = 0.020). There were no differences regarding New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class before the intervention (NYHA class III or IV in 95% of men vs 97% of women, p = 0.472) or the cause of mitral regurgitation (MR) (functional in 58% of men vs 48% of women, p = 0.233). Men exhibited significantly larger ventricles (mean indexed left ventricular end-systolic diameter 2.4 ± 0.8 vs 2.0 ± 1.6 cm/m(2), p = 0.002, and mean indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume 92.7 ± 46.1 vs 59.9 ± 24.6 ml/m(2), p effective treatment of MR in men and women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Double-Strand DNA Break Repair in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Discontinuity of both strands of the chromosome is a lethal event in all living organisms because it compromises chromosome replication. As such, a diversity of DNA repair systems has evolved to repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). In part, this diversity of DSB repair systems has evolved to repair breaks that arise in diverse physiologic circumstances or sequence contexts, including cellular states of nonreplication or breaks that arise between repeats. Mycobacteria elaborate a set of three genetically distinct DNA repair pathways: homologous recombination, nonhomologous end joining, and single-strand annealing. As such, mycobacterial DSB repair diverges substantially from the standard model of prokaryotic DSB repair and represents an attractive new model system. In addition, the presence in mycobacteria of a DSB repair system that can repair DSBs in nonreplicating cells (nonhomologous end joining) or when DSBs arise between repeats (single-strand annealing) has clear potential relevance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis, although the exact role of these systems in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is still being elucidated. In this article we will review the genetics of mycobacterial DSB repair systems, focusing on recent insights.

  12. Equipment for construction and repair of pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrich, H.

    1987-01-01

    More stringent requirements on the integrity of safety-related components in power plants with a view to ensuring the availability of these installations and to rationalizing in-service inspections and repairs have resulted in rapid enhancement of the inspection and repair methods used. Piping systems are increasingly being visually inspected, tested and possibly subjected to remote-control repair from the interior using remotely controlled inspection vehicles. This calls for machines with high levels of reliability which may be operated by means of remote control. Technical developments make it possible nowadays to perform operations that were largely out of the question a decade ago. (orig.) [de

  13. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  14. Systemic PD149163, a neurotensin receptor 1 agonist, decreases methamphetamine self-administration in DBA/2J mice without causing excessive sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Sharpe

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant that exhibits significant abuse potential. Although METH addiction is a major health and societal concern, no drug is currently approved for its therapeutic management. METH activates the central dopaminergic "reward" circuitry, and with repeated use increases levels of the neuromodulatory peptide neurotensin in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Previous studies in rats suggest that neurotensin agonism decreases METH self-administration, but these studies did not examine the effect of neurotensin agonism on the pattern of self-administration or open field locomotion. In our studies, we established intravenous METH self-administration in male, DBA/2J mice (fixed ratio 3, 2 hr sessions and examined the effect of pretreatment with the NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 on METH self-administration behavior. Locomotion following PD149163 was also measured up to 2 hours after injection on a rotarod and in an open field. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg, s.c. significantly decreased METH self-administration. The pattern of responding suggested that PD149163 decreased motivation to self-administer METH initially in the session with more normal intake in the second hour of access. Voluntary movement in the open-field was significantly decreased by both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg (s.c. PD149163 from 10-120 minutes after injection, but rotarod performance suggested that PD149163 did not cause frank sedation. These results suggest that a systemically delivered NTS1 receptor agonist decreases METH self-administration in mice. The pattern of self-administration suggests that PD149163 may acutely decrease motivation to self-administer METH before the drug is experienced, but cannot rule out that depression of voluntary movement plays a role in the decreased self-administration.

  15. Differential Extension, Displacement Transfer, and the South to North Decrease in Displacement on the Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley Fault System, Western Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The northwest-striking Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley (FC-FLV) fault system stretches for >250 km from southeastern California to western Nevada, forms the eastern boundary of the northern segment of the Eastern California Shear Zone, and has contemporary displacement. The FC-FLV fault system initiated in the mid-Miocene (10-12 Ma) and shows a south to north decrease in displacement from a maximum of 75-100 km to less than 10 km. Coeval elongation by extension on north-northeast striking faults within the adjoining blocks to the FC-FLV fault both supply and remove cumulative displacement measured at the northern end of the transcurrent fault system. Elongation and displacement transfer in the eastern block, constituting the southern Walker Lane of western Nevada, exceeds that of the western block and results in the net south to north decrease in displacement on the FC-FLV fault system. Elongation in the eastern block is accommodated by late Miocene to Pliocene detachment faulting followed by extension on superposed, east-northeast striking, high-angle structures. Displacement transfer from the FC-FLV fault system to the northwest-trending faults of the central Walker Lane to the north is accomplished by motion on a series of west-northwest striking transcurrent faults, named the Oriental Wash, Sylvania Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain fault systems. The west-northwest striking transcurrent faults cross-cut earlier detachment structures and are kinematically linked to east-northeast high-angle extensional faults. The transcurrent faults are mapped along strike for 60 km to the east, where they merge with north-northwest faults forming the eastern boundary of the southern Walker Lane. The west-northwest trending transcurrent faults have 30-35 km of cumulative left-lateral displacement and are a major contributor to the decrease in right-lateral displacement on the FC-FLV fault system.

  16. Repair welding and online radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuding, W.; Grimm, R.; Link, R.; Schroeder, P.; Schroeder, G.

    1990-01-01

    The status of a joint project is reported, which is to develop a computerized testing and welding system for repair work in turbine blades. An X-ray radiographic testing device consisting of microfocus tube, manipulator and image processing system, is modified for this purpose so as to offer a greater number of image points scanned for image processing, and to thus achieve a better resolution for reliable detection of even very small defects. The consistency of the X-ray tube performance, which is a pre-requisite for automation, is to be achieved by a wa tercooled, high-duty tube head. The recording of defect coordinates in the repair zone is done for input into a welding robot to be developed by other partners in the project, so as to allow automated welding work. (orig.) [de

  17. Studying repair of a single protein-bound nick in vivo using the Flp-nick system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ida; Andersen, Anni Hangaard; Bjergbæk, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    The Flp-nick system is a simple in vivo system developed for studying the cellular responses to a protein-bound nick at a single genomic site in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Flp-nick system takes advantage of a mutant Flp recombinase that can introduce a nick at a specific Flp ...

  18. Penetration of blood-brain barrier and antitumor activity and nerve repair in glioma by doxorubicin-loaded monosialoganglioside micelles system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dan; Wang, Wei; Lei, Daoxi; Yin, Ying; Ren, Peng; Chen, Jinju; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Guixue; Wang, Yazhou

    2017-01-01

    For the treatment of glioma and other central nervous system diseases, one of the biggest challenges is that most therapeutic drugs cannot be delivered to the brain tumor tissue due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The goal of this study was to construct a nanodelivery vehicle system with capabilities to overcome the BBB for central nervous system administration. Doxorubicin as a model drug encapsulated in ganglioside GM1 micelles was able to achieve up to 9.33% loading efficiency and 97.05% encapsulation efficiency by orthogonal experimental design. The in vitro study demonstrated a slow and sustainable drug release in physiological conditions. In the cellular uptake studies, mixed micelles could effectively transport into both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and C6 cells. Furthermore, biodistribution imaging of mice showed that the DiR/GM1 mixed micelles were accumulated sustainably and distributed centrally in the brain. Experiments on zebrafish confirmed that drug-loaded GM1 micelles can overcome the BBB and enter the brain. Among all the treatment groups, the median survival time of C6-bearing rats after administering DOX/GM1 micelles was significantly prolonged. In conclusion, the ganglioside nanomicelles developed in this work can not only penetrate BBB effectively but also repair nerves and kill tumor cells at the same time.

  19. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Simon C

    2017-11-01

    The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, and their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes. Anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most widely studied endocannabinoids and are both derived from phospholipid-bound ARA. The endocannabinoid system also has well-established roles in neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, suggesting an overlap in the neuroprotective effects observed with these different classes of lipids. Indeed, growing evidence suggests a complex interplay between n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA and the endocannabinoid system. For example, long-term DHA and EPA supplementation reduces AEA and 2-AG levels, with reciprocal increases in levels of the analogous endocannabinoid-like DHA and EPA-derived molecules. This review summarises current evidence of this interplay and discusses the therapeutic potential for brain protection and repair.

  20. Advanced repair methods for enhanced reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornfeldt, H.

    1993-01-01

    A few innovative concepts are described of the ABB Atom Service Division for repair and mitigation techniques for primary systems in nuclear power plants. The concepts are based on Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology. A basic feature of all methods is that welding and component replacement is being avoided and the radiation dose imposed on maintenance personnel reduced. The SMA-based repair methods give plant operators new ways to meet increased safety standards and rising maintenance costs. (Z.S.) 4 figs

  1. Optimizing pressurized contact area in rotator cuff repair: the diamondback repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Denard, Patrick J; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare tendon-bone footprint contact area over time under physiologic loads for 4 different rotator cuff repair techniques: single row (SR), triangle double row (DR), chain-link double row (CL), and diamondback double row (DBK). A supraspinatus tear was created in 28 human cadavers. Tears were fixed with 1 of 4 constructs: SR, DR, CL, or DBK. Immediate post-repair measurements of pressurized contact area were taken in neutral rotation and 0° of abduction. After a static tensile load, pressurized contact area was observed over a 160-minute period after repair. Cyclic loading was then performed. The DBK repair had the highest pressurized contact area initially, as well as the highest pressurized contact area and lowest percentage decrease in pressurized contact area after 160 minutes of testing. The DBK repair had significantly larger initial pressurized contact than CL (P = .003) and SR (P = .004) but not DR (P = .06). The DBK technique was the only technique that produced a pressurized contact area that exceeded the native footprint both at initial repair (P = .01) and after 160 minutes of testing (P = .01). DBK had a significantly larger mean pressurized contact area than all the repairs after 160 minutes of testing (P = .01). DBK had a significantly larger post-cyclic loading pressurized contact area than CL (P = .01) and SR (P = .004) but not DR (P = .07). This study showed that a diamondback repair (a modification of the transosseous repair) can significantly increase the rotator cuff pressurized contact area in comparison with other standard rotator cuff repair constructs when there is sufficient tendon mobility to perform a double-row repair without excessive tension on the repair site. The persistent pressurized contact area of a DBK repair may be desirable to enhance healing potential when there is sufficient tendon mobility to perform a double-row repair, particularly for large or massive rotator cuff tears where it is

  2. Repair of DNA damage in light sensitive human skin diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, I.; Varga, L.; Tam' asi P., Gundy, S.

    1978-12-01

    Repair of uv-light induced DNA damage and changes in the semiconservative DNA synthesis were studied by in vitro autoradiography in the skin of patients with lightdermatoses (polymorphous light eruption, porphyria cutanea tarda, erythropoietic protoporphyria) and xeroderma pigmentosum as well as in that of healthy controls. In polymorphous light eruption the semiconservative DNA replication rate was more intensive in the area of the skin lesions and in the repeated phototest site, the excision repair synthesis appeared to be unaltered. In cutaneous prophyrias a decreased rate of the repair incorporation could be detected. Xeroderma pigmentosum was characterized by a strongly reduced repair synthesis.

  3. Stability of midface fracture repair using absorbable plate and screw system pilot holes drilled and pin placement at angles other than 90°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo; Pereira, Lucio; Abuhamdan, Maher; Thibault, Adrianna; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Conventional plating systems use titanium plates for fixation of fractures, with benefits of strength and biocompatibility. However, titanium plates require that screws be placed at a 90° angle to the pilot holes. In the midface, this becomes extremely difficult. Today, a variety of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis systems are available, including resorbable plating systems. Specifically, the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system ultrasonically fuses the plate and the head of the pin when placed and will fill the pilot hole grooves completely even at less than 90° angles, which provides a tremendous advantage in midface fracture repair. To determine if the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system provides plate-screw construct stability in human heads even when placed at acute angles at the midface buttresses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SPECIMENS: Twenty cadaveric head specimens with the mandible removed were prepared by creating osteotomies in the midface buttresses bilaterally. Specimens were defleshed and placed in a 2-part testing rig to hold and position the head for testing in a standard material testing system. Testing was performed at the Wayne State University Bioengineering test laboratories, Detroit, Michigan, using an Instron device and high-speed camera. Specimens were plated on one side of the midface using the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system with pilot holes and pins placed at 90° angles. On the contralateral side, the buttresses were plated with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system at 60°, 45°, and 30° angles. Data were collected using the TDAS data acquisition system and were compared with matched pairs within each specimen. Ultrasonically vibrated pins placed into absorbable mini-plates at less than 90° angles with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system were compared with the same amount of stress as the system placed at a 90° angle before demonstrating plate-screw construct failure. RESULTS Fifty-seven paired tests were collected, with 114 total tests. Twenty failures were

  4. Decreased respiratory system compliance on the sixth day of mechanical ventilation is a predictor of death in patients with established acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthay Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have identified single variables or composite scores that help risk stratify patients at the time of acute lung injury (ALI diagnosis. However, few studies have addressed the important question of how changes in pulmonary physiologic variables might predict mortality in patients during the subacute or chronic phases of ALI. We studied pulmonary physiologic variables, including respiratory system compliance, P/F ratio and oxygenation index, in a cohort of patients with ALI who survived more than 6 days of mechanical ventilation to see if changes in these variables were predictive of death and whether they are informative about the pathophysiology of subacute ALI. Methods Ninety-three patients with ALI who were mechanically ventilated for more than 6 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Patients were enrolled at two medical centers in the US, a county hospital and a large academic center. Bivariate analyses were used to identify pulmonary physiologic predictors of death during the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation. Predictors on day 1, day 6 and the changes between day 1 and day 6 were compared in a multivariate logistic regression model. Results The overall mortality was 35%. In multivariate analysis, the PaO2/FiO2 (OR 2.09, p th day of acute lung injury. In addition, a decrease in respiratory system compliance between days 1 and days 6 (OR 2.14, p Conclusions A low respiratory system compliance on day 6 or a decrease in the respiratory system compliance between the 1st and 6th day of mechanical ventilation were associated with increased mortality in multivariate analysis of this cohort of patients with ALI. We suggest that decreased respiratory system compliance may identify a subset of patients who have persistent pulmonary edema, atelectasis or the fibroproliferative sequelae of ALI and thus are less likely to survive their hospitalization.

  5. Circulating miR-423_5p fails as a biomarker for systemic ventricular function in adults after atrial repair for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutarel, Oktay; Dangwal, Seema; Bretthauer, Julia; Westhoff-Bleck, Mechthild; Roentgen, Philipp; Anker, Stefan D; Bauersachs, Johann; Thum, Thomas

    2013-07-15

    Recently, the microRNA miR-423_5p was identified as a biomarker for left ventricular heart failure. Its role in patients with a systemic right ventricle and reduced ejection fraction after atrial repair for transposition of the great arteries has not been evaluated. In 41 patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls circulating miR-423_5p concentration was measured and correlated to clinical parameters, cardiac functional parameters assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Levels of circulating miR-423_5p showed no difference between patients and controls. Further, there was no correlation between miR-423_5p and parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise testing or imaging findings. In patients with a systemic right ventricle and reduced ejection fraction miR-423_5p levels are not elevated. Therefore, circulating miR-423_5p is not a useful biomarker for heart failure in this patient group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro test systems for the identification of gentoxic chemicals in the human environment: The proof of DNA repair synthesis in liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossberger, S.

    1986-01-01

    This work examines the possibilities of proving a DNA repair by gentoxic chemicals in primary hepatozytes and 2sFou liver cells of rates. Two different processes used for the in vitro mutagenic testing of alien substances for determining the DNA repair synthesis in primary hepatozytes, in the autoradiographic method and the gradient centrifuging method, are compared regarding their reliability and sensitivity. The rat hepatom cell line 2sFou was examined for its suitability for proving chemically induced DNA repair, instead of primary hepatozytes. (orig./MG) [de

  7. A biomechanical comparison of 2 techniques of footprint reconstruction for rotator cuff repair: the SwiveLock-FiberChain construct versus standard double-row repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Adams, Christopher R; Burkhart, Sarah S; Schoolfield, John D

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical fixation parameters of a standard double-row rotator cuff repair with those of a knotless footprint reconstruction using the double-row SwiveLock-FiberChain technique (Arthrex, Naples, FL). Seven matched pairs of human cadaveric shoulders were used for testing (mean age, 48 +/- 10.3 years). A shoulder from each matched pair was randomly selected to receive a standard 4-anchor double-row repair of the supraspinatus tendon, and the contralateral shoulder received a 4-anchor double-row SwiveLock-FiberChain repair. The tendon was cycled from 10 N to 100 N at 1 Hz for 500 cycles, followed by a single-cycle pull to failure at 33 mm/s. Yield load, ultimate load, cyclic displacement, and mode of failure were recorded. Yield load and ultimate load were higher for the SwiveLock-FiberChain repair compared with the standard double-row repair for 6 of the 7 treatment pairs; however, 1 cadaver had a contrary outcome, so the overall mean differences in yield load and ultimate load were not significantly different from 0 by Student t test (P > .15). Furthermore, smaller differences between yield load and ultimate load for the SwiveLock-FiberChain repair in 5 of the 7 treatment pairs showed a self-reinforcing mechanism. Double-row footprint reconstruction with the knotless SwiveLock-FiberChain system in this study had yield loads, ultimate loads, and cyclic displacements that were statistically equivalent to those of standard double-row rotation cuff reconstructions. The SwiveLock-FiberChain system's combination of strength, self-reinforcement, and decreased operating time may offer advantages to the surgeon, particularly when dealing with older patients in whom poor tissue quality and total operative time are important considerations.

  8. Repair-modification of radiodamaged genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, P.; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Rome; Eremenko, T.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that through repair-modification, the modified base 5mC may have facilitated the divergent evolution of coding (hypomethylated exon) and uncoding (hypermethylated promoter and intron) sequences in eukaryotic genes. The radioinduced repair patches appearing in regions lacking 5mC are fully reconstructed by excision-repair, whereas those appearing in regions containing 5mC are incompletely reconstructed by this conventional mechanism. Such a second class of repair patches may, however, become fully reconstructed, in the S phase, by repair-modification. In fact, while DNA polymerase β - which is a key enzyme of excision-repair - is active through the whole interphase. DNA methylase - which is responsible for post-synthetic DNA modification - is essentially active in S. Uncoupling of these two enzyme systems, outside S, might explain why in unsynchronised cells repair patches of non-replicating strands are hypomethylated when compared with specific methylation of replicating strands. In other words, excision-repair would always be able to re-establish the primary ATGC language of both damaged unmethylated and methylated regions, while repair-modification would be able to re-establish the modified ATGC(5mC) language of the damaged methylated regions, only in S, but not in G 1 or G 2 . In these two phases, when DNA methylation is inversely correlated with pre-mRNA transcription (as in the case of many tissue-specific genes), such demethylation might induce a silent transcriptional unit to become active. (Author)

  9. Repairing fuel for reinsertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukshenk, A.

    1986-01-01

    Eqiupment for nuclear reactor fuel assembly repairing produced by Westinghouse and Brawn Bovery companies is described. Repair of failed fuel assemblies replacement of defect fuel elements gives a noticeable economical effect. Thus if the cost of a new fuel assembly is 450-500 thousand dollars, the replacement of one fuel element in it costs approximately 40-60 thousand dollars. In simple cases repairing includes either removal of failed fuel elements from a fuel assembly and its reinsertion with the rest of fuel elements into the reactor core (reactor refueling), or replacement of unfailed fuel elements from one fuel assembly to a new one (fuel assembly overhaul and reconditioning)

  10. DNA Damage Induced by Alkylating Agents and Repair Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuko; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ono, Koji; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents are strongly attenuated by cellular DNA repair processes, necessitating a clear understanding of the repair mechanisms. Simple methylating agents form adducts at N- and O-atoms. N-methylations are removed by base excision repair, AlkB homologues, or nucleotide excision repair (NER). O6-methylguanine (MeG), which can eventually become cytotoxic and mutagenic, is repaired by O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, and O6MeG:T mispairs are recognized by the mismatch repair system (MMR). MMR cannot repair the O6MeG/T mispairs, which eventually lead to double-strand breaks. Bifunctional alkylating agents form interstrand cross-links (ICLs) which are more complex and highly cytotoxic. ICLs are repaired by complex of NER factors (e.g., endnuclease xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F-excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group 1), Fanconi anemia repair, and homologous recombination. A detailed understanding of how cells cope with DNA damage caused by alkylating agents is therefore potentially useful in clinical medicine. PMID:21113301

  11. Method for Qualification of Composite Repairs for Pipelines: Patch Repairs and Considerations for Cathodic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    While the mechanical properties of composite repairs for pipelines have been investigated extensively, the performance of the entire metal-composite system has not been addressed with regard to corrosion of the substrate, water intrusion at the compo...

  12. Penetration of blood–brain barrier and antitumor activity and nerve repair in glioma by doxorubicin-loaded monosialoganglioside micelles system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dan Zou,1 Wei Wang,1 Daoxi Lei,1 Ying Yin,1 Peng Ren,1 Jinju Chen,2 Tieying Yin,1 Bochu Wang,1 Guixue Wang,1 Yazhou Wang1 1Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Mechanical and System Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: For the treatment of glioma and other central nervous system diseases, one of the biggest challenges is that most therapeutic drugs cannot be delivered to the brain tumor tissue due to the blood–brain barrier (BBB. The goal of this study was to construct a nanodelivery vehicle system with capabilities to overcome the BBB for central nervous system administration. Doxorubicin as a model drug encapsulated in ganglioside GM1 micelles was able to achieve up to 9.33% loading efficiency and 97.05% encapsulation efficiency by orthogonal experimental design. The in vitro study demonstrated a slow and sustainable drug release in physiological conditions. In the cellular uptake studies, mixed micelles could effectively transport into both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and C6 cells. Furthermore, biodistribution imaging of mice showed that the DiR/GM1 mixed micelles were accumulated sustainably and distributed centrally in the brain. Experiments on zebrafish confirmed that drug-loaded GM1 micelles can overcome the BBB and enter the brain. Among all the treatment groups, the median survival time of C6-bearing rats after administering DOX/GM1 micelles was significantly prolonged. In conclusion, the ganglioside nanomicelles developed in this work can not only penetrate BBB effectively but also repair nerves and kill tumor cells at the same time. Keywords: blood–brain barrier, GM1, nanovesicles, doxorubicin, glioma, zebrafish

  13. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  14. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incarcerated) in the hernia and become impossible to push back in. This is usually painful. The blood supply ... you are lying down or that you cannot push back in. Risks The risks of ventral hernia repair ...

  15. Omphalocele repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100033.htm Omphalocele repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the base ...

  16. Application of Life Support Cost, Provisioning, and Repair/Discard Models to Weapon System Procurement Decisions by Small Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    the LCC for use in system evaluation was motivated by the fact that the major part of user budgets are spent on operations and support activities...Furthermore, it was recognized that these ownership costs ex- ceed systems procurement costs by up to several times. The main motivation behind the LCC...8217 󈧄 4 ~ ~ ~ ( CL f %AO 09*. 𔃾.𔃺 𔄃 0 4 . -~4 4C4 - CL44 N 10 z3 w 4 . - 4)..LIP 4 .J~272 .0co A pF 1 PS4 ~~~~m a0~-eN ON~ - .q r N0 .. ~ ~ 7O N#04

  17. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulation of the DNA repair system and ATR-p53 mediated apoptosis is relevant for tributyltin-induced genotoxic effects in human hepatoma G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowen; Sun, Lingbin; Cai, Jiali; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Mengmeng; Qiu, Huiling; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT) have been extensively documented in several types of cells, but the molecular mechanisms related to the genotoxic effects of TBT have still not been fully elucidated. Our study showed that exposure of human hepatoma G2 cells to 1-4 μmol/L TBT for 3 hr caused severe DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the expression levels of key DNA damage sensor genes such as the replication factor C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 were inhabited in a concentration-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that TBT induced cell apoptosis via the p53-mediated pathway, which was most likely activated by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and rad-3 related (ATR) protein kinase. The results also showed that cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and the B-cell lymphoma 2 were involved in this process. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time that the inhibition of the DNA repair system might be more responsible for TBT-induced genotoxic effects in cells. Then the generated DNA damage induced by TBT initiated ATR-p53-mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Quality control of repair of equipment for coal preparation plants. Upravlenie kachestvom remonta oborudovaniya ugleobogatitel'nykh fabrik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonishnikov, A I; Neskoromnykh, V M; Surzhenko, V S; Sirichenko, R P; Pavlyuchenko, S G; Lesikov, A V

    1984-01-01

    The Ukrniiugleobogashchenie, Kalininsk and Sukhodol'sk coal preparation plants have developed the SUKRO system for control of repair quality of coal preparation equipment in the USSR. The system is based on a system of standards used in coal preparation plants. The following systems of standards used by the SUKRO system are analyzed: organization standards (order of repair in a coal preparation plant, repair planning, spare part systems, methods for determining equipment wear, analysis of equipment failures), standards for maintenance and repair (methods for equipment maintenance, service life of each equipment component or system, structure of preventive repair or repair, organizational models of repair operations, lubrication systems), standards for assessment of labor quality during repair operations. Use of the SUKRO system in the Sukhodol'sk coal preparation plant is evaluated. The SUKRO forms a system of standards for repair and maintenance of equipment considering operation conditions in coal preparation plants, requirements for equipment reliability and service life. (4 refs.)

  20. DNA repair and its coupling to DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. [UV, x ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This review article with 184 references presents the view that mammalian cells have one major repair system, excision repair, with many branches (nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, crosslink repair, etc.) and a multiplicity of enzymes. Any particular carcinogen makes a spectrum of damaged sites and each kind of damage may be repaired by one or more branches of excision repair. Excision repair is rarely complete, except at very low doses, and eukaryotic cells survive and replicate DNA despite the presence of unrepaired damage. An alteration in a specific biochemical pathway seen in damaged or mutant cells will not always be the primary consequence of damage or of the biochemical defect of the cells. Detailed kinetic data are required to understand comprehensively the various facets of excision repair and replication. Correlation between molecular events of repair and cytological and cellular changes such as chromosomal damage, mutagenesis, transformation, and carcinogenesis are also rudimentary.

  1. OPTIMALISASI KINERJA PERSEDIAAN SUKU CADANG UNTUK PELAKSANAAN MAINTENANCE REPAIR OVERHAUL (MRO DENGAN PENERAPAN COMPUTERIZED MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (CMMS (Studi Kasus di PT. Indonesia Asahan Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Sutrisno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PT.Inalum is a manufacturing company engaged in the aluminum smelting industry. PT.Inalum pengendaliaan system requires an inventory of spare parts to conduct maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO. CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System is a computerized maintenance system running on a LAN (Local Area Network. CMMS is influenced by three variables, namely an integrated maintenance, inventory and procurement so as to create a good maintenance should be supported by the inventory control of spare parts used in maintenance. CMMS aims to make the work more efficient and effective, especially in matters relating to maintenance. That as a benchmark to measure the performance of CMMs for spare parts inventory control is a key performance indicator (KPI. This study aims to evaluate and compare key performance indicators before and after implementation of CMMS for the implementation of MRO activities. Another goal to be achieved is to determine the factors that affect the value of the inventory of spare parts. Based on the results of data processing and analysis can be seen that by looking at a comparison of before and after implementation of CMMS on key performance indicators, it appears that there is an improvement in every parameter, one of which is the value of the inventory prior to the implementation of CMMS for $ 34,790,000.00 compared to after the application of the inventory value fell to $ 19,632,000.00. Factors that affect the value of the inventory is the inventory of spare parts, maintenance, procurement, and human resources.

  2. [3T magnetic resonance T2 mapping for evaluation of cartilage repair after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xu, Xian; Li, Xue; Chen, Min; Dong, Tian-Ming; Zuo, Pan-Li; An, Ning-Yu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping in quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair following matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Six patients (with 9 plug cartilages) following MACT underwent MRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR scan system at 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery. The full-thickness and zonal areas (deep and superficial layers) T2 values were calculated for the repaired cartilage and control cartilage. The mean T2 values of the repaired cartilage after MACT were significantly higher than that of the control cartilages at 3 and 6 months (PT2 values of the superficial layers were significantly higher than those of the deep layers in the repaired cartilages (PT2 values of the repaired cartilages decreased significantly over time at 6 and 12 months as compared to those at 3 months after the surgery (PT2 mapping can serve as an important modality for assessing the repair of the articular cartilage following MACT.

  3. Mutagenic DNA repair in enterobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.; Chao Ho; Woodgate, R.

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen species of enterobacteria have been screened for mutagenic DNA repair activity. In Escherichia coli, mutagenic DNA repair is encoded by the umuDC operon. Synthesis of UmuD and UmuC proteins is induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, and after induction, the UmuD protein undergoes an autocatalytic cleavage to produce the carboxy-terminal UmuD' fragment needed for induced mutagenesis. The presence of a similar system in other species was examined by using a combined approach of inducible-mutagenesis assays, cross-reactivity to E. coli UmuD and UmuD' antibodies to test for induction and cleavage of UmuD-like proteins, and hybridization with E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium u mu DNA probes to map umu-like genes. The results indicate a more widespread distribution of mutagenic DNA repair in other species than was previously thought. They also show that umu loci can be more complex in other species than in E. coli. Differences in UV-induced mutability of more than 200-fold were seen between different species of enteric bacteria and even between multiple natural isolates of E. coli, and yet some of the species which display a poorly mutable phenotype still have umu-like genes and proteins. It is suggested that umuDC genes can be curtailed in their mutagenic activities but that they may still participate in some other, unknown process which provides the continued stimulus for their retention

  4. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- Versus Double-Row Capsulolabral Repair for Shoulder Instability: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yousif, Matthew John; Bicos, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body. Failure rates of capsulolabral repair have been reported to be approximately 8%. Recent focus has been on restoration of the capsulolabral complex by a double-row capsulolabral repair technique in an effort to decrease redislocation rates after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair. Purpose: To present a review of the biomechanical literature comparing single- versus double-row capsulolabral repairs and discuss ...

  5. Remote repair of the dissolvers in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Yosikuni

    1985-01-01

    In the Tokai fuel reprocessing plant, there occurred failures (pinholes) in two dissolver tanks successively in 1982 and 1983. These dissolvers are set under high radiation field, not permitting access of the personnel. So, repair works were carried out after development of the remotely operated repair system. For repair of the failed dissolver tanks, after tests and studies, the means was employed of grinding off the wall surface to small depth and then forming over it a corrosion resistant sealing layer by padding welding. The repair system which enabled the repair and the inspection in the cell by remote operation consisted of six devices including polishing, welding, dye penetration test, etc. Repair works on the dissolvers took two months and a half from September 1983. (Mori, K.)

  6. Epigenetic changes of DNA repair genes in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtz, Christoph; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2011-02-01

    'Every Hour Hurts, The Last One Kills'. That is an old saying about getting old. Every day, thousands of DNA damaging events take place in each cell of our body, but efficient DNA repair systems have evolved to prevent that. However, our DNA repair system and that of most other organisms are not as perfect as that of Deinococcus radiodurans, for example, which is able to repair massive amounts of DNA damage at one time. In many instances, accumulation of DNA damage has been linked to cancer, and genetic deficiencies in specific DNA repair genes are associated with tumor-prone phenotypes. In addition to mutations, which can be either inherited or somatically acquired, epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes may promote tumorigenesis. This review will summarize current knowledge of the epigenetic inactivation of different DNA repair components in human cancer.

  7. 48 CFR 1352.271-87 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1352.271-87 Section 1352.271-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-87 Changes—ship repair. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.118,...

  8. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BMCloud: Minimizing Repair Bandwidth and Maintenance Cost in Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect data in cloud storage, fault tolerance and efficient recovery become very important. Recent studies have developed numerous solutions based on erasure code techniques to solve this problem using functional repairs. However, there are two limitations to address. The first one is consistency since the Encoding Matrix (EM is different among clouds. The other one is repairing bandwidth, which is a concern for most of us. We addressed these two problems from both theoretical and practical perspectives. We developed BMCloud, a new low repair bandwidth, low maintenance cost cloud storage system, which aims to reduce repair bandwidth and maintenance cost. The system employs both functional repair and exact repair while it inherits advantages from the both. We propose the JUDGE_STYLE algorithm, which can judge whether the system should adopt exact repair or functional repair. We implemented a networked storage system prototype and demonstrated our findings. Compared with existing solutions, BMCloud can be used in engineering to save repair bandwidth and degrade maintenance significantly.

  10. Leak testing and repair of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozman, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The leak testing, reporting and vacuum leak repair techniques of the MFTF yin-yang number one magnet system, the world's largest superconducting magnet system, are discussed. Based on this experience, techniques will be developed for testing and repairing leaks on the 42 MFTF-B magnets. The leak-hunting techniques for the yin-yang magnet systems were applied to two helium circuits (the coil bundle and guard vacuum; both require helium flow for magnet cooldown), their associated piping, liquid nitrogen radiation shields, and piping. Additionally, during MFTF-B operation there will be warm water plasma shields and piping that require leak checking

  11. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- Versus Double-Row Capsulolabral Repair for Shoulder Instability: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Matthew John; Bicos, James

    2017-12-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body. Failure rates of capsulolabral repair have been reported to be approximately 8%. Recent focus has been on restoration of the capsulolabral complex by a double-row capsulolabral repair technique in an effort to decrease redislocation rates after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair. To present a review of the biomechanical literature comparing single- versus double-row capsulolabral repairs and discuss the previous case series of double-row fixation. Narrative review. A simple review of the literature was performed by PubMed search. Only biomechanical studies comparing single- versus double-row capsulolabral repair were included for review. Only those case series and descriptive techniques with clinical results for double-row repair were included in the discussion. Biomechanical comparisons evaluating the native footprint of the labrum demonstrated significantly superior restoration of the footprint through double-row capsulolabral repair compared with single-row repair. Biomechanical comparisons of contact pressure at the repair interface, fracture displacement in bony Bankart lesion, load to failure, and decreased external rotation (suggestive of increased load to failure) were also significantly in favor of double- versus single-row repair. Recent descriptive techniques and case series of double-row fixation have demonstrated good clinical outcomes; however, no comparative clinical studies between single- and double-row repair have assessed functional outcomes. The superiority of double-row capsulolabral repair versus single-row repair remains uncertain because comparative studies assessing clinical outcomes have yet to be performed.

  12. Repair of radiation damage in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The responses, such as survival, mutation, and carcinogenesis, of mammalian cells and tissues to radiation are dependent not only on the magnitude of the damage to macromolecular structures - DNA, RNA, protein, and membranes - but on the rates of macromolecular syntheses of cells relative to the half-lives of the damages. Cells possess a number of mechanisms for repairing damage to DNA. If the repair systems are rapid and error free, cells can tolerate much larger doses than if repair is slow or error prone. It is important to understand the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage because there exist reasonable amounts of epidemiological data that permits the construction of dose-response curves for humans. The shapes of such curves or the magnitude of the response will depend on repair. Radiation damage is emphasized because: (a) radiation dosimetry, with all its uncertainties for populations, is excellent compared to chemical dosimetry; (b) a number of cancer-prone diseases are known in which there are defects in DNA repair and radiation results in more chromosomal damage in cells from such individuals than in cells from normal individuals; (c) in some cases, specific radiation products in DNA have been correlated with biological effects, and (d) many chemical effects seem to mimic radiation effects. A further reason for emphasizing damage to DNA is the wealth of experimental evidence indicating that damages to DNA can be initiating events in carcinogenesis.

  13. Repair of radiation damage in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The responses, such as survival, mutation, and carcinogenesis, of mammalian cells and tissues to radiation are dependent not only on the magnitude of the damage to macromolecular structures - DNA, RNA, protein, and membranes - but on the rates of macromolecular syntheses of cells relative to the half-lives of the damages. Cells possess a number of mechanisms for repairing damage to DNA. If the repair systems are rapid and error free, cells can tolerate much larger doses than if repair is slow or error prone. It is important to understand the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage because there exist reasonable amounts of epidemiological data that permits the construction of dose-response curves for humans. The shapes of such curves or the magnitude of the response will depend on repair. Radiation damage is emphasized because: (a) radiation dosimetry, with all its uncertainties for populations, is excellent compared to chemical dosimetry; (b) a number of cancer-prone diseases are known in which there are defects in DNA repair and radiation results in more chromosomal damage in cells from such individuals than in cells from normal individuals; (c) in some cases, specific radiation products in DNA have been correlated with biological effects, and (d) many chemical effects seem to mimic radiation effects. A further reason for emphasizing damage to DNA is the wealth of experimental evidence indicating that damages to DNA can be initiating events in carcinogenesis

  14. Flexor tendon repair with a knotless, bidirectional barbed suture: an in vivo biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Grady E; Ludwig, Jonathan; Craig, Eric R; Woods, David; Joiner, Aaron; Chaudhari, Nilesh; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Siegal, Gene P; Eberhardt, Alan; Ponce, Brent

    2015-05-01

    To compare and analyze biomechanical properties and histological characteristics of flexor tendons either repaired by a 4-strand modified Kessler technique or using barbed suture with a knotless repair technique in an in vivo model. A total of 25 chickens underwent surgical transection of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon followed by either a 4-strand Kessler repair or a knotless repair with barbed suture. Chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups with various postoperative times to death. Harvested tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing or histologic analysis. Harvested tendons revealed failures in 25% of knotless repairs (8 of 32) and 8% of 4-strand Kessler repairs (2 of 24). Biomechanical testing revealed no significant difference in tensile strength between 4-strand Kessler and barbed repairs; however, this lack of difference may be attributed to lower statistical power. We noted a trend toward a gradual decrease in strength over time for barbed repairs, whereas we noticed the opposite for the 4-strand Kessler repairs. Mode of failure during testing differed between repair types. The barbed repairs tended toward suture breakage as opposed to 4-strand Kessler repairs, which demonstrated suture pullout. Histological analysis identified no difference in the degree of inflammation or fibrosis; however, there was a vigorous foreign body reaction around the 4-strand Kessler repair and no such response around the barbed repairs. In this model, knotless barbed repairs trended toward higher in vivo failure rates and biomechanical inferiority under physiologic conditions, with each repair technique differing in mode of failure and respective histologic reaction. We are unable to recommend the use of knotless barbed repair over the 4-strand modified Kessler technique. For the repair techniques tested, surgeons should prefer standard Kessler repairs over the described knotless technique with barbed suture. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery

  15. Establishment of a non-radioactive cleavage assay to assess the DNA repair capacity towards oxidatively damaged DNA in subcellular and cellular systems and the impact of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, Ingrit; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Hartwig, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in many diseases, and the search for appropriate biomarkers is one major focus in molecular epidemiology. 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a potentially mutagenic DNA lesion, is considered to be a sensitive biomarker for oxidative stress. Another approach consists in assessing the repair capacity towards 8-oxoG, mediated predominantly by the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1). With respect to the latter, during the last few years so-called cleavage assays have been described, investigating the incision of 32 P-labelled and 8-oxoG damaged oligonucleotides by cell extracts. Within the present study, a sensitive non-radioactive test system based on a Cy5-labelled oligonucleotide has been established. Sources of incision activity are isolated proteins or extracts prepared from cultured cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). After comparing different oligonucleotide structures, a hairpin-like structure was selected which was not degraded by cell extracts. Applying this test system the impact of copper on the activity of isolated hOGG1 and on hOGG activity in A549 cells was examined, showing a distinct inhibition of the isolated protein at low copper concentration as compared to a modest inhibition of hOGG activity in cells at beginning cytotoxic concentrations. For investigating PBMC, all reaction conditions, including the amounts of oligonucleotide and cell extract as well as the reaction time have been optimized. The incision activities of PBMC protein extracts obtained from different donors have been investigated, and inter-individual differences have been observed. In summary, the established method is as sensitive and even faster than the radioactive technique, and additionally, offers the advantage of reduced costs and low health risk.

  16. Superior sensitivity and decreased time to detection with the Bactec Peds Plus/F system compared to the BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN blood culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Turner, N N; Lancaster, D P; Shah, A R; Chandler, L J; Friedman, D F; Blecker-Shelly, D L

    2013-12-01

    Here, we compare the sensitivities and times to detection (TTD) of BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN (PF) and Bactec Peds Plus blood culture bottles. Test bottles were inoculated with 2 ml of banked whole blood, 1-ml aliquots of antibiotic suspension, and organisms diluted to simulate a bacteremia level of 10 to 100 CFU/ml. The control bottles were inoculated with 3 ml of banked blood and organism suspensions only. The organism-drug combinations were Staphylococcus epidermidis and vancomycin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin, Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin, and ceftriaxone, Streptococcus agalactiae, ampicillin, and cefotaxime, Escherichia coli, cefotaxime, and cefepime, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, and gentamicin, Neisseria meningitidis and ceftriaxone, and Haemophilus influenzae and ceftriaxone. The control and test bottle combinations were tested in duplicate. The bottles were incubated for 5 days; 32 control and 104 test bottles were incubated. Overall, the bacterial recovery rates for the PF and Peds Plus bottles were 37% and 62%, 94% and 100% in the controls, 19% and 50% in the test bottles, and 33% and 92% in the bottles with vancomycin, respectively. No bacteria were recovered from the bottles with S. pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, E. coli, N. meningitidis, or H. influenzae in combination with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. The Peds Plus system detected P. aeruginosa in bottles with cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam, but the PF system recovered bacteria only in bottles with trough levels of piperacillin-tazobactam. The mean TTD were shorter in the Peds Plus system controls (14.2 versus 18.0 h; P = 0.001) and the test bottles (14.3 versus 17.8 h; P = 0.008) than in the PF bottles. Overall, we demonstrated superior sensitivity, TTD, and antibiotic neutralization in the Bactec Peds Plus system compared to those in the Pediatric FAN system.

  17. SEGMENTAL EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA FOR INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidanand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidural anaesthesia is suitable as a sole agent for lower abdominal surgery and surgery on lower limbs. It has some definite advantages over spinal anaesthesia like avoidance of post spinal headache, minimal chances of meningitis, and minimal chances of nausea and vomiting in postoperative period. But administration of conventional dosage of local epidural anaesthetics (15ml and above for surgical anaesthesia frequently results in multiple hemodynamic changes, including decreases in chronotropism, inotro pism, dromotropism, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and myocardial oxygen consumption. The segmental epidural block denotes the use of a small volume enough to block only the segments involved in the field of surgery. AIM: To study the effect iveness of segmental epidural anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair. DESIGN: R andomized control study. METHODS: 100 pts belonging to ASA PS I & II posted for inguinal hernia repair given 5ml of 0.5% bupivacaine through epidural route at L1 - L2 level and a fter conforming the adequacy and level of analgesia, the surgery was commenced. If the patient complained of pain during needle prick, then injected local anaesthetic (0.5% Bupivacaine with an incremental dosage of 1ml at a time, till the complete onset o f analgesia Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure were recorded at an interval of 1 minute for first 5 minutes and then every 5 minutes till the end of the surgery. Oxygen saturation and ECG monitoring was done continuously. Onset of analgesia, level of analgesia ( P re & post operatively, duration of analgesia, total dosage of local anaesthetic used were recorded. Complications like bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, shivering, nausea and vomiting, sweating and inadvertent dural puncture were recorde d. RESULTS: 53% of patients had excellent quality of analgesia and relaxation. 34% patients had good quality analgesia and relaxation, mild discomfort while handling sac

  18. Development and regeneration of the zebrafish maxillary barbel: a novel study system for vertebrate tissue growth and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Elizabeth E; Topczewski, Jacek

    2010-01-15

    Barbels are integumentary sense organs found in fishes, reptiles and amphibians. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, develops paired nasal and maxillary barbels approximately one month post fertilization. Small in diameter and optically clear, these adult appendages offer a window on the development, maintenance and function of multiple cell types including skin cells, neural-crest derived pigment cells, circulatory vessels, taste buds and sensory nerves. Importantly, barbels in other otophysan fishes (e.g., catfish) are known to regenerate; however, this capacity has not been tested in zebrafish. We describe the development of the maxillary barbel in a staged series of wild type and transgenic zebrafish using light microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. By imaging transgenic zebrafish containing fluorescently labeled endothelial cells (Tg(fli1a:EGFP)), we demonstrate that the barbel contains a long ( approximately 2-3 mm) closed-end vessel that we interpret as a large lymphatic. The identity of this vessel was further supported by live imaging of the barbel circulation, extending recent descriptions of the lymphatic system in zebrafish. The maxillary barbel can be induced to regenerate by proximal amputation. After more than 750 experimental surgeries in which approximately 85% of the barbel's length was removed, we find that wound healing is complete within hours, followed by blastema formation ( approximately 3 days), epithelial redifferentiation (3-5 days) and appendage elongation. Maximum regrowth occurs within 2 weeks of injury. Although superficially normal, the regenerates are shorter and thicker than the contralateral controls, have abnormally organized mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix, and contain prominent connective tissue "stumps" at the plane of section--a mode of regeneration more typical of mammalian scarring than other zebrafish appendages. Finally, we show that the maxillary barbel can regenerate after repeated injury and also in

  19. Development and regeneration of the zebrafish maxillary barbel: a novel study system for vertebrate tissue growth and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E LeClair

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbels are integumentary sense organs found in fishes, reptiles and amphibians. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, develops paired nasal and maxillary barbels approximately one month post fertilization. Small in diameter and optically clear, these adult appendages offer a window on the development, maintenance and function of multiple cell types including skin cells, neural-crest derived pigment cells, circulatory vessels, taste buds and sensory nerves. Importantly, barbels in other otophysan fishes (e.g., catfish are known to regenerate; however, this capacity has not been tested in zebrafish.We describe the development of the maxillary barbel in a staged series of wild type and transgenic zebrafish using light microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. By imaging transgenic zebrafish containing fluorescently labeled endothelial cells (Tg(fli1a:EGFP, we demonstrate that the barbel contains a long ( approximately 2-3 mm closed-end vessel that we interpret as a large lymphatic. The identity of this vessel was further supported by live imaging of the barbel circulation, extending recent descriptions of the lymphatic system in zebrafish. The maxillary barbel can be induced to regenerate by proximal amputation. After more than 750 experimental surgeries in which approximately 85% of the barbel's length was removed, we find that wound healing is complete within hours, followed by blastema formation ( approximately 3 days, epithelial redifferentiation (3-5 days and appendage elongation. Maximum regrowth occurs within 2 weeks of injury. Although superficially normal, the regenerates are shorter and thicker than the contralateral controls, have abnormally organized mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix, and contain prominent connective tissue "stumps" at the plane of section--a mode of regeneration more typical of mammalian scarring than other zebrafish appendages. Finally, we show that the maxillary barbel can regenerate after repeated injury and

  20. Potentially lethal damage and its repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms termed fast-and slow-potentially lethal lethal damage (PLD) are introduced and discussed. The effect on the survival of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells (V79) of two different post-treatments is examined in plateau- and in log-phases of growth. The postirradiation treatments used : a) incubation in hypertonic solution, and b) incubation in conditioned medium obtained from plateau-phase. Similar reduction in survival was caused by postirradiation treatment with hypertonic phosphate buffered saline, and similar increased in survival was effected by treatment in conditioned medium in plateau- and in log-phases cells. However, repair of PLD sensitive to hypertonic treatment was faster (half time, 5-10 min)(f-PLD repair) and independent from the repair of PLD (half time, 1-2 hour)(s-PLD repair) observed in conditioned medium. The results indicate the induction of two forms of PLD by radiation. Induction of both PLD was found to decrease with increasing LET of the radiation used. Identification of the molecular processes underlying repair and fixation of PLD is a task of particular interest, since it may allow replacement of a phenomenological definition with a molecular definition. Evidence is reviewed indicating the DNA double strand breaks (directly or indirectly induced) may be the DNA lesions underlying PLD. (author)