WorldWideScience

Sample records for repair steering systems

  1. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7... Pounds or Less § 570.7 Steering systems. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system shall... in the steering system. Table 1—Steering System Free Play Values Steering wheel diameter (inches...

  2. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering system. 570.60 Section 570.60... 10,000 Pounds § 570.60 Steering system. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system... excessive lash or free play in the steering system. Table 2. Steering Wheel Free Play Values Steering...

  3. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems of...

  4. Steering control system for a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Kaylan C.; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a steering mechanism for an autonomous mobile robot. The steering mechanism replaces a manually turned rack and pinion arrangement with a crank mechanism driven by a linear actuator that in turn is powered by a brushless dc motor. The system was modeled, analyzed, and redesigned to meet the requirements. A 486 computer through a 3-axis motion controller supervises the steering control. The steering motor is a brushless dc motor powered by three phase signals. It is run in current loop mode. The steering control system is supervised by a personal computer through a multi-axis motion controller. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results.

  5. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven steering...

  6. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  7. Improvement of Steering Feel of Electric Power Steering System with Variable Gear Transmission System Using Decoupling Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yokoi, Akitoshi; Iwasaki, Makoto; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Ito, Norihisa; Uryu, Nobuhiko; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    In this paper a new control method of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system with Variable Gear Transmission System (VGTS) is proposed. The control purpose is to achieve the desired steering gear ratio and the desired power assist with good steering feel. The basic idea of controller design is to apply decoupling control to this system and to separately design controllers for two decoupled systems. The angle control system and the torque control system are designed for the decoupled systems. In the angle control system the PID control is used for the desired gear ratio. In the torque control system the PID control is used for the desired assist torque designed so as to achieve good steering feel. In order to evaluate steering feel the Lissajous curve between the steering torque and steering angle is used. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified experimentally.

  8. Research on Modeling and Active Steering Control Algorithm for Electric Forklift Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, according to the structure characteristics of steer-by-wire (SBW system for the TFC20 electric forklift, steering dynamics model and two degree of freedom vehicle model are deduced for SBW forklift. Aiming at the free design features of the angular transmission characteristics in the SBW system of electric forklift, the theory of active steering control strategy is studied. After analyzing the influence factors of the angular trans mission ratio of the steering system, the ideal angular transmission ratio is proposed, which is based on the yaw rate gain invariance. Also, the control strategy of the yaw rate feedback and the full state feedback is studied. The simulation results show that the above strategy is effective for the active steering control; it can improve the operating stability and the response speed of the forklift.

  9. Active disturbance rejection control in steering by wire haptic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Angeles, A; Garcia-Antonio, J A

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces a steering by wired haptic system based on disturbance rejection control techniques. High gain Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI) observers are considered for the estimation of tire and steering wheel dynamic disturbances. These disturbances are on line canceled to ensure tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle. The estimated disturbances at the steering rack are feedback to the steering wheel to provide a haptic interface with the driver. The overall system behaves as a bilateral master-slave system. Very few sensors and minimum knowledge of the dynamic model are required. Experimental results are presented on a prototype platform that consists on: (1) half of the steering rack of a beetle VW vehicle, (2) a steering wheel.

  10. Research on Torque Ratio Based on the Steering Wheel Torque Characteristic for Steer-by-Wire System

    OpenAIRE

    Yandong Han; Lei He; Xiang Wang; Changfu Zong

    2014-01-01

    Steer-by-wire system can improve the performance of vehicle handling stability. Removing the mechanical linkages between the front wheels and the steering wheel leads to a key technique of force feedback for steer-by-wire system. In view of the characteristic of variable torque transmission ratio for steer-by-wire system, this paper proposes a method for designing torque ratio based on the steering wheel torque characteristic for steer-by-wire system. It converts the torque ratio design into ...

  11. Wheeled Vehicle Steering Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle steering systems. It provides the basic theory, and also includes…

  12. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  13. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...... is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults...... in the steering system. The paper shows how active control reconfiguration can accommodate all critical faults. The fault-tolerant abilities of the steering system are demonstrated on the hardware of a warehouse truck....

  14. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  15. Research on Torque Ratio Based on the Steering Wheel Torque Characteristic for Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steer-by-wire system can improve the performance of vehicle handling stability. Removing the mechanical linkages between the front wheels and the steering wheel leads to a key technique of force feedback for steer-by-wire system. In view of the characteristic of variable torque transmission ratio for steer-by-wire system, this paper proposes a method for designing torque ratio based on the steering wheel torque characteristic for steer-by-wire system. It converts the torque ratio design into equivalent assist torque design by analyzing their relationship. It achieves the torque ratio design at different conditions based on the negative equivalent assist torque characteristic curve. Simulations and vehicle experiments are conducted by the proposed method, and the results show that the design goal has been achieved and the steering wheel torque characteristic obtained is very similar to that of the reference car.

  16. Experimental Study on Antivibration Control of Electrical Power Steering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the antivibration controller design problem for electrical power steering (EPS systems. The EPS system has significant advantages over the traditional hydraulic steering system. However, the improper motor controller design would lead to the steering wheel vibration. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the antivibration control strategy. For the implementation study, we also present the motor driver design and the software design which is used to monitor the sensors and the control signal. Based on the investigation on the regular assistant algorithm, we summarize the difficulties and problems encountered by the regular algorithm. After that, in order to improve the performance of antivibration and the human-like steering feeling, we propose a new assistant strategy for the EPS. The experiment results of the bench test illustrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed control strategy. Compared with the regular controller, the proposed antivibration control reduces the vibration of the steering wheel a lot.

  17. Steer-by-wire steering system with enhanced functionality for rear steered vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dillmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heckgelenkte selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen sind die zentralen Elemente moderner Ernteketten in der Landwirtschaft. Das primär auf Bodenschonung ausgelegte Fahrwerk, die aktuelle Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 40 km/h sowie die systembedingten, fahrdynamischen Nachteile einer heckgelenkten Maschine erschweren jedoch die Fahrzeugführung auf der Straße. Das Spurhalten und Stabilisieren erfordert daher viel Erfahrung und eine hohe Konzentration des Fahrers. Fahrdynamiksysteme können den Fahrzeugführer entlasten und somit das Fahren mit hohen Geschwindigkeiten sicherer und komfortabler gestalten. Im hier vorgestellten Projekt wird in diesem Kontext eine Steer-by-wire-Lenkung mit parametrierbarer Lenkcharakteristik vorgestellt, die auf die unterschiedlichen Vorzüge des Fahrers einstellbar ist und fahrzustandsabhängige Informationen über das Lenkrad an den Bediener übermittelt.

  18. Selection and Simulation of Electric Steering Gear Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the electric steering gear control systems, the principle of the system is introduced. Specific model and parameters are selected to deduce the optimal combination of control system and choices method of the steering system model is determined. The transfer function of motor according to the parameters is achieved and simulation results are gained based on MATLAB. Simulation results show that this method can meet the performance requirements of electric steering gear, the control method is simple and easy to work to achieve.

  19. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  20. 46 CFR 58.25-70 - Steering-gear control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering-gear control systems. 58.25-70 Section 58.25-70... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-70 Steering-gear control systems. (a) Each power-driven steering-gear system must be provided with at least one steering-gear control system. (b) The main...

  1. Impact of feedback torque level on perceived comfort and control in steer-by-wire systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.; Martens, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Steer-by-Wire systems enable designers to offer completely personalized steering feel to drivers, unlike existing steering systems that offer limited or no personalization. In this paper we focus on feedback torque level, a significant factor for steering feel. Earlier studies indicate that the pref

  2. Dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system with accumulator in load-haul-dump vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠炯; 何清华; 柳波

    2004-01-01

    Using hydraulic power steering system of model EIMCO 922 load-haul-dump vehicle as a simulation example, the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system in load-haul-dump vehicle were simulated and discussed with SIMULINK software and hydraulic control theory. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system are improved obviously by using bladder accumulator, the hydraulic power steering system of model EIMCO 922 load-haul-dump vehicle generates vibration at the initial stage under the normal steering condition of pulse input, and its static response time is 0.25 s shorter than that without bladder accumulator. Under the normal steering working condition, the capacity of steering accumulator for absorbing pulse is directly proportional to the cross section area of connecting pipeline, and inversely proportional to the length of connecting pipeline. At the same time, the precharge pressure of nitrogen in steering accumulator should be 60%- 80% of the rated minimum working pressure of hydraulic power steering system. Under the abnormal steering working condition, the steering cylinder piston may obtain higher motion velocity, and the dynamic response velocity of hydraulic power steering system can be increased by reducing the pressure drop of hydraulic pipelines between the accumulator and steering cylinder and by increasing the rated pressure of hydraulic power steering system, but the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system in load-haul-dump vehicle have nothing to do with the precharge pressure of nitrogen in steering accumulator.

  3. Application of H infinite control to ship steering system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Because the general object of ship steering control system is singular, the state of rudder force and the state of disturbance are separated, and the generalized yaw output disturbance is obtained. Furthermore, singular system control problem of ship yaw and sway coupled system is transferred into nonsingular standard control problem. Then according to the linear fractional denoting algorithm of the rational function parameter perturbation system, the Linear Fractional Transform (LFT) model of yaw and sway coupled motion is solved, which is used to design the ship steering robust control system. For the ship steering system with the uncertain parameters, the robust control law is designed based on H∞μ-synthesis. And the robust performance of the system is analyzed and the simulation validation is made. Simulation results show that the designed control system has excellent control effect and robustness.

  4. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  5. Study on Characteristic of Electric Power Assist Steering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许镇琳; 王豪; 尚喆; 张海华; 王家军

    2003-01-01

    A pinion-type electric power steering (EPS) equipped on a sedan is reached in this paper. A three-freedom dynamic model of this system is created. The variables affecting assist character is analyzed. The formulas of simpled steering resistance force and the relationship between assist gain and vehicle speed are presented for the first time. Assist character is found based on the parameters of a sedan at last. This assist character is fit for the control rule of the EPS system through analyzing this character. The assist character figure offers reference for system design and control. Furthermore, this research method has generality for assist character of different kinds of vehicles.

  6. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  7. Proportional directional valve based automatic steering system for tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yi LIU; Jing-quan TAN; En-rong MAO; Zheng-he SONG; Zhong-xiang ZHU‡

    2016-01-01

    Most automatic steering systems for large tractors are designed with hydraulic systems that run on either constant flow or constant pressure. Such designs are limited in adaptability and applicability. Moreover, their control valves can unload in the neutral position and eventually lead to serious hydraulic leakage over long operation periods. In response to the problems noted above, a multifunctional automatic hydraulic steering circuit is presented. The system design is composed of a 5-way-3-position proportional directional valve, two pilot-controlled check valves, a pressure-compensated directional valve, a pressure-compensated flow regulator valve, a load shuttle valve, and a check valve, among other components. It is adaptable to most open-center systems with constant flow supply and closed-center systems with load feedback. The design maintains the lowest pressure under load feedback and stays at the neutral position during unloading, thus meeting the requirements for steering. The steering controller is based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) running on a 51-microcontroller-unit master control chip. An experimental platform is developed to establish the basic characteristics of the system subject to stepwise inputs and sinusoi-dal tracking. Test results show that the system design demonstrates excellent control accuracy, fast response, and negligible leak during long operation periods.

  8. Shoulder muscle forces during driving: Sudden steering can load the rotator cuff beyond its repair limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Petros; Prinold, Joe A I; Bull, Anthony M J

    2015-10-01

    Driving is one of the most common everyday tasks and the rotator cuff muscles are the primary shoulder stabilisers. Muscle forces during driving are not currently known, yet knowledge of these would influence important clinical advice such as return to activities after surgery. The aim of this study is to quantify shoulder and rotator cuff muscle forces during driving in different postures. A musculoskeletal modelling approach is taken, using a modified driving simulator in combination with an upper limb musculoskeletal model (UK National Shoulder Model). Motion data and external force vectors were model inputs and upper limb muscle and joint forces were the outputs. Comparisons of the predicted glenohumeral joint forces were compared to in vivo literature values, with good agreement demonstrated (61 SD 8% body weight mean peak compared to 60 SD 1% body weight mean peak). High muscle activation was predicted in the rotator cuff muscles; particularly supraspinatus (mean 55% of the maximum and up to 164 SD 27 N). This level of loading is up to 72% of mean failure strength for supraspinatus repairs, and could therefore be dangerous for some cases. Statistically significant and large differences are shown to exist in the joint and muscle forces for different driving positions as well as steering with one or both hands (up to 46% body weight glenohumeral joint force). These conclusions should be a key consideration in rehabilitating the shoulder after surgery, preventing specific upper limb injuries and predicting return to driving recommendations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Complex Education Systems: From Steering Change to Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The theories and approaches of steering/monitoring a process of change within education systems have evolved over the last 20 years or so as a result of many factors such as globalisation and decentralisation, a faster pace of change, increasing expectations and demands from various stakeholders (parents, employers, teacher unions, etc.) and the…

  10. Study on a New Steering Mechanism for Point-the-Bit Rotary Steerable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel steering mechanism embedded in a point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS for oilfield exploitation. The new steering mechanism adopts a set of universal joints to alleviate the high alternative strain on drilling mandrel and employs a specially designed planetary gear small tooth number difference (PGSTD to achieve directional steering. Its principle and characteristics are explained and examined through a series of analyses. First, the eccentric displacement vector of the offset point on the drilling mandrel is formulated and kinematic solutions are established. Next, structural design for the new steering mechanism is addressed. Then, procedures and program architectures for simulating offset state of the drilling mandrel and motion trajectory of the whole steering mechanism are presented. After that, steering motion simulations of the new steering mechanism for both 2D and 3D well trajectories are then performed by combining LabVIEW and SolidWorks. Finally, experiments on the steering motion control of the new steering mechanism prototype are carried out. The simulations and experiments reveal that the steering performance of the new steering mechanism is satisfied. The research can provide good guidance for further research and engineering application of the point-the-bit RSS.

  11. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  12. EVALUATION OF A CONCEPTUAL VEHICLE STEERING SYSTEM FOR INDEPENDENT WHEEL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard BUCHALIK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief description of an unconventional steering system involving electronic stability control and its influence on vehicle motion. The proposed configuration enables individual changes in steering angle for each single wheel, in contrast to the mechanical linkage solution. An analysis of vehicle behaviour during emergency braking on a heterogeneous surface is conducted, especially with regard to the undesirable rotation of the vehicle body. The benefits of using this active steering system, implemented in the steer-by-wire mode, are characterized, while the problems for further consideration and the potential benefits of such a solution are described.

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Hydraulic Power Steering System with Variable Ratio Rack and Pinion Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nong; Wang, Miao

    A comprehensive mathematical model of a typical hydraulic power steering system equipped with variable ratio rack and pinion gear is developed. The steering system’s dynamic characteristics are investigated and its forced vibrations are compared with those obtained from a counterpart system with a constant ratio rack and pinion gear. The modeling details of the mechanism subsystem, hydraulic supply lines subsystem and the rotary spool valve subsystem are provided and included in the integrated steering system model. The numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of the nonlinear parametric steering system. From the comparison between simulated results and the experimental ones, it is shown that the model accurately integrates the boost characteristics of the rotary spool valve which is the key component of hydraulic power steering system. The variable ratio rack-pinion gear behaviors significantly differently from its constant ratio counterpart does. It significantly affects not only the system natural frequencies but also reduces vibrations under constant rate and ramp torque steering inputs. The developed steering model produces valid predictions of the system’s behavior and therfore could assist engineers in the design and analysis of integrated steering systems.

  14. The Design of a Controller for the Steer-by-Wire System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se-Wook; Chae, Ho-Chol; Yun, Seok-Chan; Han, Chang-Soo

    Drive-by-Wire (DBW) technologies improve conventional vehicle performance and a Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system is one of the DBW technologies. The control algorithm of the SBW system was designed in this paper. To verify the control algorithm, the SBW system is modeled using the bond graph method. The first aim of the control algorithm is controlling the steering wheel assist motor to make the real vehicle's steering feel and for a vehicle designer to adjust the steering feel as he finds necessary. Therefore, torque map is designed to determine the steering wheel reactive torque. The second aim is controlling the front wheel assist motor to improve vehicle's maneuverability and stability by using understeer and oversteer propensity of a vehicle. Furthermore, high performance control algorithm is proposed in this paper and Active Roll Stability Control (ARSC) method is designed as one of the high performance control algorithm.

  15. Modeling of miner track system during steering motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 韩庆珏

    2015-01-01

    Equipment for deep sea mining has risen from a position of virtual non-existence to a major industrial significance and in deep sea bed mining, the miner is the key equipment of the whole system that charges with the most complex and dangerous task. Evaluation of trafficability for tracked vehicles for deep sea mining is essential. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in a wide range of modern applications. These applications are highly specific and substitutes are inferior or unknown. One possible source of the REE could be the poly-metallic nodule, at present explored in the tropical part of the Pacific Ocean. In developing miners of high performance, dynamic behaviour should be investigated under various traveling conditions. The mechanics of tracked vehicles is of continuing interest to organizations and agencies that specify design and operate tracked vehicles. Most works done are on the complete track vehicle system but in this work the research activity is aimed only at the track system with the basic aim of optimizing the track system design so that it can be manufactured by using the minimum resources. Equations and models are developed for the track system of a miner during steering motion. These equations and models could further be used for design optimization of the track system.

  16. Multiobjective Optimization of Steering Mechanism for Rotary Steering System Using Modified NSGA-II and Fuzzy Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated design process of gear train, optimization is a significant approach to improve design efficiency. However, the design of gear train is a complex multiobjective optimization with mixed continuous-discrete variables under numerous nonlinear constraints, and conventional optimization algorithms are not suitable to deal with such optimization problems. In this paper, based on the established dynamic model of steering mechanism for rotary steering system, the key component of which is a planetary gear set with teeth number difference, the optimization problem of steering mechanism is formulated to achieve minimum dynamic responses and outer diameter by optimizing structural parameters under geometric, kinematic, and strength constraints. An optimization procedure based on modified NSGA-II by incorporating dynamic crowding distance strategies and fuzzy set theory is applied to the multiobjective optimization. For comparative purpose, NSGA-II is also employed to obtain Pareto optimal set, and dynamic responses of original and optimized designs are compared. The results show the optimized design has better dynamic responses with minimum outer diameter and the response decay decreases faster. The optimization procedure is feasible to the design of gear train, and this study can provide guidance for designer at the preliminary design phase of mechanical structures with gear train.

  17. Steering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeffer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents basic principles as well as advanced concepts of the computational modeling of steering systems. Moreover, the book includes the components and functionalities of modern steering system, which are presented comprehensively and in a practical way. The book is written by more than 15 leading experts from the automotive industry and its components suppliers. The target audience primarily comprises practicing engineers, developers, researchers as well as graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  18. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  19. Fault Risk Assessment of Underwater Vehicle Steering System Based on Virtual Prototyping and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Deyu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the risks of steering system faults in underwater vehicles is a human-machine-environment (HME systematic safety field that studies faults in the steering system itself, the driver’s human reliability (HR and various environmental conditions. This paper proposed a fault risk assessment method for an underwater vehicle steering system based on virtual prototyping and Monte Carlo simulation. A virtual steering system prototype was established and validated to rectify a lack of historic fault data. Fault injection and simulation were conducted to acquire fault simulation data. A Monte Carlo simulation was adopted that integrated randomness due to the human operator and environment. Randomness and uncertainty of the human, machine and environment were integrated in the method to obtain a probabilistic risk indicator. To verify the proposed method, a case of stuck rudder fault (SRF risk assessment was studied. This method may provide a novel solution for fault risk assessment of a vehicle or other general HME system.

  20. Evaluation of Potential Usage of Incremental-Type Rotary Encoder Application for Angle Sensing in Steering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Kaleg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of a steering system is that the driver can change vehicle trajectory in accordance with the desired direction.  Power steering has become a standard feature in automobile.  It provides assisting power when the driver turns the steering wheel. The well-known power steering types include; Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS, Electro - Hydraulic Power Steering (EHPS, and Electric Power Steering (EPS. EHPS or EPS uses an Electronic Control Unit (ECU which is specific for each vehicle. The ECU should be able to regulate power of electric motor to provide corresponding assisting power for the steering wheel. Therefore ECU requires input signals, one of which is vehicle wheel angle that can be indicated from the vehicle steering wheel angle. Incremental type of Rotary Encoder (RE is used in steering angle sensor on a minibus. RE specification used was 60 pulses per rotation and the minibus steering transmission specification is 3.5 round of right wheel off angle to the left wheel off angle. So we get the RE angular resolution 6ºper pulse and 105 number of pulses to half of the steering transmission ratio. Repeatability then tested against to a steering angle counter module. Testing is done with a test cycle consisting of 3 repetitions: condition center of the steering wheel, the steering wheel is turned to full right, then to the full left, then back to the right up to the steering wheel center. The results obtained 2 pulses deviation, or equivalent to 12º of steering angle.

  1. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  2. Robust H2/H∞ Control for the Electrohydraulic Steering System of a Four-Wheel Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To shorten the steer diameter and to improve the maneuverability flexibility of a construction vehicle, four wheels’ steering system is presented. This steering system consists of mechanical-electrical-hydraulic assemblies. Its diagram and principle are depicted in detail. Then the mathematical models are derived step by step, including the whole vehicle model and the hydraulic route model. Considering the nonlinear and time-varying uncertainty of the steering system, robust H2/H∞ controller is put forward to guarantee both the system performance and the robust stability. The H∞ norm of the sensitive function from the parameter perturbation of the hydraulic system to the yaw velocity of the vehicle is taken as the evaluating index of the robustness and the H2 norm of the transfer function from the external disturbance to the steering angle of the wheel as the index of linear quadratic Gaussian. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme was superior to classical PID controller and can guarantee both the control performance and the robustness of the steering system.

  3. Volume monogamy of quantum steering ellipsoids for multiqubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuming; Milne, Antony; Hall, Michael J. W.; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2016-10-01

    The quantum steering ellipsoid can be used to visualize 2-qubit states, and thus provides a generalization of the Bloch picture for the single qubit. Recently, a monogamy relation for the volumes of steering ellipsoids has been derived for pure 3-qubit states and shown to be stronger than the celebrated Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality. We first demonstrate the close connection between this volume monogamy relation and the classification of pure 3-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication. We then show that this monogamy relation does not hold for general mixed 3-qubit states and derive a weaker monogamy relation that does hold for such states. We also prove a volume monogamy relation for pure 4-qubit states (further conjectured to hold for the mixed case), and generalize our 3-qubit inequality to n qubits. Finally, we study the effect of noise on the quantum steering ellipsoid and find that the volume of any 2-qubit state is nonincreasing when the state is exposed to arbitrary local noise. This implies that any volume monogamy relation for a given class of multiqubit states remains valid under the addition of local noise. We investigate this quantitatively for the experimentally relevant example of isotropic noise.

  4. Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of Electric Power Steering Systems Using Dedicated Finite Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, François; Ferraris, Guy; Guingand, Michèle; Vaujany, Jean-Pierre De

    During the last decade, many new technical solutions dedicated to the comfort of automotive vehicle's drivers have raised, like Electrical Power Steering (EPS). To fulfill the more and more demanding requirements in terms of vibration and acoustics, the dynamic behavior of the whole steering is studied. The system is divided into dedicated finite elements (FE) describing the whole steering. The stress was first put on the gears models (worm gear and rack-and-pinion) and their anti-backlash systems as they have been identified as potential vibration sources. Mechanical non-linearities (clearances, non-linear stiffness) of the mechanical system are taken into account in these models. Then, this model allows simulating the transient response of the system to an input excitation. Each developed element is validated using a fitted experimental test bench. Then, the general model is correlated the same way. Hence models can be used to study the dynamic behavior of EPS systems or sub-systems.

  5. Networked Control System for the Guidance of a Four-Wheel Steering Agricultural Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Paciência Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A current trend in the agricultural area is the development of mobile robots and autonomous vehicles for precision agriculture (PA. One of the major challenges in the design of these robots is the development of the electronic architecture for the control of the devices. In a joint project among research institutions and a private company in Brazil a multifunctional robotic platform for information acquisition in PA is being designed. This platform has as main characteristics four-wheel propulsion and independent steering, adjustable width, span of 1,80 m in height, diesel engine, hydraulic system, and a CAN-based networked control system (NCS. This paper presents a NCS solution for the platform guidance by the four-wheel hydraulic steering distributed control. The control strategy, centered on the robot manipulators control theory, is based on the difference between the desired and actual position and considering the angular speed of the wheels. The results demonstrate that the NCS was simple and efficient, providing suitable steering performance for the platform guidance. Even though the simplicity of the NCS solution developed, it also overcame some verified control challenges in the robot guidance system design such as the hydraulic system delay, nonlinearities in the steering actuators, and inertia in the steering system due the friction of different terrains.

  6. Controller Design for Electric Power Steering System Using T-S Fuzzy Model Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Xue-Ping Zhao; Jie Chen

    2009-01-01

    Pressure ripples in electric power steering (EPS) systems can be caused by the phase lag between the driver's steering torque and steer angle, the nonlinear frictions, and the disturbances from road and sensor noise especially during high-frequency maneuvers. This paper investigates the use of the robust fuzzy control method for actively reducing pressure ripples for EPS systems. Remarkable progress on steering maneuverability is achieved. The EPS dynamics is described with an eight-order nonlinear state-space model and approximated by a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model with time-varying delays and external disturbances. A stabilization approach is then presented for nonlinear time-delay systems through fuzzy state feedback controller in parallel distributed compensation (PDC) structure. The closed-loop stability conditions of EPS system with the fuzzy controller are parameterized in terms of the linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem. Simulations and experiments using the proposed robust fuzzy controller and traditional PID controller have been carried out for EPS systems. Both the simulation and experiment results show that the proposed fuzzy controller can reduce the torque ripples and allow us to have a good steering feeling and stable driving.

  7. Stochastic Modelling Of The Repairable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejczak Karol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available All reliability models consisting of random time factors form stochastic processes. In this paper we recall the definitions of the most common point processes which are used for modelling of repairable systems. Particularly this paper presents stochastic processes as examples of reliability systems for the support of the maintenance related decisions. We consider the simplest one-unit system with a negligible repair or replacement time, i.e., the unit is operating and is repaired or replaced at failure, where the time required for repair and replacement is negligible. When the repair or replacement is completed, the unit becomes as good as new and resumes operation. The stochastic modelling of recoverable systems constitutes an excellent method of supporting maintenance related decision-making processes and enables their more rational use.

  8. Interactive steering of supercomputing simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from square cylinder; Supercomputer wo mochiita steering system ni yoru kakuchu kara hoshasareru kurikion no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokono, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Precision Engineering Lab.

    1995-03-25

    This paper describes extensive computer simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from a square cylinder using an interactive steering supercomputing simulation system. The unsteady incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method using a steering system which can visualize the numerical process during calculation and alter the numerical parameter. Using the fluctuating surface pressure of the square cylinder, the farfield sound pressure is calculated based on Lighthill-Curle`s equation. The results are compared with those of low noise wind tunnel experiments, and good agreement is observed for the peak spectrum frequency of the sound pressure level. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  9. A Vehicle Haptic Steering by Wire System Based on High Gain GPI Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle steering by wire (SBW haptic system based on high gain generalized proportional integral (GPI observers is introduced. The observers are considered for the estimation of dynamic perturbations that are present at the tire and steering wheel. To ensure efficient tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle, the estimated perturbations are on line canceled. As to provide a haptic interface with the driver, the estimated dynamic effects at the steering rack are fed back to the steering wheel, yielding a master-slave haptic system with bilateral communication. For implementation purposes few sensors and minimum knowledge of the dynamic model are required, which is a major advantage compared to other approaches. Only position tracking errors are fed back, while all other signals are estimated by the high gain GPI observers. The scheme is robust to uncertainty on the input gain and cancels dynamic perturbation effects such as friction and aligning forces on the tire. Experimental results are presented on a prototype platform.

  10. NIU's Kinder, Gentler, Housing Repair System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillis, Linda; Montgomery, Rogene

    1999-01-01

    Explains the effective use of a centralized housing-repair request system at Northern Illinois University that has improved customer service and increased fiscal accountability. Describes the system and assesses of its effectiveness. (GR)

  11. Method of steering a vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Penna, M.; Van Passen, M.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle and method of steering such a vehicle, wherein the vehicle has a steering wheel and steerable driving wheels and a transfer system for converting steering wheel actions to a steering angle of the steerable driving wheels, and wherein the transfer system is provided with a predefined stiffnes

  12. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  13. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  14. Research on Vehicle Control Technology Using Four-Wheel Independent Steering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The enhancement of vehicle handling stability and maneuverability through active and independent rear wheels control is presented. Firstly, the configuration of four-wheel independent steering prototype vehicle is introduced briefly. Then the concrete overall design of the electronic controllers of four wheel independent steering system (4WIS) is formulated in details. Under the control strategy of zero sideslip angle at mass center, the mathematical model of 4WIS is established to deduce the equations of separated rear wheel steering angles. According to these equations, simulation analysis for 4WIS vehicle performances is finished to show that 4WIS vehicle can improve the maneuverability greatly at low speed and increase the handling stability at high speed. Finally, the road test of 4WIS vehicle has performed to verify the correctness of simulation and show that compared with the conventional four wheel steering (4WS) vehicle, the 4WIS vehicle not only improves the kinematical harmony but also decreases steering resistance and lighten abrasion of tires.

  15. Simplified planar model of a car steering system with rack and pinion and McPherson suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapczyk, J.; Kucybała, P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis and optimization of steering system with rack and pinion and McPherson suspension using spatial model and equivalent simplified planar model. The dimension of the steering linkage that give minimum steering error can be estimated using planar model. The steering error is defined as the difference between the actual angle made by the outer front wheel during steering manoeuvers and the calculated angle for the same wheel based on the Ackerman principle. For a given linear rack displacement, a specified steering arms angular displacements are determined while simultaneously ensuring best transmission angle characteristics (i) without and (ii) with imposing linear correlation between input and output. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the proposed method.

  16. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  17. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  18. Autonomous collision avoidance system by combined control of steering and braking using geometrically optimised vehicular trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Isogai, Juzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an autonomous obstacle avoidance system not only by braking but also by steering, as one of the active safety technologies to prevent traffic accidents. The proposed system prevents the vehicle from colliding with a moving obstacle like a pedestrian jumping out from the roadside. In the proposed system, to avoid the predicted colliding position based on constant-velocity obstacle motion assumption, the avoidance trajectory is derived as connected two identical arcs. The system then controls the vehicle autonomously by the combined control of the braking and steering systems. In this paper, the proposed system is examined by real car experiments and its effectiveness is shown from the results of the experiments.

  19. Satellite guidance systems in agriculture: experimental comparison between EZ-Steer/RTK and AUTOPILOT/EGNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D’Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research has been conducted using two different satellite-guidance devices and two different correction systems of the GPS signal: the EZ-Steer/RTK and Autopilot/EGNOS. The machines used in the tests were the tractor New Holland T7060, the rotary harrow Alpego DG-400 and the burier Forigo DG-45, in order to determine which of the two systems ensured the best quality of work. On the basis of the results obtained it is clear that the EZ-Steer/RTK system, guarantees a lower stability of the theoretical trajectory compared to the Autopilot/EGNOS system, above 1,77%. From the elaboration of data of the two guidance systems behavior to manage the only width of transposition, it is observed that the EZ-Steer/RTK system is able to guarantee a better hold of the line compared to the Autopilot/EGNOS system, which provides a mistake of 164 cm on the total width of transposition and 2 cm on the mean value. In the matter of the normalized transposition surfaces, the Autopilot/EGNOS system ensures a better work quality.

  20. A microwave tomography system using a tunable mirror for beam steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physic (United States); Tang, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Paladhi, P. Roy; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Microwave tomography is a fast-growing technique in the fields of NDE and medical industry. This paper presents a new microwave tomography system which reduces the complexities of conventional microwave imaging systems by utilizing a reconfigurable mirror, a tunable reflectarray antenna. In order to build a tunable reflectarray with beam steering capabilities, the unit cell characteristics should dynamically alter. Modelling and experimental results of a single unit cell are presented in this work.

  1. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P carcass characteristics did not differ (P ≥ 0.22) among treatments. In summary, EW steers provided a high-concentrate diet in drylot for at least 90 d were heavier at the time of normal weaning than NW steers and EW steers grazed on ryegrass pastures for 60 to 90 d and supplemented with concentrate at 1.0% of BW. Feeding a high-concentrate diet immediately after EW enhanced the muscle PPARγ expression but did not enhance marbling at slaughter.

  2. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-07-01

    Computational steering has revolutionized the traditional workflow in high performance computing (HPC) applications. The standard workflow that consists of preparation of an application’s input, running of a simulation, and visualization of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation application at run-time. It allows modification of application-defined control parameters at run-time using various user-steering applications. In this project, we propose a computational steering framework for HPC environments that provides an innovative solution and easy-to-use platform, which allows users to connect and interact with running application(s) in real-time. This framework uses RealityGrid as the underlying steering library and adds several enhancements to the library to enable steering support for Blue Gene systems. Included in the scope of this project is the development of a scalable and efficient steering relay server that supports many-to-many connectivity between multiple steered applications and multiple steering clients. Steered applications can range from intermediate simulation and physical modeling applications to complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications or advanced visualization applications. The Blue Gene supercomputer presents special challenges for remote access because the compute nodes reside on private networks. This thesis presents an implemented solution and demonstrates it on representative applications. Thorough implementation details and application enablement steps are also presented in this thesis to encourage direct usage of this framework.

  3. Frequency Invariant Beam Steering for Short-Pulse Systems with a Rotman Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lambrecht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for beam steering of high-voltage transient signals for HPEM-systems (High Power Electro Magnetic is presented. The inherent capability of the Rotman lens to provide true time delays is used to develop a prototype beam steering device for an antielectronics HPEM system in the frequency range from 350 MHz to 5 GHz. Results of analytical calculations, simulations, and measurements from a hardware prototype are presented. The detailed mechanical setup of the Rotman lens is presented. Additionally the output pulses are investigated when inputting a Gaussian-like transient signal. Then time domain measures of quality (full width at half maximum, ringing, delay spread, maximum of transfer function are investigated for these output transients, and the simulation and measurement results are compared. A concluding analysis of the realizable time domain array pattern shows the radiated pulse form.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of integrated steering and braking control for vehicle active safety system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Active chassis systems like braking, steering, suspension and propulsion systems are increasingly entering the market. In addition to their basic functions, these systems may be used for functions of integrated vehicle dynamics control. An experimental platform which aims to study the integration control of steering and braking is designed due to the research requirement of vehicle active safety control strategy in this paper. A test vehicle which is equipped with the systems of steer-by-wire and brake-bywire is provided and the Autobox, combined with Matlab/simulink and MSCCarsim, is used to fulfill the RCP (Rapid Control Prototyping and HIL (Hardware-in-loop. The seven-freedom vehicle model is constructed first and the approach of vehicle parameters estimation based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed. Testing the vehicle state through the sensor has its own disadvantage that the cost is high and easily affected by environment outside. To find a actual method of receiving the vehicle state using the ready-made sensors in vehicle, the researchers put forward various estimation method, of which have advantages and disadvantages. Based on the above, this paper applies the EKF to estimate the vehicle state, making the actual estimation come true. The primary control methods and controller designment is carried out to prove the validation of the platform.

  5. 基于主动转向干预的EPS系统转向盘力矩突变修正策略%Correction Strategy of Steering Wheel Torque for EPS System Based on Intervention of Active Steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建伟; 魏民祥

    2011-01-01

    在研究融合主动转向功能的电动助力转向系统实现原理的基础上,分析转向系统的力矩和角位移传递特性.针对主动转向干预时转向盘力矩发生突变的问题,提出一种适用于全车速范围的助力电机前馈助力修正策略.为验证所提出的前馈助力修正策略的修正效果,进行主动转向干预时转向盘力矩阶跃仿真试验.仿真结果表明:该策略有效地削弱了伴随主动转向干预同时出现的转向盘力矩突变,且在高速时该修正策略仍然有效,改善了主动转向干预时转向系统的转向路感.%Implementation principle of an electric power steering (EPS) system integrated with active steering function is researched based on which transfer characteristics of torque and angle displacement for steering system are analyzed. To avoid mutations of steering wheel torque during the interference of active steering, a feed-forward assistant torque correction strategy for assist motor is presented? which can be used in the whole speed range. To verify the performance of the proposed correction strategy, step simulation tests of steering wheel torque during the interference of active steering are carried out. Simulation results indicate that mutations of steering wheel torque are reduced, the correction strategy can still be effective at high speed, and steering sense of the steering system during the interference of active steering is improved.

  6. 49 CFR 571.203 - Standard No. 203; Impact protection for the driver from the steering control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for steering control systems that will minimize chest, neck, and facial injuries to the driver as... does not apply to vehicles that conform to the frontal barrier crash requirements (S5.1) of Standard No...

  7. Stable motion of transport vehicles with allowance for the steering system vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobas, V.I.; Verbitskii, V.G. [S.P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-10-01

    A new mathematical model is developed for the plane-parallel motion of a system consisting of the frame of a vehicle and a steering system that controls the motion. The stability of straight-line motion is investigated. In most studies on the stability of the straight-line motion of a motor vehicle and a tractor-trailer unit it is assumed that in disturbed motion the driver keeps the steerable wheels in a neutral (unturned) position: the angle {theta} through which the wheels are turned about the axis of the steering knuckle pivot is zero. The validity of the assumption that {theta} = 0 can be argued in only one way, i.e., the torsional stiffness {Kappa} of the steering system is fairly high: if {Kappa} {yields} {infinity}, then {theta} = 0. For finite values of {Kappa} we have {theta} = 0. In that case the variable {theta} is determined by its differential equation, i.e., the number of degrees of freedom of the vehicle increases by one. The dynamic behavior of vehicles in this formulation is considered in this paper.

  8. Using Stars to Align a Steered Laser System for Cosmic Ray Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Harry; Wiencke, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are the highest energy cosmic particles with kinetic energy above 1018eV . UHECRs are detected from the air shower of secondary particles and UV florescence that results from interaction with the atmosphere. A high power UV laser beam can be used to simulate the optical signature of a UHCER air shower. The Global Light System (GLS) is a planned network of ground-based light sources including lasers to support the planned space-based Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). A portable prototype GLS laser station has been constructed at the Colorado School of Mines. Currently the laser system uses reference targets on the ground but stars can be used to better align the beam by providing a complete hemisphere of targets. In this work, a CCD camera is used to capture images of known stars through the steering head optics. The images are analyzed to find the steering head coordinates of the target star. The true coordinates of the star are calculated from the location and time of observation. A universal adjustment for the steering head is determined from the differences between the two pairs of coordinates across multiple stars. This laser system prototype will also be used for preflight tests of the ESUO Super Pressure Balloon mission.

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  10. Fault-Tolerant Control of the Road Wheel Subsystem in a Steer-By-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a fault-tolerant steer-by-wire road wheel control system. With dual motor and dual microcontroller architecture, this system has the capability to tolerate single-point failures without degrading the control system performance. The arbitration bus, mechanical arrangement of motors, and the developed control algorithm allow the system to reconfigure itself automatically in the event of a single-point fault, and assure a smooth reconfiguration process. Both simulation and experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control system.

  11. Autonomous Coil Alignment System Using Fuzzy Steering Control for Electric Vehicles with Dynamic Wireless Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous coil alignment system (ACAS using fuzzy steering control is proposed for vehicles with dynamic wireless charging. The misalignment between the power receiver coil and power transmitter coil is determined based on the voltage difference between two coils installed on the front-left/front-right of the power receiver coil and is corrected through autonomous steering using fuzzy control. The fuzzy control is chosen over other control methods for implementation in ACAS due to the nonlinear characteristic between voltage difference and lateral misalignment distance, as well as the imprecise and constantly varying voltage readings from sensors. The operational validity and feasibility of the ACAS are verified through simulation, where the vehicle equipped with ACAS is able to align with the power transmitter in the road majority of the time during operation, which also implies achieving better wireless power delivery.

  12. STUDY ON FUZZY SELF-LEARNING CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SHIP STEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing; WU Xiu-heng; ZOU Zao-jian

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy control has shown success in some application areas and emerged as an alternative to some conventional control schemes. There are also some drawbacks in this approach, for example it is hard to justify the choice of fuzzy controller parameters and control rules, and control precision is low, and so on. Fuzzy control is developing towards self-learning and adaptive. The ship steering motion is a nonlinear, coupling, time-delay complicated system. How to control it effectively is the problem that many scholars are studying. In this paper, based on the repeated control of the robot, the self-learning arithmetic was worked out. The arithmetic was realized in fuzzy logic way and used in cargo steering. It is the first time for the arithmetic to be used in cargo steering. Our simulation results show that the arithmetic is effective and has several potential advantages over conventional fuzzy control.This work lays a foundation in modeling and analyzing the fuzzy learning control system.

  13. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep......, or reducing the mean duration of system downtime. Example applications to an electrical substation system demonstrate the use of the formulas developed in the paper....

  14. High-gradient microelectromechanical system quadrupole electromagnets for particle beam focusing and steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Harrison

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in microelectromechanical system (MEMS fabrication techniques have enabled the batch-fabrication of quadrupole MEMS electromagnets producing 100 mT-scale field across sub-mm gaps with the potential for transformational advances in the field of compact high performance charged particle focusing and steering optics. The footprint of these in-vacuum focusing and steering optics can be as small as 3  mm×3  mm×0.5  mm. The low electromagnet impedance (58  mΩ, 32 nH per pole facilitates power-efficient operation and continuous or low duty cycle operation, and the individually controlled electromagnets allow combined dipole-quadrupole fields. Here we report on an experiment where these miniature devices have been used to focus and steer a 34 keV electron beam from a DC photogun, demonstrating the first application of magnetic MEMS to particle beam focusing.

  15. The analysis of diagnostics possibilities of the Dual- Drive electric power steering system using diagnostics scanner and computer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Dobaj, K.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of diagnostics possibilities of electric power steering system using computer diagnostics scanner. Several testing attempts were performed. There were analyzed the changes of torque moment exerted on steering wheel by the driver and the changes of the angle of rotation steering wheel accompanying them. The tests were conducted in variable conditions comprising wheel load and the friction coefficient of tyre road interaction. Obtained results enabled the analysis of the influence of changeable operations conditions, possible to acquire in diagnostics scanners of chosen parameters of electric power steering system. Moreover, simulation model of operation, electric drive power steering system with the use of the Matlab simulation software was created. The results of the measurements obtained in road conditions served to verify this model. Subsequently, model response to inputs change of the device was analyzed and its reaction to various constructional and exploitative parameters was checked. The entirety of conducted work constitutes a step to create a diagnostic monitor possible to use in self-diagnosis of electric power steering system.

  16. Technical note: A procedure to estimate glucose requirements of an activated immune system in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvidera, S K; Horst, E A; Abuajamieh, M; Mayorga, E J; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Baumgard, L H

    2016-11-01

    Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein steers (148 ± 9 kg; = 15) were jugular catheterized bilaterally and assigned to 1 of 3 i.v.

  17. Integrated Computational System for Aerodynamic Steering and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1999-01-01

    In February of 1994, an effort from the Fluid Dynamics and Information Sciences Divisions at NASA Ames Research Center with McDonnel Douglas Aerospace Company and Stanford University was initiated to develop, demonstrate, validate and disseminate automated software for numerical aerodynamic simulation. The goal of the initiative was to develop a tri-discipline approach encompassing CFD, Intelligent Systems, and Automated Flow Feature Recognition to improve the utility of CFD in the design cycle. This approach would then be represented through an intelligent computational system which could accept an engineer's definition of a problem and construct an optimal and reliable CFD solution. Stanford University's role focused on developing technologies that advance visualization capabilities for analysis of CFD data, extract specific flow features useful for the design process, and compare CFD data with experimental data. During the years 1995-1997, Stanford University focused on developing techniques in the area of tensor visualization and flow feature extraction. Software libraries were created enabling feature extraction and exploration of tensor fields. As a proof of concept, a prototype system called the Integrated Computational System (ICS) was developed to demonstrate CFD design cycle. The current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching and vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will (1) briefly review the technologies developed during 1995-1997 (2) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (4) describe the theory of our new

  18. Steering and evasion assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.; Desens, J.; Franke, U.; Gavrila, D.; Schäfers, L.; Ziegler, W.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steering and evasion assistance defines a new and future class of driver assistance systems to avoid an impending collision with other traffic participants. Dynamic and kinematic considerations reveal that an evasive steering maneuver has high potential for collision avoidance in many driving

  19. Consistent Steering System using SCTP for Bluetooth Scatternet Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaya, R.; Sadasivam, V.; Kanthavel, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wireless communication is the best way to convey information from source to destination with flexibility and mobility and Bluetooth is the wireless technology suitable for short distance. On the other hand a wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Using Bluetooth piconet wireless technique in sensor nodes creates limitation in network depth and placement. The introduction of Scatternet solves the network restrictions with lack of reliability in data transmission. When the depth of the network increases, it results in more difficulties in routing. No authors so far focused on the reliability factors of Scatternet sensor network's routing. This paper illustrates the proposed system architecture and routing mechanism to increase the reliability. The another objective is to use reliable transport protocol that uses the multi-homing concept and supports multiple streams to prevent head-of-line blocking. The results show that the Scatternet sensor network has lower packet loss even in the congestive environment than the existing system suitable for all surveillance applications.

  20. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Yang, Wenshu; Peng, Zhenming; Tang, Tao; Li, Zhijun

    2016-03-25

    In a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based fast steering mirror (FSM) tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs) are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM) to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS) of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  1. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a charge-coupled device (CCD-based fast steering mirror (FSM tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  2. Schedule Planning for Repairing Power Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Wei Lin; Chein-Jen Kang

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Taiwan is located in the tropical ocean areas. The strong typhoon in summer often causes the collapse of electric transmission towers and results in power outages that seriously affect peoples lives and industrial production. Approach: In light of this situation, this study aims to employ project management techniques of Theory of Constraints (TOC) to develop a practical TOC model to quickly repair the towers and restore power supplied system. Results: The actual applicatio...

  3. Fault Diagnosis of Automobile Crane Power Steering System Aided by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate an innovative application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES on the fault diagnosis of automobile crane hydraulic power steering (HPS system. Contents of Fe, Cu and Al were examined by ICP-AES in the oil samples of HPS system for four different mileages of Puyuan QY50H. The mileages were 2000-9000 km, 11000-19000 km, 21000-28000 km and 32000-40000 km separately. Database of major mental contents in automobile crane HPS system of Puyuan QY50H with different mileage were calibrated. Results showed that, major mental contents were increased with the increasing of driving mileage and the normal contents laid between two trend lines. Through the determination of mental contents in HPS oil sample and further compared them with the values in their database, we could not only evaluate the wear condition of automobile crane HPS system, but also helped to diagnose the faults without dissembled the problematic vehicle. The results further indicated that, in time maintenance, high quality and low cost reparation could be realized by the application of ICP-AES technology on fault diagnosis of automobile crane power steering system.

  4. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  5. Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

  6. Exploring the free-energy landscapes of biological systems with steered molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L Y

    2011-04-01

    We perform steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and use the Brownian dynamics fluctuation-dissipation-theorem (BD-FDT) to accurately compute the free-energy profiles for several biophysical processes of fundamental importance: hydration of methane and cations, binding of benzene to T4-lysozyme L99A mutant, and permeation of water through aquaglyceroporin. For each system, the center-of-mass of the small molecule (methane, ion, benzene, and water, respectively) is steered (pulled) at a given speed over a period of time, during which the system transitions from one macroscopic state/conformation (State A) to another one (State B). The mechanical work of pulling the system is measured during the process, sampling a forward pulling path. Then the reverse pulling is conducted to sample a reverse path from B back to A. Sampling a small number of forward and reverse paths, we are able to accurately compute the free-energy profiles for all the afore-listed systems that represent various important aspects of biological physics. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and/or other computational studies available in the literature.

  7. Two-axis Beam Steering Mirror Control system for Precision Pointing and Tracking Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulander, Klaus [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Precision pointing and tracking of laser beams is critical in numerous military and industrial applications. This is particularly true for systems requiring atmospheric beam propagation. Such systems are plagued by environmental influences which cause the optical signal to break up and wander. Example applications include laser communications, precision targeting, active imaging, chemical remote sensing, and laser vibrometry. The goal of this project is to build a beam steering system using a two-axis mirror to maintain precise pointing control. Ultimately, position control to 0.08% accuracy (40 {micro}rad) with a bandwidth of 200 Hz is desired. The work described encompasses evaluation of the instrumentation system and the subsequent design and implementation of an analog electronic controller for a two-axis mirror used to steer the beam. The controller operates over a wide temperature range, through multiple mirror resonances, and is independent of specific mirrors. The design was built and successfully fielded in a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory free-space optics experiment. All measurements and performance parameters are derived from measurements made on actual hardware that was built and field tested. In some cases, specific design details have been omitted that involve proprietary information pertaining to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory patent positions and claims. These omissions in no way impact the general validity of the work or concepts presented in this thesis.

  8. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  9. Research on Variable Transmission Ratio and Yaw Rate Control Strategy of Electric Forklift Steering-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the trans mission ratio characteristics of forklift steering-by-wire (SBW system, through the application of fuzzy control technology, the variable trans mission ratio function is designed based on the steering handle angle and vehicle speed, and simulation analysis of sinusoidal steering is done at low-speed and high-speed. Simulation results show that the fuzzy variable transmission ratio control can make forklift steering light & sensitive at low-speed and steering steady & heavy at high speed, also it can improve the operation stability and reduce the driver’s load. Discuss the relationship between yaw rate and forklift handling stability, propose the yaw rate feedback control strategy based on the fuzzy variable transmission ratio control, and design a fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller. Simulation results show that the SBW system based on the fuzzy variable trans mission ratio control with yaw rate feedback can accurately and quickly track the desired yaw rate, and reduce or even eliminate the overshoot phenomenon, improve the forklift dynamic performance.

  10. Investigation on a Power Coupling Steering System for Dual-Motor Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTV are widely used in the tracked vehicle industry due to the development of electric vehicle drive systems. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of insufficient propulsion motor torque in low-speed, small-radius steering and insufficient power in high-speed large-radius steering. In order to do this a new type of steering system with a coupling device is designed and a closed-loop control strategy based on speed is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The work done entails modeling and simulating the 2MDTV and the proposed control strategy in RecurDyn and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more torque and power in both steering cases compared to the 2MDTV without the coupling device, and the steering stability of the vehicle is improved by using the strategy based on speed.

  11. Application of tracking/steering systems on parallel computer SR2001/SR2201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru; Yoneyama, Nozomu; Tamura, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Michiya; Higashi, Sadanori [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Nagasawa, Mikio; Suzuki, Yoshio; Mukaide, Kohichi

    1998-03-01

    Parallel-distributed tracking/steering systems were implemented on a parallel computer Hitachi SR2001/SR2201 and a graphic workstation, which enable researchers to monitor the results of ongoing simulations visually and to control their parameters. These systems have been applied for CRIEPI`s simulation codes for buckling, free-surface flow, and urban heat environment. Hitachi`s parallel volume rendering software is incorporated into the systems, which visualizes data by simulation of light in 3D media. Various new functions which assist virtual simulation were also implemented, including parallel execution of more than one cases of analyses, synchronized play-back of video frames of laboratory experiments with corresponding numerical simulation, stereo graphics and real-time walk-through of numerical space. (author)

  12. Fuzzy Stabilization for Nonlinear Discrete Ship Steering Stochastic Systems Subject to State Variance and Passivity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jer Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems, a fuzzy controller design methodology is developed in this paper subject to state variance constraint and passivity constraint. According to fuzzy model based control technique, the nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems considered in this paper are represented by the discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models with multiplicative noise. Employing Lyapunov stability theory, upper bound covariance control theory, and passivity theory, some sufficient conditions are derived to find parallel distributed compensation based fuzzy controllers. In order to solve these sufficient conditions, an iterative linear matrix inequality algorithm is applied based on the linear matrix inequality technique. Finally, the fuzzy stabilization problem for nonlinear discrete ship steering stochastic systems is investigated in the numerical example to illustrate the feasibility and validity of proposed fuzzy controller design method.

  13. Robust controller design of four wheel steering systems using mu synthesis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, X.; McVey, B.D.; Tokar, R.L.

    1995-02-27

    In this paper, a linearized four wheel steering (4WS) system model is deduced and then modified into a form which is appropriate for applying Matlab {mu} Toolbox to design robust controller. Several important topics are discussed in detail, such as (1) how to make system set-up match Matlab {mu} Toolbox requirement, (2) how to select weights based on plant`s uncertainty, (3) how to solve controller discretization problem, and (4) how to adjust the system so that the conditions necessary for using a state-space formula to solve H{infinity} optimal (sub-optimal) problem and performing the Matlab {mu} Toolbox D--K iteration procedure are satisfied. Finally simulation results of robust controller and a PID controller are compared.

  14. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Online Computer Controlled Steering System for Navigation of a Teleoperated Agricultural Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes design, modeling, simulation, control, and implementation of teleoperated agricultural vehicle using intelligent technique. This vehicle can be used for ploughing, sowing, and soil moisture sensing. Online computer controlled steering system for a vehicle utilizing two independent drive wheels can be used to avoid obstacles and to improve the ability to resist external side forces. To control the steer angles of the nondriven wheels, the mathematical relationships between the drive wheel speeds and the steer angles of the nondriven wheels are used. A fuzzy logic controller is designed to change the drive wheel speeds and to achieve the desired steer angles. Online control of the agricultural vehicle is achieved from a remote place by means of Web Publishing Tool in LabVIEW. IR sensors in the vehicle are used to detect and to avoid the obstacles around. The developed steering angle control algorithm and fuzzy logic controller have been implemented in an agricultural vehicle which depicts that the vehicle performs its operation efficiently and reduces the manpower and becomes advantageous.

  15. Optimal Strategy for Inspection and Repair of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    A new strategy for inspection and repair of structural elements and systems is presented. The total cost of inspection and repair is minimized with the constraints that the reliability of elements and/or of the structural system are acceptable. The design variables are the time intervals between...... inspections and the quality of the inspections. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the strategy. The strategy can be used for any engineering system where inspection and repair are required....

  16. Effects of feeding system on growth performance, plasma biochemical components and hormones, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sung Chung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.

  17. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L

    1997-11-01

    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses.

  18. Design and Development of Labview Based Steering Wheel Angle Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional angle sensors can measure only 360°,but passenger car steering wheel turns through +/-720o (a total of 4 complete turns. In this paper we describe iGMR based steering wheel angle sensor implementation which can be used as a rotation sensor to measure +/- 720°.

  19. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  20. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all...

  1. Schedule Planning for Repairing Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Taiwan is located in the tropical ocean areas. The strong typhoon in summer often causes the collapse of electric transmission towers and results in power outages that seriously affect peoples lives and industrial production. Approach: In light of this situation, this study aims to employ project management techniques of Theory of Constraints (TOC to develop a practical TOC model to quickly repair the towers and restore power supplied system. Results: The actual application had verified that the research model could not only shorten the duration of work but also save the manpower and material expenses. Conclusion: It once again proved the excellent results of reparation operations by applying TOC to project management.

  2. Loophole-free quantum steering

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories 1-6. However, there still remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes - the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes - in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of "steering". The term steering was introduced by Schr\\"odinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system 7. Einstein called this "spooky action at a distance" 8. Steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests 9-11. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect w...

  3. Computational Steering with Reduced Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Computational Steering increases the understanding of relationships between the output of a simulation and its parametrized input, such as boundary conditions, physical parameters, or domain geometry. Steering relies on a running simulation which delivers results to a visualization system. However, many simulation codes cannot deliver the required interactive results. For the first time, this work investigates the use of surrogate models to augment computational steering approaches. Based...

  4. Incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Motte, L; Vogt, K; Jensen, Leif Panduro;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair.......The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair....

  5. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  6. Evaluation of an optical beam-position-monitor system with closed-loop steering capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissen, Mark; Rogers, Greg; Wood, William; Eisert, Dave; Kleman, K. J.; Winter, William; Höchst, Hartmut

    1994-08-01

    Imaging the synchrotron source profile onto the entrance slit of a monochromator provides a stable and reproducible energy calibration which is independent of the absolute position and drift of the electron beam. Potential electron-beam motions occurring during a fill result in a loss of flux through the beamline. We have implemented two independent beam position monitors which can be used as sensors to steer the vertical entrance mirror in order to maintain a maximum flux through a spherical grating varied line-spacing monochromator beamline. The system consists of a slotted plate photodiode which intercepts 2 mrad of synchrotron radiation next to the entrance mirror and a detector utilizing the photocurrents generated at the jaws of the entrance-slit assembly. Both monitors have a wide linear response range with a vertical position resolution of beam position monitors allows an easy check on the mechanical and thermal stability of the entrance optical system as well as on the reproducibility and long-term fluctuations of the electron-beam source during user shifts. We will discuss the performance of the optical beam-position-monitor system and its implementation as a sensor in a closed-loop feedback system to maintain maximum flux through the beamline.

  7. Modelling driver behaviour in the case of failures in a steer-by-wire system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.; Wewerinke, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt een bestuurdersmodel gepresenteerd dat weergeeft hoe een bestuurder reagerrtt op systeemfouten in een steer-by-wire tuursysteem. Calibratie en validatie vond plaats aan de hand van data van een rijsimulator experiment

  8. Reliability analysis of two unit parallel repairable industrial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Kumar Kakkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present a reliability and profit analysis of a two-dissimilar parallel unit system under the assumption that operative unit cannot fail after post repair inspection and replacement and there is only one repair facility. Failure and repair times of each unit are assumed to be uncorrelated. Using regenerative point technique various reliability characteristics are obtained which are useful to system designers and industrial managers. Graphical behaviors of mean time to system failure (MTSF and profit function have also been studied. In this paper, some important measures of reliability characteristics of a two non-identical unit standby system model with repair, inspection and post repair are obtained using regenerative point technique.

  9. Fuzzy Logic of Speed and Steering Control System for Three Dimensional Line Following of an Autonomous Vehicle

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Shailja

    2010-01-01

    ... This paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The controller incorporates a fuzzy logic [8] [9] approach for steering and speed control [37], a FL approach for ultrasound sensing and an overall expert system for guidance. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and transportability, i.e. any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test bed has been constructed in university of Cincinnati using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors. The speed and steering fuzzy logic controller is supervised through a multi-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a microcontroller interfaced with ultrasonic transducers. This micro-controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends distance information back to the fuzzy logic controller via the serial ...

  10. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  11. Targeting DNA-repair systems brings hopes to cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS researchers have recently raised a hypothesis to circumvent tumor resistance to radio- and chemo-therapy and to enhance the efficacy of DNAdamaging agents by interfering with DNA repair. "There are emerging anticancer therapeutic opportunities in targeting DNA-repair systems," they asserted.

  12. Incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Motte, L; Vogt, K; Jensen, Leif Panduro;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair. METHODS: All patients, undergoing elective primary endovascular repair of an asymptomatic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm...

  13. Capacitated two-indenture models for repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Avsar, Zeynep Müge

    2003-01-01

    A two-indenture maintenance system is considered for a number of identical installations, in use at a single site. The installations are considered as assemblies that are made up of a number of repairable components. A component repair center and an assembly facility are both modeled as product form

  14. Capacitated two-indenture models for repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Avsar, Z.M.; van Houtum, Geert-Jan

    2001-01-01

    A two-indenture maintenance system is considered for a number of identical installations, in use at a single site. The installations are considered as assemblies that are made up of a number of repairable components. A component repair center and an assembly facility are both modeled as product form

  15. Capacitated two-echelon inventory models for repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsar, Z.M.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Gershwin, S.B.; Dallery, Y.; Papadopoulos, C.; Smith, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two-echelon maintenance systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location. Each repair facility may be considered to be a job shop and is modeled as a (limited capacity) open queuing network, while any

  16. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions with a maximum centre of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch collision rate of 40MHz. In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large farms of standard computers and network devices. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying u...

  17. Flagellated Magnetotactic Bacteria as Controlled MRI-trackable Propulsion and Steering Systems for Medical Nanorobots Operating in the Human Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Lu, Zhao; Pouponneau, Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Although nanorobots may play critical roles for many applications in the human body such as targeting tumoral lesions for therapeutic purposes, miniaturization of the power source with an effective onboard controllable propulsion and steering system have prevented the implementation of such mobile robots. Here, we show that the flagellated nanomotors combined with the nanometer-sized magnetosomes of a single Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) can be used as an effective integrated propulsion and steering system for devices such as nanorobots designed for targeting locations only accessible through the smallest capillaries in humans while being visible for tracking and monitoring purposes using modern medical imaging modalities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Through directional and magnetic field intensities, the displacement speeds, directions, and behaviors of swarms of these bacterial actuators can be controlled from an external computer.

  18. Full-resolution autostereoscopic display using an all-electronic tracking/steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Jean-Etienne

    2012-03-01

    PolarScreens is developing a new 3D display technology capable of displaying full HD resolution in each eye without the need for glasses. The technology combines a regular backlight, a 120Hz 3D LCD panel, a vertical Patterned active shutter panel and a head tracking system. The technology relies on a 12-sub-pixel wide alternated pattern encoded in the stereo image to follow the head movement. Alternatively for a passive 3D display, the barrier is made of vertical strip Polarizer Film. This can be applied to any full resolution polarized display like iZ3D, Perceiva, or active retarder 3D display. The end result is a full resolution autostereoscopic display with complete head movement freedom. There are no mechanical moving part (like lenticular) or extra active components to steer the correct L/R image to the user's eyes. The new display has the capacity of displaying 2D/3D information on a pixel per pixel base so there is no need for full screen or windowed 2D/3D switchable apparatus.

  19. A low glitch 12-bit current-steering CMOS DAC for CNC systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jianming; Gui Hanshu; Hu Beiwen

    2013-01-01

    A 12-bit,100-MHz CMOS current-steering D/A converter for CNC (computer number control) systems is presented.To reduce the glitch and increase the SFDR (spurious-free dynamic range),a low crosspoint switch driver and a special dummy switch are applied.In addition,a 4-5-3 segmental structure is used to optimize the performance and layout area.After improvement,the biggest glitch energy decreased from 6.7 pVs to 1.7 pVs,the INL decreased from 2 LSB to 0.8 LSB,the SFDR is 78 dB at a 100-MSPS clock rate and 1 MHz output frequency.This DAC can deliver up to 20.8 mA full-scale current into a 50 Ω load.The power when operating at full-scale current is 163 mW.The layout area is 1.8 × 1.8 mm2 in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS technology.

  20. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ribeiro Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM, k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN, Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP, and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method’s performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER, despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER. It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  1. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, João Ribeiro; Cardoso, Jaime S; Lourenço, André; Carreiras, Carlos

    2017-09-28

    Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN), Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP), and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM) classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method's performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR) and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER)), despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER). It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  2. Wearable Fabric Reconfigurable Beam-Steering Antenna for On/Off-Body Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghun Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of on-body performances between omnidirectional (loop antenna and reconfigurable beam-steering antennas. Both omnidirectional and reconfigurable antennas were manufactured on the same fabric substrate and operated at the frequency band of the WLAN 802.11a (5.725–5.85 GHz. The reconfigurable antenna was designed to steer the beam directions. In order to implement the beam-steering capability, the antenna used two PIN diodes. The maximum beam directions of three states (states 0, 1, and 2 were steerable in the YZ-plane (h=2°, 28°, and 326°, resp.. The measured peak gains were 5.9–6.6 dBi and the overall half power beam width (HPBW was 102°. The measured results of total radiated power (TRP and total isotropic sensitivity (TIS indicated that the communication efficiency of the reconfigurable beam steering antenna was better than that of the loop antenna. When the input power was 0.04 W (16 dBm, the simulated specific absorption rate (SAR values of the reconfigurable beam steering antenna on the body were less than 0.979 W/kg (1 g tissue in all states, satisfying the SAR criteria of the US.

  3. Objective Evaluation Method of Steering Comfort Based on Movement Quality Evaluation of Driver Steering Maneuver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  4. Reliability Analysis of Repairable Systems Using Stochastic Point Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fu-rong; JIANG Zhi-bin; BAI Tong-shuo

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the failure data from repairable systems, the homogeneous Poisson process(HPP) is usually used. In general, HPP cannot be applied to analyze the entire life cycle of a complex, re-pairable system because the rate of occurrence of failures (ROCOF) of the system changes over time rather thanremains stable. However, from a practical point of view, it is always preferred to apply the simplest methodto address problems and to obtain useful practical results. Therefore, we attempted to use the HPP model toanalyze the failure data from real repairable systems. A graphic method and the Laplace test were also usedin the analysis. Results of numerical applications show that the HPP model may be a useful tool for the entirelife cycle of repairable systems.

  5. Steering, Splitting and Cloning of Optical Beam in a Coherently Driven Raman Gain System

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Onkar N.; Dey, Tarak N.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an all-optical anti-waveguide mechanism for steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam beyond the diffraction-limit. We use a spatially inhomogeneous pump beam to create an anti-waveguide structure in a Doppler broadened N -type four-level Raman gain medium for a co-propagating weak probe beam. We show that a transverse modulated index of refraction and gain due to the spatially dependent pump beam hold the keys to steering, splitting and cloning of an optical beam. We hav...

  6. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Reina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  7. Effect of surface roughness on amalgam repair using adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Marcelo; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments and two adhesive systems on the shear bond strength of old and freshly placed amalgam. The results suggested that the intact amalgam showed a significantly higher strength than repaired groups and the strongest repaired specimens were made when the amalgam surfaces were roughened with a diamond bur or microetcher. The adhesive systems showed no significant differences on bond strength with the same superficial texture.

  8. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.

  9. Design and Implementation of Electric Steering Gear Inspection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Virtual Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of UAV electric servo detection system based on Virtual Instrument is designed in this paper, including the hardware platform based on PC-DAQ virtual instrument architecture and the software platform based on LabVIEW function, structure and system implementation methods. The function, structure and system implementation method of software platform is also described. The gear limits checking, zero testing, time domain characteristics test results showed that the system achieves testing requirements well, and can complete detection of electric steering gear automatically, fast, easy and accurate.

  10. Electrical steering of vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all...

  11. Quantum coherence of steered states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  12. Physiological and behavioral responses of Nellore steers to artificial shading in an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Alves da Costa Ferro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of artificial shading on environmental variables and on behavioral responses of Nellore steers in an intensive production system was evaluated in this study. The experiment was conducted in the experimental feedlot of the Department of Animal Science at Universidade Estadual de Goiás, from July to October 2014. Forty-eight male Nellore cattle with an average initial weight of 310 kg were kept in double 24-m2 stalls, in a total of 24 stalls. Of these, six were in the open air; six were covered with black shade netting of 30% light interception; six with black shade netting 50%; and six with black shade netting 80%, providing 6 m2 of shade per stall. Temperature-humidity index (THI and respiratory frequency (RF were assessed twice weekly and behavior was evaluated fortnightly during 12 h, between 06:00 h and 18.00 h. Feeding behavior, rumination, rest, and social activities such as body care and playful and abnormal activities were observed. A significant increase was found in THI and RF as the shading levels decreased, while a significant difference was recorded in rest and in other activities, water intake, and play behavior. Rest time and playful behavior increased significantly, and other activities and water intake decreased with the increase in shading levels. Shading does not change the time spent on feeding behaviors and rumination, or the frequencies of urination, defecation, cleaning other animals, self-cleaning, and social and abnormal types of behavior. The use of black shade netting of 80% light interception provides greater comfort to animals, promoting welfare and quality of life to them.

  13. Optical trap steering system%光阱位置操纵系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚新程; 李兆霖; 郭红莲; 程丙英; 张道中

    2001-01-01

    An optical tweezers, which can be used to mainipulate biological sample in three dimensions, was incorporated into a LEICA DMIRBE inverted microscope with bottom port. During setting up this system, transverse position mainpulating system of an optical trap was studied especially. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the transvers position of an optical trap can be changed by laterally moving or rotating a mirror. The mechanisms of optical trap steering systems by moving and rotating mirrors were explained in detail, resp ectively. In addition, comparing with moving mirror system the rotating mirror system is of benefit to increase the mainipulating speed of an optical trap, simp lify the mechanism of an optical tweezers, reduce its cost, and shorten the cycle of completing an optical tweezers.%利用He-Ne激光器,在LEICA DMIRBE倒置显微镜上建立了可对生物样品进行三维操纵的光镊系统。在光镊的研制过程中,我们重点对光阱的横向位置操纵系统进行了研究。理论分析及 实验表明,利用平移反射镜及转动反射镜的方案均可实现光阱位置的横向操纵。本文对平移 反射镜及转动反射镜实现光阱位置操纵的机理进行了详细的论述,并对操纵过程中保证光阱 质量不发生变化的条件进行了理论分析和说明。此外,比较分析表明,与平移反射镜系统相比 ,转镜系统在光镊技术中的应用可加快光镊操纵速度、简化光阱位置操纵系统的复杂程度、 有利于系统开发成本的减少及开发周期的缩短。

  14. DNA Repair Systems: Guardians of the Genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded jointly to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar to honour their accomplishments in the field of DNA repair. Ever since the discovery of DNA structure and their importance in the storage of genetic information, questions about their stability became pertinent. A molecule which is crucial for the development and propagation of an organism must be closely monitored so that the genetic information is not corrupted. Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial in the fight against cancer and other debilitating diseases.

  15. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  16. ADHESIVE SYSTEM AFFECTS REPAIR BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür IRMAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive systems on repair bond strength of aged resin composites. Materials and Methods: Ninety composite discs were built and half of them were subjected to thermal aging. Aged and non-aged specimens were repaired with resin composite using three different adhesive systems; a two-step self-etch adhesive, a two-step total-etch adhesive and a one-step self-etch adhesive; then they were subjected to shear forces. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Adhesive type and aging significantly affected the repair bond strengths (p<0.0001. No statistical difference was found in aged composite groups repaired with two-step self- etch or two-step total-etch adhesive. One-step self-etch adhesive showed lower bond strength values in aged composite repair (p<0.0001. Conclusion: In the repair of aged resin composite, two-step self-etch and two-step total-etch adhesives exhibited higher shear bond strength values than that of one-step self-etch adhesive.

  17. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  18. Analysis of contaminated field failure data for repairable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Kornerup; Thyregod, Poul

    1991-01-01

    A simple model for electronic systems with repair, and a method for analyzing recorded field failure data for such systems are presented. The work performed has resulted in analytical results that may be used for assessing the product reliability. The method was originally developed for use under...

  19. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Liberopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Tan, B.; MacGregor Smith, J.; Gershwin, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon epairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  20. 考虑侧偏角影响的双前桥转向角匹配研究%Research on steer angle for double front axles steering systems considering with slip angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃刚; 孙营

    2011-01-01

    研究了双前桥转向系统中,整车的侧向加速度所造成的车轮侧偏角对实际车轮转向角的影响,提出了考虑侧偏角影响时双前桥转向的阿克曼条件.首先推导了存在车轮侧偏角时双前桥各车轮转向角之间的变化规律,提出了包含车轮侧偏角在内的阿克曼转角公式;其次以某双前桥转向的重型卡车为应用对象,将所推导的设计公式应用于该重型卡车的设计中,建立相应的多体动力学模型,借助于Adams软件的仿真分析对各车轮转向角进行了设计;最后通过实车试验验证了经修正后的阿克曼转角公式的正确性.%What the slip angle caused by lateral acceleration has influence on the actual steer angle for double front axles steering system was mainly researched,and the Ackerman law of double front axles considering the influence of slip angle was proposed.Firstly,the variation of each wheel steer angle in double front axles truck considering slip angle was derived,and the Ackerman law containing slip angle was proposed.Secondly,using the proposed theory on a double front axles truck,the multibody dynamics model was built,and the wheel steer angle was designed based on the software Adams.Lastly,the real vehicle experiment validated the correctness of the amended Ackerman law.

  1. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Hanamoto, Y. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  2. SIMULATION IN THE STUDYING OF NON-STATIONARY PROCESSES AND LOADED ELEMENTS OF STEERING SYSTEM WITH INTEGRATED GEAR MECHANISM AND ROTARY VALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, V; E. Strock

    2013-01-01

    In the paper mathematical model of steering system is shown. The model was described through hydraulic and mechanical connections of differential equations. Some test results are represented.This model allows to analyze transient processes in different combination of kinematics disturbances and power factors, and also to determine functional suitability of System.This Model can be recommended for Control System testing. 

  3. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-12-28

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver's input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice.

  4. Quantification of Gaussian quantum steering

    CERN Document Server

    Kogias, Ioannis; Ragy, Sammy; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering incarnates a useful nonclassical correlation which sits in-between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. While a number of qualitative steering criteria exist, very little has been achieved for what concerns quantifying steerability. We introduce a computable measure of steering for arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For two-mode Gaussian states, the measure reduces to a form of coherent information, which is proven never to exceed entanglement, and to reduce to it on pure states. We provide an operational connection between our measure and the key rate in one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution. We further prove that steering bound entangled Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements is impossible.

  5. Integrated optical phased array based large angle beam steering system fabricated on silicon-on-insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, David N.; Zhang, Yang; Hosseini, Amir; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a highly compact silicon nano-membrane based optical phased array fabricated using conventional CMOS processing on silicon-on-insulator that provides for over 10 degrees of beam steering in a silicon slab at λ=1.55μm using transverse-electrical polarized light. A low loss 1-to-12 multi-mode interference (MMI) optical beam splitter with high uniformity is used to provide inputs to the optical phased array. Using an unequally spaced waveguide array permits us to relax the half-wavelength spacing requirement for large angle beam steering, thereby avoiding the optical coupling between adjacent waveguides and reducing the side-lobe-level of the array radiation pattern. S-bend waveguides convert the equally spaced MMI output to the unequally spaced wave guide array, while passively equalizing the phases of each array element to compensate for the MMI output phase profile. Independently controllable thin film metal heaters are used to achieve phase shifting using the strong thermo-optic response of silicon. Heat-insulating air grooves minimize thermal crosstalk, while also achieving and low power consumption.

  6. Linear systems analysis of the ciliary steering behavior associated with negative-phototaxis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Keith; Saranak, Jureepan; Foster, Kenneth W

    2006-12-01

    In response to light stimulation Chlamydomonas reinhardtii changes the beating frequency, beating pattern, and beating synchrony of the trans and cis cilia to steer the freely-swimming cell relative to light sources. To understand the cell steering behavior the impulse responses of the beating frequency and stroke velocity of each cilium have been obtained with high temporal resolution on cells held with a micropipette. Interestingly the response of each cilium is quite different. The trans cilium responds with less delay than the cis cilium for both beating frequency and stroke velocity. For light stimulation at 2 Hz, the critical cell-rotation frequency, both responses of the trans and cis cilia are about 180 degrees out of phase. The trans-cilium beating frequency response peaks at a stimulus frequency of 5-6 Hz, higher than the cis at 1-2 Hz. The stroke velocities of the trans and cis cilia have the same stimulus-frequency response (2 Hz), but the trans cilium has a shorter delay than the cis. The times to maximum response are much shorter than the time for a rotation of the cell. The use of two different approaches that enable the trans cilium to respond ahead of the cis for both the beating frequency and stroke velocity responses suggests the importance of both responses to phototaxis. Internal cell processing responsible for the time course of the responses is proposed.

  7. EPS转向电机控制系统的设计%Design of Steering Motor Control System Based on EPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红芳; 孙守昌; 邹凌

    2011-01-01

    For electric power steering (EPS ) system, power-assisted steering is realized depending on booster motor. So the controlling of the steering motor is the key factor to influence the performance of EPS. Through studying the drive circuit and control method of the steering motor, a H-bridge motor driving circuit based on intelligent power switch was designed. At the same time, Fuzzy-PD control method was used to control the steering motor torque. The system has the advantages of hardware circuit simple ,work reliably, fast response and high control accuracy.%电动助力转向系统是依靠助力电机实现转向助力,因此转向电机的控制是影响电动助力转向系统助力性能的关键.通过对助力电机的硬件驱动电路和控制方式进行研究,设计了采用智能功率开关组成H桥电机驱动电路,同时对转向电机转矩的控制采用了模糊PD控制方法.该系统具有硬件电路简单、工作可靠、跟随性能好和控制精度高等优点.

  8. Optimal inspection and Repair Strategies for Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    1992-01-01

    A model for reliability-based repair and maintenance strategies of structural systems is described. The total expected costs in the lifetime of the structure are minimized with the number of inspections, the number and positions of the inspected points, the inspection efforts, the repair criteria...... to be inspected and to select the location of the points to be inspected. It is shown how information obtained through inspections and through the periods of normal operating of the structure can be used to update the inspection and maintenance planning. Finally, a small example is given illustrating...

  9. Lubrication System. Teacher's Guide. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This teacher's guide accompanies three student manuals and together with them comprises an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped/special needs students. The first section, "Notes to the Instructor," covers equipment needs, preparation before teaching the instructional package,…

  10. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  11. Randomized trial comparing the Prolene Hernia System, mesh plug repair and Lichtenstein method for open inguinal hernia repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuijs, S.W.; Oort, I.M. van; Keemers-Gels, M.E.; Strobbe, L.J.; Rosman, C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most surgeons favour the use of a mesh for open inguinal hernia repair as it has a low recurrence rate. Procedures used most frequently are the Lichtenstein method, mesh plug repair and the Prolene Hernia System. The choice of technique may be influenced by the effects on postoperative p

  12. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Hansen presented a course, Concepts and Models for Repairable Systems Reliability, at the 2009 Centro de Investigacion en Mathematicas (CIMAT). The...defines MTBF in Technical Order 00-2-2, Maintenance Documentation ., Mean Time Between Failure (Inherent). Inherent refers to a Type 1 failure or...The USAF uses maintenance data to document the system failures. There is no method within that data system to define specific failure modes

  13. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ......, or reducing the mean duration of system downtime. Example applications to an electrical substation system demonstrate the use of the formulas developed in the paper....

  14. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions.

  15. HUMAN-SIMULATING VEHICLE STEERING CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Youchun; LI Keqiang; CHANG Ming; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    A new vehicle steering control algorithm is presented. Unlike the traditional methods do,the algorithm uses a sigmoid function to describe the principle of the human driver's steering strategy.Based on this function, a human simulating vehicle steering model, human-simulating steering control(HS) algorithm is designed. In order to improve the adaptability to different environments, a parameter adaptive adjustment algorithm is presented. This algorithm can online modify the value of the key parameters of the HS real time. HS controller is used on a vehicle equipped with computer vision system and computer controlled steering actuator system, the result from the automatic vehicle steering experiment shows that the HS algorithm gives good performance at different speed, even at the maximum speed of 172 km/h.

  16. Analysis of contaminated field failure data for repairable systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Christian Kornerup; Thyregod, Poul

    1991-01-01

    A simple model for electronic systems with repair, and a method for analyzing recorded field failure data for such systems are presented. The work performed has resulted in analytical results that may be used for assessing the product reliability. The method was originally developed for use under ideal circumstances, but it has been adapted for use with contaminated data (i.e., data where the failure times are observed embedded by noise). A simple model for the noise that enables an analytica...

  17. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Moreno-Burriel, B.; Chinarro, E.

    2014-07-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as secondary injury. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon. (Author)

  18. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard;

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  19. Steering Engine Control System of Underwater Vehicle Based on DSP Technology%基于DSP的水下航行器舵机控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礴; 吕赟

    2011-01-01

    Steering engine control system is the key institution of underwater vehicle , it controls the attitude of AUV navigation by driving the rotation of rudder, and its performance directly affects the aircraft' s performance.The steering engine is mainly constituted by controller, engine, steering mechanical structure、sensors and rudder ,the controller is the most important part in steering engine system.The theory of the steering engine control system of certain underwater vehicle by designing a control system is introduced which based on the DSP technology.In order to control the steering engine, this system uses the TMS320 F2812 as the core control chip, the hardware and software design of this system and the control algorithms are also analyzed.At last a system simulation model is builted, and proved that this system has good control performance and can satisfy the requirement of steering control of underwater vahicle.%舵机是水下航行器控制系统的关键机构,它通过带动舵面的转动来控制水下航行器的航行姿态,其性能的好坏直接决定了水下航行器的性能.舵机主要由控制器、电机、减速机构、反馈电位计、舵面五部分组成,其中控制器是舵机的核心部分.介绍了某型水下航行器的舵机基本控制原理,并采用TMS320F2812芯片为核心控制器,设计一套基于DSP的舵机控制系统;同时还分析了该系统的软硬件设计方案以及相关的控制算法;最后建立了系统仿真模型.通过实验表明,此系统的控制性能好,并且体积小,可满足水下航行器舵机的控制要求.

  20. Reliability Analysis of Partially Repairable Systems%部分可修系统的可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏保河

    2005-01-01

    The reliability analysis of a system with repairable failures and non-repairable failures is presented. It is assumed that the system has n repairable failure modes and m non-repairable failure modes. As one repairable failure mode takes place, the system will be repaired after the failure mode is detected, otherwise, it would never work again when attaining one non-repairable failure mode. Thus, the system brings about new reliability indices for having both repairable failures and non-repairable failures. The definitions of the new reliability indices are given, and the calculating methods for them are derived by using probability analysis and the supplementary variable technique.

  1. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models for Repairable Systems Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fu-rong; JIANG Zhi-bin; KUO Way; Suk Joo BAE

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-effects models, also called random-effects models, are a regression type of analysis which enables the analyst to not only describe the trend over time within each subject, but also to describe the variation among different subjects. Nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a powerful and flexible tool for handling the unbalanced count data. In this paper, nonlinear mixed-effects models are used to analyze the failure data from a repairable system with multiple copies. By using this type of models, statistical inferences about the population and all copies can be made when accounting for copy-to-copy variance. Results of fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models to nine failure-data sets show that the nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a useful tool for analyzing the failure data from multi-copy repairable systems.

  2. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Automotive Instrumentation Division (TEDT-AT-AD-I) U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center 400...characterize the on-center vehicle responses of military vehicles for the purposes of influencing vehicle design and ensuring military truck steering... mechanism attached to the test vehicle’s steering wheel (or replaces the steering wheel) that is strain gaged and calibrated to measure the steering effort

  3. Quantum steering without inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Su, Hong-Yi; Cabello, Adan; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H

    2012-01-01

    We show that, for any two-qubit state, quantum steering can be proven without testing the violation of steering inequalities. We show that steerability is proven if Bob's normalized conditional states after Alice's measurements are pure. This method, which may be seen as the quantum steering analog of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like tests of Bell nonlocality without Bell inequalities, offers advantages with respect to the existing methods for experimentally testing quantum steering.

  4. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... actuating system including the reservoir. The storage tank must be permanently connected by piping so...

  5. MEMS Inertial Sensors-Based Multi-Loop Control Enhanced by Disturbance Observation and Compensation for Fast Steering Mirror System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to improve the disturbance suppression performance of a fast steering mirror (FSM tracking control system based on a charge-coupled device (CCD and micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS inertial sensors is proposed. The disturbance observation and compensation (DOC control method is recommended to enhance the classical multi-loop feedback control (MFC for line-of-sight (LOS stabilization in the FSM system. MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes have been used in the FSM system tentatively to implement MFC instead of fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG because of its smaller, lighter, cheaper features and gradually improved performance. However, the stabilization performance of FSM is still suffering a large number of mechanical resonances and time delay induced by a low CCD sampling rate, which causes insufficient error attenuation when suffering uncertain disturbances. Thus, in order to make further improvements on the stabilization performance, a cascaded MFC enhanced by DOC method is proposed. The sensitivity of this method shows the significant improvement of the conventional MFC system. Simultaneously, the analysis of stabilization accuracy is also presented. A series of comparative experimental results demonstrate the disturbance suppression performance of the FSM control system based on the MEMS inertial sensors can be effectively improved by the proposed approach.

  6. Analysis on Simulation and Performance of Nose Landing Gear Steering System%起落架电传前轮转弯仿真与性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 辛艳; 张亚平

    2012-01-01

    起落架的性能对整机的安全性和舒适性具有真接的影响。以国产在研某型飞机转弯系统为研究对象,通过Virtual.1ab和Imagine.1ab联合仿真的分析方法对前起落架转弯系统进行仿真与分析,并通过敏感性分析确定起落架前倾角、轮间距、稳定距和轮胎垂直刚度等参数对起落架最大静转弯力矩的影响。分析结果表明:起落架前倾角对前轮最大静转弯力矩影响最大。%The performance of landing gear is of direct influence on safety and comfortable of aircraft. A steering system of certain domestic plane is taken as study object. The steering system is analyzed and simulated by u- sing the Virtual. lab and Imagine. lab software co-simulation methods. The primary factor which affects maxi- mum static steering torque of the landing gear amongst the factors such as forward angle, wheel space, castor trail, tire vertical stiffness is determined. Analysis result shows forward angle affects maximum static steering torque of the nose gear primarily.

  7. STRATOS™ system for the repair of pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Alessandro; Nesci, Jessica; Morandi, Uliano

    2013-12-01

    Open techniques represent a valid repair option for severe asymmetric pectus excavatum in adults. The use of metal supports is recommended to reduce the risk of recurrence. A wide variety of metal supports have been proposed, with pre-, trans- or retrosternal fixation. A novel open technique using titanium bars fixed to the ribs with clips has been recently introduced (STRATOS™ system) for chest wall reconstruction, rib fracture fixation and chest wall malformation repair. We employed this technique in two adult patients with severe asymmetric pectus excavatum: after sternal mobilization, one bar is passed below the body of the sternum and secured with clips bilaterally to two ribs. In the first case, the results remained excellent 5 years after surgery. In the second case, the initial results were satisfying but the bar ruptured after 30 months: removal of the bars and clips was performed and a subsequent recurrence of the deformity occurred. The experiences reported in literature are still too limited to draw firm conclusions about the use of the STRATOS™ system in pectus excavatum repair, but it seems that the use of two bars may reduce the risk of rupture. At present, we are the only ones who reported long-term results.

  8. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS.

  9. Evaluation of Precast Panels for Airfield Pavement Repair. Phase 1: System Optimization and Test Section Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    panel repair system for repair of rigid airfield pavements in contingency situations. Design criteria were provided by AFCEC to assist with the...dimensions limit repair versatility, since they do not align with typical rigid airfield pavement slab sizes. The Air Force prototype system design consists...at the joint. The original Air Force panel design used 0.75-in.-wide joints that were backfilled with a rapid-setting rigid pavement repair material

  10. A closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjurul Islam, Md.; Ding, Xuejun; He, Yuping

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) with active trailer steering (ATS) systems. AHVs have poor manoeuvrability at low speeds and exhibit low lateral stability at high speeds. From the design point of view, there exists a trade-off relationship between AHVs' manoeuvrability and stability. For example, fewer articulation points and longer wheelbases will improve high-speed lateral stability, but they will degrade low-speed manoeuvrability. To tackle this conflicting design problem, a systematic method is proposed for the design of AHVs with ATS systems. In order to evaluate vehicle performance measures under a well-defined testing manoeuvre, a driver model is introduced and it 'drivers' the vehicle model to follow a prescribed route at a given speed. Considering the interactions between the mechanical trailer and the ATS system, the proposed design method simultaneously optimises the active design variables of the controllers and passive design variables of the trailer in a single design loop (SDL). Through the design optimisation of an ATS system for an AHV with a truck and a drawbar trailer combination, this SDL method is compared against a published two design loop method. The benchmark investigation shows that the former can determine better trade-off design solutions than those derived by the latter. This SDL method provides an effective approach to automatically implement the design synthesis of AHVs with ATS systems.

  11. SIMULATION IN THE STUDYING OF NON-STATIONARY PROCESSES AND LOADED ELEMENTS OF STEERING SYSTEM WITH INTEGRATED GEAR MECHANISM AND ROTARY VALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mikhailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper mathematical model of steering system is shown. The model was described through hydraulic and mechanical connections of differential equations. Some test results are represented.This model allows to analyze transient processes in different combination of kinematics disturbances and power factors, and also to determine functional suitability of System.This Model can be recommended for Control System testing. 

  12. Steering System Optimization Design of Formula SAE Car%FSAE方程式赛车转向系统的仿真与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚汉波; 唐应时; 王焕美; 林建涛

    2011-01-01

    In car races, because of car's speed and the special characteristics of the track, the problems of car's steering stability and unilateral side tire wearing have puzzled designers.To solve the problems, this paper puts forward a steering trapezoid body design which accords with the specially designed track.Calculated by MATLAB software, the steering trapezoid space kinematic model is established to optimize the design, control the error between the trapezoid Ackerman and ideal Ackerman, and improve the car's steering stability.The dynamics models of the car steering system and suspension system are established and simulated.When the wheel is jumping up and down, controlling the front wheel can reduce the extent of unilateral partial tire wear.Simulation results show that the optimal design of steering trapezoid mechanism has a good steering stability, and is a good solution to the partial side tire wear problems.%研究赛车比赛转向系统动特性优化问题,由于赛车高速和赛道特殊的特点,赛车的转向稳定性问题和轮胎的单侧偏磨问题一直困扰着赛车设计者.针对上述问题,提出了一种符合赛车赛道特殊设计的断开式转向梯形机构设计方案.利用MATLAB计算软件,建立了空间转向梯形运动学模型,进行优化设计,控制梯形的Ackerman与理想Ackeman的误差,来提高赛车的转向稳定性.又建立了赛车转向系统和悬架系统动力学模型并进行了仿真分析,在车轮上下跳动时,控制车轮前进变化量的大小,可减弱轮胎的单侧偏磨程度.结果表明设计出的转向梯形机构方案具有良好的转向稳定性,很好地缓解了轮胎的单侧偏磨现象.

  13. Maneuverability and Energy Consumption of Commercial Vehicles Steering System%商用车转向系统的操控性与能耗分析及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海兵; 江浩斌; 唐斌; 王春宏

    2015-01-01

    从操控性和能耗的角度说明了提高商用车转向系统性能的重要性,分析了当前商用车上液压助力转向( HPS)、电控液压转向( ECHPS)、电动液压助力转向( EHPS)和电动助力转向( EPS)等转向系统的技术特点和能耗情况;通过计算重型商用车原地转向的阻力矩,指出了重型商用车对转向系统的功率要求;展望了商用车转向系统的发展方向,即高电压系统下的大功率电动助力转向,或在HPS的转向泵与发动机之间增加控制装置,实现“按需”输出转向功率,既保证转向操纵安全性和稳定性,又降低商用车转向系统的能耗。%The importance of improving the performance of commercial vehicle steering system was demonstrated in terms of maneuverability and energy consumption.The technical features and situation of energy consumption of various commercial vehi-cle steering systems were contrastively analyzed, including hydraulic power steering ( HPS) , electronically controlled hydraulic steering ( ECHPS) , electric hydraulic power steering ( EHPS) , electric power steering ( EPS) and so on.Through the calcula-tion of steering resisting torque of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, the steering system power requirement on heavy commercial vehicle was presented.Based on the above analysis, the future development of commercial vehicle steering system was concluded that it is high-power EPS actuated by high voltage electric system or a newly steering system equipped with adjusting device be-tween the engine and the hydraulic power steering pump transmitting power as needed, which both ensures steering safety and sta-bility, and reduces energy consumption of commercial vehicle steering system.

  14. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... users can be steered towards higher priority carriers whenever coverage allows it. However, such an approach may overload the prioritized layers. For that purpose, an enhanced scheme is proposed, where priorities are adjusted on a user basis and are provided to the terminal via the connection release...

  15. A discounted model for a repairable system with continuous state space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, P.B.

    2000-01-01

    We examine repairable systems with a continous state space and partial repair options, carried out at fixed times $n=1,2,...$. Every time interval $[n,n+1)$ there is a manufacturing cost and a repair cost. These cost functions are not restricted to the class of bounded functions in this study. Condi

  16. Bond strength durability of a resin composite on a reinforced ceramic using various repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Leite, Fabiola; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This study compared the durability of repair bond strength of a resin composite to a reinforced ceramic after three repair systems. Methods. Alumina-reinforced feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitadur-alpha(R)) (N=30) were randomly divided into three groups according to the repair method: PR-

  17. Hardware-in-loop Simulation System of Marine Steering Gear%船舶舵机硬件在环仿真系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李精明

    2011-01-01

    本文采用计算机-实物系统并行运行的技术途径,开发了船舶液压舵机系统的硬件在环仿真系统,完成船舶液压舵机系统工作过程的动态仿真,模拟了舵机浮动杆追随机构的工作过程,达到了较好的教学效果。%Utilized the technology of computer-real object parallel working system,developed Hardware-in-loop Simulation system of marine hydraulic steering gear system.Realized the functions of dynamic simulation of the working process of hydraulic steering gear sy

  18. Successful repair of a ventricular assist system percutaneous lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalos, G M; Marks, J D; Richardson, E E; Nelson, K E; Long, J W

    1999-01-01

    A patient with an implanted, electrically powered, ventricular assist device (Thermo Cardiosystems VE HeartMate) experienced a partial break of the percutaneous lead 5 months after implantation. The break (limited to the Silicone rubber tube) occurred at the junction of the lead with the Y-connector to the controller and vent, leaving approximately 5 cm of exposed lead from the skin exit site to the connector. Electronic and pumping functions of the pump continued, but the opening in the lead (which went more that half way around the circumference) prevented the use of pneumatic actuation as a back-up mode for pump operation, and placed the pump at risk for contamination. Repair of the lead without surgical intervention was desirable, with ease of repair and minimal risk to the patient being the top priorities. The use of multiple layers of heat-shrink tubing or external metal stents was ruled out in favor of a three stage repair procedure. The first stage involved the removal of the Dacron velour in-growth material from the lead to expose the underlying Silicone rubber tube. While the opening in the tube was held shut, a coating of medical grade Silicone rubber adhesive was applied to the tube, then wrapped with a woven Dacron mesh, followed by two layers of plastic wrapping material to protect the adhesive. This initial layer was secured by an external stent of tubing with cable ties. After several days to allow for complete curing of the adhesive, the adhesive coating with mesh was repeated. The final step involved a double layer wrap of a 1 mm thick Silicone rubber sheeting with mesh incorporation and adhesive secured in place with cable ties. After completion of the repair and verification of the ability to operate the device with pneumatic actuation, the patient was discharged with no recurrence of the problem after 8 months of weekly follow-up. This experience demonstrates the need to clinically anticipate component repair or replacement without total device

  19. Inducible repair system in Haemophilus influenzae unaccompanied by mutation. [uv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notani, N.K.; Setlow, J.K.

    1980-07-01

    Weigle reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated HPlc1 phage was observed after ultraviolet or mitomycin C treatment of Haemophilus influenzae cells. The amount of reactivation was considerably increased when the treated cells were incubated in growth medium before infection. The presence of chloramphenicol during this incubation abolished the reactivation. No mutation of this phage accompanied the reactivation. When cells were treated so as to produce a maximal reactivation of phage, neither reactivation nor mutation of cells was observed. It is concluded that H. influenzae has an inducible repair system that is not accompanied by mutation.

  20. A study of a steering system algorithm for pleasure boats based on stability analysis of a human-machine system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Fujio; Toyama, Shigehiro; Ishiduki, Souta; Seta, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Maritime accidents of small ships continue to increase in number. One of the major factors is poor manoeuvrability of the Manual Hydraulic Steering Mechanism (MHSM) in common use. The manoeuvrability can be improved by using the Electronic Control Steering Mechanism (ECSM). This paper conducts stability analyses of a pleasure boat controlled by human models in view of path following on a target course, in order to establish design guidelines for the ECSM. First, to analyse the stability region, the research derives the linear approximated model in a planar global coordinate system. Then, several human models are assumed to develop closed-loop human-machine controlled systems. These human models include basic proportional, derivative, integral and time-delay actions. The stability analysis simulations for those human-machine systems are carried out. The results show that the stability region tends to spread as a ship's velocity increases in the case of the basic proportional human model. The derivative action and time-delay action of human models are effective in spreading the stability region in their respective ranges of frontal gazing points.

  1. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  2. Mechanism and Durability of Repair Systems in Polymer-Modified Cement Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the mechanism and durability of repair systems made of ordinary cement-based repair mortar and three kinds of polymer-modified repair mortars with old concrete, SBR dispersion, SAE dispersion, and SAE powder. By comparing the bonding properties of mortars before and after erosion, it was found that polymers could effectively improve the durability of the repair system and SAE powder had the best improvement. Micromorphology study of the repair mortar and the interface of repair mortar with old concrete through SEM showed that the polymer film formed from SAE powder whatever in the mortar or at the interface was dense and tough, the film formed from SAE dispersion was loose and weak, while the film formed from SBR dispersion was in between them, which explained the difference in the tensile bond strength and the durability of the repair systems.

  3. MAcro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MÆMS) based concept for microwave beam steering in reflectarray antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Booske, John H.; Behdad, Nader

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to perform beam steering in reflecting type apertures such as reflectarray antennas. The proposed technique exploits macro-scale mechanical movements of parts of the structure to achieve two-dimensional microwave beam steering without using any solid-state devices or phase shifters integrated within the aperture of the antenna. The principles of operation of this microwave beam steering technique are demonstrated in an aperture occupied by ground-plane-backed, sub-wavelength capacitive patches with identical dimensions. We demonstrate that by tilting the ground plane underneath the entire patch array layer, a phase shift gradient can be created over the aperture of the reflectarray that determines the direction of the radiated beam. Changing the direction and slope of this phase shift gradient on the aperture allows for performing beam steering in two dimensions using only one control parameter (i.e., tilt vector of the ground plane). A proof-of-concept prototype of the structure operating at X-band is designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized. Experiments demonstrate that small mechanical movements of the ground plane (in the order of 0.05λ0) can be used to steer the beam direction in the ±10° in two dimensions. It is also demonstrated that this beam scanning range can be greatly enhanced to ±30° by applying this concept to the same structure when its ground plane is segmented.

  4. Direct Self-Repairing Control for Quadrotor Helicopter Attitude Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.

  5. Modelling driver behaviour in the case of failures in a steer by wire system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Wewerinke, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In the design and development of advanced vehicle control systems such as X-by-Wire (XBW), system safety is a crucial aspect. Failures in XBW can easily result in accidents. Therefore, methods and tools are needed to ensure fault-tolerant systems. Quantifying the consequence of an error is far from

  6. The Application of Variable Transmission Ratio in Steering System%变传动比在线控转向系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 杨胜兵

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of light and flexible in the traditional steering system, this paper analyzes the relations between the yaw velocity and the control stability as well as the influence of steering-wheel angle and vehicle speed to the transmission ratio in the platform of by-wire steering system. Consideration to control stability and steering performance, the yaw velocity as the system state to distinguish the fuzzy variable transmission ratio control is proposed. The fuzzy variable transmission ratio controller is designed. Through simulation analysis, an ideal characteristic curve is gained. This control strategy has great creativity and usability, and it can provide a useful reference.%为解决传统转向系统“轻”与“灵”的矛盾,文章在线控转向系统平台上分析了横摆角速度与操纵稳定性的关系以及转向盘转角和车速对传动比的影响。在兼顾操纵稳定性和转向特性的同时,提出以横摆角速度为系统状态识别变量的模糊变传动比控制,设计了模糊变传动比控制器。经过仿真分析,得到较理想的特性曲线。该控制策略具有较强的创新性、应用性和参考性。

  7. Tractor Automatic Steering System Design and Simulation%拖拉机自动导航转向系统的设计及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤文宽; 马蓉; 沈雷; 王喆

    2013-01-01

    依照拖拉机自动导航转向系统的要求,设计了一种自动转向系统的改造方案,通过加装三位四通电磁换向阀和比例调速阀的旁路节流调速回路,对转向轮的转向和转向速度进行了控制;然后,结合拖拉机结构对其油路改造进行了设计;最后,利用 AMESim 对系统进行了建模仿真,分析了其动态性能。结果表明,此方案具有效率高、动态响应性能好、精度高及油路改造简单方便等特点。%In accordance with the requirements of Tractor automatic steering system ,design of a steering system reforma-tion scheme , By adding the one three position four way electromagnetic valve and a proportional speed -regulating valve bypass throttling speed control circuit , control the wheel steering and steering speed .Then , combined with the tractor , designed the reform .At last, using of AMESIM carried on the system modeling and simulation ,Analysis of the dynamic properties .According to the analysis , the scheme has high efficiency , dynamic response performance , and high preci-sion , simple and convenient circuit transformation .

  8. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Escuela Politecnica de Linares, Universidad de Jaen, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs.

  9. REPAIRABLE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY MODEL WITH RESPECT TO LIFE DISTRIBUTION OF SPARE PARTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The failed components of repairable systems are replaced with spare parts that may have different failure distributions from those of the components that have failed. The spare parts may be either the same as new, better than new, or worse than new. This is the reality in maintenance engineering. Repair with better spare parts is defined as "super repair". The failure distributions of the spare parts affect the availability of the components and their systems. A novel model is proposed to describe the availability of repairable systems across their operating time, at the level of their components, on the assumption that the failed components are immediately replaced. The model functions with arbitrary failure distributions of spare parts. It can be used to compute the availability of components and systems not only under perfect and imperfect repair but also under super repair.

  10. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities from entropic uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Walborn, Stephen P.; Cavalcanti, Eric G.; Howell, John C.

    2013-06-01

    We use entropic uncertainty relations to formulate inequalities that witness Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering correlations in diverse quantum systems. We then use these inequalities to formulate symmetric EPR-steering inequalities using the mutual information. We explore the differing natures of the correlations captured by one-way and symmetric steering inequalities and examine the possibility of exclusive one-way steerability in two-qubit states. Furthermore, we show that steering inequalities can be extended to generalized positive operator-valued measures, and we also derive hybrid steering inequalities between alternate degrees of freedom.

  11. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung.

  12. Loss of Thiol Repair Systems in Human Cataractous Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Xing, Kui-Yi; Fan, Yin-Chuan; Libondi, Teodosio; Lou, Marjorie F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thiol repair systems of thioltransferase (TTase) and thioredoxin (Trx) and oxidation-damaged proteins in human cataractous lenses. Methods. Cataractous lenses in humans (57–85 years of age) were classified into cortical, nuclear, mixed, mature, and hypermature cataract types by using a lens opacity classification system, and were obtained by extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) procedure. Cortical and nuclear cataracts were grouped by decreasing order of visual acuity into optical chart reading (R), counting fingers (CF), hand motion (HM), and light perception (LP). ECCE lens homogenate was analyzed for glutathione (GSH) level and enzyme activities of TTase, glutathione reductase (GR), Trx, and thioredoxin reductase (TR). Cortical and nuclear cataractous lenses (8 of each) with visual acuity better than HM were each dissected into cortical and nuclear portions for measurement of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD) activity. Clear lenses (in humans 49–71 years of age) were used as control. Results. Compared with control, all cataractous lenses lost more than 80% GSH and 70% GR; TR and Trx activity; and 40% to 70% TTase activity, corroborated with the loss in visual acuity. Among cataracts with R and CF visual acuity, cortical cataract lost more cortical G3PD activity (18% of control) than that of nuclear cataract (50% of control), whereas GSH depletion and TTase inactivation were similar in both cataracts. Conclusions. Thiol repair systems were damaged in all types of cataracts. Cortical and nuclear cataracts showed differential G3PD inactivation in the cortex, implying those 2 type of cataracts might be formed through different mechanisms. PMID:25537203

  13. Automotive Electric Power Steering System and its Development%汽车电动助力转向系统及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凯

    2012-01-01

    传统的液压助力转向系统只能提供有效的转向助力,但不能根本地解决汽车驾驶员操纵"路感"不足的问题。文章介绍了汽车电动助力转向系统(EPS)的构成、分类、主要特点及未来发展方向。说明了EPS不但可以提供轻便和灵敏的操作,而且可以提供良好的"路感"。通过对EPS的结构和原理分析,指出EPS是未来汽车技术发展的必然趋势。%Traditional hydraulic power steering system only provides effective steering, but cannot give a ‘road feel’ to driver. This article introduces the structure, principles, features and future development of automotive electric power steering. It is showed that EPS can provide perfect‘road feel’ besides light and sensitive operation. By analyzing the structure and principle of EPS, it is indicated that EPS will be the inevitable trend of auto development in the future.

  14. Repair and degradation systems in irradiated animal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivannik, B.P.; Proskuryakov, S.Ya.; Ryabchenko, N.I. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    It was shown that primary radiosensitivity of DNA depends on the rate of DNA repair. In Zajdela hepatoma cells, cycloheximide administered immediately or 2 h before irradiation of animals does not influence DNA repair. Cycloheximide administered 4 h before irradiation of rats with a dose of 30 Gy arrests DNA repair in thymocytes and Zajdela hepatoma cells. At the same time, in cells of rat lymph nodes and spleen, under similar conditions, cycloheximide does not influence DNA repair and inhibits the secondary DNA degradation.

  15. The Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Subcommittee for Proteomics Assembles the Largest Proteome Database Resource for Plant Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckwerth, Wolfram; Baginsky, Sacha; Van Wijk, Klass; Heazlewood, Joshua; Millar, Harvey

    2009-12-01

    In the past 10 years, we have witnessed remarkable advances in the field of plant molecular biology. The rapid development of proteomic technologies and the speed with which these techniques have been applied to the field have altered our perception of how we can analyze proteins in complex systems. At nearly the same time, the availability of the complete genome for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was released; this effort provides an unsurpassed resource for the identification of proteins when researchers use MS to analyze plant samples. Recognizing the growth in this area, the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) established a subcommittee for A. thaliana proteomics in 2006 with the objective of consolidating databases, technique standards, and experimentally validated candidate genes and functions. Since the establishment of the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Subcommittee for Proteomics (MASCP), many new approaches and resources have become available. Recently, the subcommittee established a webpage to consolidate this information (www.masc-proteomics.org). It includes links to plant proteomic databases, general information about proteomic techniques, meeting information, a summary of proteomic standards, and other relevant resources. Altogether, this website provides a useful resource for the Arabidopsis proteomics community. In the future, the website will host discussions and investigate the cross-linking of databases. The subcommittee members have extensive experience in arabidopsis proteomics and collectively have produced some of the most extensive proteomics data sets for this model plant (Table S1 in the Supporting Information has a list of resources). The largest collection of proteomics data from a single study in A. thaliana was assembled into an accessible database (AtProteome; http://fgcz-atproteome.unizh.ch/index.php) and was recently published by the Baginsky lab.1 The database provides links to major Arabidopsis online

  16. Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneeloch, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Broadbent, Curtis J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Rochester Theory Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Howell, John C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  17. Improving Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  18. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio

  19. MUTYH and the mismatch repair system: partners in crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Renée C; Sijmons, Rolf H; Ou, J; Olthof, Sandra G M; Osinga, Jan; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Weiss, Marjan M; Tops, Carli M J; Hes, Frederik J; de Bock, Geertruida H; Buys, Charles H C M; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2006-03-01

    Biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH-a gene encoding a base excision repair protein-are associated with an increased susceptibility of colorectal cancer. Whether monoallelic MUTYH mutations also increase cancer risk is not yet clear, although there is some evidence suggesting a slight increase of risk. As the MUTYH protein interacts with the mismatch repair (MMR) system, we hypothesised that the combination of a monoallelic MUTYH mutation with an MMR gene mutation increases cancer risk. We therefore investigated the prevalence of monoallelic MUTYH mutations in carriers of a germline MMR mutation: 40 carriers of a truncating mutation (group I) and 36 of a missense mutation (group II). These patients had been diagnosed with either colorectal or endometrial cancer. We compared their MUTYH mutation frequencies with those observed in a group of 134 Dutch colorectal and endometrial cancer patients without an MMR gene mutation (0.7%) and those reported for Caucasian controls (1.5%). In group I one monoallelic MUTYH mutation was found (2.5%). In group II five monoallelic germline MUTYH mutations were found (14%), four of them in MSH6 missense mutation carriers (20%). Of all patients with an MMR gene mutation, only those with a missense mutation showed a significantly higher frequency of (monoallelic) MUTYH mutations than the Dutch cancer patients without MMR gene mutations (P = 0.002) and the published controls (P = 0.001). These results warrant further study to test the hypothesis of mutations in MMR genes (in particular MSH6) and MUTYH acting together to increase cancer risk.

  20. Reliability analysis of repairable systems using system dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Naikan, V. N. A.

    2014-07-01

    Repairable standby system's study and analysis is an important topic in reliability. Analytical techniques become very complicated and unrealistic especially for modern complex systems. There have been attempts in the literature to evolve more realistic techniques using simulation approach for reliability analysis of systems. This paper proposes a hybrid approach called as Markov system dynamics (MSD) approach which combines the Markov approach with system dynamics simulation approach for reliability analysis and to study the dynamic behavior of systems. This approach will have the advantages of both Markov as well as system dynamics methodologies. The proposed framework is illustrated for a standby system with repair. The results of the simulation when compared with that obtained by traditional Markov analysis clearly validate the MSD approach as an alternative approach for reliability analysis.

  1. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  2. 铰接车辆转向系统液压管路动态特性%Dynamic characteristics of hydraulic pipelines of steering system of articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯友山; 石博强; 肖成勇; 王慧; 郭朋彦

    2009-01-01

    对于铰接车辆转向系统,管路特性对转向系统性能影响较大,其影响因素不能被忽略.基于功率键合图-方块图方法及SIMULINK控制仿真软件,建立了铰接车辆转向系统液压管路至油缸及负载的通用数学模型.定量地研究分析了铰接车辆转向系统液压管路的动态特性以及液压管路参数对转向系统动态特性的影响.研究结果表明:对于小管径管路,液阻和液感较大,液容较小,系统振荡幅度小,响应速度快;随着管路长度的增加,液阻、液感和液容皆逐渐增大,系统振荡次数逐渐减少,振荡幅度逐渐减小,但是系统动态响应较慢;提高油液的等效体积弹性模量有利于改善系统的动态响应速度和稳定性.%For articulated vehicles steering system, the pipelines characteristics have great effects on the steering system performance, the impacts can not be ignored. Based on power bond graph-block diagram method and SIMULINK software, the general mathematical model of the hydraulic pipelines to the load of the articulated vehicles steering system was established. The dynamic characteristics of hydraulic pipelines of the articulated vehicles and the influence of the pipelines parameters on the articulated vehicles steering system were analyzed quantitatively. The study results show that for smaller diameter pipelines, the fluid resistance and fluid sense get larger, the fluid capacity gets smaller instead. The system oscillation amplitude is smaller and the dynamic response is faster; with an increase in the length of pipelines, the fluid sense, fluid resistance and fluid capacity are all increasing gradually, the system oscillation frequency reduces gradually, the oscillation amplitude also gradually decreases, but the dynamic response is getting slower. Increasing the oil volume elastic modulus of the system is conducive to improve the dynamic response speed and stability.

  3. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  4. THE OPTIMAL SYSTEM FOR SERIES SYSTEMS WITH WARM STANDBY COMPONENTS AND A REPAIRABLE SERVICE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salah EL-Sherbeny

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the reliability and availability characteristics of three different series system configurations with warm standby components and a repairable service station. The failure time of the primary and warm standby are assumed to be exponentially distributed with parameters and respectively. The repair time distribution of each server is also exponentially distributed with parameter . The breakdown time and the repair time of the service station are also assumed exponentially distributed with parameters and respectively. We derive the reliability dependent on time, availability dependent on time, the mean time to failure, , and the steady-state availability for three configurations and perform comparisons. Comparisons are made for specific values of distribution parameters and of the cost of the components. The three configurations are ranked based on: , and where is either or .

  5. Fuzzy PID Based Controller of Road Feeling for Steer-by-wire System%基于模糊PID的线控转向系统路感控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑾; 田杰; 罗石

    2012-01-01

    For the steer-by-wire system, the road feeling should be produced by simulation because there is no mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the front wheels. The dynamics model of steering wheel module and the aligning torque model of the mechanical steering system were established. According to the disadvantages of the fixed ratio in traditional steering system, a control strategy of road feeling based on variable transmission ratio was proposed. Small transmission ratio was used at the low speed in order to realize sensitive steering. Big transmission ratio was used at the high speed in order to realize stable steering. At the same time, modification of the road feeling was carried out according to the ideal road feeling expected by the driver, and the modification formula of the road feeling was derived finally. The simulation results showed that the road feeling control strategy could make good use of steer-by-wire system and satisfy the steering sensitivity at low speed and the steering stability at high speed. Fuzzy Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) controller was designed to real-timely control the road feeling simulating motor%线控转向系统由于取消了方向盘与转向轮之间的机械连接,所以路感必须模拟产生。本文中建立了方向盘模块和机械式转向系统回正力矩的动力学模型,针对传统转向系统转向器传动比固定的缺陷,设计了基于变传动比的路感控制策略。低速时采用小传动比,实现转向灵敏,高速时采用大传动比,实现转向稳定。并且根据驾驶员对理想路感的需求,进行路感修正,推导出具体的路感修正公式。仿真结果表明:该路感控制策略能发挥线控转向系统的优势,充分满足汽车行驶时的低速转向灵敏和高速转向稳定。在此基础上,通过模糊PID控制器对路感模拟电机进行了实时控制。

  6. A modelling study of drying shrinkage damage in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.; Ye, G.; van Breugel, K.

    2014-01-01

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems (Martinola, Sadouki et al. 2001, Beushausen and Alexander 2007). Magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the amount of restraint,

  7. 国内外旋转导向钻井系统导向原理%Steering Principles of Rotary Steerable Drilling Systems in China and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷静; 杨甘生; 梁涛; 胡驰

    2012-01-01

      Rotary steerable drilling technology is the most representative and advanced drilling technology in the world, and the core of the technology is rotary steerable drilling system.This paper summarizes the development situation of rotary steering drilling systems in China and abroad and analyzes the working principle of each system's steering mechanism.The paper also presents the development and perfection of the rotary steerable drilling system in the future.%  旋转导向钻井技术是目前世界上最具代表性和先进性的钻井技术,该技术的核心是旋转自动导向系统。总结了国内外旋转导向钻井系统的发展概况,对各系统的导向机构工作原理进行了对比分析,并就旋转导向钻井系统未来的发展和完善提出了看法。

  8. Shear Bond Strength of Repair Systems to New CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Özlem; Büyükhatipoğlu, Işıl Keçik; Seçilmiş, Aslı

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the bond strength of repair systems (Ceramic Repair, Clearfil Repair) to computer-aided design/computer-assisted machining (CAD/CAM) restorative materials (IPS e.max CAD, Vita Suprinity, Vita Enamic, Lava Ultimate). Thermally aged CAD/CAM restorative material specimens (5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C) were randomly divided into two groups according to the repair system: Ceramic Repair (37% phosphoric acid + Monobond-S + Heliobond + Tetric N Ceram) or Clearfil Repair (40% phosphoric acid + mixture of Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator and Clearfil SE Bond Primer + Clearfil SE Bond + Filtek Z250). The resin composite was light-cured on conditioned specimens. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then additionally aged for 5000 thermal cycles. The shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Two-way ANOVA was used to detect significance differences according to the CAD/CAM material and composite repair system factors. Subgroup analyses were conducted using the least significant difference post-hoc test. The results of two-way ANOVA indicated that bond strength values varied according to the restorative materials (p CAD/CAM restorative materials (p > 0.05), except in the Vita Suprinity group (p < 0.05). Moreover, no differences were observed between the repair systems. Both the Clearfil and Ceramic repair systems used in the study allow for successful repairs. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Modeling and simulation of electronic control full hydraulic steering system for grain combine harvester%谷物联合收割机电控全液压转向系统建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成涛; 谭彧; 吴刚; 王书茂

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, combine harvester navigation system based on machine vision had important significance in improving the harvesting efficiency of combine harvester, reducing the labor intensity of the driver and so on. In order to realize the automatic steering control of the combine operation path, it is necessary to reconstruct the original hydraulic steering system of combine harvester. To analyze the steering performance of the modified electronically controlled hydraulic steering system for combine harvester in visual navigation system, mathematical models of the electronically controlled hydraulic steering system were established after introducing the structure of combine harvester visual navigation system. The system was mainly composed of combine harvester body, full hydraulic steering, steering transmission mechanism and hybrid stepping motor. In this paper, the mathematical models of the parts were established respectively. The steering model of combine harvester was firstly simplified to linear 2-DOF rear wheel steering vehicle model, and the basic handling dynamics model of combine harvester was established. Then, the dynamic mathematical model of simplified hydraulic steering system was given in the analysis of the fully hydraulic steering work principle for combine harvester. And then, the static model of the steering transmission mechanism was established according to its geometrical structures. Finally, the stepping motor model was simplified as an inertial system according to the step response performance, and its transfer function was given. The electronically controlled hydraulic steering system was simulated through the joint simulation method of each mathematical model by Simulink software. In order to verify the correctness of simulation models, the dynamic response characteristics of steering system was tested with the steering wheel angle step input of 90° on Xinjiang 2A combine harvester. In the real vehicle test, vehicle yaw rate was

  10. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  11. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  12. Responder fast steering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  13. Design of Pneumatic Collapsible Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Nair

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The steering wheel is the important cause of fatal injury for drivers in frontal collision. When frontal collision occurs, due to the kinetic energy of driver or occupant body, it moves forward against steering wheel and wind shield. Actually in a frontal collision forces will be first transmitted through driver’s feet which act as fulcrum so the body will rotate about it. For the taller driver steering works as fulcrum. Driver head & chest hit the steering or windshield which may cause severe injury or death. Considering the injury potential of steering wheel we are presenting a new idea Pneumatic Collapsible Steering Column (PCS.

  14. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  15. Modeling the induced mutation process in bacterial cells with defects in excision repair system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, A. N.; Vasilyeva, M. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Parkhomenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model of the UV-induced mutation process in Escherichia coli cells with defects in the uvrA and polA genes has been developed. The model describes in detail the reaction kinetics for the excision repair system. The number of mismatches as a result of translesion synthesis is calculated for both wild-type and mutant cells. The effect of temporal modulation of the number of single-stranded DNA during postreplication repair has been predicted. A comparison of effectiveness of different repair systems has been conducted.

  16. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  17. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†, W.

  18. Current state in tracking and robotic navigation systems for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, Quirina M B; Moll, Frans L.; Van Herwaarden, Joost A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study reviewed the current developments in manual tracking and robotic navigation technologies for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies reporting manual tracking or robotic navigation systems that are

  19. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†,

  20. Current state in tracking and robotic navigation systems for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, Quirina M B; Moll, Frans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; Van Herwaarden, Joost A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814733

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study reviewed the current developments in manual tracking and robotic navigation technologies for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies reporting manual tracking or robotic navigation systems that are

  1. Self-Repairing Flight Control System for Online Health Monitoring and Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a reliable self-repairing Flight Control System (FCS) will be developed. To achieve this goal, an artificial Neural Network based Sensor...

  2. WELL-POSEDNESS OF THE MODEL DESCRIBING A REPAIRABLE, STANDBY, HUMAN & MACHINE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geni Gupur

    2003-01-01

    By using the strong continuous semigroup theory of linear operators we prove the existence of a unique positive time-dependent solution of the model describing a repairable, standby, human & machine system.

  3. CCCT - Patient Advocate Steering Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Patient Advocate Steering Committee (PASC) works to ensure advocates involved with the Scientific Steering Committees (SSCs) are completely integrated in the development, implementation, and monitoring of clinical trials within those groups.

  4. MUTYH and the mismatch repair system: partners in crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, R.C.; Sijmons, R.H.; Ou, J.; Olthof, S.G.; Osinga, J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Weiss, M.M.; Tops, C.M.; Hes, F.J.; Bock, G.H. de; Buys, C.H.C.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Hofstra, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH-a gene encoding a base excision repair protein-are associated with an increased susceptibility of colorectal cancer. Whether monoallelic MUTYH mutations also increase cancer risk is not yet clear, although there is some evidence suggesting a slight increase of r

  5. MUTYH and the mismatch repair system : partners in crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Ou, J; Olthof, SGM; Osinga, J; Ligtenberg, MJ; Hogervorst, FBL; Weiss, MM; Tops, CMJ; Hes, FJ; de Bock, GH; Buys, CHCM; Kleibeuker, JH; Hofstra, RMW

    2006-01-01

    Biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH-a gene encoding a base excision repair protein-are associated with an increased susceptibility of colorectal cancer. Whether monoallelic MUTYH mutations also increase cancer risk is not yet clear, although there is some evidence suggesting a slight increase of r

  6. Damage induced by continued corrosion in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. After the repair, corrosion of the steel might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell depends on many parameters and is difficult to control, the occurrence of vi

  7. Mesenteric ischemia after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair : a systemic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, J. L. M.; Tielliu, I. F. J.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Pol, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric ischemia after abdominal aneurysm repair is a devastating complication with mortality rates up to 70%. Incidence however is relatively low. The aim of this review was to provide an overview on current insights, diagnostic modalities and on mesenteric ischemia after abdominal aortic aneury

  8. Analysis for Effect of Steering-by-Wire System on Automobile Handling Stability%线控转向系统对汽车操纵稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蕾艳; 金涛; 伊剑波; 鲍长勇; 郑亚军

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics model of the steering -by-wire system is established based on the MATLAB /Simulink software .Then structural parameters of its key parts such as the moment inertia , damp coefficient and stiffness of the steering motor which affect the automobile handling stability are analyzed .The automobile handling stability can be improved by designing reasonable structural parameters of the motor of the steering -by-wire system properly .%基于MATLAB/Simulink软件建立线控转向系统的动力学模型,分析线控转向系统关键部件---转向电机的转动惯量、阻尼系数、刚度等对汽车操纵稳定性的影响。合理设计线控转向系统转向电机的结构参数,可提高汽车的操纵稳定性。

  9. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  10. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz, M.L. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)], E-mail: mgamiz@ugr.es; Roman, Y. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform.

  11. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic-helm steering-system in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Each hydraulic-helm steering-system... the vessel at every service speed without being damaged at maximum astern speed. (2) A hydraulic... stops. (6) Either— (i) Two steering pumps in accordance with § 130.130(c)(3) of this part; or (ii)...

  12. No-cloning of quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Yi; Lambert, Neill; Liao, Teh-Lu; Nori, Franco; Li, Che-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering allows two parties to verify their entanglement, even if one party’s measurements are untrusted. This concept has not only provided new insights into the nature of non-local spatial correlations in quantum mechanics, but also serves as a resource for one-sided device-independent quantum information tasks. Here, we investigate how EPR steering behaves when one-half of a maximally entangled pair of qudits (multidimensional quantum systems) is cloned by a universal cloning machine. We find that EPR steering, as verified by a criterion based on the mutual information between qudits, can only be found in one of the copy subsystems but not both. We prove that this is also true for the single-system analogue of EPR steering. We find that this restriction, which we term ‘no-cloning of quantum steering’, elucidates the physical reason why steering can be used to secure sources and channels against cloning-based attacks when implementing quantum communication and quantum computation protocols.

  13. In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength between Ceramic Repair Systems and Ceramic Materials and Evaluation of the Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan; Manav, Taha; Albayrak, Haydar

    2017-04-01

    When fracture of an all-ceramic restoration occurs, it can be necessary to repair without removing the restoration. Although there are many studies about the repair of metal-ceramic restorations, there are few about all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between ceramic repair systems and esthetic core materials and to evaluate the wettability of all-ceramic core materials. Disk-like specimens (N = 90) made of three dental ceramic infrastructure materials (zirconia ceramic, alumina ceramic, glass ceramic) were polished with silicon carbide paper, prepared for bonding (abrasion with 30 μm diamond rotary cutting instrument). Thirty specimens of each infrastructure were obtained. Each infrastructure group was divided into three subgroups; they were bonded using 3 repair systems: Bisco Intraoral Repair Kit, Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System, and Clearfil Repair System. After 1200 thermocycles, shear bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. In addition, the contact angle values of the infrastructures after surface treatments were examined for wettability. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Although there were no significant differences among the repair systems (p > 0.05) in the glass ceramic and zirconia groups, a significant difference was found among the repair systems in alumina infrastructure (p 0.05); however, a statistically significant difference was found among the repair systems (p < 0.05). No difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems in terms of contact angle values. Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System had higher bond strength values than the other repair systems. Although no difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems, contact wettability angle was decreased by surface treatments compared with polished surfaces. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...

  15. The impact of force feedback level on steering performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Steer-by-wire systems provide designers the ability to customize and personalize force feedback on the steering wheel, based on individual preferences. Earlier studies using subjective responses have shown that there are individual differences in preferences for force feedback. It has also been foun

  16. 基于模糊 PID 自动转向控制系统的研究%Automatic Steering Control System Research on Fuzzy PID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长龙; 李文春; 马蓉; 任玲; 石翔

    2016-01-01

    在拖拉机自动转向控制系统中,为了提高自动转向性能,满足工作需求,设计了参数自整定的模糊 PID控制。同时,对模糊控制规则进行了设计,实现对PID3个输出比例因子进行实时修改,提高了系统的控制性能。对模糊PID 在MATLAB中进行了建模仿真,通过仿真结果可以看出:该控制方法有很好的稳态精度和自适应能力,明显改善了系统的动态特性,有利于拖拉机自动驾驶精度的提高。通过台架实验,验证了该控制方法的可行性。%Tractor automatic steering control system , to improve the automatic steering performance ,meet the job require-ments, design the parameter self-tuning fuzzy PID control .Design and implementation of fuzzy control rules and modify the PID three output scaling factor in real time ,improve the control performance of the system .And the fuzzy PID has car-ried on the modeling and simulation in MATLAB, the simulation results can be seen that this control method has good steady precision and adaptive ability , obviously improve the dynamic characteristic of the system , beneficial to the im-provement of the tractor automated driving accuracy .

  17. Dynamic characteristics analysis of hydraulic pipes in fully hydraulic steering system of engineering vehicles%工程车辆全液压转向系统管路特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛振亮; 侯友山; 姜勇

    2011-01-01

    基于功率键合图理论建立了工程车辆全液压转向系统的数学模型.运用20sim键图软件重点研究了全液压转向系统管路的动态特性以及液压管路参数对转向系统动态特性的影响.研究结果表明:对于小管径及长管路转向系统,管路内液阻、液感较大,有利于抑制系统的高频振荡和冲击以增强转向系统的稳定性,但延长了系统的动态响应时间;对于大管径及短管路转向系统,管路液阻、液感较小,系统动态响应较快,但转向系统振荡剧烈,振荡幅度增大,振荡次数增多,不利于车辆的操作稳定性.提高油液的体积弹性模量利于改善系统的动态响应速度和稳定性.研究结果为全液压转向系统的设计及管网动态特性分析提供理论依据.%Based on power bond graph diagram method, the general mathematical model of fully hydraulic steering system(FHSS) was established. The dynamic characteristics of hydraulic pipes of FHSS and the influences of pipeline parameters on the steering system were mainly analyzed by using 20sim bond graph software. The study results show that for the long and small diameter pipeline steering systems, the fluid resistance and fluid sense get larger, which are conducive to suppress high-frequency oscillation and shock to enhance the stability of steering system, but prolong the system's dynamic response time; for the short and large diameter pipeline, the fluid resistance and fluid sense get smaller,the system responses rapidly, but the steering system endures intensive high-frequency oscillation, with the increasing of both amplitude and frequency, which is uncondueive to the stability of steering system. Increasing the volume elastic modulus of oil in the system can improve the dynamic response speed and stability. The study results provide a theoretical support for the design of fully hydraulic steering system and for the analysis of pipeline nets' dynamic characteristics.

  18. Stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with maximum repair time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to analyze the stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with concept of preventive maintenance, priority and maximum repair time. For this purpose, a stochastic model is developed in which initially one unit is operative and other is kept as cold standby. There is a single server who visits the system immediately as and when required. The server takes the unit under preventive maintenance after a maximum operation time at normal mode if one standby unit is available for operation. If the repair of the failed unit is not possible up to a maximum repair time, failed unit is replaced by new one. The failure time, maximum operation time and maximum repair time distributions of the unit are considered as exponentially distributed while repair and maintenance time distributions are considered as arbitrary. All random variables are statistically independent and repairs are perfect. Various measures of system effectiveness are obtained by using the technique of semi-Markov process and RPT. To highlight the importance of the study numerical results are also obtained for MTSF, availability and profit function.

  19. Comparison of manual steering and steering via joystick of a flexible rhino endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, R; Gumprecht, J J; Strauss, G; Hofer, M; Dietz, A; Lueth, T C

    2010-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes are used in ENT surgery for examination tasks in cases wherever rigid endoscopes are unsuitable to reach certain positions in the nasal cavity. Until today they are steered by hand and no robotized system has been put into clinical practice. One qualification a robot manipulator system has to fulfill to be accepted is not to create new disadvantages compared to the conventional method in surgery. An important factor is the time needed to steer the new system compared to the time needed to steer the conventional system. In this article a robot manipulator system and an experiment are presented to compare the particular times test persons need to perform a certain task. This approach offers the possibility to benchmark the developed robot manipulator system and future systems for flexible rhino endoscopes.

  20. Development of structural health monitoring systems for composite bonded repairs on aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Powlesland, Ian G.; Moss, Scott D.; Konak, Michael J.; van der Velden, Stephen P.; Stade, Bryan; Baker, Alan A.

    2001-08-01

    The application of bonded composite patches to repair or reinforce defective metallic structures is becoming recognized as a very effective versatile repair procedure for many types of problems. Immediate applications of bonded patches are in the fields of repair of cracking, localized reinforcement after removal of corrosion damage and for reduction of fatigue strain. However, bonded repairs to critical components are generally limited due to certification concerns. For certification and management of repairs to critical structure, the Smart Patch approach may be an acceptable solution from the airworthiness prospective and be cost effective for the operator and may even allow some relaxation of the certification requirements. In the most basic form of the Smart Patch in-situ sensors can be used as the nerve system to monitor in service the structural condition (health or well-being) of the patch system and the status of the remaining damage in the parent structure. This application would also allow the operator to move away from current costly time-based maintenance procedures toward real-time health condition monitoring of the bonded repair and the repaired structure. TO this end a stand-alone data logger device, for the real-time health monitoring of bonded repaired systems, which is in close proximity to sensors on a repair is being developed. The instrumentation will measure, process and store sensor measurements during flight and then allow this data to be up-loaded, after the flight, onto a PC, via remote (wireless) data access. This paper describes two in-situ health monitoring systems which will be used on a composite bonded patch applied to an F/A-18. The two systems being developed consists of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film-based and a conventional electrical-resistance foil strain gauge-based sensing system. The latter system uses a primary cell (Lithium- based battery) as the power source, which should enable an operating life of 1-2 years. The patch

  1. Development of Control System for Steering Gear Based on RTX%基于RTX的舵机控制系统研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓蕾; 夏伟杰; 周建江

    2011-01-01

    设计并研制了一种基于RTX实时扩展模块的2.4 m风洞虚拟飞行试验的舵机控制系统。该系统用于采集天平、陀螺仪、舵机、光电编码器信号,为飞机各主要部件的气动特性评估提供了重要依据。文中介绍了RTX实时模块和硬件设计、软件设计。并通过实际应用表明,该系统具有实时性强、算法可靠、精度高、用户操作简单等优点。%This paper designs and develops a set of testing system for Steering Gear control of virtual flight test from 2.4 meter windtunnel based on RTX real-time extension module.The system which provides an important basis for the assessment of aerodynamic characteristics for flight major components collects Signals which are sent by Balance,Gyroscope,Steering Gear,photoelectric encoder.The paper introduces RTX real time module and hardware design firstly,and then describes the software design divided into 2 parts.Finally,in conjunction with a practical application,it is more time critical,more stable when running algorithm,higher accuracy and more user-oriented.

  2. Investigations on control algorithm of steady-state cornering and control strategy for dynamical correction in a steer-by-wire system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying XU; Chang-fu ZONG; Hsiao-hsiang NA; Lei LIU

    2009-01-01

    To improve the handling performance of a steer-by-wire (SBW) vehicle, a series of control logics are proposed. Firstly,an algorithm for enhancing the maneuvering in steady-state cornering is presented. On this basis, two categories of control strategies are used to dynamically correct and compensate the transient state steering responses and vehicle behaviors. Simulator tests including subjective evaluations and virtual field tests are both conducted to make comprehensive investigations on the series of control logics. The subjective evaluations demonstrate that the SBW vehicle with a specifically selected value of steering sensitivity tends to be more desirable for driving than a conventional one in which a fixed steering ratio exists. The virtual field tests indicate that the control strategies for dynamical correction and compensation could effectively improve the handling performances of an SBW vehicle by reducing the work load of drivers, enhancing the track-holding performance, and improving steering response properties.

  3. Steering object-oriented computations with Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.-Y.B.; Dubois, P.F.; Furnish, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beazley, D.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1996-10-01

    We have described current approaches and future plans for steering C++ application, running Python on parallel platforms, and combination of Tk interface and Python interpreter in steering computations. In addition, there has been significant enhancement in the Gist module. Tk mega widgets has been implemented for a few physics applications. We have also written Python interface to SIJLO, a data storage package used as an interface to a visualization system named MeshTv. Python is being used to control large-scale simulations (molecular dynamics in particular) running on the CM-5 and T3D at LANL as well. A few other code development projects at LLNL are either using or considering Python as their steering shells. In summary, the merits of Python have been appreciated by more and more people in the scientific computation community.

  4. Lubrication System. Introduction: Things for You to Know. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual introducing the lubrication system is the first of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose of the booklet is to help students learn about the lubrication system and safe and good work habits. Informative material and diagrams are…

  5. Parameter Interval Estimation of System Reliability for Repairable Multistate Series-Parallel System with Fuzzy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create an interval estimation of the fuzzy system reliability for the repairable multistate series–parallel system (RMSS). Two-sided fuzzy confidence interval for the fuzzy system reliability is constructed. The performance of fuzzy confidence interval is considered based on the coverage probability and the expected length. In order to obtain the fuzzy system reliability, the fuzzy sets theory is applied to the system reliability problem when dealing with uncertainties in the RMSS. The fuzzy number with a triangular membership function is used for constructing the fuzzy failure rate and the fuzzy repair rate in the fuzzy reliability for the RMSS. The result shows that the good interval estimator for the fuzzy confidence interval is the obtained coverage probabilities the expected confidence coefficient with the narrowest expected length. The model presented herein is an effective estimation method when the sample size is n ≥ 100. In addition, the optimal α-cut for the narrowest lower expected length and the narrowest upper expected length are considered. PMID:24987728

  6. Steering laws analysis of SGCMGs based on singular value decomposition theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-rui

    2008-01-01

    The steering laws of single gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) are analyzed and compared in this paper for a spacecraft attitude control system based on singular value decomposition (SVD) theory. The mechanism of steering laws escaping singularity, especially how the steering laws affect singularity of gimbal configuration and the output torque error, is studied using SVD theory. Performance of various steering laws are analyzed and compared quantitatively by simulation. The obtained results can be used as a reference for designers.

  7. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    well-being is key for happy and stress free life. Mind has enormous energy. Everyone has access to tre­mendous mental energies; what matters is being aware of this and to work on concentrating your energy into creative work. To achieve mental strength, C5 is a su­preme powerful exercise for the mind......Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  8. ALLOCATING REPAIRABLE SYSTEM'S RELIABILITY SUBJECT TO MINIMAL TOTAL COST - AN INTEGER PROGRAMMING APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad A. Moreb

    2007-01-01

    Reliability allocation problem is commonly treated using a closed-form expression relating the cost to reliability. A recent approach has introduced the use of discrete integer technique for un-repairable systems. This research addresses the allocation problem for repairable systems. It presents an integer formulation for finding the optimum selection of components based on the integer values of their Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR). The objective is to minimize the total cost under a system reliability constraint, in addition to other physical constraints. Although, a closed-form expression relating the cost to reliability may not be a linear; however, in this research, the objective function will always be linear regardless of the shape of the equivalent continuous closed-form function. An example is solved using the proposed method and compared with the solution of the continuous closed-form version. The formulation for all possible system configurations, components and subsystems are also considered.

  9. Inducible SOS Response System of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Janion

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal DNA is exposed to continuous damage and repair. Cells contain a number of proteins and specific DNA repair systems that help maintain its correct structure. The SOS response was the first DNA repair system described in Escherichia coli induced upon treatment of bacteria with DNA damaging agents arrest DNA replication and cell division. Induction of the SOS response involves more than forty independent SOS genes, most of which encode proteins engaged in protection, repair, replication, mutagenesis and metabolism of DNA. Under normal growth conditions the SOS genes are expressed at a basal level, which increases distinctly upon induction of the SOS response. The SOS-response has been found in many bacterial species (e.g., Salmonella typhimurium, Caulobacter crescentus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but not in eukaryotic cells. However, species from all kingdoms contain some SOS-like proteins taking part in DNA repair that exhibit amino acid homology and enzymatic activities related to those found in E. coli. but are not organized in an SOS system. This paper presents a brief up-to-date review describing the discovery of the SOS system, the physiology of SOS induction, methods for its determination, and the role of some SOS-induced genes.

  10. Design and Analysis of a Fast Steering Mirror for Precision Laser Beams Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun ZHOU

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision laser beam steering is critical in numerous applications. Also, precise pointing of laser beams is essential in challenging environments. The optical signal may be deflected, drift and wander due to environmental influences. The core problem of steering performances is to deal with the jitter disturbance. Based on the analysis of the beam angle steering system, some important factors to design the structure of a Fast Steering Mirror (FSM and the layout of laser optics steering system are presented. Flexure hinges with compliant mechanisms are used to build the FSM structure. A 4-quadrant detector is used as the sensor for the incoming light. A design of the developed control loop and concepts of the FSM model are discussed. A comparison between the measured gain response and the simulation model of the FSM reveals similarity between the theoretical simulation model and the real system, and offers a way to improve the model to better resemble the real system. A laser beam jitter control test bed is also introduced to improve jitter control techniques.

  11. Effect of surface roughness and adhesive system on repair potential of silorane-based resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas H. Mobarak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the influence of surface roughness and adhesive system on the repair strength of silorane-based resin composite. Twenty-four substrate discs from silorane-based FiltekP90 were made and stored for 24 h. Half of the discs were roughened against 320 grit SiC paper while the other half was polished against 4000 grit SiC paper. All discs were etched with phosphoric acid. Repair resin composite, FiltekP90 or FiltekZ250, was bonded to the treated surfaces using their corresponding adhesive; P90 System Adhesive (SA or Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP ending up with four repair groups. The groups were as follows: G1: Smooth + SA + FiltekP90; G2: Roughened + SA + FiltekP90; G3: Smooth + SBMP + FiltekZ250; G4: Roughened + SBMP + FiltekZ250. Additional six unrepaired discs from each resin composite (G5 and G6 were prepared to test the cohesive strength. After 24 h, discs (n = 6/group were serially sectioned to obtain sticks (n = 30/group for microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM evaluation of substrates that received different treatments as well as representative substrate-repair sticks from each group were performed. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA with Repeated-Measures revealed that surface treatment and repair material had no significant effect on repair bond strength of silorane-based composite material. Paired t-test showed that all repair strength values were significantly lower than the cohesive strength of FiltekP90. Adhesive failure was the predominant mode of failure which was confirmed by SEM. Surface treated FiltekP90 composite showed different textures under SEM whereas phosphoric acid did not produce clear changes. An interaction layer between SBMP adhesive and FiltekZ250 repairing composite was detected. Repair of the silorane composite was successful irrespective of the surface roughness and chemistry of the repair

  12. RESTART simulation of non-Markov consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villen-Altamirano, Jose, E-mail: jvillen@eui.upm.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada (E.U. Informatica), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Calle Arboleda s/n, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The reliability of consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems and (k-1)-step Markov dependence is studied. The model analyzed in this paper is more general than those of previous studies given that repair time and component lifetimes are random variables that follow a general distribution. The system has one repair service which adopts a priority repair rule based on system failure risk. Since crude simulation has proved to be inefficient for highly dependable systems, the RESTART method was used for the estimation of steady-state unavailability, MTBF and unreliability. Probabilities up to the order of 10{sup -16} have been accurately estimated with little computational effort. In this method, a number of simulation retrials are performed when the process enters regions of the state space where the chance of occurrence of a rare event (e.g., a system failure) is higher. The main difficulty for the application of this method is to find a suitable function, called the importance function, to define the regions. Given the simplicity involved in changing some model assumptions with RESTART, the importance function used in this paper could be useful for dependability estimation of many systems.

  13. Influence of vitamins A, D3 and E status on post-mortem meat quality in steers under winter housing or pasture finishing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, T; Pickova, J; Ertbjerg, P;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Swedish recommended vitamins A, D3 and E supplementation levels on muscle tenderness and fatty acid (FA) composition under indoor or outdoor finishing programmes. Swedish Red breed steer calves were divided into vitamin supplemented (n512) and non-supplemented (n515......) groups while on pasture prior to the finishing period. This trial began at the beginning of the winter housing period during which the steers were fed a 55 : 45 dry matter barley : grass silage diet indoors. The indoor finished group was comprised of vitamin supplemented (n56) and non-supplemented (n58......) steers slaughtered after about 155 days on feed. Vitamin supplemented steers were provided with 100 g mineral supplement providing 400 000 IU vitamin A, 100 000 IU D3 and 3000 IU E daily as recommended for Swedish production practices. In spring, outdoor finished vitamin supplemented (n56) and non...

  14. Pattern recognition receptors and central nervous system repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigerl, Kristina A; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, W Dalton; Popovich, Phillip G; Keane, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are part of the innate immune response and were originally discovered for their role in recognizing pathogens by ligating specific pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by microbes. Now the role of PRRs in sterile inflammation is also appreciated, responding to endogenous stimuli referred to as "damage associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) instead of PAMPs. The main families of PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-like receptors (RLRs), AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), and C-type lectin receptors. Broad expression of these PRRs in the CNS and the release of DAMPs in and around sites of injury suggest an important role for these receptor families in mediating post-injury inflammation. Considerable data now show that PRRs are among the first responders to CNS injury and activation of these receptors on microglia, neurons, and astrocytes triggers an innate immune response in the brain and spinal cord. Here we discuss how the various PRR families are activated and can influence injury and repair processes following CNS injury.

  15. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Lukovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d, the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning. From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  16. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Severe Thrombocytopenia after Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Silvestrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm, a systemic inflammatory response, named postimplantation syndrome, can develop. This syndrome is characterized by fever, leukocytosis, and elevated CRP plasma levels and its pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown. Although this syndrome generally resolves within few days, some patients develop a persisting severe inflammatory reaction leading to mild or severe complications. Here we describe the case of a male patient who developed postimplantation inflammatory syndrome and severe thrombocytopenia after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Treatment with prednisone (50 mg/bid for two weeks did not improve the clinical and laboratory findings. We utilized danazol, a weak androgen that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of immune and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and after 12 days of treatment with danazol (200 mg/bid, the patient improved progressively and platelet number increased up to 53,000/μL. Patients undergoing endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm should be carefully monitored for the development of postimplantation syndrome. This clinical condition is relatively common after the endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm but is rarely observed after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. The different known therapeutical approaches are still empiric, with reported beneficial effects with the use of NSAID, corticosteroids, and danazol.

  17. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Severe Thrombocytopenia after Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrin, Valentina; Bonvini, Stefano; Antonello, Michele; Grego, Franco; Vettor, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    After Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm, a systemic inflammatory response, named postimplantation syndrome, can develop. This syndrome is characterized by fever, leukocytosis, and elevated CRP plasma levels and its pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown. Although this syndrome generally resolves within few days, some patients develop a persisting severe inflammatory reaction leading to mild or severe complications. Here we describe the case of a male patient who developed postimplantation inflammatory syndrome and severe thrombocytopenia after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Treatment with prednisone (50 mg/bid) for two weeks did not improve the clinical and laboratory findings. We utilized danazol, a weak androgen that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of immune and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and after 12 days of treatment with danazol (200 mg/bid), the patient improved progressively and platelet number increased up to 53,000/μL. Patients undergoing endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm should be carefully monitored for the development of postimplantation syndrome. This clinical condition is relatively common after the endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm but is rarely observed after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. The different known therapeutical approaches are still empiric, with reported beneficial effects with the use of NSAID, corticosteroids, and danazol. PMID:28154580

  18. Prediction of Repair Work Duration for Gas Transport Systems Based on Small Data Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnykh, Valery; Litvin, Yuri; Kozin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the duration of a repair and maintenance project of a gas transport system is an important part of planning activities. There exist numerous sources of uncertainties that may result in time overruns possibly leading to multiple negative consequences. Our experience in planning...... this work suggests that accepting the stochastic nature of the project duration is a constructive step towards the preparedness to contingencies and defining penalties for repair companies. To support this approach, one needs to construct probability distributions of the durations of the projects...

  19. Things for You to Know. Fuel System. Student Manual--Introduction. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. Information covered in this manual is considered to be the minimum that students need to know about fuel systems in order to get small-engine repair jobs. The manual introduces students to small-engine fuel…

  20. Lubrication System 2. Service the Crankcase Breather. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on servicing the crankcase breather is the third of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  1. Superficial fascial system repair: an abdominoplasty technique to reduce local complications after caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Tzakas, Elias

    2009-05-01

    Abdominal incision complications are a major source of morbidity after caesarean delivery. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications after caesarean delivery by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound which has the potential to decrease early wound dehiscence and as a by-product correct suprapubic bulging.

  2. Optimal Repair And Replacement Policy For A System With Multiple Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    probabilistic life-cycle maintenance mod- els for deteriorating civil infrastructure. Probabilistic Enginering Mechanics 19 345– 359. Zhang, Y.L. 2002. A...Repair, Replace, Multiple Component Models, Maintenance Models, Markov Decision Process 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...Parametric Analysis of the Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6 Conclusions and Future Work 45 6.1 Conclusions

  3. Semiconservative replication, genetic repair, and many-gened genomes: Extending the quasispecies paradigm to living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2005-12-01

    Quasispecies theory has emerged as an important tool for modeling the evolutionary dynamics of biological systems. We review recent advances in the field, with an emphasis on the quasispecies dynamics of semiconservatively replicating genomes. Applications to cancer and adult stem cell growth are discussed. Additional topics, such as genetic repair and many-gene genomes, are covered as well.

  4. Bond strength durability of direct and indirect composite systems following surface conditioning for repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Ozcan, Mutlu; Vanderlei, Aleska Dias; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa Pereira; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of surface conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between a resin composite and an indirect composite system in order to test the repair bond strength. Materials and Methods: Eighteen blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of indirect resin composite (Sin

  5. Injecting a liquid bacteria-based repair system to make porous network conrete healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria induced calcite precipitation has been proven to be effective in making concrete structure self-healing. In Microlab TU Delft, the concept has been enhanced by developing a liquid bacteria-based concrete repair system. The solution contains calcite precipitating bacteria, nutrients and buff

  6. Research on the Variable Steering Ratio of Four-Wheel-Steering Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林程; 陈思忠; 任良成

    2004-01-01

    The steering characteristic of a four-wheel-steering vehicle is numerically simulated for in-depth research of the handling stability of four-wheel steering. The research results show that the deteriorating tendency of the steering stability due to the increase of the vehicle speed is improved obviously in the case of four-wheel steering. The approach of variable steering ratio is discussed. The use of the variable steering ratio can not only raise the steering stability of vechicles at high vehicle speed, but also reduce the dicomfort and steering burden of drivers; and hence is helpful for the subjective evaluation of four-wheel steering vehicles.

  7. On fractional control method for four-wheel-steering vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ning; CHEN Nan; CHEN YanDong

    2009-01-01

    Four-wheel-steering (4WS) system can enhance vehicle cornering ability by steering the rear wheels in accordance with the front wheels steering and vehicle status. With such steering control system, it becomes possible to improve the lateral stability and handling performance, in this paper, a new control method for 4WS vehicle is proposed, its rear wheels steering angle is in accordance with the angle of front wheels steering and vehicle yaw rate, and the effects of front wheels steering angle velocity are considered by adopting the fractional derivative theory. Some design specifications for control law are also given. The effects of the control method are verified by a kind of numerical scheme presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics such as the side-slip angle and the yaw angle velocity of the vehicle gravity center are compared among three kinds of vehicles with different control methods. And the kinematics characteristics such as turning radius between 4WS and 2WS are also discussed. Nu-merical simulation shows that the control method presented can improve the transient response and reduce the turning radius of 4WS vehicle.

  8. On fractional control method for four-wheel-steering vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Four-wheel-steering (4WS) system can enhance vehicle cornering ability by steering the rear wheels in accordance with the front wheels steering and vehicle status. With such steering control system, it becomes possible to improve the lateral stability and handling performance. In this paper, a new control method for 4WS vehicle is proposed, its rear wheels steering angle is in accordance with the angle of front wheels steering and vehicle yaw rate, and the effects of front wheels steering angle velocity are considered by adopting the fractional derivative theory. Some design specifications for control law are also given. The effects of the control method are verified by a kind of numerical scheme presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics such as the side-slip angle and the yaw angle velocity of the vehicle gravity center are compared among three kinds of vehicles with different control methods. And the kinematics characteristics such as turning radius between 4WS and 2WS are also discussed. Nu- merical simulation shows that the control method presented can improve the transient response and reduce the turning radius of 4WS vehicle.

  9. An improved constrained steering law for SGCMGs with DPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Shijie Xu

    2009-01-01

    An improved constrained (IC) steering law for single girnbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) with deformed pyramid configuration (DPC) is proposed. First of all, the original system with five pyramid configuration (FPC) whose two adjacent gyros are in failure state is reconfigured as a degraded system with DPC. Then, the singular angular momentum hypersurfaces of the original and the degraded systems are plotted via the singular angular momentum equation of SGCMGs. Based on singular surfaces, the differences between FPC and DPC in singularity and momentum envelope are obtained directly, which provide an important reference for steering law design of DPC. Finally, an IC steering law is designed and applied to DPC. The simulation results demonstrate that the IC steering law has advantages in simplicity of calculation, avoidance of singularity and exactness of output torque, which endow the degraded system with fine controllability in a restricted workspace.

  10. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  11. Defective dental restorations: to repair or not to repair? Part 2: All-ceramics and porcelain fused to metal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Igor R; Jagger, Daryll C; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2011-04-01

    With the increasing use of ceramics in restorative dentistry, and trends to extend restoration longevity through the use of minimal interventive techniques, dental practitioners should be familiar with the factors that may influence the decision either to repair or replace fractured metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations and, also, the materials and techniques available to repair these restorations. This second of two papers addresses the possible modes of failure of ceramic restorations and outlines indications and techniques in this developing aspect of restoration repair in clinical practice. The repair of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations is a reliable low-cost, low-risk technique that may be of value for the management of loss or fracture of porcelain from a crown or bridge in clinical practice.

  12. 3-Unit System Comprising Two Types of Units with First Come First Served Repair Pattern Except When Both Types of Units are Waiting for Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goyal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we investigated the probabilistic analysis of a three unit system working in a sugar Mill, wherein one unit is big and the other two units are small and identical, is examined. Upon failure of the big unit, both small units are made operative and failed unit is undertaken for repair immediately. Priority for operation is given to the big unit. Priority for repair is given to big unit if both types (i.e., big and small of units are in queue to get the repair done. System is able to work with full capacity only if big unit or both small units are in good condition. If only one small unit is operable, the system works at reduced capacity. The system under consideration goes to rest during the non-seasonal period. Approach: System was analyzed by making use of semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique and various measures of the system effectiveness are obtained including the profit incurred to the system. Results: Graphs had been plotted to depict the behavior of the profit with respect to failure rate for different values of repair rate and with respect to revenue per unit up time for which system is working at full capacity for different values of cost for PM/CM. Conclusion: The profit increases with the decrease in the values of the failure rate and with the increase in the values of revenue per unit up time. It has lower (higher values on increasing the values of cost (repair rate. Cut-off points obtained for failure rate help decide about having the system with failure rate lesser than that the value at cut-off point. Also, the price of the product should be fixed in such a way so as to get the revenue greater than the value at cut-off point.

  13. Null steering of adaptive beamforming using linear constraint minimum variance assisted by particle swarm optimization, dynamic mutated artificial immune system, and gravitational search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program.

  14. On the Feasibility of Dynamic Power Steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Anger, Eric A.

    2014-11-16

    While high performance has always been the primary constraint behind large-scale system design, future systems will be built with increasing energy efficiency in mind. Mechanisms such as fine-grained power scaling and gating will provide tools to system-software and application developers to ensure the most efficient use of tightly constrained power budgets. Such approaches to-date have been focused on node level optimizations to impact overall system energy efficiency. In this work we introduce Dynamic Power Steering, in which power can be dynamically routed across a system to resources where it will be of most benefit and away from other resources to maintain a near-constant overall power budget. This, a higher level algorithmic approach to improving energy efficiency, considers the whole extent of a system being used by an application. It can be used for applications in which there is load imbalance that varies over its execution. Using two classes of applications, namely those that contain a wave front type processing, and a particle-in-cell, we quantify the benefit of Dynamic Power Steering for a variety of workload characteristics and derive some insight into the ways in which workload behavior affect Power Steering applicability.

  15. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  16. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  17. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  18. A decision dependent stochastic process model for repairable systems with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Zantek

    2015-12-01

    This paper mathematically formalizes the notion of how management actions impact the functioning of a repairable system over time by developing a new stochastic process model for such systems. The proposed model is illustrated using both simulated and real data. The proposed model compares favorably to other models for well-known data on Boeing airplanes. The model is further illustrated and compared to other models on failure time and maintenance data stemming from the South Texas Project nuclear power plant.

  19. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: Elements of Floating-Debris Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    a variety of materials from plastic bottles to sage brush, but it is t’quialy wood in soiw shape or form--from whole trees to lawn furniture. The...REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION’RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMVR-HY-3 ELEMENTS O F FLOATING- DEBRIS CONTROL SYSTEMS’ by...TITLE (Include Security Classification) Elements of Floating- Debris Control Systems 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Perham, Roscoe E. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME

  20. Inspection-Repair based Availability Optimization of Distribution Systems using Teaching Learning based Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Aditya; Arya, L. D.; Arya, Rajesh; Choube, S. C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a technique for optimizing inspection and repair based availability of distribution systems. Optimum duration between two inspections has been obtained for each feeder section with respect to cost function and subject to satisfaction of availability at each load point. Teaching learning based optimization has been used for availability optimization. The developed algorithm has been implemented on radial and meshed distribution systems. The result obtained has been compared with those obtained with differential evolution.

  1. A comparison of the communication impact in CAN and TTP/C networks when supporting steer-by-wire systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ataíde; Max Mauro Santos; Francisco Vasques

    2004-01-01

    Distributed real time system is a technology that is become widely used in diverse areas of application, including systems in vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, among others. Great part of these applications is considered critic. Hereupon, such systems must be predictable in relation to its logical result and its temporal behavior, same in operating under failure having to provide tolerances. Distributed real time system requires the use of deterministic and reliable communications mechanisms. ...

  2. Multisensor robotic system for autonomous space maintenance and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, M. A.; Green, W. L.; Chandra, T.; Spears, J.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of realistic autonomous space manipulation tasks using multisensory information is demonstrated. The system is capable of acquiring, integrating, and interpreting multisensory data to locate, mate, and demate a Fluid Interchange System (FIS) and a Module Interchange System (MIS). In both cases, autonomous location of a guiding light target, mating, and demating of the system are performed. Implemented visio-driven techniques are used to determine the arbitrary two-dimensional position and orientation of the mating elements as well as the arbitrary three-dimensional position and orientation of the light targets. A force/torque sensor continuously monitors the six components of force and torque exerted on the end-effector. Both FIS and MIS experiments were successfully accomplished on mock-ups built for this purpose. The method is immune to variations in the ambient light, in particular because of the 90-minute day-night shift in space.

  3. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  4. 16位A/DCAN接口方向盘转角力矩采集系统%CAN interface steering wheel angle and torque acquisition system with 16-bit A/D converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王畅; 付锐; 郭应时; 袁伟

    2011-01-01

    A steering wheel angle and torque acquisition system is presented, which is composed of steering angle and torque sensor,16 bit Σ -Δ A/D converter, single-chip microcomputer and CANbus chip. It is the A/D conversion, calculate of steering angle and torque, the realization of CAN protocol, the establishment of host computer acquisition software and many other important process of the method. Based on these it realized the data acquisition of steering wheel's angle and torque. The practical vehicle test result shows that the accuracy of this system is high and the stability of this system is good, and is fit to use in driving test and vehicle handling stability test.%给出了一种由方向盘转角及力矩传感器、16位∑-△型数模转换器、单片机和CAN总线芯片所组成的方向盘转角及转向力矩采集方案.阐述了A/D转换、转角及力矩值计算、CAN通讯的实现以及上位机采集软件的编写等重要过程的实现方法,在此基础上实现了对方向盘转角及转向力矩的数据采集,并进行了实际车载环境使用.应用结果表明,该系统测试精度高、稳定性好,适合应用于驾驶行为测试及车辆操纵稳定性试验中.

  5. Development of active rear steer actuator. Development of four wheel steer actuator for active safety; Active rear steer actuator no kaihatsu. Yobo anzen ni muketa 4WS actuator no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, T. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, ecology, energy saving and safety have become important issues. And Active Safety is spotlighted in vehicle control area. Many researches and developments on four wheel steer system have been done to improve vehicle stability. We have developed the Active Rear Steer system with electromechanical Actuator, which is mass-productive, compact, and high response and durable. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Homomorphic Self-repairing Codes for Agile Maintenance of Distributed Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Oggier, Frederique

    2011-01-01

    Distributed data storage systems are essential to deal with the need to store massive volumes of data. In order to make such a system fault-tolerant, some form of redundancy becomes crucial, incurring various overheads - most prominently in terms of storage space and maintenance bandwidth requirements. Erasure codes, originally designed for communication over lossy channels, provide a storage efficient alternative to replication based redundancy, however entailing high communication overhead for maintenance, when some of the encoded fragments need to be replenished in news ones after failure of some storage devices. We propose as an alternative a new family of erasure codes called self-repairing codes (SRC) taking into account the peculiarities of distributed storage systems, specifically the maintenance process. SRC has the following salient features: (a) encoded fragments can be repaired directly from other subsets of encoded fragments by downloading less data than the size of the complete object, ensuring ...

  7. Corrosion inhibitors and other protective systems in concrete repair concepts or misconcepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuKe

    2009-01-01

    The paper concludes that as long as one continues to blindly use protection methods applicable for newly constructed structures for concrete repairs,the business of "repairing the repairs"will be on the rise.A broader understanding of the electrochemical differences between new and repaired concrete is necessary for effective protection of reinforcement in repaired structures.

  8. The Refrigeration System; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline provides students with an understanding of the observation of basic refrigeration system components, the techniques used in working with copper tubing, and practice demonstrations to show what they have learned. Course content includes specific block objectives, orientation, refrigeration components (evaporator, compressor,…

  9. Rotator cuff repair in the Brazilian Unified Health System: Brazilian trends from 2003 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Beraldo, Rodrigo Alves; Pinto, Gustavo de Mello Ribeiro; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado

    2017-01-01

    To assess the historical trend of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil between 2003 and 2015, using the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]) Department of Informatics (DataSUS). Historical series using DataSUS. Surgeries performed between 2003 and 2015 were included and data relating to cuff tear repair were assessed, including decompression procedures were included. The numerator was the total number of rotator cuff repair and the denominator, the total population of the assessed locality. Population data were based on information from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). During the period, 50,207 surgeries were performed. The rate was presented as number of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants, and increased from 0.83 to 2.81, a growth of 238%. In 2015, the South region had the highest rate, 6.32, followed by the Southeast, 3.62, while the North had the lowest rate, 0.13. The growing trend can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast. The rate of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil performed through the SUS increased from 0.83 to 2.81 between 2003 and 2015, representing a growth of 238%, but remains lower than that of developed countries. A trend of growth can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast.

  10. Optimization Design of Cardan Universal Joint Driving of Automotive Steering System%汽车转向系统十字轴万向节传动优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国强; 岳红旭

    2011-01-01

    转向力是汽车操纵稳定性中一项重要的评价指标,其力矩波动直接影响驾驶感觉。文章对汽车转向轴的布置与力矩波动的关系进行了分析,并针对某车型转向系统的十字轴万向节结构进行优化设计。优化结果在matlab软件里仿真,得到较好的结果,波动力矩在允许的范围内。并得出最佳的中间轴相位角及轴系布置方案,对转向系统的优化设计有一定的参考价值,可作为实际车型开发中传动优化设计的技术依据。%Steering force is a very important evaluation index in vehicle controll stability;the torque fluctuation directly affects driving feeling.The relationship between the steering shaft arrangement and torque fluctuations is analyzed,and optimization design of cross axis universal structure in a car steering system is conducted.The optimization results are simulated in Matlab software and better results are achieved.The fluctuation torque is in permitted range.The best countershaft phase angle and shafting arrangement solution is gained.It provides reference for optimization design of steering system;and it can be used as technical basis of transmission optimization design in developing automobiles.

  11. Low velocity impact response and damage evolution in unreinforced resin systems and self-repairing polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuku, Molefi

    The low velocity impact response and damage evolution in unreinforced polymer matrices, conventional polymer matrix composites, and self-repairing polymer matrix composites was investigated. The impact response study of unreinforced matrices and conventional laminates was undertaken because the failure initiation energies, threshold energy levels, failure characteristics and damage evolution in both the matrix material (unreinforced resin plaques) and the composite are intrinsic to proper design of a self-repairing composite. The self-repairing concept was investigated due to its attractive potential to alleviate damage problems in polymer matrix composites. Self-repairing composites, which fall under the category of passive smart polymer composites, have the potential to self repair both micro- and macro-damage resulting from impacts as well as non-impact loading. The self-repairing mechanism is achieved through the incorporation of hollow fibers in addition to the normal solid reinforcing fibers. The hollow fibers store the damage-repairing solution or chemicals that are released into the matrix or damaged zone upon fiber failure to repair and/or arrest damage progression. The room temperature low velocity impact response and damage evolution in DERAKANE 411-350 and 411-C50 vinyl ester unreinforced resin systems was investigated as a function of impact energy level, sample thickness, matrix material and catalyst system. The low velocity impact response of conventional and self-repairing glass reinforced polymer composites was investigated by addressing the fabrication and some of the parameters that influence their response to low velocity impact loading. Specific issues addressed by this study include developing a process to fabricate self-repairing laminates, processing quality; selection of storage material for the repairing solution; release and transportation of repairing solution; the effect of the number, type and spatial distribution of the repairing

  12. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  13. A hybrid soliton-based system: generation and steering of cavity solitons by means of photorefractive soliton electro-activation

    CERN Document Server

    Columbo, Lorenzo; Brambilla, Massimo; Prati, Franco; Tissoni, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid soliton-based system consisting of a centrosymmetric photorefractive crystal, supporting photorefractive solitons, coupled to a vertical cavity surface emitting laser, supporting multistable cavity solitons. The composite nature of the system, which couples a propagative/conservative field dynamics to a stationary/dissipative one, allows to observe a more general and unified system phenomenology and to conceive novel photonic functionalities. The potential of the proposed hybrid system becomes clear when investigating the generation and control of cavity solitons by propagating a plane wave through electro-activated solitonic waveguides in the crystal. By changing the electro-activation voltage of the crystal, we prove that cavity solitons can be turned on and shifted with controlled velocity across the device section. The scheme can be exploited for applications to optical information encoding and processing.

  14. Uncertain multiobjective redundancy allocation problem of repairable systems based on artificial bee colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jiansheng; Wang Zutong; Zheng Mingfa; Wang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the uncertainty theory, this paper is devoted to the redundancy allocation problem in repairable parallel-series systems with uncertain factors, where the failure rate, repair rate and other relative coefficients involved are considered as uncertain variables. The availability of the system and the corresponding designing cost are considered as two optimization objectives. A crisp multiobjective optimization formulation is presented on the basis of uncertainty theory to solve this resultant problem. For solving this problem efficiently, a new multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to search the Pareto efficient set, which introduces rank value and crowding distance in the greedy selection strategy, applies fast non-dominated sort procedure in the exploitation search and inserts tournament selection in the onlooker bee phase. It shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms NSGA-II greatly and can solve multiobjective redundancy allocation problem efficiently. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.

  15. Electrical power assisted steering for EVs and HEVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Haibo; Yang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Electrical power assisted steering (EPAS) is one of the key components, especially for electrical vehicle. It has attracted much attention for their advantages with respect to improved fuel economy and has been widely adopted as automotive power-steering equipment in recent years. EPS (electrical power steering) controllers contain MCU (microprocessor control unit) to implement the complex control algorithms. EPS control strategy development is the core technology of the whole system. To achieve the better performance of driving, both mechanical structures and electrical structures are totally designed as a whole. Model-based development is recommended to software design. There are several trends about EPS' future, such as high power EPS development, high voltage EPS development and steering-bywire technology.

  16. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is to fabricate, characterize, and verify performance of a new type of frequency steered acoustic transducer...

  17. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  18. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop, fabricate, and characterize a novel frequency steered acoustic transducer (FSAT) for the...

  19. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  20. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  1. Simple facet joint repair with dynamic pedicular system: Technical note and case series

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Fahir Ozer; Tuncer Suzer; Mehdi Sasani; Tunc Oktenoglu; Phillip Cezayirli; Hosein Jafari Marandi; Deniz Ufuk Erbulut

    2015-01-01

    Simple facet joint repair with dynamic pedicular system: Technical note and case series Ali Ozer, Tuncer Suzer, Mehdi Sasani, Tunc Oktenoglu, Phillip Cezayirli and Hosein Marandi Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine. 6.2 (April-June 2015): p65. Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2015 Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd. http://www.jcvjs.com/ Full Text: Byline: Ali. Ozer, Tuncer. Suzer, Mehdi. Sasani, Tunc. Oktenoglu, Phillip. Cezayirli, Hosein. Marandi, Deniz. Erbulut Purpose: Facet joints are...

  2. 超声相控阵系统的聚焦特性研究%Research on Beam Focusing Behavior and Beam Steering Behavior of Ultrasonic Phased Array System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠波; 强天鹏

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, following ASTM E2491--2008, by experiments, we studied beam focusing behavior and beam steering behavior of ultrasonic phased array system in the case of being with and without a shear wave wedge fixed to the probe. Influence of aperture setting, focusing depth setting and steering angle setting to beam focusing behavior and beam steering behavior are studied by changing different values of these parameters. Then we summarize that,the acoustic Beam can only be focused in its near field, the method of determination of phased array beam steering limits offered in ASTM E2491 actually attribute to measure the angle resolution.%文章参照ASTME2491-2008标准,通过试验测试相控阵探头在不加装楔块以及加装横波斜楔块两种情况下声柬在工件中的聚焦特性以及偏转特性。试验变换了激发晶片数量、聚焦深度以及偏转角度等参数设置,研究了这些参数对声束聚焦特性和偏转特性的影响。结果发现,相控阵声束仅能在近场区内聚焦,ASTME2491-2008标准对角度偏转极限测试实际表征的是某种情况下的角度分辨力。

  3. Conditional steering under the von Neumann scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Karmakar, Sumana; Sarkar, Debasis; Mukherjee, Amit; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Roy, Arup

    2017-08-01

    In Phys. Lett. A 166, 293 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90711-T, Popescu and Rohrlich characterized nonlocality of pure n -partite entangled systems by studying bipartite violation of local realism when n -2 number of parties perform projective measurements on their particles. A pertinent question in this scenario is whether similar characterization is possible for n -partite mixed entangled states also. In the present work we have followed an analogous approach so as to explore whether given a tripartite mixed entangled state the conditional bipartite states obtained by performing projective measurement on the third party demonstrate a weaker form of nonlocality, quantum steering. We also compare this phenomenon of conditional steering with existing notions of tripartite correlations.

  4. An application of modulated poisson processes to the reliability analysis of repairable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Pedro L.C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Reatores]. E-mail: saldanha@cnen.gov.br; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: frutuoso@con.ufrj.br; Noriega, Hector C. [Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), Valdivia (Chile). Faculdad de Ciencias de la Ingeniaria]. E-mail: hnoriega@uach.cl

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the application of the modulated power law process (MPLP) model to the rate of occurrence of failures of active repairable systems in reliability engineering. Traditionally, two ways of modeling repairable systems, in what concerns maintenance policies, are: a pessimistic approach (non-homogeneous process - NHPP), and a very optimistic approach (renewal processes - RP). It is important to build a generalized model that might consider characteristics and properties both of the NHPP and of the RP models as particular cases. In practice, by considering the pattern of times between failures, the MPLP appears to be more realistic to represent the occurrence of failures of repairable systems in order to define whether they can be modeled by a homogeneous or a non-homogeneous process. The study has shown that the model can be used to make decisions concerning the evaluation of the qualified life of plant equipment. By controlling and monitoring two of the three parameters of the MPLP model during the equipment operation, it is possible to check whether and how the equipment is following the basis of its qualification process, and so identify how the effects of time, degradation and operation modes are influencing the equipment performance. The discussion is illustrated by an application to the service water pumps of a typical PWR plant. (author)

  5. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J.

    2016-07-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system.

  6. Operator Semi-group of Density Evolution Equation for a Repairable Redundnt System with Two Same Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史定华; 徐洪; 等

    2002-01-01

    For a repairable redundant system consisting of two same components with exponential lifetime and general repair time distribution,the probability densities of the system in some state at time t were determined by a group of ordinary and partial differential equations,called density evolution equations.It was proved that the time-dependent solution of the density evolution equations uniquely exists and strongly converges to its steady state density solution by a semi-group method.In this proof,it is not necessary to suppose that the repair rate function is bounded.The technique of the proof is valuable for many density evolution equatons.

  7. A New Approach for Analyzing the Reliability of the Repair Facility in a Series System with Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the renewal process theory we develop a decomposition method to analyze the reliability of the repair facility in an n-unit series system with vacations. Using this approach, we study the unavailability and the mean replacement number during (0,t] of the repair facility. The method proposed in this work is novel and concise, which can make us see clearly the structures of the facility indices of a series system with an unreliable repair facility, two convolution relations. Special cases and numerical examples are given to show the validity of our method.

  8. THE WORK SIMULATION OF FLOW RATE FOR CARRIAGES' REPAIR AS A MULTIPHASE, MULTIPLEX AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY SYSTEM OF MASS SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of computer simulation of the flexible flow for repair of cars as a multiphase polychannel manyobject queuing system is presented. The basic operators of the model are given and their work is described.

  9. Incisional, epigastric and umbilical hernia repair using the Prolene Hernia System: describing a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Goldie; Berstock, David A

    2006-08-01

    The Prolene Hernia System (PHS) is already widely in use in the United Kingdom for inguinal hernias. We describe the novel technique of using the three-in-one design of the PHS (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Bracknell, UK) for repairing incisional, epigastric and umbilical herniae. This is a three-dimensional device and consists of an onlay patch, a tubular connector and an underlay patch. We recommend a four 'corner' suturing of the underlay patch under vision (and then) through the full thickness of abdominal wall layers to ensure a flat underlay mesh. These four sutures flatten out the underlay patch and can be tied or removed with equal effect. The sutures are placed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock, which simplifies the procedure and ensures that the underlay lays correctly and is corrugation-free and tension-free, thereby providing a two-layer repair for those herniae with a high rate of recurrence.

  10. Prediction of Repair Work Duration for Gas Transport Systems Based on Small Data Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnykh, Valery; Litvin, Yuri; Kozin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the duration of a repair and maintenance project of a gas transport system is an important part of planning activities. There exist numerous sources of uncertainties that may result in time overruns possibly leading to multiple negative consequences. Our experience in planning...... this work suggests that accepting the stochastic nature of the project duration is a constructive step towards the preparedness to contingencies and defining penalties for repair companies. To support this approach, one needs to construct probability distributions of the durations of the projects...... of concurrently running subprojects. Following this, guidance is provided on how to decide about what duration should define the deadline for completion of the whole work. A simple example is provided....

  11. Modelling Supplementation Strategies for Beef Steer Rearing and Fattening Systems in Southern Chile Modelación de Estrategias de Suplementación en la Recría y Engorda de Novillos en el Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to analyze beef production systems in Southern Chile. The study considered the identification of the main components of systems under different beef steer management strategies, using pasture with or without supplementation and back grounding cattle on pasture followed by a winter period of confined feeding with pasture silage and concentrates. Validation of model outputs using 200 kg LW Hereford steers against real experimental data showed no significant differences (P ≥ 0.01 between simulated and observed final weights. In order to analyze the interaction between the stocking rate (SR and supplementation, three SR of 2, 2.5 and 3 steers ha-1 with and without pasture silage supplementation at the rate of 5 kg DMd-1 steer-1 for the length of the entire period were simulated. Means were compared by the least significant difference (LSD, P ≤ 0.05. Significant differences were found in terms of final weights, which decreased with increasing SR regardless of the supplementation level, although silage supplementation tended to reduce differences between SR. A second set of simulation runs was carried out to simulate on-farm finishing of the steers through a final phase of confined feeding based on a ration of silage and concentrates. Final weights differed between SR and systems and results showed that the optimum corresponded to 2.5 steers ha-1, since at this SR the largest income corresponded to the smallest mean cost. It is concluded that a stocking rate of 2.5 steers ha-1 is feasible if winter supplementation is available, independently of a finishing period in feedlot.Un modelo matemático fue desarrollado para analizar sistemas de producción de carne bovina en el Sur de Chile. El estudio consideró la identificación de los componentes en diferentes estrategias usadas en novillos de carne, usando praderas con y sin suplementación y la recría seguida por una engorda a corral en invierno con ensilaje de

  12. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  13. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  14. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  15. Development of novel visual-plus quantitative analysis systems for studying DNA double-strand break repairs in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingang; Gong, Lu; Chang, Changqing; Liu, Cong; Peng, Jinrong; Chen, Jun

    2012-09-20

    The use of reporter systems to analyze DNA double-strand break (DSB) repairs, based on the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and meganuclease such as I-Sce I, is usually carried out with cell lines. In this study, we developed three visual-plus quantitative assay systems for homologous recombination (HR), non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA) DSB repair pathways at the organismal level in zebrafish embryos. To initiate DNA DSB repair, we used two I-Sce I recognition sites in opposite orientation rather than the usual single site. The NHEJ, HR and SSA repair pathways were separately triggered by the injection of three corresponding I-Sce I-cut constructions, and the repair of DNA lesion caused by I-Sce I could be tracked by EGFP expression in the embryos. Apart from monitoring the intensity of green fluorescence, the repair frequencies could also be precisely measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Analysis of DNA sequences at the DSB sites showed that NHEJ was predominant among these three repair pathways in zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, while HR and SSA reporter systems could be effectively decreased by the knockdown of rad51 and rad52, respectively, NHEJ could only be impaired by the knockdown of ligaseIV (lig4) when the NHEJ construct was cut by I-Sce I in vivo. More interestingly, blocking NHEJ with lig4-MO increased the frequency of HR, but decreased the frequency of SSA. Our studies demonstrate that the major mechanisms used to repair DNA DSBs are conserved from zebrafish to mammal, and zebrafish provides an excellent model for studying and manipulating DNA DSB repair at the organismal level.

  16. Development of Novel Visual-Plus Quantitative Analysis Systems for Studying DNA Double-Strand Break Repairs in Zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingang Liu; Lu Gong; Changqing Chang; Cong Liu; Jinrong Peng; Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    The use of reporter systems to analyze DNA double-strand break (DSB) repairs,based on the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and meganuclease such as I-Sce Ⅰ,is usually carried out with cell lines.In this study,we developed three visual-plus quantitative assay systems for homologous recombination (HR),non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA) DSB repair pathways at the organismal level in zebrafish embryos.To initiate DNA DSB repair,we used two I-Sce Ⅰ recognition sites in opposite orientation rather than the usual single site.The NHEJ,HR and SSA repair pathways were separately triggered by the injection of three corresponding I-Sce I-cut constructions,and the repair of DNA lesion caused by I-Sce Ⅰ could be tracked by EGFP expression in the embryos.Apart from monitoring the intensity of green fluorescence,the repair frequencies could also be precisely measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Analysis of DNA sequences at the DSB sites showed that NHEJ was predominant among these three repair pathways in zebrafish embryos.Furthermore,while HR and SSA reporter systems could be effectively decreased by the knockdown of rad51 and rad52,respectively,NHEJ could only be impaired by the knockdown of ligaseⅣ (lig4) when the NHEJ construct was cut by I-Sce Ⅰ in vivo.More interestingly,blocking NHEJ with lig4-MO increased the frequency of HR,but decreased the frequency of SSA.Our studies demonstrate that the major mechanisms used to repair DNA DSBs are conserved from zebrafish to mammal,and zebrafish provides an excellent model for studying and manipulating DNA DSB repair at the organismal level.

  17. Oxidative DNA damage background estimated by a system model of base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhansanj, Bahrad A; Wilson, David M

    2004-08-01

    Human DNA can be damaged by natural metabolism through free radical production. It has been suggested that the equilibrium between innate damage and cellular DNA repair results in an oxidative DNA damage background that potentially contributes to disease and aging. Efforts to quantitatively characterize the human oxidative DNA damage background level, based on measuring 8-oxoguanine lesions as a biomarker, have led to estimates that vary over three to four orders of magnitude, depending on the method of measurement. We applied a previously developed and validated quantitative pathway model of human DNA base excision repair, integrating experimentally determined endogenous damage rates and model parameters from multiple sources. Our estimates of at most 100 8-oxoguanine lesions per cell are consistent with the low end of data from biochemical and cell biology experiments, a result robust to model limitations and parameter variation. Our findings show the power of quantitative system modeling to interpret composite experimental data and make biologically and physiologically relevant predictions for complex human DNA repair pathway mechanisms and capacity.

  18. Targeting 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions to stimulate central nervous system repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of developing treatments for central nervous system (CNS injuries is becoming more attainable with the recent identification of various drugs that can repair damaged axons. These discoveries have stemmed from screening efforts, large expression datasets and an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular biology underlying axon growth. It will be important to continue searching for new compounds that can induce axon repair. Here we describe how a family of adaptor proteins called 14-3-3s can be targeted using small molecule drugs to enhance axon outgrowth and regeneration. 14-3-3s bind to many functionally diverse client proteins to regulate their functions. We highlight the recent discovery of the axon-growth promoting activity of fusicoccin-A, a fungus-derived small molecule that stabilizes 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins. Here we discuss how fusicoccin-A could serve as a starting point for the development of drugs to induce CNS repair.

  19. A Novel Repair Technique for the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Patel, Vipul; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2005-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas trap was designed to last for the entire lifetime of the ISS, and therefore was not designed to be repaired. However, repair of these gas traps is now a necessity due to contamination from the on-orbit ITCS fluid and other sources on the ground as well as a limited supply of flight gas traps. This paper describes a novel repair technique that has been developed that will allow the refurbishment of contaminated gas traps and their return to flight use.

  20. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cristóbal Conde-Pérezprina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”. The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others.

  1. Oxidative DNA damage background estimated by a system model of base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, B A; Wilson, III, D M

    2004-05-13

    Human DNA can be damaged by natural metabolism through free radical production. It has been suggested that the equilibrium between innate damage and cellular DNA repair results in an oxidative DNA damage background that potentially contributes to disease and aging. Efforts to quantitatively characterize the human oxidative DNA damage background level based on measuring 8-oxoguanine lesions as a biomarker have led to estimates varying over 3-4 orders of magnitude, depending on the method of measurement. We applied a previously developed and validated quantitative pathway model of human DNA base excision repair, integrating experimentally determined endogenous damage rates and model parameters from multiple sources. Our estimates of at most 100 8-oxoguanine lesions per cell are consistent with the low end of data from biochemical and cell biology experiments, a result robust to model limitations and parameter variation. Our results show the power of quantitative system modeling to interpret composite experimental data and make biologically and physiologically relevant predictions for complex human DNA repair pathway mechanisms and capacity.

  2. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Pérezprina, Juan Cristóbal; León-Galván, Miguel Ángel; Konigsberg, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”). The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others. PMID:23213348

  3. ANALYSIS OF A TWO UNIT STANDBY SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED FAILURE AND REPAIR AND RANDOM APPEARANCE AND DISAPPEARANCE OF REPAIRMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the stochastic analysis of a two non-identical unit standbysystem model. The one unit is considered as priority (p unit and the other as ordinary (o unit.The p-unit gets priority in operation. A single repair facility appears in and disappears from thesystem randomly with constant rates. The repair discipline of units is FCFS. The joint distributionof failure and repair times for each unit is taken to be bivariate exponential. Using regenerativepoint technique various measures of system effectiveness useful to industrial managers areobtained.

  4. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  5. The neonate versus adult mammalian immune system in cardiac repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Susanne; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    The immune system is a crucial player in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. A sophisticated cascade of events triggered upon injury ensures protection from infection and initiates and orchestrates healing. While the neonatal mammal can readily regenerate damaged tissues, adult regenerative capacity is limited to specific tissue types, and in organs such as the heart, adult wound healing results in fibrotic repair and loss of function. Growing evidence suggests that the immune system greatly influences the balance between regeneration and fibrotic repair. The neonate mammalian immune system has impaired pro-inflammatory function, is prone to T-helper type 2 responses and has an immature adaptive immune system skewed towards regulatory T cells. While these characteristics make infants susceptible to infection and prone to allergies, it may also provide an immunological environment permissive of regeneration. In this review we will give a comprehensive overview of the immune cells involved in healing and regeneration of the heart and explore differences between the adult and neonate immune system that may explain differences in regenerative ability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  6. Efficacy of a novel IGS system in atrial septal defect repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefleh, Fuad N.; Baker, G. Hamilton; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Congenital heart disease occurs in 107.6 out of 10,000 live births, with Atrial Septal Defects (ASD) accounting for 10% of these conditions. Historically, ASDs were treated with open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, allowing a patch to be sewn over the defect. In 1976, King et al. demonstrated use of a transcatheter occlusion procedure, thus reducing the invasiveness of ASD repair. Localization during these catheter based procedures traditionally has relied on bi-plane fluoroscopy; more recently trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE) have been used to navigate these procedures. Although there is a high success rate using the transcatheter occlusion procedure, fluoroscopy poses radiation dose risk to both patient and clinician. The impact of this dose to the patients is important as many of those undergoing this procedure are children, who have an increased risk associated with radiation exposure. Their longer life expectancy than adults provides a larger window of opportunity for expressing the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. In addition, epidemiologic studies of exposed populations have demonstrated that children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects radiation. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses pre-operative and intra-operative images to guide surgery or an interventional procedure. Central to every IGS system is a software application capable of processing and displaying patient images, registration between multiple coordinate systems, and interfacing with a tool tracking system. We have developed a novel image-guided surgery framework called Kit for Navigation by Image Focused Exploration (KNIFE). In this work we assess the efficacy of this image-guided navigation system for ASD repair using a series of mock clinical experiments designed to simulate ASD repair device deployment.

  7. Analysis and comparison for thermal balance of steering hydraulic system of loader%装载机转向液压系统的热平衡分析与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑鹏; 秦四成; 杨立光; 石有胜

    2016-01-01

    Based on the lumped parameter method to establish simulation model of heat transfer in the loader full hydraulic steering system,high-speed cartest conditions were simulated.For several typical mode of operation,the thermal balance simulation of two kinds of steeringhydraulic systemwasdone by using heat transfer model.Theloss of two hydraulic steering systems wascompared.Theresultsshowthattheresults validatedthe simulation modelis accurately credible.Atpresent,theI-shaped shovel loading cycle is widely used in the thermal balance industrial test of loader, which is not the maximum heat load condition of the hydraulic system ofloader.Thethermalbalance temperature and the ambient temperature difference of the coaxial flow amplifying steering hydraulic system loader in the T-shaped operation is 74.3℃;thethermalbalance temperature and the ambient temperature difference between the flow amplification and steering hydraulic system loader in the V-shaped operation is 62.64℃.%基于集中参数法建立装载机液压转向系统的传热仿真模型,并对高速跑车试验工况进行仿真分析。针对50型轮式装载机几种典型作业方式,对同轴流量放大转向系统和流量放大转向系统2种配置的装载机利用传热模型分别进行热平衡仿真计算,并计算2种转向液压系统的功率损失。研究结果表明:仿真与试验结果一致,证明模型准确可信。目前装载机热平衡工业性试验中普遍采用的I形铲装循环工况,并不是装载机液压系统最大热负荷工况。同轴流量放大转向液压系统装载机在T形作业中热平衡温度与环境温差最高为74.3℃;流量放大转向液压系统装载机在V形作业中热平衡温度与环境温差最高为62.64℃。

  8. 拖拉机新型线控液压转向系统的研究与仿真%Study and Simulation on New- type Wire -controlled Hydraulic Steering System of Tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常江雪; 鲁植雄; 白学峰

    2012-01-01

    The author conducted the overall design for the wire - controlled hydraulic steering system of tractor, analyzed its structure and working principle in detail, and obtained the optimal control algorithm of the system through the comparative analysis. The fuzzy control algorithm was used to realize the closed - loop control technique for the steering of the front wheel in the system. In the end, Matlab/simulink was used for the simulation of the entire system. The simulation got the response curve of oil cylinder displacement , and verified the accuracy of the design for this system.%对拖拉机线控液压转向系统进行了总体设计,详细分析了其结构组成和工作原理,并通过对比分析得出了系统的最优控制算法.采用模糊控制作为系统的控制算法,实现了前轮转角的闭环控制技术;最后采用Matlab/simulink对整个系统进行仿真,得出了油缸位移的响应曲线,验证了系统设计的准确性.

  9. A Web-Based Rapid Prototyping Workflow Management Information System for Computer Repair and Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. El-Mousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Response to paper-based requests for computer and peripheral repair and maintenance has become very troublesome and slow due to the large demand and expansion at the University of Jordan. The objectives of this study were to: (i investigate the current system processes associated with the paper-based workflow system. (ii design and implement, using a suitable workflow management approach, a totally electronic alterative to improve performance. Approach: The methodology followed in the transform of the business processes from the paper to the electronic-based was using the rapid prototyping workflow management approach. This approach is seen to be especially effective in such cases where there is direct continuous interaction and involvement between the different stakeholders during the lifecycle of the project. Results: The system had been implemented and tested with the result that efficiency, accountability and response time have greatly improved in handling repair and maintenance orders. The transform from paper to electronic resulted in greatly enhanced user satisfaction especially since the developed system provided automatic feedback regarding order status. Conclusion: The design process and results provide a working blueprint for easy and quick various similar university-based business processes to be transformed to electronic. This should highly motivate internal in-house restructuring of business process to utilize technology and IT to enhance performance and accountability.

  10. Joint Measurability and Temporal Steering

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, H. S.; Tej, J Prabhu; Devi, A. R. Usha; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Quintino et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160402 (2014)) and Uola et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160403 (2014)) have recently established an intrinsic relation between non-joint measurability and Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen steering. They showed that a set of measurements is incompatible (i.e., not jointly measurable) if and only if it can be used for the demonstration of steering. In this paper, we prove the temporal analog of this result viz., a set of measurements are incompatible if and only i...

  11. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  12. Reliability modelling of repairable systems using Petri nets and fuzzy Lambda-Tau methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, J.; Odoom, E.R

    2001-07-01

    A methodology is developed which uses Petri nets instead of the fault tree methodology and solves for reliability indices utilising fuzzy Lambda-Tau method. Fuzzy set theory is used for representing the failure rate and repair time instead of the classical (crisp) set theory because fuzzy numbers allow expert opinions, linguistic variables, operating conditions, uncertainty and imprecision in reliability information to be incorporated into the system model. Petri nets are used because unlike the fault tree methodology, the use of Petri nets allows efficient simultaneous generation of minimal cut and path sets.

  13. A cell-free system for studying a priming factor involved in repair of bleomycin-damaged DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki,Shuji

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple cell-free system for studying a priming factor involved in the repair of bleomycin-damaged DNA was established. The template-primer used for the repair DNA synthesis was prepared by treating the closed circular, superhelical form of pUC19 plasmid DNA with 2.2 microM bleomycin and 20 microM ferrous ions. Single-strand breaks were introduced into pUC19 DNA by the bleomycin treatment, and the DNA was consequently converted largely into the open circular form. A system for repair of this bleomycin-damaged DNA was constructed with a priming factor, DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase beta or Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, ATP, T4 DNA ligase and four deoxynucleoside triphosphates. After incubation, the conformation of the DNA was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The open circular DNA was largely converted to the closed circular DNA, indicating that the single-strand breaks of DNA were repaired. When the priming factor was omitted, DNA repair did not occur. The present system seemed to be applicable to the study of priming factors involved in the repair of DNA with single-strand breaks caused not only by bleomycin but also by ionizing radiation or active oxygen.

  14. Bond strength of the porcelain repair system to all-ceramic copings and porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J; Cheong, Chan Wook; Wright, Robert F; Chang, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of the porcelain repair system on alumina and zirconia core ceramics, comparing this strength with that of veneering porcelain. Veneering ceramic (n = 12), alumina core (n = 24), and zirconia core (n = 24) blocks measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm(3) were fabricated. Veneering ceramic blocks were used as the control. Alumina and zirconia core blocks were divided into 2 groups (n = 12 each), and a slot (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) filled with veneering ceramics was prepared into one of the alumina and zirconia core groups (n = 12). Followed by surface treatments of micro-abrasion with 30 μm alumina particles, etching with 35% phosphoric acid and silane primer and bond, composite resin blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3)) were built up and light polymerized onto the treated surfaces by 3 configurations: (a) composite blocks bonded onto veneering ceramic surface alone, (b) composite blocks bonded onto alumina core or zirconia core surfaces, (c) a 50% surface area of the composite blocks bonded to veneering ceramics and the other 50% surface area of the composite blocks to alumina core or zirconia core surfaces. The shear bond strength of the composite to each specimen was tested by a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The shear bond strength was analyzed by unpaired t-tests for within the configuration groups and ANOVA for among the different configuration groups. When the mean shear bond strength was compared within groups of the same configuration, there were no statistically significant differences. Comparison of the shear bond strength among groups of different configurations revealed statistically significant differences. The mean shear bond strength of composite onto 100% veneering ceramic surface and composite onto 50% veneering 50% all-ceramic cores was statistically higher than that of composite onto 100% all-ceramic cores; however, the differences of the shear bond strength of composite bonded

  15. A survey of computational steering environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van; Liere, R. van

    1998-01-01

    Computational steering is a powerful concept that allows scientists to interactively control a computational process during its execution. In this paper, a survey of computational steering environments for the on-line steering of ongoing scientific and engineering simulations is presented. These env

  16. Systemic inflammatory responses during laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair: a randomised prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, P; Schultz, Karen; Bendtzen, K

    2000-01-01

    To see if the inflammatory responses during and after laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repairs differed.......To see if the inflammatory responses during and after laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repairs differed....

  17. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Vansteenkiste

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  18. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Van Hamme, David; Veelaert, Peter; Philippaerts, Renaat; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  19. Design of automobile electric power steering system based on PIC18F458%基于 PIC18 F458的汽车电动助力转向控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏庆列; 王麟珠

    2015-01-01

    针对国内汽车电动助力转向系统( EPS)的发展现状和性能要求,基于PIC18F458系列单片机对EPS系统电控单元软硬件进行设计,着重阐述了方向盘扭矩传感器信号采集和带有CAN总线的信息采集模块,以及通过全控桥电机驱动电路实现的PWM脉宽调制永磁无刷直流电机控制模块的工作原理及其实现方法。试验结果表明该电控单元工作正常、性能可靠,满足汽车助力转向的舒适性和安全性要求。%According to the domestic development status and performance requirements of electric power steering system ( EPS) , the software and hardware of electronic control unit of EPS is designed based on PIC18F458 Series MCU.Focuses on the principle and realization method of the information acquisition module that contains steering wheel torque sensor signals and the information of CAN Bus, and the control module of permanent magnet brushless DC motor which drives by fully controlled bridge circuit.The experimental results show that the electronic control unit works normally and reliably, comfort and safety meets the requirements of automotive power steering.

  20. A study on single lane-change manoeuvres for determining rearward amplification of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi; He, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers issued a test procedure, SAE-J2179, to determine the rearward amplification (RA) of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles (MTAHVs). Built upon the procedure, the International Organization for Standardization released the test manoeuvres, ISO-14791, for evaluating directional performance of MTAHVs. For the RA measures, ISO-14791 recommends two single lane-change manoeuvres: (1) an open-loop procedure with a single sine-wave steering input; and (2) a closed-loop manoeuvre with a single sine-wave lateral acceleration input. For an articulated vehicle with active trailer steering (ATS), the RA measure in lateral acceleration under the open-loop manoeuvre was not in good agreement with that under the closed-loop manoeuvre. This observation motivates the research on the applicability of the two manoeuvres for the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS. It is reported that transient response under the open-loop manoeuvre often leads to asymmetric curve of tractor lateral acceleration [Winkler CB, Fancher PS, Bareket Z, Bogard S, Johnson G, Karamihas S, Mink C. Heavy vehicle size and weight - test procedures for minimum safety performance standards. Final technical report, NHTSA, US DOT, contract DTNH22-87-D-17174, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Report No. UMTRI-92-13; 1992]. To explore the effect of the transient response, a multiple cycle sine-wave steering input (MCSSI) manoeuvre is proposed. Simulation demonstrates that the steady-state RA measures of an MTAHV with and without ATS under the MCSSI manoeuvre are in excellent agreement with those under the closed-loop manoeuvre. It is indicated that between the two manoeuvres by ISO-14791, the closed-loop manoeuvre is more applicable for determining the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS.

  1. Prolene Hernia System in the Tension-Free Repair of Primary Inguinal Hernias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Gohel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using the Prolene (polypropylene Hernia System for open tension-free repair on inguinal hernias, and study the results in terms of operation time, patient comfort, hospital stay, return to normal activity and postoperative complications. Material and Methods: From February 2002 through April 2003, we performed 50 open tension-free hernia repairs on 47 patients (46 men, 1 woman with a mean age of 55.8 years. There were 26 right and 18 left hernias, and 3 were bilateral. Of these, 39 were direct, 10 were indirect and 1 was femoral type. All were primary hernias. Results: The duration of surgery averaged 35 minutes (range 20 to 90 min. There was no perioperative mortality. Four patients developed mild self-limiting neuralgias. There were no subcutaneous wound infections, no haematomas, no seromas and no testicular atrophy. The average duration of postoperative hospitalisation was 3.5 days. The length of follow-up ranged from 1 month to 15 months (mean= 6.24 months. We have had no recurrences so far. Conclusion: The Prolene Hernia System is a novel approach in the management of inguinal hernias, with encouraging initial results. Its long-term efficacy needs to be studied with larger, prospective double-blind randomized trials, with longer follow-up. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 302-305

  2. Evaluation of ECHO PS Positioning System in a Porcine Model of Simulated Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Erin M; Voeller, Guy R; Roth, J Scott; Scott, Jeffrey R; Gagne, Darcy H; Iannitti, David A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Operative efficiency improvements for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) have focused on reducing operative time while maintaining overall repair efficacy. Our objective was to evaluate procedure time and positioning accuracy of an inflatable mesh positioning device (Echo PS Positioning System), as compared to a standard transfascial suture technique, using a porcine model of simulated LVHR. Methods. The study population consisted of seventeen general surgeons (n = 17) that performed simulated LVHR on seventeen (n = 17) female Yorkshire pigs using two implantation techniques: (1) Ventralight ST Mesh + Echo PS Positioning System (Echo PS) and (2) Ventralight ST Mesh + transfascial sutures (TSs). Procedure time and mesh centering accuracy overtop of a simulated surgical defect were evaluated. Results. Echo PS demonstrated a 38.9% reduction in the overall procedure time, as compared to TS. During mesh preparation and positioning, Echo PS demonstrated a 60.5% reduction in procedure time (P Echo PS (16.2%), this was not significantly different than TS. Conclusions. Echo PS demonstrated a significant reduction in overall simulated LVHR procedure time, particularly during mesh preparation/positioning. These operative time savings may translate into reduced operating room costs and improved surgeon/operating room efficiency.

  3. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  4. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy J.; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  5. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be installed in the pilothouse to indicate operation of the power units. (e) The auxiliary means... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.130... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.130 Steering on OSVs of...

  6. 卡尔曼滤波器在装载机线控转向系统中的应用%Application of Kalman filter in steer-by-wire system for loaders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 柴光远

    2012-01-01

    In view of poor stability of steer-by-wire system for loaders after interference, the paper carried out a simulation test in MATLAB environment by combining Kalman filter with ordinary PID control. The results showed that the steer-by-wire system based on Kalman filter was superior to the one based on ordinary PID control in control performance, and had good dynamic response characteristic as well.%针对装载机线控系统受干扰后稳定性差的问题,用卡尔曼滤波器与普通PID控制相结合的方法在MATLAB环境下对系统进行仿真试验。结果表明,基于卡尔曼滤波器的线控转向系统的控制性能优于常规PID控制的线控转向系统,同时具有良好的动态响应特性。

  7. 四轮转向挂装车液压系统的设计%The Design of Hydraulic System of a Four-wheel-steering Loading Truck for Equipment Hanging on Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪曼; 王志; 陈文科; 温琦; 杨力

    2016-01-01

    该文主要介绍了四轮驱动挂装车液压系统的设计原理,简要介绍了挂装车的结构设计。该挂装车采用后轮驱动、四轮转向的方式,其工作装置可以在6个自由度上进行调整,并在驻车制动、工作装置液压系统中设置应急系统,确保挂装车的作业安全。样机的研制成功证明了该挂装车液压系统的设计是合理、适用的。%This paper describes the design of the hydraulic system of the loading truck for equipment hanging on aircraft with four wheels steering. And the paper describes the design of the truck’s structure. The truck which with rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel-steering has a hanging structure which with 6-freedom. For the safety of the truck during hanging equipment on aircraft, there is an emergency hydraulic-circuit connecting to the parking hydraulic-circuit and the hanging hydraulic-circuit. The success of designing and producing the first truck proves that the design of hydraulic system of the truck is logical and useful.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis and Calculation on Hydraulic Steering Units of Aircraft Hydraulic System%飞机液压系统伺服舵机热力学分析与计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 汤贵春; 曹骏飞; 是贤珠

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis method was adopted to hydraulic servo steering units in temG perature controlling for reducing aircraft hydraulic systems failure.A hydraulic servo steering units can be simplified to a servo valve and an actuator cylinder.Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic model of hydraulic steering units for aircraft was established.And the thermodyG namic differential equations set of the model were derived with lumped parameter method,and solved by RungeKutta method.Simulations of hydraulic servo steering thermodynamics model were carried out by employing MATLAB software.And the calculation results coincide with the experimental data. The model presented herein can be used to calculate the dynamic temperature of aircraft hydraulic sysG tems.%为减少飞机液压系统故障,从温度控制层面对飞机液压伺服舵机进行热力学分析。将液压伺服舵机的物理模型简化为伺服阀控制作动筒的形式,建立液压伺服舵机热力学模型。根据热力学第一定律,采用集中参数法建立热力学方程。基于 MATLAB 平台,采用龙格库塔法对舵机热力学模型进行编程仿真计算,得出舵机各节点温度分布曲线。将仿真结果与实验数据进行了对比,对比结果验证了飞机液压伺服舵机热力学模型的正确性,该模型可应用于飞机液压系统动态温度计算。

  9. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  10. A soft self-repairing for FBG sensor network in SHM system based on PSO-SVR model reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Peng; Liang, Dakai; Fan, Chunfeng; Li, Cailing

    2015-05-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) system takes advantage of an array of sensors to continuously monitor a structure and provide an early prediction such as the damage position and damage degree etc. Such a system requires monitoring the structure in any conditions including bad condition. Therefore, it must be robust and survivable, even has the self-repairing ability. In this study, a model reconstruction predicting algorithm based on particle swarm optimization-support vector regression (PSO-SVR) is proposed to achieve the self-repairing of the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor network in SHM system. Furthermore, an eight-point FBG sensor SHM system is experimented in an aircraft wing box. For the damage loading position prediction on the aircraft wing box, six kinds of disabled modes are experimentally studied to verify the self-repairing ability of the FBG sensor network in the SHM system, and the predicting performance are compared with non-reconstruction based on PSO-SVR model. The research results indicate that the model reconstruction algorithm has more excellence than that of non-reconstruction model, if partial sensors are invalid in the FBG-based SHM system, the predicting performance of the model reconstruction algorithm is almost consistent with that no sensor is invalid in the SHM system. In this way, the self-repairing ability of the FBG sensor is achieved for the SHM system, such the reliability and survivability of the FBG-based SHM system is enhanced if partial FBG sensors are invalid.

  11. Bridge deck repair and protective systems: latex modified concrete topping. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, H.N.

    1984-07-01

    Measures to reduce or eliminate bridge deck deterioration by the use of various protective systems have been the subject of a series of reports begun in 1976. This report presents current observations of latex-modified deck-topping concrete protective systems. Latex-modified concrete topping has not provided long-term protection for the ten structures under evaluation in Colorado. Cost comparisons are made between repair with latex-modified concrete and deck replacement. Over a 40-year period, replacement costs are slightly less than rehabilitation costs. Greater control of the curing of deck-topping materials may reduce shrinkage cracking. Nightime paving, cooler calmer weather and higher humidity would increase the probability of success on latex-modified concrete to rehabilitation projects. Asphalt membrane and asphalt overlay are also suggested to increase the probability of success.

  12. Evolution and Adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Driven by Mismatch Repair System-Deficient Mutators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luján, Adela M.; Maciá, María D.; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease......, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic...... infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition...

  13. Dental pulp stem cells and their potential roles in central nervous system regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Fraser; Sloan, Alastair; Song, Bing

    2013-11-01

    Functional recovery from injuries to the brain or spinal cord represents a major clinical challenge. The transplantation of stem cells, traditionally isolated from embryonic tissue, may help to reduce damage following such events and promote regeneration and repair through both direct cell replacement and neurotrophic mechanisms. However, the therapeutic potential of using embryonic stem/progenitor cells is significantly restricted by the availability of embryonic tissues and associated ethical issues. Populations of stem cells reside within the dental pulp, representing an alternative source of cells that can be isolated with minimal invasiveness, and thus should illicit fewer moral objections, as a replacement for embryonic/fetal-derived stem cells. Here we discuss the similarities between dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and the endogenous stem cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and their ability to differentiate into neuronal cell types. We also consider in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of DPSCs to help protect against and repair neuronal damage, suggesting that dental pulp may provide a viable alternative source of stem cells for replacement therapy following CNS damage.

  14. Space Transportation System (STS)-117 External Tank (ET)-124 Hail Damage Repair Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Barth, Timothy S.; Minute, Stephen A.; Flowers, Cody P.; Hamilton, David A.; Null, Cynthia H.; Schafer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms with associated hail and high winds struck the STS-117 stack on February 26, 2007. Peak winds were recorded at 62 knots with hail sizes ranging from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch in diameter. As a result of the storm, the North Carolina Foam Institute (NCFI) type 24-124 Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam on the liquid oxygen (LO2) ogive acreage incurred significant impact damage. The NCFI on the ET intertank and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) acreage sustained hail damage. The Polymer Development Laboratory (PDL)-1034 foam of the LO2 ice frost ramps (IFRs) and the Super-Lightweight Ablator (SLA) of the LO2 cable tray also suffered minor damage. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to assess the technical feasibility of repairing the ET TPS, the reasonableness of conducting those repairs with the vehicle in a vertical, integrated configuration at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assemble Building (VAB), and to address attendant human factors considerations including worker fatigue and the potential for error. The outcome of the assessment is recorded in this document.

  15. Recombinant Technology in the Development of Materials and Systems for Soft-Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, Alessandra; Orbanic, Doriana; Ibáñez-Fonseca, Arturo; Gonzalez-Obeso, Constancio; Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2015-11-18

    The field of biomedicine is constantly investing significant research efforts in order to gain a more in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that govern the function of body compartments and to develop creative solutions for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. The main overall goal is to develop relatively simple systems that are able to mimic naturally occurring constructs and can therefore be used in regenerative medicine. Recombinant technology, which is widely used to obtain new tailored synthetic genes that express polymeric protein-based structures, now offers a broad range of advantages for that purpose by permitting the tuning of biological and mechanical properties depending on the intended application while simultaneously ensuring adequate biocompatibility and biodegradability of the scaffold formed by the polymers. This Progress Report is focused on recombinant protein-based materials that resemble naturally occurring proteins of interest for use in soft tissue repair. An overview of recombinant biomaterials derived from elastin, silk, collagen and resilin is given, along with a description of their characteristics and suggested applications. Current endeavors in this field are continuously providing more-improved materials in comparison with conventional ones. As such, a great effort is being made to put these materials through clinical trials in order to favor their future use.

  16. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, M G; Bown, M J; Lloyd, G; Bell, P R F; Sayers, R D

    2004-03-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is common after major surgery. We examine the dynamics of SIRS in AAA patients, and assess the impact of the number of SIRS criteria on patient outcome. Prospective study of 151 consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients. Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality. The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. Elective patients with a cumulative SIRS score of > or =10 during postoperative days 1-4 were more likely to die, compared to patients with a SIRS score of SIRS late in the postoperative period (day 5-10) was associated with adverse outcome (death) in elective patients (p=0.01). The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure. SIRS is common in patients undergoing AAA repair. The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems.

  17. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  18. Application of Petri nets to reliability prediction of occupant safety systems with partial detection and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyner, Andre, E-mail: andre.v.kleyner@delphi.co [Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, P.O. Box 9005, M.S. CTC 2E, Kokomo, IN 46904 (United States); Volovoi, Vitali, E-mail: vitali.volovoi@ae.gatech.ed [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents an application of stochastic Petri nets (SPN) to calculate the availability of safety critical on-demand systems. Traditional methods of estimating system reliability include standards-based or field return-based reliability prediction methods. These methods do not take into account the effect of fault-detection capability and penalize the addition of detection circuitry due to the higher parts count. Therefore, calculating system availability, which can be linked to the system's probability of failure on demand (P{sub fd}), can be a better alternative to reliability prediction. The process of estimating the P{sub fd} of a safety system can be further complicated by the presence of system imperfections such as partial-fault detection by users and untimely or uncompleted repairs. Additionally, most system failures cannot be represented by Poisson process Markov chain methods, which are commonly utilized for the purposes of estimating P{sub fd}, as these methods are not well-suited for the analysis of non-Poisson failures. This paper suggests a methodology and presents a case study of SPN modeling adequately handling most of the above problems. The model will be illustrated with a case study of an automotive electronics airbag controller as an example of a safety critical on-demand system.

  19. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Signal Processing Strategies for Cochlear Implants Using Current Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary cochlear implant systems, the audio signal is decomposed into different frequency bands, each assigned to one electrode. Thus, pitch perception is limited by the number of physical electrodes implanted into the cochlea and by the wide bandwidth assigned to each electrode. The Harmony HiResolution bionic ear (Advanced Bionics LLC, Valencia, CA, USA has the capability of creating virtual spectral channels through simultaneous delivery of current to pairs of adjacent electrodes. By steering the locus of stimulation to sites between the electrodes, additional pitch percepts can be generated. Two new sound processing strategies based on current steering have been designed, SpecRes and SineEx. In a chronic trial, speech intelligibility, pitch perception, and subjective appreciation of sound were compared between the two current steering strategies and standard HiRes strategy in 9 adult Harmony users. There was considerable variability in benefit, and the mean results show similar performance with all three strategies.

  1. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...

  2. Validation of the Algorithms for Depot Exchangeable Repair and Modification Costs for NSNS and Engines for the Component Support Cost System (D160B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    IDENTIFICATION OI 03 NOMENCLATURE . ITEM 012 03 PRICE. STANDARD INVENTORY 013 03 CODE. WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT 014 06 CODE. WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT. POSITIONS I TO...calculation of standard depot repair prices ( sales prices). Various knowledgeable Air Force personnel have noted that it is not unusual for an engine to be both...cost elements not used in calculation of standard depot repair prices (" sales prices"). ISI affirms the congruence of the definitions of repair prices as

  3. Sensitivity issues in the bayesian analysis of failures in repairable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggero, F.

    2001-07-01

    The paper arises from a consulting project in which failures (gas escapes) are considered in the steel pipelines of an urban gas distribution network. The available data are the 33 failure times from 1978 to 1997 over a network of 275 kilometres. More details on the data can be found in (1). Steel pipelines are subject to ageing and the global system reliability is barely affected by one failure. Thus, we consider the network as a repairable system, since it keeps the same reliability when minimal repairs immediately follow failures. Failures of Such systems are often described by non-homogeneous Poisson processes (NHPP), which take in account the degradation of the components; see, e. g. (2). In the paper we model the failures pattern with a NHPP with logarithmic intensity and present different sensitivity analyses when relaxing the assumption on the parametric model. We operate in a robust Bayesian framework, see (3) for a thoroughly illustration of the approach. In the paper we do not focus on the commonly addressed issue of sensitivity to the prior, but we are interested in model sensitivity and consider two ways to build classes of models around the NHPP. In the first approach, we consider the NHPP as an element of a class of processes, defined through differential equations whose solutions are mean value functions of NHPPs. In the second, nonparametric approach, we consider processes whose mean value functions are distribution functions of random measures. In both cases, we compare the models with the baseline, logarithmic NHPP. In Section 2 we analyse the logarithmic NHPP and the class of parametric models, whereas comparison between parametric and nonparametric models is performed in Section 3. Some concluding remarks are presented in Section. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. 人-车闭环中电动助力转向系统的基本特性分析%Basic characteristic analysis electric power steering system in the driver-vehicle closed-loop system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军辉; 邓兆祥; 任夏楠; 左虎彪; 鹿鹏程

    2012-01-01

    建立详细的四自由度电动助力转向(EPS)系统机械电气模型,考虑Fiala轮胎模型和二自由度整车模型,引入以转向盘输入角为反馈信号的驾驶员模型,构建装备EPS系统的人-车非线性闭环系统模型.采用模糊控制器确定目标电流并通过PID控制和脉冲宽度调制(PWM)实现其跟踪控制,构建电流闭环控制,并采用基于非线性控制设计(NCD)的单纯形自寻优法对参数进行优化.通过仿真计算,以转向盘输入转矩以及整车的横摆角速度、侧向加速度为指标,研究分析了EPS系统在人-车非线性闭环系统中的基本特性.%A detailed 4 DOFs dynamic-electric model of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is built,and the driver model based on the steering angle feedback is inducted. Combined with the vehicle model contained the tire model, the driver-vehicle closed-loop system with EPS is built. The objective current is determined by the fuzzy controller and realized by PID controller and PWM technology and so the current closed-circuit controller is built. The simplex search for the object function based on the Matlab' s nonlinear optimization control toolbox is adopted to optimize the parameters controller. In the simulation,driver' s input torque,the lateral acceleration and the yaw velocity of the vehicle are adopted to analyse the basic characteristic of EPS in the closed-circuit.

  5. Reliability Analysis of a Cold Standby System with Imperfect Repair and under Poisson Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the reliability analysis of a two-component cold standby system with a repairman who may have vacation. The system may fail due to intrinsic factors like aging or deteriorating, or external factors such as Poisson shocks. The arrival time of the shocks follows a Poisson process with the intensity λ>0. Whenever the magnitude of a shock is larger than the prespecified threshold of the operating component, the operating component will fail. The paper assumes that the intrinsic lifetime and the repair time on the component are an extended Poisson process, the magnitude of the shock and the threshold of the operating component are nonnegative random variables, and the vacation time of the repairman obeys the general continuous probability distribution. By using the vector Markov process theory, the supplementary variable method, Laplace transform, and Tauberian theory, the paper derives a number of reliability indices: system availability, system reliability, the rate of occurrence of the system failure, and the mean time to the first failure of the system. Finally, a numerical example is given to validate the derived indices.

  6. Robot-assisted fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) using the Magellan system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Celia V; Bicknell, Colin D; Rolls, Alexander; Cheshire, Nicholas J; Hamady, Mohamad S

    2013-02-01

    A 67-year-old man underwent robot-assisted three-vessel fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) for a 7.3-cm juxtarenal aneurysm. The 6-F robotic catheter was manipulated from a remote workstation, away from the radiation source. Robotic cannulation of the left renal artery was achieved within 3 minutes. System setup time was 5 minutes. There were no postoperative complications. Computed tomography angiography performed at discharge and at 4-month follow-up confirmed target vessel patency with no evidence of an endoleak. Selective cannulation of target vessels during FEVAR using this novel technology is feasible. Endovascular robotics may have a role in simplifying complex endovascular tasks and potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator.

  7. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  8. Interagency Advanced Power Group -- Steering group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-18

    This document contains the draft meeting minutes of the Steering Group of the Interagency Advanced Power Group. Included are the discussions resulting from the presentation of working group reports and the results of a discussion of IAPG policies and procedures. In the appendix are the reports of the following working groups: Electrical, Mechanical, Solar, and Systems.

  9. The value of theoretical multiplicity for steering transitions towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Pot, W.D.; Werkman, R.A.; Breeman, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Transition management, as a theory of directing structural societal changes towards sustainable system innovations, has become a major topic in scientific research over the last years. In this paper we focus on the question how transitions towards sustainability can be steered, governed or managed,

  10. Current steering effect of GaN nanoporous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chia-Feng, E-mail: cflin@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wang, Jing-Hao; Cheng, Po-Fu; Tseng, Wang-Po; Fan, Feng-Hsu; Wu, Kaun-Chun; Lee, Wen-Che [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Current steering effect of InGaN light emitting diode (LED) structure was demonstrated by forming a high resistivity GaN nanoporous structure. Disk-array patterns with current-injection bridge structures were fabricated on InGaN LED devices through a focused ion beam (FIB) system. GaN nanoporous structure was formed around the FIB-drilled holes through a electrochemical (EC) wet-etching process on a n-type GaN:Si layer under the InGaN active layer. High emission intensity and small peak wavelength blueshift phenomenon of the electroluminescence spectra were observed in the EC-treated region compared with the non-treated region. The branch-like nanoporous structure was formed along the lateral etched direction to steer the injection current in 5 μm-width bridge structures. In the FIB-drilled hole structure, high light emission intensity of the central-disk region was observed by enlarging the bridge width to 10 μm, with a 5 μm EC-treated width, that reduced the current steering effect and increased the light scattering effect on the nanoporous structure. The EC-treated GaN:Si nanoporous structure acted as a high light scattering structure and a current steering structure that has potential on the current confinement for vertical cavity surface emitting laser applications. - Highlights: • High resistivity nanoporous-GaN formed in InGaN LED through electrochemical process. • Branch-like nanoporous in 5 μm-width bridge structure can steer the injection current. • Nanoporous GaN acted as s light scattering and current steering structures in InGaN LED.

  11. Electrical steering of vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this paper is systems that need be designed such that no single fault can cause failure at the overall level. A methodology is presented for analysis and design of fault-tolerant architectures, where diagnosis and autonomous reconfiguration can replace high cost triple redundancy sol...

  12. Analysis of Steering Knuckle of All Terrain Vehicles (ATV) Using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusane, S. V.; Dipke, M. K.; Kumbhalkar, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Steering knuckle is the most stress sustaining and critical component of All Terrain Vehicle (ATV). Steering knuckle is the pivot point of the steering and suspension system, which allows the front wheels to turn and also allow the movement of suspension arms motion. The light weight and high strength component is always in demanding for racecar application. Lightweight and optimized design of steering knuckle is proposed to use for a BAJA SAE INDIA off road racecar. Due to the failure in knuckle in terrain vehicle after some instances, it has to be modified for better performance. The 3D CAD model created by using CATIA V5 and static as well as model analysis carried out in ANSYS 12 to understand its behavior under operating conditions. All test for frame was carried out on aluminum alloys 6061-T6 & for spindle EN8. The paper discusses the FE analysis of existing and modified Steering Knuckle.

  13. High speed, high power one-dimensional beam steering from a 6-element optical phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W Ronny; Montoya, Juan; Kansky, Jan E; Redmond, Shawn M; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2012-07-30

    Beam steering at high speed and high power is demonstrated from a 6-element optical phased array using coherent beam combining (CBC) techniques. The steering speed, defined as the inverse of the time to required to sweep the beam across the steering range, is 40 MHz and the total power is 396 mW. The measured central lobe FWHM width is 565 μrad. High on-axis intensity is maintained periodically by phase-locking the array via a stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent (SPGD) algorithm. A master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration is used where the amplifier array elements are semiconductor slab-coupled-optical-waveguide-amplifiers (SCOWAs). The beam steering is achieved by LiNbO(3) phase modulators; the phase-locking occurs by current adjustment of the SCOWAs. The system can be readily scaled to GHz steering speed and multiwatt-class output.

  14. Performance Analyses of the Radio Orbital Angular Momentum Steering Technique Based on Ka-Band Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingtuan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The misalignment in the orbital angular momentum- (OAM- based system would distort the radiation patterns of twisted beams carrying OAM, consequently making the OAM-based communication infeasible. To tackle the misalignment problem, a radio OAM steering technique based on a uniform circular array (UCA is illustrated. Subsequently, simulations are conducted to explore the influence of the OAM steering on the OAM mode quality and transmission performance. Furthermore, UCAs working at Ka-band with formulated feeding networks are designed and fabricated to analyze the performance of the OAM steering. The influences of OAM steering on mode quality and orthogonality are then evaluated in the experiment. Overall, the analyses of OAM steering technique are beneficial for the development of radio OAM study.

  15. Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.

    2016-03-01

    Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.

  16. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  17. Early passage bone marrow stromal cells express genes involved in nervous system development supporting their relevance for neural repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe, R.D.S.; Bossers, K.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Blits, B.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Verhaagen, J.; Oudega, M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The assessment of the capacity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to repair the nervous system using gene expression profiling. The evaluation of effects of long-term culturing on the gene expression profile of BMSC. METHODS: Fourty four k whole genome rat microarrays were used to study

  18. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  19. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  20. Reliability and Functionality of Repairable Systems Using a Minimal Set of Metrics: Design and Maintenance of a Smart Charging Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE OF A SMART CHARGING MICROGRID Vijitashwa Pandey 1 pandey2@oakland.edu Annette Skowronska-Kurec 2...remote microgrid powering a military installation require a careful consideration of cost and repair strategies. This is because of logistical...value of the proposed approach using a US Army smart- charging microgrid installation. 1. INTRODUCTION Most real-life engineering systems are

  1. Study of the performance of four repairing material systems for hydraulic structures of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormann A. C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four types of repairing materials are studied as function of either a conventional concrete or a reference-concrete (RefC, these are: polymer-modified cement mortar (PMor, steel fiber concrete (SFco, epoxy mortar (EMor and silica fume mortar (SFmo, to be applied in hydraulic structures surfaces subjected to a high velocity water flow. Besides the mechanical requests and wearing resistance of hydraulic concrete dam structures, especially the spillway surfaces, the high solar radiation, the environmental temperature and wet and dry cycles, contribute significantly to the reduction of their lifespan. RefC and the SFco were developed based on a usual concrete mixture used in slabs of spillways. The average RefC mixture used was 1: 1.61: 2.99: 0.376, with Pozzolan-modified Portland cement consumption of 425 kg/m³. EMor and PMor mixtures followed the information given by the manufacturers and lab experience. Tests on concrete samples were carried out in laboratory simulating normally found environmental situations in order to control the mechanical resistance and the aging imposed conditions, such as solar radiation and humidity. Also, physicochemical characterizing tests were made for all used materials. From the analyzed results, two of them presented a higher performance: the EMor and SFmo. SFco presented good adherence to the RefC and good mechanical performance. However, it also presented apparent metal corrosion in humidity tests, being indicated for use, with caution, as an intermediate layer in underwater repairs. In a general classification, considering all tests, including their field applications, the better performance material systems were EMor- SFmo> SFco> PMor.

  2. Design of the Automatic Four-wheel Driving and Four-wheel Steering Chassis’ s Electric Control System%四轮驱动四轮转向自动驾驶底盘的电控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玫瑾; 魏新华

    2016-01-01

    为了提高植保机械作业精度、降低驾驶员操作难度,设计了一种高地隙全液压四轮驱动四轮转向自动驾驶底盘。本文介绍了底盘的整体结构,重点阐述了电控系统的结构与工作原理。该电控系统以EPCS-8980为上位机、DSP56F805信号控制器为核心、基于CAN 总线进行通讯,行车状态参数采集器接收各传感器采集的行车参数信息,并通过 CAN 总线发送到车载电脑和行车控制器,行车控制器根据车载电脑指令和各传感器参数,按照行车控制模型生成控制指令,并通过各电磁阀独立控制4个液压马达和4个转向油缸,实现底盘的行车控制。同时,对电控系统进行了测试,测试结果表明:该电控系统实现了对液压元器件的控制,保证了其运行的可靠性,可满足实际作业要求,同时该电控系统也可用于通用自主移动平台上。%In order to improve the accuracy of plant protection machinery operations , and reduce the difficulty of driver ’ s operations, this paper presents a high clearance full hydraulic and automatic four-wheel driving and four-wheel steer-ing chassis .The overall structure of the chassis was produced , and also the electric control system was mainly presented . The electric control system was designed with its vehicular computer EPCS-8980,core part DSP56F805, communication via CAN-bus.The driving parameters were collected by each sensor , and each sensor signals collected by the driving da-ta collector transmitted to the vehicular computer and the driving controller via CAN-bus.According to instructions of the vehicular computer and the parameters of the sensors , the driving controller generated the controlling instruction under the traffic controlling model , the four hydraulic motors and the four steering cylinders were controlled by each electromagnetic valve , and thus the chassis could be controlled to drive and steer .The tests of the

  3. Application of resin system for sand consolidation, mud-loss control, and channel repairing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasnik, A.; Mete, S.; Ghosh, B. [Maharashtra Inst. of Technology (India)

    2005-11-01

    Sand production is one of the major challenges facing oil well operators. A technique for sand consolidation and channel repairing with a resin system was described along with a methodology for placing a chemical casing during or after drilling a shale zone that is prone to caving. The methodology is intended to facilitate drilling with reduced mud weight, without reducing the hole size. The resin comprises a mixture of elastomers UF, MF and a suitable plasticizer to impart flexibility and impact resistance. The resin system includes both the resin and a hardener which is a mixture of 2 mild Lewis acids to control curing time. A special additive can be used to enhance surface bonding between the sand and resin. Experiments were then performed to examine the efficiency of resin (Asmid 603) with 7 different chemicals and resin Furmel 301 with Furmel catalyst as a curing modifier. The best combination for sand consolidation and chemical casing was found to be resin Asmid 603 with 0.6 per cent o-phosphoric acid at 80 degrees C and Furmel 301 with 2.5 per cent Furmel catalyst and CFNL with 0.6 per cent o-phosphoric acid. When this combination was used, the permeability was found to be nearly zero after consolidation of resin. The newly developed resin system costs one-third that of epoxy resins. Since it is water soluble, it is also easy to handle and environmentally sound. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Model System for Live Imaging of Neuronal Responses to Injury and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gravel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been well established that induction of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43 during development coincides with axonal outgrowth and early synapse formation, the existence of neuronal plasticity and neurite outgrowth in the adult central nervous system after injuries is more controversial. To visualize the processes of neuronal injury and repair in living animals, we generated reporter mice for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging bearing the luc (luciferase and gfp (green fluorescent protein reporter genes under the control of the murine GAP-43 promoter. Reporter functionality was first observed during the development of transgenic embryos. Using in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we visualized induction of the GAP-43 signals from live embryos starting at E10.5, as well as neuronal responses to brain and peripheral nerve injuries (the signals peaked at 14 days postinjury. Moreover, three-dimensional analysis of the GAP-43 bioluminescent signal confirmed that it originated from brain structures affected by ischemic injury. The analysis of fluorescence signal at cellular level revealed colocalization between endogenous protein and the GAP-43-driven gfp transgene. Taken together, our results suggest that the GAP-43-luc/gfp reporter mouse represents a valid model system for real-time analysis of neurite outgrowth and the capacity of the adult nervous system to regenerate after injuries.

  5. DSPIC BASED POWER ASSISTED STEERING USING BRUSHLESS DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R.P. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS using BLDC motor for a vehicle. Earlier the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS was implemented with DSP. This study shows the usage of a dsPIC to control the BLDC motor with an encoder. The BLDC motor here is driven by dsPIC through a three phase inverter system. IRAMS type of inverter is used which is cost efficient and space efficient. The dsPIC supplied with the input of the steering. In its higher capacity the vehicles speed controller acts as the assistance level controller for steering effort. At the lower capacity, the torque controller gives the effort level control. In reality this can be realized as torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the dsPIC. For actual implementation in the system, a dsPIC-based BLDC motor controller with three-phase inverter module is used with Hall-effect sensor feedback. It is designed in such a way that the driver assistance can be varied at any time without any difficulty.

  6. The Influence Of The Ship's Steering Machine Over Yaw And Roll Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel NICOLAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The steering machine is a nonlinear system, with two important limitations: the maximum rudder angle and rudder rate. Therefore, the commands from yaw and rudder-roll control systems are modified and the expected effect is not always the optimum one. It is important to know the influence of the steering machine, trying to avoid the limitations or to include them into the control law. The goal of this paper is to analyze the steering machine limitations and their influence over yaw and roll motions of the ship. Also, some expert rules are generated, which can be used to implement more efficient control laws.

  7. The zebrafish as a gerontology model in nervous system aging, disease, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houcke, Jessie; De Groef, Lies; Dekeyster, Eline; Moons, Lieve

    2015-11-01

    Considering the increasing number of elderly in the world's population today, developing effective treatments for age-related pathologies is one of the biggest challenges in modern medical research. Age-related neurodegeneration, in particular, significantly impacts important sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, seriously constraining life quality of many patients. Although our understanding of the causal mechanisms of aging has greatly improved in recent years, animal model systems still have much to tell us about this complex process. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained enormous popularity for this research topic over the past decade, since their life span is relatively short but, like humans, they are still subject to gradual aging. In addition, the extensive characterization of its well-conserved molecular and cellular physiology makes the zebrafish an excellent model to unravel the underlying mechanisms of aging, disease, and repair. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in zebrafish gerontology, with special emphasis on nervous system aging. We review the evidence that classic hallmarks of aging can also be recognized within this small vertebrate, both at the molecular and cellular level. Moreover, we illustrate the high level of similarity with age-associated human pathologies through a survey of the functional deficits that arise as zebrafish age.

  8. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela M Luján

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  9. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, Adela M; Maciá, María D; Yang, Liang; Molin, Søren; Oliver, Antonio; Smania, Andrea M

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  10. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Genetic characterization of cells of homocystinuria patients with disrupted DNA repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinel' shchikova, T.A.; L' vova, G.N.; Shoniya, N.N.; Zasukhina, G.D.

    1986-08-01

    Fibroblasts obtained from biopsy material and lymphocytes of patients with homocystinuria were investigated for repair activity according to the following criteria: rejoined DNA breaks, induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and ..gamma..-radiation; indices of reactivation and induced mutagenesis of smallpox vaccine virus treated with these mutagens. In lymphocytes a defect of DNA repair was observed according to all criteria investigated. During passage of fibroblast cultures, inhibition of repair activity of cells was preserved according to ..gamma..-type. Increase in the number of spontaneous and ..gamma..-induced mutations of virus was noted according to degree of passage of fibroblasts.

  12. Analytic Steering: Inserting Context into the Information Dialog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Brown, Shyretha D.; Nakamura, Grant C.

    2011-10-23

    An analyst’s intrinsic domain knowledge is a primary asset in almost any analysis task. Unstructured text analysis systems that apply un-supervised content analysis approaches can be more effective if they can leverage this domain knowledge in a manner that augments the information discovery process without obfuscating new or unexpected content. Current unsupervised approaches rely upon the prowess of the analyst to submit the right queries or observe generalized document and term relationships from ranked or visual results. We propose a new approach which allows the user to control or steer the analytic view within the unsupervised space. This process is controlled through the data characterization process via user supplied context in the form of a collection of key terms. We show that steering with an appropriate choice of key terms can provide better relevance to the analytic domain and still enable the analyst to uncover un-expected relationships; this paper discusses cases where various analytic steering approaches can provide enhanced analysis results and cases where analytic steering can have a negative impact on the analysis process.

  13. Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. High resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of methodology to verify performance was a significant effortadvancement. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 Mission (ICESat 2), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat 2 primary mission is to map the earths surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness as well as vegetation canopy thickness.

  14. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gosten, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the Earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  15. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morrell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  16. Comparison of a new braid fixation system to an interlocking intramedullary nail for tibial osteotomy repair in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Nemke, Brett; Lorang, Douglas M; Trip, Roel; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Markel, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    To compare bone healing of tibial osteotomy repaired with Nitinol wire braid and hardened steel rods (Braid system) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement with an interlocking intramedullary (IM) nail fixation in an ovine model. In vitro and in vivo experimental study. Adult female sheep (n=22). Using sheep tibia, a middiaphyseal transverse osteotomy was performed in the right tibia, which were then randomly assigned to the Braid system group or IM nail group (n=5). The left tibia were used as controls. The torsional properties of tibial constructs were compared. The study was repeated in vivo in 12 sheep and mechanical properties and bone healing were evaluated at 12 weeks. In vitro, there was no significant difference in torsional stiffness between the groups. In vivo, operative time for the Braid system group was significantly shorter than the IM nail group. At 12 weeks, there were no significant differences in maximum torque and torsional stiffness between IM nail and Braid system groups nor were there significant radiographic or histologic differences between the groups. The Braid system might decrease operative time for repair of transverse middiaphyseal tibial fractures and result in similar bone healing at 12 weeks after surgery compared with an interlocking IM nail repair. A Nitinol Braid system may be a treatment option for transverse midshaft tibial fractures.

  17. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  18. Validation of the Algorithms for Base Exchangeable Repair Costs (Engine) and Base Exchangeable Modification Costs (Engine) for the Component Support Cost System (D160B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    REPORTING 010 03 NUMBER. ITEM IDENTIFICATION Oil 03 NOMENCLATURE . ITEM 012 03 PRICE. STANDARD INVENTORY 013 03 CODE, WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT 014 05 CODE...elements not used in calculation of standard depot repair prices (* sales prices"). ISI affirms the congruence of the definitions of repair prices as

  19. REPAIR OF GEAR-TYPE PUMPS FOR HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS OF CONSTRUCTION MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    Posviatenko, Ye; Kropivniy, V.; Posviatenko, N.; Rousskykh, V.

    2007-01-01

    Investigation into resource-saving technology of repair of gear-type pumps by contact welding -on some wear-resistant composite sintered powders on the top of teeth with further thermal-cycle treatment has been described.

  20. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  1. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs.

  2. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  3. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  4. The structure of the Lingo-1 ectodomain, a module implicated in central nervous system repair inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosyak, Lidia; Wood, Andrew; Dwyer, Brian; Buddha, Madhavan; Johnson, Mark; Aulabaugh, Ann; Zhong, Xiaotian; Presman, Eleonora; Benard, Susan; Kelleher, Kerry; Wilhelm, James; Stahl, Mark L; Kriz, Ron; Gao, Ying; Cao, Zixuan; Ling, Huai-Ping; Pangalos, Menelas N; Walsh, Frank S; Somers, William S

    2006-11-24

    Nogo receptor (NgR)-mediated control of axon growth relies on the central nervous system-specific type I transmembrane protein Lingo-1. Interactions between Lingo-1 and NgR, along with a complementary co-receptor, result in neurite and axonal collapse. In addition, the inhibitory role of Lingo-1 is particularly important in regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, suggesting that pharmacological modulation of Lingo-1 function could be a novel approach for nerve repair and remyelination therapies. Here we report on the crystal structure of the ligand-binding ectodomain of human Lingo-1 and show it has a bimodular, kinked structure composed of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig)-like modules. The structure, together with biophysical analysis of its solution properties, reveals that in the crystals and in solution Lingo-1 persistently associates with itself to form a stable tetramer and that it is its LRR-Ig-composite fold that drives such assembly. Specifically, in the crystal structure protomers of Lingo-1 associate in a ring-shaped tetramer, with each LRR domain filling an open cleft in an adjacent protomer. The tetramer buries a large surface area (9,200 A2) and may serve as an efficient scaffold to simultaneously bind and assemble the NgR complex components during activation on a membrane. Potential functional binding sites that can be identified on the ectodomain surface, including the site of self-recognition, suggest a model for protein assembly on the membrane.

  5. Cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue repair and regeneration in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Donaghue, Irja; Tam, Roger; Sefton, Michael V; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-09-28

    Tissue engineering frequently involves cells and scaffolds to replace damaged or diseased tissue. It originated, in part, as a means of effecting the delivery of biomolecules such as insulin or neurotrophic factors, given that cells are constitutive producers of such therapeutic agents. Thus cell delivery is intrinsic to tissue engineering. Controlled release of biomolecules is also an important tool for enabling cell delivery since the biomolecules can enable cell engraftment, modulate inflammatory response or otherwise benefit the behavior of the delivered cells. We describe advances in cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue regeneration, with emphasis on the central nervous system (CNS). In the first section, the focus is on encapsulated cell therapy. In the second section, the focus is on biomolecule delivery in polymeric nano/microspheres and hydrogels for the nerve regeneration and endogenous cell stimulation. In the third section, the focus is on combination strategies of neural stem/progenitor cell or mesenchymal stem cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue regeneration and repair. In each section, the challenges and potential solutions associated with delivery to the CNS are highlighted.

  6. Cellular and molecular phenotypes depending upon the RNA repair system RtcAB of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Christoph; Schaefer, Jorrit; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Buck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    RNA ligases function pervasively across the three kingdoms of life for RNA repair, splicing and can be stress induced. The RtcB protein (also HSPC117, C22orf28, FAAP and D10Wsu52e) is one such conserved ligase, involved in tRNA and mRNA splicing. However, its physiological role is poorly described, especially in bacteria. We now show in Escherichia coli bacteria that the RtcR activated rtcAB genes function for ribosome homeostasis involving rRNA stability. Expression of rtcAB is activated by agents and genetic lesions which impair the translation apparatus or may cause oxidative damage in the cell. Rtc helps the cell to survive challenges to the translation apparatus, including ribosome targeting antibiotics. Further, loss of Rtc causes profound changes in chemotaxis and motility. Together, our data suggest that the Rtc system is part of a previously unrecognized adaptive response linking ribosome homeostasis with basic cell physiology and behaviour. PMID:27402162

  7. Cellular and molecular phenotypes depending upon the RNA repair system RtcAB of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Christoph; Schaefer, Jorrit; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Buck, Martin

    2016-11-16

    RNA ligases function pervasively across the three kingdoms of life for RNA repair, splicing and can be stress induced. The RtcB protein (also HSPC117, C22orf28, FAAP and D10Wsu52e) is one such conserved ligase, involved in tRNA and mRNA splicing. However, its physiological role is poorly described, especially in bacteria. We now show in Escherichia coli bacteria that the RtcR activated rtcAB genes function for ribosome homeostasis involving rRNA stability. Expression of rtcAB is activated by agents and genetic lesions which impair the translation apparatus or may cause oxidative damage in the cell. Rtc helps the cell to survive challenges to the translation apparatus, including ribosome targeting antibiotics. Further, loss of Rtc causes profound changes in chemotaxis and motility. Together, our data suggest that the Rtc system is part of a previously unrecognized adaptive response linking ribosome homeostasis with basic cell physiology and behaviour. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. In-situ engineering of cartilage repair: a pre-clinical in-vivo exploration of a novel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhom, B B; Luo, Z-J; Goldsmith, A J; Toyoda, T; Lorrison, J C; Guardamagna, L

    2007-07-01

    This investigation explores a new cartilage repair technique that uses a novel method to secure a non-woven multifilamentous scaffold in the defect site after microfracture. The hypothesis is that a scaffold provides a larger surface area for attachment and proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells that migrate from the bone marrow. Two in-vivo studies were undertaken in an ovine model. The first study, which lasted for 8 weeks, aimed to compare the new technique with microfracture. Chondral defects, 7 mm in diameter, were created in both femoral medial condyles of five ewes. One defect was treated with the new technique while the contralateral knee was treated with microfracture alone. The results revealed that the quantity of repair tissue was significantly greater in the defects treated with the new system. The second study had two time points, 3 and 6 months, and used 13 ewes. In this study, both defects were treated with the new technique but one received additional subchondral drilling in order to stimulate extra tissue growth. The majority of the implants had good tissue induction, filling 50-100 per cent of the defect volume, while the compressive modulus of the repairs was in the range of 40-70 per cent of that for the surrounding cartilage. In addition, hyaline-like cartilage was seen in all the repairs which had the additional drilling of the subchondral bone.

  9. Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter; Allen, James

    1994-01-01

    Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an algorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by finding word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather than using a set of prebuilt templates, we build the pattern on the fly. In a fair test, our method, when combined with a statistical model to filter possible repairs, was successful at detecting and correcting 80\\% of the repairs, without using prosodic information or a parser.

  10. Tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  11. Test of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on the all-versus-nothing proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Yi; Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Zhenghan; Oh, C H

    2014-03-06

    In comparison with entanglement and Bell nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a newly emerged research topic and in its incipient stage. Although Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering has been explored via violations of steering inequalities both theoretically and experimentally, the known inequalities in the literatures are far from well-developed. As a result, it is not yet possible to observe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for some steerable mixed states. Recently, a simple approach was presented to identify Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on all-versus-nothing argument, offering a strong condition to witness the steerability of a family of two-qubit (pure or mixed) entangled states. In this work, we show that the all-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering can be tested by measuring the projective probabilities. Through the bound of probabilities imposed by local-hidden-state model, the proposed test shows that steering can be detected by the all-versus-nothing argument experimentally even in the presence of imprecision and errors. Our test can be implemented in many physical systems and we discuss the possible realizations of our scheme with non-Abelian anyons and trapped ions.

  12. A new generation of IC based beam steering devices for free-space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Vijit

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has tremendously advanced within the last decade to meet the ever increasing demand for higher communication bandwidth. Advancement in laser technology since its invention in the 1960's [1] attracted them to be the dominant source in FSO communication modules. The future of FSO systems lay in implementing semiconductor lasers due to their small size, power efficiency and mass fabrication abilities. In the near future, these systems are very likely to be used in space and ground based applications and revolutionary beam steering technologies will be required for distant communications in free-space. The highly directional characteristic inherent to a laser beam challenges and calls for new beam pointing and steering technologies for such type of communication. In this dissertation, research is done on a novel FSO communication device based on semiconductor lasers for high bandwidth communication. The "Fly eye transceiver" is an extremely wide steering bandwidth, completely non-mechanical FSO laser communication device primarily designed to replace traditional mechanical beam steering optical systems. This non-mechanical FSO device possesses a full spherical steering range and a very high tracking bandwidth. Inspired by the evolutionary model of a fly's eye, the full spherical steering range is assured by electronically controlled switching of its sub-eyes. Non mechanical technologies used in the past for beam steering such as acousto-optic Bragg cells, liquid crystal arrays or piezoelectric elements offer the wide steering bandwidth and fast response time, but are limited in their angular steering range. Mechanical gimbals offer a much greater steering range but face a much slower response time or steering bandwidth problem and often require intelligent adaptive controls with bulky driver amplifiers to feed their actuators. As a solution to feed both the fast and full spherical steering, the Fly-eye transceiver is studied as

  13. Effect of four different surface treatments on shear bond strength of three porcelain repair systems: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Gourav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ceramic fracture in metal ceramic restorations are serious and pose an aesthetic and functional dilemma both for the patients and the dentist. This has created a demand for the development of practical repair options which do not necessitate the removal and remake of entire restorations. Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of four different surface treatments on shear bond strength of metal ceramic specimens with three commercially available porcelain repair systems. Materials and Methods: Specimens were fabricated with a base-metal ceramic alloy and divided into three groups, to evaluate three porcelain repair systems. Each group was divided into four subgroups based on surface treatment (A sandblasting, (B sandblasting followed by etching with 9% HF (Hydrofluoric acid on surrounding ceramic, (C Use of a diamond bur on exposed metal followed by etching with 37% H 3 PO 4 and (D Control groups (D 1 , D 2 , D 3 for three groups of porcelain repair system which was not subjected to further treatment after finishing with 240 grit silicon carbide paper grinding. Shear bond strength of each group of specimens based on surface treatment were evaluated with a universal testing machine after storing in distilled water for 7 days. One way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD procedure were used to compare the mean values between and among the groups. Results: The mean shear bond strength of group III (10.402 ± 1.055 were significantly higher than group I (8.647 ± 0.990 and group II (8.099 ± 0.600 for all surface treatments. However the mean values of shear bond strength of sub-group A were significantly higher than sub-group C and D but were not significantly higher than sub-group B. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that in fractured metal ceramic restorations the exposed metal surface treated with sandblasting or sandblasting and etching the surrounding ceramic surface with HF can increase the shear bond strength of the repaired metal

  14. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  15. Kinetic Metallization. Repair of IVD Al Coatings and Mg Alloys Aircraft Components Using Portable Kinetic Metallization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-27

    person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...aircraft carriers & depots Environmentally sustainable Meets Navy JTP-2003 Portable system & Handheld spray gun Robotic deployment for OEM Applications...Problem - Field & Depot Repair of Damaged IVD-Al & Mg Alloys NADEP Facilities PEO(T) F/A-18, EA-18G PMA -271 E-6B

  16. Genetic algorithm–based varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control for four-wheel independent steering vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.

  17. EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states

    CERN Document Server

    Kogias, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent qua...

  18. Quantum Steering Inequality with Tolerance for Measurement-Setting Errors: Experimentally Feasible Signature of Unbounded Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Adam; Buraczewski, Adam; Horodecki, Paweł; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Quantum steering is a relatively simple test for proving that the values of quantum-mechanical measurement outcomes come into being only in the act of measurement. By exploiting quantum correlations, Alice can influence—steer—Bob's physical system in a way that is impossible in classical mechanics, as shown by the violation of steering inequalities. Demonstrating this and similar quantum effects for systems of increasing size, approaching even the classical limit, is a long-standing challenging problem. Here, we prove an experimentally feasible unbounded violation of a steering inequality. We derive its universal form where tolerance for measurement-setting errors is explicitly built in by means of the Deutsch-Maassen-Uffink entropic uncertainty relation. Then, generalizing the mutual unbiasedness, we apply the inequality to the multisinglet and multiparticle bipartite Bell state. However, the method is general and opens the possibility of employing multiparticle bipartite steering for randomness certification and development of quantum technologies, e.g., random access codes.

  19. Practicability study on the suitability of artificial, neural networks for the approximation of unknown steering torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ende, K. T. R.; Schaare, D.; Kaste, J.; Küçükay, F.; Henze, R.; Kallmeyer, F. K.

    2016-10-01

    For steer-by-wire systems, the steering feedback must be generated artificially due to the system characteristics. Classical control concepts require operating-point driven optimisations as well as increased calibration efforts in order to adequately simulate the steering torque in all driving states. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are an innovative control concept; they are capable of learning arbitrary non-linear correlations without complex knowledge of physical dependencies. The present study investigates the suitability of neural networks for approximating unknown steering torques. To ensure robust processing of arbitrary data, network training with a sufficient volume of training data is required, that represents the relation between the input and target values in a wide range. The data were recorded in the course of various test drives. In this research, a variety of network topologies were trained, analysed and evaluated. Though the fundamental suitability of ANNs for the present control task was demonstrated.

  20. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  1. Joint measurability and temporal steering [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, H. S.; Prabhu Tej, J.; Usha Devi, A. R.; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    Quintino et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160402 (2014)) and Uola et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160403 (2014)) have recently established an intrinsic relation between non-joint measurability and Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen steering. They showed that a set of measurements is incompatible (i.e., not jointly measurable) if and only if it can be used for the demonstration of steering. In this paper, we prove the temporal analog of this result viz., a set of measurements are incompatible if and only if it exhibits temporal steering.

  2. Robust autopilot with wave filter for ship steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-zhou; XU Han-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Research was done to overcome traditional problems associated with automatic steering systems of a ship in a seaway. A ship's dynamic model with wave disturbances was built and a wave filter was designed by means of an extended states observer (ESO). The model estimated the low frequency motion component from a heading measurement corrupted by colorednoise, so back-and-forth steering caused by high frequency wave disturbances was avoided. At the same time, a robust autopilot system,designed by variable structure control theory, was presented. Simulation results achieved in dangerous sea status show that the wave filter works very well and the autopilot has strong robustness to environmental disturbances and model perturbation, and more importantly, the frequency of rudder adjustments is reduced noticeably.

  3. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary...

  4. Low-Absorption Liquid Crystals for Infrared Beam Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    absorption coefficient and d is the LC layer thickness . Let us take a~!0/cm as an example. For a 10-|j,m- thick LC layer, ad=0.01 and the transmittance...remains 99%. However, if the LC layer thickness (or effective optical path length) increases, then the absorption will increase exponentially, as Eq. (1...weight-and-power, 2) increasing mean-time-between- failure, and 3) reducing system complexity. Beam steering based on liquid crystal ( LC ) optical phase

  5. Modeling the behavior of the helmsman steering a ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuyzen, W.; Stassen, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    A supertanker is considered as a nonlinear system which responds very slowly to changes in the rudder position. Moreover this type of ship is often unstable in loaded condition. In order to model the helmsman's behavior, a number of tests were performed using a ship maneuvering simulator. The trained subjects had to steer a 200,000 tons tanker along a varying course. The results obtained from these trials are presented.

  6. Study on Cooperative Control Method of Vehicle Steering/Anti-lock Braking System%汽车转向/防抱死制动系统的协调控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果; 刘华伟; 王旭

    2012-01-01

    A new cooperative control system was proposed for the vehicle's steering antilock braking stability fields.The cooperative control architecture is composed with the execution layer and the cooperation layer.On the execution layer,based on the optimum slip ratio,the vehicle adjustable sliding mode controller was designed for the robustness of vehicles.Moreover,the adaptor was designed to adjust the gain of sliding mode control parameters,so as to reduce the chatter.On the other hand,the yaw moment and the front wheel angle controllers based on the robust adaptive control law were designed to improve the respond,adaptive robustness and stability of vehicles.On the cooperation layer,the brake force distribution policy applicable to the complex work condition and a new cooperative control method were proposed to solve the problems of steering and braking systems.Finally,the stability and the validity of the control algorithm were validated by simulation results.%协同控制结构由执行级和协调级组成。在执行级中,设计基于最佳滑移率的汽车防抱死制动可调节滑模控制器。针对滑模控制中固有抖振缺陷,自动适时调节控制参数增益以消弱抖振。此外,设计基于鲁棒自适应控制的横摆力矩控制器和主动前轮转向控制器力求改善汽车动态响应、鲁棒自适应性和稳定性。在协调级中,设计适用于复杂工况的制动力分配策略,并提出一种协调控制转向系统和制动系统的新方法。最后用仿真结果验证所设计控制算法的稳定性和有效性。

  7. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  8. 几种可应用于电动助力转向系统的应变式扭矩传感器%Some Strain Type Torque Sensors That Can be Applied to Electric Power Steering Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春阳

    2015-01-01

    A torque sensor is a key component of an auto electric power Steering system (EPS) , and its output characteristics has a direct effect on the accuracy and stability of EPS output. The application principle, characteristics and use scope of sev-eral typical kinds of strain type torque sensors are introduced. Coupled with the research situation at home and abroad, the development trend of strain type torque sensors applied to EPS system is induced.%扭矩传感器是汽车电动助力转向系统(Electric Power Steering,EPS)的关键部件之一,其输出特性直接影响EPS的输出准确性和稳定性。介绍了几种典型应变式扭矩传感器的应用原理、特点和使用范围,结合国内外的研究概况,归纳出应用于EPS系统应变式扭矩传感器的发展趋势。

  9. OBSERVACIÓN AL SENTIDO DE LOS PROCESOS PENALES MEXICANOS DESDE EL SISTEMISMO AUTORREFERENCIAL OBSERVATION TO THE MEANING OF THE MEXICAN CRIMINAL TRIALS' MODEL BY THE SELF-STEERING SYSTEMS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias García Rosas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del trabajo es determinar la finalidad perseguida por los procesos penales mexicanos, pues actualmente no existen referentes sustentables, teóricos ni prácticos, para ello. Se empleó la teoría de sistemas autorreferenciales luhmanniana y el método funcional, realizándose una indagación documental mediante la observación de segundo orden, al tenor de una postura constructivista sobre el conocimiento. Se alcanzó como conclusión que el sentido del proceso penal mexicano es exclusivamente la obtención de la decisión judicial definitiva, excluyéndose otros temas tradicionalmente considerados como fines procesales, entre ellos el hallazgo de la "verdad histórica", paradigma que se rompe con los resultados obtenidos.The purpose of the research here described, was to investigate the meaning of the mexican criminal trials' model, that because there are no theorical or practical sustainable references to establish it. In the study, self-steering systems theory of Niklas Luhmann and his functional method were used, developing a documental research and following a second-order observation thecnique, under a constructivistic epistemological view. Was found that the mexican trials' systemic meaning is accomplishing the definitive judicial solution, excluding other themes traditionally considered trial's goals, such as the "historic truth", paradigm which breaks down with the results achieved.

  10. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  11. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AZIMUTH ELECTRONIC BEAM STEERING MODE SPACEBORNE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xiaodong; Xu Wei; Han Xiaolei

    2013-01-01

    Pointing angle and pattern of the antenna can be changed swiftly to actualize the azimuth beam scanning by using electronic beam steering,which makes the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)system more flexible and achieve a high resolution or cover a long strip within short time span.When the pointing angle is steered away from boresight,some aberrations may appear on the antenna pattern,e.g.,the grating lobe appears,the main lobe gain decrease,and antenna pattern broadens,e.g.,the aberrations result in the worsening of system performance,and complicate the corresponding performance analysis method.Conventional computation methods of performance parameters do not account for the rapid change of the antenna pattern.It introduces remarkable errors when the scanning angle is large.In this paper,a method of calculating performance parameters is proposed for the beam steering mode,which achieves the parameters by the energy accumulation in time domain.Actually,the proposed method simulates the working process of SAR and obtains accurate performance parameters.Furthermore,we analyze the effects of the grating lobe on the Azimuth Ambiguity to Signal Ratio (AASR),and present the generic Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) choosing principle which can also prevent the ambiguous area from weighting by the grating lobe.Finally,the effect of the antenna configuration on the performance parameters is analyzed by a system example.

  12. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to demonstrate the EPR paradox. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to show that the down-converted photon pairs also exhibit symmetric EPR steering.

  13. Temporal steering and security of quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-06-01

    Temporal steering, which is a temporal analog of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, refers to temporal quantum correlations between the initial and final state of a quantum system. Our analysis of temporal steering inequalities in relation to the average quantum bit error rates reveals the interplay between temporal steering and quantum cloning, which guarantees the security of quantum key distribution based on mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks. The key distributions analyzed here include the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the six-state 1998 protocol by Bruss. Moreover, we define a temporal steerable weight, which enables us to identify a kind of monogamy of temporal correlation that is essential to quantum cryptography and useful for analyzing various scenarios of quantum causality.

  14. Performance assessment of PEFP steering magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S. H.; Jeo, Y. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    PEFP LEBT uses two solenoid and two steering magnets for the beam position and angle control at the RFQ match point. The dependence of magnetic field and coil temperature on time was assessed and the linearity was also measured.

  15. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Gynecologic Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gynecologic Cancers Steering Committee evaluates and prioritizes concepts for phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in adult gynecologic cancers. The GCSC is also intent on fostering collaboration with international groups and institutions conducting trials.

  16. Omni rotational driving and steering wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract of WO 2008138346  (A1) There is disclosed a driving and steering wheel (112) module (102) with an omni rotational part (106), the module comprising a flange part (104) fixable on a robot, and the omni rotational part (106) comprises an upper omni rotational part (105) and a driving...... and steering wheel part (108), where the omni rotational part (106) is provided for infinite rotation relative to the flange part (104) by both a drive motor (110) and a steering motor (114) being positionable on the flange part (104), and the driving and steering wheel part (108) is suspended from the upper...... omni rotational part (105) with a suspension (116) such that wheel part (108) can move relatively to the upper omni rotational part (105) in a suspension direction (118), and a reduction gear (120) for gearing the drive torque is provided in the wheel part (108) in order e.g. to assure traction...

  17. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Clinical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Imaging Steering Committee serves as a forum for the extramural imaging and oncology communities to provide strategic input to the NCI regarding its significant investment in imaging activities in clinical trials.

  18. CCCT - NCORP Cancer Control Steering Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Steering Committees review concepts for clinical trials to control cancer symptoms and cancer treatment side effects, and concepts for studies of cancer care delivery.

  19. New steering mechanism for wheeled mobile robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidibe Marie Bernard; FU Yi-li; XU He; MA Yu-lin

    2007-01-01

    A new castor wheel mechanism for omni-directional mobile platform is presented. A motion of translation is transformed into a rotation to steer the wheel with the help of a helical path fits into a translation joint and three rollers whose axes are connected to the driving shaft of the wheel. When the path moves in translation it acts on the rollers for steering. The path-roller friction transmission, the wheel kinematics and the maneuverability have been analyzed.

  20. Optimum repair-level analysis (ORLA) and life cycle cost (LCC) models for the base and installation security system (BISS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, A.A.; Chipchak, J.S.

    1979-03-01

    Models for Optimum Repair-Level Analysis (ORLA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis for Base and Installation Security System (BISS) equipment are described. The ORLA model determines the costs of alternative maintenance approaches for selection of the most economic maintenance approach. The LCC model determines the total cost to the Government for the development, acquisition, initial logistics support, and recurring support of a system over the projected inventory usage period. A unique feature of these models is the marriage of ORLA and ICC which enables LCC to utilize completely the most economic ORLA decision costs. This significantly reduces the overall LCC effort.

  1. Quantum steering in cascaded four-wave mixing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lv, Shuchao; Jing, Jietai

    2017-07-24

    Quantum steering is used to describe the "spooky action-at-a-distance" nonlocality raised in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, which is important for understanding entanglement distribution and constructing quantum networks. Here, in this paper, we study an experimentally feasible scheme for generating quantum steering based on cascaded four-wave-mixing (FWM) processes in hot rubidium (Rb) vapor. Quantum steering, including bipartite steering and genuine tripartite steering among the output light fields, is theoretically analyzed. We find the corresponding gain regions in which the bipartite and tripartite steering exist. The results of bipartite steering can be used to establish a hierarchical steering model in which one beam can steer the other two beams in the whole gain region; however, the other two beams cannot steer the first beam simultaneously. Moreover, the other two beams cannot steer with each other in the whole gain region. More importantly, we investigate the gain dependence of the existence of the genuine tripartite steering and we find that the genuine tripartite steering exists in most of the whole gain region in the ideal case. Also we discuss the effect of losses on the genuine tripartite steering. Our results pave the way to experimental demonstration of quantum steering in cascaded FWM process.

  2. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...... it was developed in the image of the industrial society and based on a closed classroom. Now with the digital media and wireless networks the classroom is opened and the old way of organizing teaching has become inadequate: The students are disturbed by the new media, instead of learning through them. Inspired...... by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME...

  3. Predictive control and identification: Applications to steering dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the present thesis is to enhance insight into predictive controller design and identification in connection with steering dynamics. In Chapter 2, the dynamics of ship steering are reviewed. Models of different complexity, suitable for control systems design are presented....... The influence of wind, waves and currents on the chip motions are also discussed. Chapter 3 deals with the model reduction problem. Some basic concepts are explained, due to their role in the reduction of the dynamic models. Two model reductions techniques, based on singular values, are described....... The theoretical properties of these methods are studied and their performance is examined via simulation on a stochastic linear Mariner Class Vessel model. In Chapter 4, the attention is focused on the derivation of an extended GPC. This extended strategy implies a generalization of the model structure...

  4. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    2016-01-01

    it was developed in the image of the industrial society and based on a closed classroom. Now with the digital media and wireless networks the classroom is opened and the old way of organizing teaching has become inadequate: The students are disturbed by the new media, instead of learning through them. Inspired......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...... by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME...

  5. Active steering control strategy for articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong-il KIM; Hsin GUAN; Bo WANG; Rui GUO; Fan LIANG

    2016-01-01

    To improve maneuverability and stability of articulated vehicles, we design an active steering controller, including tractor and trailer controllers, based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. First, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) model of the tractor-trailer with steered trailer axles is built. The simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO) algorithm is applied to identify the key parameters of the model under specified vehicle speed and steering wheel angle. Thus, the key pa-rameters of the simplified model can be obtained according to the vehicle conditions using an online look-up table and interpola-tion. Simulation results show that vehicle parameter outputs of the simplified model and TruckSim agree well, thus providing the ideal reference yaw rate for the controller. Then the active steering controller of the tractor and trailer based on LQR is designed to follow the desired yaw rate and minimize their side-slip angle of the center of gravity (CG) at the same time. Finally, simulation tests at both low speed and high speed are conducted based on the TruckSim-Simulink program. The results show significant effects on the active steering controller on improving maneuverability at low speed and lateral stability at high speed for the articulated vehicle. The control strategy is applicable for steering not only along gentle curves but also along sharp curves.

  6. ULTRAPRO Hernia System versus lichtenstein repair in treatment of primary inguinal hernias: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karateke, Faruk; Ozyazici, Sefa; Menekse, Ebru; Özdogan, Hatice; Kunt, Mevlüt; Bozkurt, Hilmi; Bali, İlhan; Özdogan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The Lichtenstein repair has been recommended as the gold standard for inguinal hernia repair. However, postoperative discomfort still constitutes a concern and an area for improvement. New mesh materials have been continuously introduced to achieve this goal. The goal of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of ULTRAPRO Hernia System (UHS) compared with Lichtenstein mesh repair. A total of 99 male patients with primary unilateral inguinal hernia were included in the study during the period of September 2010-January 2012. Patients with body mass index>30, comorbid diseases, and anesthetic risk of ASA-III and ASA-IV were excluded. The patients were randomly allocated to operation with the Lichtenstein technique (group L) or UHS. Demographics, operative and postoperative/recovery data, and short- and medium-term outcomes of the patients were recorded. A total of 50 patients in group L and 49 patients in group UHS were analyzed. The median follow-up time for the study was 33 months. There were no significant differences regarding demographics, complications, and rehabilitation between the groups. Overall, there was a prolonged operation time in the UHS group compared with the L group (UHS: 53.7±5.7 minutes; L: 44.5±5.5 minutes; Phernias regarding perioperative course, complications, recovery, and recurrence rates. However, because of reduced costs and the lack of need for the exploration of the preperitoneal space, we conclude that the Lichtenstein technique should be recommended as the first choice.

  7. High pulse pressure is not associated with abnormal activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in repaired aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T A L; Pedersen, E B; Munk, K; Hjortdal, V E; Emmertsen, K; Andersen, N H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between pulse pressure (PP)--a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness-and activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in adult patients with repaired coarctation and normal left ventricular (LV) function. A total of 114 patients (44 (26-74) years, 13 (0.1-40) years at repair) and 20 healthy controls were examined with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, vasoactive hormone levels and magnetic resonance of the thoracic aorta. Forty-one patients (36%) were taking antihypertensives (28 RAAS inhibitors). Fifty-one had mean 24-h blood pressures >130/80 mm Hg. Hypertension was not associated with age at repair (P=0.257). Patients had higher PP and LV mass compared with controls (52±11 vs. 45±5 mm Hg and 221±71 vs. 154±55 g, respectively; both Pcoarctation have increased PP and LV mass compared with controls. PP increased with increasing recoarctation. Hypertension was present also in the absence of recoarctation. These changes could not be explained by abnormal activation of the RAAS.

  8. Endogenous bioelectric ifelds:a putative regulator of wound repair and regeneration in the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew L.Baer; Raymond J.Colello

    2016-01-01

    Studies on a variety of highly regenerative tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS) in non-mammalian vertebrates, have consistently demonstrated that tissue damage induces the formation of an ionic current at the site of injury. These injury currents generate electric ifelds (EF) that are 100-fold increased in intensity over that measured for uninjured tissue.In vitro and in vivo experiments have con-vincingly demonstrated that these electric ifelds (by their orientation, intensity and duration) can drive the migration, proliferation and differentiation of a host of cell types. These cellular behaviors are all necessary to facilitate regeneration as blocking these EFs at the site of injury inhibits tissue repair while enhancing their intensity promotes repair. Consequently, injury-induced currents, and the EFs they produce, represent a potent and crucial signal to drive tissue regeneration and repair. In this review, we will discuss how injury currents are generated, how cells detect these currents and what cellular responses they can induce. Addi-tionally, we will describe the growing evidence suggesting that EFs play a key role in regulating the cellular response to injury and may be a therapeutic target for inducing regeneration in the mammalian CNS.

  9. 3-D ultrasound-guided robotic needle steering in biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebar, Troy K; Fletcher, Ashley E; Okamura, Allison M

    2014-12-01

    Robotic needle steering systems have the potential to greatly improve medical interventions, but they require new methods for medical image guidance. Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound is a widely available, low-cost imaging modality that may be used to provide real-time feedback to needle steering robots. Unfortunately, the poor visibility of steerable needles in standard grayscale ultrasound makes automatic segmentation of the needles impractical. A new imaging approach is proposed, in which high-frequency vibration of a steerable needle makes it visible in ultrasound Doppler images. Experiments demonstrate that segmentation from this Doppler data is accurate to within 1-2 mm. An image-guided control algorithm that incorporates the segmentation data as feedback is also described. In experimental tests in ex vivo bovine liver tissue, a robotic needle steering system implementing this control scheme was able to consistently steer a needle tip to a simulated target with an average error of 1.57 mm. Implementation of 3-D ultrasound-guided needle steering in biological tissue represents a significant step toward the clinical application of robotic needle steering.

  10. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  12. Multiobjective optimization of availability and cost in repairable systems design via genetic algorithms and discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a more realistic approach to the characterization of system reliability when handling redundancy allocation problems: it considers repairable series-parallel systems comprised of components subjected to corrective maintenance actions with failure-repair cycles modeled by renewal processes. A multiobjective optimization approach is applied since increasing the number of redundancies not only enlarges system reliability but also its associated costs. Then a multiobjective genetic algorithm is coupled with discrete event simulation and its solutions present the compromise between system reliability and cost. Two examples are provided. In the first one, the proposed algorithm is validated by comparison with results obtained from a system devised as to allow for analytical solutions of the objective functions. The second case analyzes a repairable system subjected to perfect repairs. Results from both examples show that the proposed method can be a valuable tool for the decision maker when choosing the system design.Esse artigo utiliza uma abordagem mais realista para a caracterização da confiabilidade de sistemas em problemas de alocação de redundâncias: são considerados sistemas série-paralelo formados por componentes sujeitos a ações de manutenção corretiva com ciclos de falha-reparo modelados por processos de renovação. É aplicada uma abordagem de otimização multiobjetivo, pois o aumento de redundâncias eleva a confiabilidade do sistema e também os seus custos. Assim, um algoritmo genético multiobjetivo é integrado com simulação discreta de eventos e suas soluções apresentam o compromisso entre confiabilidade e custo do sistema. Dois exemplos são fornecidos. No primeiro, o algoritmo proposto é validado através da comparação com resultados obtidos de um sistema criado de forma a permitir soluções analíticas das funções-objetivo. No segundo, analisa-se um sistema reparável sujeito a

  13. 履带推土机行走系统推土转向工况仿真%Simulation of Walking System of Crawler Bulldozer in Bulldozing Steering Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀娟; 成凯

    2015-01-01

    采用多体动力学仿真软件RecurDyn对履带推土机行走系统推土转向作业工况进行运动学与动力学仿真研究.建立了与实际工况相同的仿真模型,对驱动轮力矩、张紧弹簧和托链轮所受载荷进行分析,得出各自所受载荷规律.所采用的虚拟样机技术,可作为履带式工程机械仿真研究的方法,仿真结果可作为履带推土机设计与优化的参考依据.%In order to study stress condition of various parts of walking system of crawler bulldozer when bulldozer is bulldozing as well as steering, this article uses the Multi Flexible Body Dynamics simulation software RecurDyn,it is created the simulation model that is the same as practical condition. The driving wheel torque, tension spring and carrying wheel load are analyzed and studied. Then it concluded that the law of load above parts. The virtual prototype technology can be applied to simulation research of tracked engineering machinery. The simulation results can be used as reference of design and optimization of crawler bulldozer.

  14. Developing a bi-objective optimization model for solving the availability allocation problem in repairable series-parallel systems by NSGA II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Maghsoud; Khajeh, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    Bi-objective optimization of the availability allocation problem in a series-parallel system with repairable components is aimed in this paper. The two objectives of the problem are the availability of the system and the total cost of the system. Regarding the previous studies in series-parallel systems, the main contribution of this study is to expand the redundancy allocation problems to systems that have repairable components. Therefore, the considered systems in this paper are the systems that have repairable components in their configurations and subsystems. Due to the complexity of the model, a meta-heuristic method called as non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is applied to find Pareto front. After finding the Pareto front, a procedure is used to select the best solution from the Pareto front.

  15. An Outline for a Manufacturing Planning and Control System for a Repair/ Overhaul/Rebuilding Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, September 1988. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The Goal. A Process of Ongoing...of Constraints (ToC). The basic premise of ToC is that every manufacturing operation has a goal ( Goldratt , 1986). The C-141 Management Directorate...constraint is always operating at peak capacity ( Goldratt , 1986). This ensures that, in this instance, aircraft are not 42 waiting to be repaired

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  17. Design and Experiment of Electronic-hydraulic Loading Test-bed Based on Tractor’s Hydraulic Steering By-wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue JIN; Yang LU; Jiahui GONG; Zhixiong LU; Wenming LI; Jungan WU

    2015-01-01

    An Electro-hydraulic loading system is designed based on a test-bed of tractor’s hydraulic steering by-wire. To simulate the steering resistance driving tractor in many kinds of soils and roads,the loading force is controlled to make proportional and continuous variable by an electro-hydraulic proportional relief valve. A steering resistance loading test-bed is built to test three kinds of steering resistance including constant,step and sine style. Tire lateral resistance is also tested under different steering conditions. The result shows that the electro-hydraulic loading system has high stability and following performance. Besides,the system’s steady state error is lower than 3. 1%,and it meets the test requirement of tractor’s hydraulic steering by-wire.

  18. Exploration quantum steering, nonlocality and entanglement of two-qubit X-state in structured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-02-01

    In this work, there are two parties, Alice on Earth and Bob on the satellite, which initially share an entangled state, and some open problems, which emerge during quantum steering that Alice remotely steers Bob, are investigated. Our analytical results indicate that all entangled pure states and maximally entangled evolution states (EESs) are steerable, and not every entangled evolution state is steerable and some steerable states are only locally correlated. Besides, quantum steering from Alice to Bob experiences a “sudden death” with increasing decoherence strength. However, shortly after that, quantum steering experiences a recovery with the increase of decoherence strength in bit flip (BF) and phase flip (PF) channels. Interestingly, while they initially share an entangled pure state, all EESs are steerable and obey Bell nonlocality in PF and phase damping channels. In BF channels, all steerable states can violate Bell-CHSH inequality, but some EESs are unable to be employed to realize steering. However, when they initially share an entangled mixed state, the outcome is different from that of the pure state. Furthermore, the steerability of entangled mixed states is weaker than that of entangled pure states. Thereby, decoherence can induce the degradation of quantum steering, and the steerability of state is associated with the interaction between quantum systems and reservoirs.

  19. Exploration quantum steering, nonlocality and entanglement of two-qubit X-state in structured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, there are two parties, Alice on Earth and Bob on the satellite, which initially share an entangled state, and some open problems, which emerge during quantum steering that Alice remotely steers Bob, are investigated. Our analytical results indicate that all entangled pure states and maximally entangled evolution states (EESs) are steerable, and not every entangled evolution state is steerable and some steerable states are only locally correlated. Besides, quantum steering from Alice to Bob experiences a “sudden death” with increasing decoherence strength. However, shortly after that, quantum steering experiences a recovery with the increase of decoherence strength in bit flip (BF) and phase flip (PF) channels. Interestingly, while they initially share an entangled pure state, all EESs are steerable and obey Bell nonlocality in PF and phase damping channels. In BF channels, all steerable states can violate Bell-CHSH inequality, but some EESs are unable to be employed to realize steering. However, when they initially share an entangled mixed state, the outcome is different from that of the pure state. Furthermore, the steerability of entangled mixed states is weaker than that of entangled pure states. Thereby, decoherence can induce the degradation of quantum steering, and the steerability of state is associated with the interaction between quantum systems and reservoirs. PMID:28145467

  20. Comparison of the tendon damage caused by four different anchor systems used in transtendon rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Song; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Xue, Yun; Ge, Dongxia; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H; You, Zongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, n = 7) were 29.1 ± 4.3 mm(2) for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4 ± 2.3 mm(2) for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4 ± 1.2 mm(2) for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm(2) for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm(2) for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P anchors). Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears.

  1. Molecular dialogues between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: Dualistic roles in injury and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A.; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialogue between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. PMID:24374228

  2. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial

  3. Heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: cloning and expression of the hexA gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Balganesh, T S; Lacks, S A

    1985-01-01

    Mutations affecting heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae were localized in two genes, hexA and hexB, by fractionation of restriction fragments carrying mutant alleles. A fragment containing the hexA4 allele was cloned in the S. pneumoniae cloning system, and the hexA+ allele was introduced into the recombinant plasmid by chromosomal facilitation of plasmid transfer. Subcloning localized the functional hexA gene to a 3.5-kilobase segment of the cloned pneumococcal DNA. ...

  4. 'Failure limited' data and TTT-based trend tests in multiple repairable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroni, C., E-mail: ccar@math.ntua.g [Department of Mathematics, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou 157 80, Athens (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    Tests for trend in multiple repairable systems based on the total time on test (introduced by Kvaloy and Lindqvist) are valid for data that end at a failure time only if data collection was planned to continue until a predetermined number of failures had occurred. They are not valid for a commoner form of data that end with the last of a random number of failures within a predetermined observation period. The necessary modification to the analysis is given here and appropriate terminology is suggested.

  5. Some Reliability Problems Arising in the Mx/G(M/G)/1 Repairable Queueing System with Single Delay Vacation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ying-hui

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Ref. [1], the Mx/G(M/G)/1 repairable queueing system with single delay vacation is discussed again. The following reliability problems of the service station are studied: (a) The probability that it fails at time t, i.e. its unavailability; (b) The expected failure number during the time interval (0,t]; (c) The expected failure number during the "server busy period"; (d) The expected downtime during the time interval (0,t]. Some reliability results of the service station are obtained. These results would be interest to reliability analysts.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  7. The Base Excision Repair system of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium counteracts DNA damage by host nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Richardson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens must withstand nitric oxide (NO. generated by host phagocytes. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium interferes with intracellular trafficking of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and possesses multiple systems to detoxify NO.. Consequently, the level of NO. stress encountered by S. Typhimurium during infection in vivo has been unknown. The Base Excision Repair (BER system recognizes and repairs damaged DNA bases including cytosine and guanine residues modified by reactive nitrogen species. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites generated by BER glycosylases require subsequent processing by AP endonucleases. S. Typhimurium xth nfo mutants lacking AP endonuclease activity exhibit increased NO. sensitivity resulting from chromosomal fragmentation at unprocessed AP sites. BER mutant strains were thus used to probe the nature and extent of nitrosative damage sustained by intracellular bacteria during infection. Here we show that an xth nfo S. Typhimurium mutant is attenuated for virulence in C3H/HeN mice, and virulence can be completely restored by the iNOS inhibitor L-NIL. Inactivation of the ung or fpg glycosylase genes partially restores virulence to xth nfo mutant S. Typhimurium, demonstrating that NO. fluxes in vivo are sufficient to modify cytosine and guanine bases, respectively. Mutants lacking ung or fpg exhibit NO.-dependent hypermutability during infection, underscoring the importance of BER in protecting Salmonella from the genotoxic effects of host NO.. These observations demonstrate that host-derived NO. damages Salmonella DNA in vivo, and the BER system is required to maintain bacterial genomic integrity.

  8. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  9. Tegaserod Mimics the Neurostimulatory Glycan Polysialic Acid and Promotes Nervous System Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    transplanted Schwann cells over- expressing PSA augment repair in both spinal cord (Luo et al., 2011; Papastefanaki et al., 2007) and peripheral nerve...NCAM/ 14-day-old (E14) mouse embryos as described (Simova et al., 2006). In brief, 48-well plates were coated with 0.01% poly-L-lysine (PLL) or...of polysialic acid as part of tissue-engineered nerve transplants . Tissue Eng. Part A 16, 3085e3098. Haile, Y., Berski, S., Drager, G., Nobre, A

  10. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  11. One strategy for arthroscopic suture fixation of tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using the Meniscal Viper Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Principles for the treatment of tibial intercondylar eminence fracture are early reduction and stable fixation. Numerous ways to treatment of this fracture have been invented. We designed a simple, low-invasive, and arthroscopic surgical strategy for tibial intercondylar eminence fracture utilizing the Meniscal Viper Repair System used for arthroscopic meniscal suture. Methods We studied 5 patients, who underwent arthroscopic suture fixation that we modified. The present technique utilized the Meniscal Viper Repair System for arthroscopic suture of the meniscus. With one handling, a high-strength ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE suture can be passed through the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and the loops for suture retrieval placed at both sides of ACL. Surgical results were evaluated by the presence or absence of bone union on plain radiographs, postoperative range of motion of the knee joint, the side-to-side differences measured by Telos SE, and Lysholm scores. Results The reduced position achieved after surgery was maintained and good function was obtained in all cases. The mean distance of tibia anterior displacement and assessment by Lysholm score showed good surgical results. Conclusion This method simplified the conventional arthroscopic suture fixation and increased its precision, and was applicable to Type II fractures that could be reduced, as well as surgically indicated Types III and IV. The present series suggested that our surgical approach was a useful surgical intervention for tibial intercondylar eminence fracture.

  12. Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B; Beruete, M; Khromova, I

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate tunable mid-infrared (MIR) beam steering devices based on multilayer graphene-dielectric metamaterials. The effective refractive index of such metamaterials can be manipulated by changing the chemical potential of each graphene layer. This can arbitrarily tailor the spatial distribution of the phase of the transmitted beam, providing mechanisms for active beam steering. Three different beam steerer (BS) designs are discussed: a graded-index (GRIN) graphene-based metamaterial block, an array of metallic waveguides filled with graphene-dielectric metamaterial and an array of planar waveguides created in a graphene-dielectric metamaterial block with a specific spatial profile of graphene sheets doping. The performances of the BSs are numerically analyzed, showing the tunability of the proposed designs for a wide range of output angles (up to approximately 70°). The proposed graphene-based tunable beam steering can be used in tunable transmitter/receiver modules for infrared imaging and sensing.

  13. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  14. Influence of different shoulder-elbow configurations on steering precision and steering velocity in automotive context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic design requirements are needed to develop optimum vehicle interfaces for the driver. The majority of the current specifications consider only anthropometric conditions and subjective evaluations of comfort. This paper examines specific biomechanical aspects to improve the current ergonomic requirements. Therefore, a research which involved 40 subjects was carried out to obtain more knowledge in the field of steering movement while driving a car. Five different shoulder-elbow joint configurations were analyzed using a driving simulator to find optimum posture for driving in respect of steering precision and steering velocity. Therefore, a 20 s precision test and a test to assess maximum steering velocity over a range of 90° steering motion have been conducted. The results show that driving precision, as well as maximum steering velocity, are significantly increased in mid-positions (elbow angles of 95° and 120°) compared to more flexed (70°) or extended (145° and 160°) postures. We conclude that driver safety can be enhanced by implementing these data in the automotive design process because faster and highly precise steering can be important during evasive actions and in accident situations. In addition, subjective comfort rating, analyzed with questionnaires, confirmed experimental results.

  15. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B.

    1980-09-01

    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  16. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Martin

    2016-01-01

    As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paraly-sis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST—which establishes connectional speci-ifcity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals—informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spi-nal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C4 contusion rat model.

  17. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paralysis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST-which establishes connectional specificity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals-informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spinal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C 4 contusion rat model.

  18. Systemic neutrophil depletion modulates the migration and fate of transplanted human neural stem cells to rescue functional repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hal X; Hooshmand, Mitra J; Saiwai, Hirokazu; Maddox, Jake; Salehi, Arjang; Lakatos, Anita; Nishi, Rebecca; Salazar, Desiree; Uchida, Nobuko; Anderson, Aileen J

    2017-08-28

    The interaction of transplanted stem cells with local cellular and molecular cues in the host central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment may affect the potential for repair by therapeutic cell populations. In this regard, spinal cord injury (SCI), Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological injuries and diseases all exhibit dramatic and dynamic changes to the host microenvironment over time. Previously, we reported that delayed transplantation of CNS-derived human neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) at 9 or 30 days post-SCI (dpi) resulted in extensive donor cell migration, predominantly neuronal and oligodendrocytic donor cell differentiation, and functional locomotor improvements. Here, we report that acute transplantation of hCNS-SCns at 0 dpi resulted in localized astroglial differentiation of donor cells near the lesion epicenter, and failure to produce functional improvement in an all-female immunodeficient mouse model. Critically, specific immunodepletion of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN) blocked hCNS-SCns astroglial differentiation near the lesion epicenter and rescued the capacity of these cells to restore function. These data represent novel evidence that a host immune cell population can block the potential for functional repair derived from a therapeutic donor cell population, and support targeting the inflammatory microenvironment in combination with cell transplantation after SCI.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe interaction of transplanted cells with local cellular and molecular cues in the host microenvironment is a key variable that may shape the translation of neurotransplantation research to the clinical SCI human population, and few studies have investigated these events. We show that the specific immunodepletion of PMN neutrophils using anti-Ly6G inhibits donor cell astrogliosis and rescues the capacity of a donor cell population to promote locomotor improvement after SCI. Critically, our data demonstrate novel evidence that a specific

  19. Endovascular repair of arterial iliac vessel wall lesions with a self-expandable nitinol stent graft system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Mensel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic outcome after endovascular repair of iliac arterial lesions (IALs using a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft system. METHODS: Between July 2006 and March 2013, 16 patients (13 males, mean age: 68 years with a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft. A total of 19 lesions were treated: nine true aneurysms, two anastomotic aneurysms, two dissections, one arteriovenous fistula, two type 1B endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair, one pseudoaneurysm, and two perforations after angioplasty. Pre-, intra-, and postinterventional imaging studies and the medical records were analyzed for technical and clinical success and postinterventional complications. RESULTS: The primary technical and clinical success rate was 81.3% (13/16 patients and 75.0% (12/16, respectively. Two patients had technical failure due to persistent type 1A endoleak and another patient due to acute stent graft thrombosis. One patient showed severe stent graft kinking on the first postinterventional day. In two patients, a second intervention was performed. The secondary technical and clinical success rate was 87.5% (14/16 and 93.8% (15/16. The minor complication rate was 6.3% (patient with painful hematoma at the access site. The major complication rate was 6.3% (patient with ipsilateral deep vein thrombosis. During median follow-up of 22.4 months, an infection of the aneurysm sac in one patient and a stent graft thrombosis in another patient were observed. CONCLUSION: Endovascular repair of various IALs with a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft is safe and effective.

  20. 基于轮胎磨损的悬架与转向系统硬点优化%Hard-points Optimization of Suspension and Steering Systems Based on Tire Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐应时; 朱位宇; 朱彪; 孙鹏飞; 干年妃

    2013-01-01

    The effects of alignment parameters and Ackerman error on tire wear are quantitatively analyzed based on tire wear theory.The models for front suspension and steering systems are built with Adams/Car module,a sensibility analysis is conducted with Insight module,and the response surface functions for alignment parameters and Ackerman error are fitted by the coordinates of hard points properly selected.The corresponding constraint and objective functions are set up and the coordinates of hard points are optimized with Matlab software.The results show that the variation of wheel camber and the root mean square of Ackerman error reduce by 27.65% and 14.7%respectively,and the toe angle curve is changed to be more reasonable.All these lead to an effective reduction in tire wear.%基于轮胎磨损理论,定量分析前轮定位参数和阿克曼误差对轮胎磨损的影响.在Adams/Car模块中建立前悬架与转向系模型,运用Insight模块进行灵敏度分析,选择合适硬点坐标拟合前轮定位参数和阿克曼误差的响应面函数.建立相关约束函数和目标函数,并运用Matlab软件进行硬点坐标优化.结果表明,车轮外倾角变化减少27.65%,前束角变化曲线变得更为合理,且阿克曼误差均方根值减少14.7%,有效减少了轮胎磨损.

  1. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  2. MTBF evaluation for 2-out-of-3 redundant repairable systems with common cause and cascade failures considering fuzzy rates for failures and repair: a case study of a centrifugal water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohamadi, Maryam; Jouzdani, Javid

    2017-08-01

    In many cases, redundant systems are beset by both independent and dependent failures. Ignoring dependent variables in MTBF evaluation of redundant systems hastens the occurrence of failure, causing it to take place before the expected time, hence decreasing safety and creating irreversible damages. Common cause failure (CCF) and cascading failure are two varieties of dependent failures, both leading to a considerable decrease in the MTBF of redundant systems. In this paper, the alpha-factor model and the capacity flow model are combined so as to incorporate CCF and cascading failure in the evaluation of MTBF of a 2-out-of-3 repairable redundant system. Then, using a transposed matrix, the MTBF function of the system is determined. Due to the fact that it is difficult to estimate the independent and dependent failure rates, industries are interested in considering uncertain failure rates. Therefore, fuzzy theory is used to incorporate uncertainty into the model presented in this study, and a nonlinear programming model is used to determine system's MTBF. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, evaluation of MTBF of the redundant system of a centrifugal water pumping system is presented as a practical example.

  3. Experimental demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering game based on the all-versus-nothing proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Xu, Jin-Shi; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-10-03

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering, a generalization of the original concept of "steering" proposed by Schrödinger, describes the ability of one system to nonlocally affect another system's states through local measurements. Some experimental efforts to test EPR steering in terms of inequalities have been made, which usually require many measurement settings. Analogy to the "all-versus-nothing" (AVN) proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities, testing steerability without inequalities would be more strong and require less resources. Moreover, the practical meaning of steering implies that it should also be possible to store the state information on the side to be steered, a result that has not yet been experimentally demonstrated. Using a recent AVN criterion for two-qubit entangled states, we experimentally implement a practical steering game using quantum memory. Furthermore, we develop a theoretical method to deal with the noise and finite measurement statistics within the AVN framework and apply it to analyze the experimental data. Our results clearly show the facilitation of the AVN criterion for testing steerability and provide a particularly strong perspective for understanding EPR steering.

  4. Self-steering partially coherent beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a class of shape-invariant partially coherent beams with a moving guiding center which we term self-steering partially coherent beams. The guiding center of each such beam evolves along a straight line trajectory which can be engineered to make any angle with the x-axis. We show that the straight line trajectory of the guiding center is the only option in free space due to the linear momentum conservation. We experimentally generate a particular subclass of new beams, self-steering Gaussian Schell beams and argue that they can find applications for mobile target tracing and trapped micro- and/or nanoparticle transport. PMID:28051164

  5. A aircraft steering gear control system hardware design%某飞行器舵机控制系统硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪原; 任展鹏; 刘智平; 张晖

    2013-01-01

    研究一种基于TMS320F28335 DSP(Digital Signal Processor)的全数字飞行器控制系统的硬件设计,分析了其结构组成:主控制器电路、舵面位置检测电路和通讯等硬件电路设计.经过多次试验调试,所设计的硬件系统可以满足飞行器性能要求.%This study a hardware based on TMS320F28335 DSP ( Digital Signal Processor ) of the digital flight control system hardware design, analyzes its structure: the main controller circuit, the rudder position detection circuit and communication hardware circuit design. After many experiments, the design of hardware system can meet the requirements of vehicle performance.

  6. Lichtenstein, prolene hernia system, and UltraPro Hernia System for primary inguinal hernia repair: one-year outcome of a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, J; Nygren, J; Thorell, A

    2012-06-01

    The optimal technique for open inguinal hernia repair is yet to be determined. Three hundred and nine male patients [median of 60 years (range, 31-75)] undergoing primary open inguinal hernia repair in local anesthesia and day-care surgery were randomly allocated to operation with the Lichtenstein technique (L), Prolene Hernia System (PHS), or UltraPro Hernia System (UHS). [Median (IQR)] There were no differences in operating time [47 (40-58) vs. 50 (40-57) and 50 (42-56) min in groups L, PHS, and UHS, respectively], intra- or postoperative complications, time until return to normal workload (8 (4-14) vs. 9 (4-14), and 8 (4-14) days) or occurrence of chronic pain at 12 months (15 vs. 12, and 13 patients). Self-reported physical quality of life (SF-36) was reduced compared to matched controls preoperatively and increased similarly to levels not different from controls in all groups at 12 months postoperatively. There was one recurrence in each group during the follow-up period. The Lichtenstein technique, PHS, and UHS seem all acceptable approaches for open inguinal hernia repair in local anesthesia and day-care surgery regarding perioperative course, rehabilitation, complications, recurrence rates, development of chronic groin pain, and improvement in quality of life after 12 months. However, due to reduced costs and lack of need for the exploration of the preperitoneal space, the Lichtenstein technique should be recommended as first choice.

  7. Brh2 and Rad51 promote telomere maintenance in Ustilago maydis, a new model system of DNA repair proteins at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Young; Kojic, Milorad; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies implicate a number of DNA repair proteins in mammalian telomere maintenance. However, because several key repair proteins in mammals are missing from the well-studied budding and fission yeast, their roles at telomeres cannot be modeled in standard fungi. In this report, we explored the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis as an alternative model for telomere research. This fungus, which belongs to the phylum Basidiomycota, has a telomere repeat unit that is identical to the mammalian repeat, as well as a constellation of DNA repair proteins that more closely mimic the mammalian collection. We showed that the two core components of homology-directed repair (HDR) in U. maydis, namely Brh2 and Rad51, both promote telomere maintenance in telomerase positive cells, just like in mammals. In addition, we found that Brh2 is localized to telomeres in vivo, suggesting that it acts directly at chromosome ends. We surveyed a series of mutants with DNA repair defects, and found many of them to have short telomeres. Our results indicate that factors involved in DNA repair are probably also needed for optimal telomere maintenance in U. maydis, and that this fungus is a useful alternative model system for telomere research.

  8. The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex interacts with the mismatch repair system and contributes to temozolomide-induced G2 arrest and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoeva, Olga K; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Pieper, Russell O

    2006-11-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide produces O(6)-methylguanine (O6MG) in DNA, which triggers futile DNA mismatch repair, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), G(2) arrest, and ultimately cell death. Because the protein complex consisting of Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN complex) plays a key role in DNA damage detection and signaling, we asked if this complex also played a role in the cellular response to temozolomide. Temozolomide exposure triggered the assembly of MRN complex into chromatin-associated nuclear foci. MRN foci formed significantly earlier than gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci that assembled in response to temozolomide-induced DNA DSBs. MRN foci formation was suppressed in cells that incurred lower levels of temozolomide-induced O6MG lesions and/or had decreased mismatch repair capabilities, suggesting that the MRN foci formed not in response to temozolomide-induced DSB but rather in response to mismatch repair processing of mispaired temozolomide-induced O6MG lesions. Consistent with this idea, the MRN foci colocalized with those of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (a component of the mismatch repair complex), and the MRN complex component Nbs1 coimmunoprecipitated with the mismatch repair protein Mlh1 specifically in response to temozolomide treatment. Furthermore, small inhibitory RNA-mediated suppression of Mre11 levels decreased temozolomide-induced G(2) arrest and cytotoxicity in a manner comparable to that achieved by suppression of mismatch repair. These data show that temozolomide-induced O6MG lesions, acted upon by the mismatch repair system, drive formation of the MRN complex foci and the interaction of this complex with the mismatch repair machinery. The MRN complex in turn contributes to the control of temozolomide-induced G(2) arrest and cytotoxicity, and as such is an additional determining factor in glioma sensitivity to DNA methylating chemotherapeutic drugs such as temozolomide.

  9. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  10. A control theory approach to clock steering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Marcello; Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia; Bittanti, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    Several clock and time scale steering methods have been developed according to different viewpoints by various time laboratories. By resorting to control theory ideas, we propose a common theoretical framework encompassing these methods. A comparison of the most common steering methodologies, namely, the classical steering approach, the GPS bang-bang method, and the linear quadratic Gaussian technique, is carried out. We believe that the use of control theory methods can potentially lead to a better understanding of clock steering algorithms.

  11. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle.

  12. Pedestrian Collision Avoidance System based on Automatic Brake and Steering Avoidance%基于自动刹车与回避转弯的行人主动避撞系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚韬睿; 马钧

    2015-01-01

    Collision avoidance system shows great potential to reduce the frequency and severity of traffic accidence through warning the drivers and even controlling vehicles automatically ahead of crashes. However, in current stage, it is mainly used to detect moving vehicles, but rarely used to detect penetrations. This paper presented an innovative idea about how to achieve pedestrian collision avoidance system, it mainly introduced environment recognition and driving state analysis ,satety judgement ,system control and other key techniques, combing sensing, situation analysis, decision making and vehicles controlling. The highlight of this system is that it can make a decision on whether it is necessary to control the vehicle and decide to brake automatically or avoid steering when controlling in a short time ahead of crashes, , and it can be still reliabe at a relatively high speed(up to 50km/h).%主动避撞系统可以在碰撞发生前通过警告驾驶员甚至自动控制车辆来减少交通事故的频率与严重性,但目前阶段主要用于侦测运动车辆,很少用于侦测行人。文章阐述了一套新颖的行人主动避撞系统的实现思路,可以主动避免与行人的碰撞,主要介绍了该系统的环境识别、行驶状态分析,安全状态判断与系统控制等关键技术。本系统的亮点是能够在瞬间决定是否执行车辆控制以及执行控制时采用自动刹车还是规避转向,并且能够在较高的车速时保持这套方法的可靠性。

  13. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  14. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  15. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  16. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  17. Working paper on public steering of privately owned sports facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård

    This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are....

  18. Ultrapro hernia system for inguinal hernia repair%腹股沟疝 UHS 手术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉彩; 陈晓曦

    2014-01-01

    Ultrapro hernia dystem ( UHS) is a bilayer polypropylene mesh which is composed of an anterior layer , a posterior layer and a connector .The posterior layer is placed between the transversalis fascia and peritoneum ( preperitoneal space ) and covers the myopectineal orifice , for repairing the preperitoneal space.By fixing of the anterior layer between the inguinal ligament and pubic tubercle , the posterior wall of the inguinal canal could be strengthened .The connector , which filled the abdominal wall defect and fixed layers, could prevent from recurrence caused by displacement of mesh .Double repairment of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal and the preperitoneal space by using UHS could significantly reduce the recurrence of inguinal hernia maximally .%超普疝修补装置( ULTRAPRO Hernia System, UHS)由上片、下片和中间连接柱构成。下片位于腹膜与腹横筋膜之间(腹膜前间隙),覆盖整个肌耻骨孔,起到了腹膜前间隙修补的作用;将上片分别固定于腹股沟韧带和耻骨结节,加强腹股沟管后壁;中间连接柱既充填了疝环缺损,又连接和稳定了上、下片,可防止网片移位造成的复发。 UHS同时对腹膜前间隙和腹股沟管后壁进行双重修补,理论上最大限度地减少了腹股沟疝的复发。

  19. A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel J; Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Alwan, Nura; Donovan, Timothy; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Stewart, Claire; Close, Graeme L

    2015-12-15

    Skeletal muscle is a direct target for vitamin D. Observational studies suggest that low 25[OH]D correlates with functional recovery of skeletal muscle following eccentric contractions in humans and crush injury in rats. However, a definitive association is yet to be established. To address this gap in knowledge in relation to damage repair, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 20 males with insufficient concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (45 ± 25 nmol/l). Prior to and following 6 wk of supplemental vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/day) or placebo (50 mg of cellulose), participants performed 20 × 10 damaging eccentric contractions of the knee extensors, with peak torque measured over the following 7 days of recovery. Parallel experimentation using isolated human skeletal muscle-derived myoblast cells from biopsies of 14 males with low serum 25(OH)D (37 ± 11 nmol/l) were subjected to mechanical wound injury, which enabled corresponding in vitro studies of muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy in the presence and absence of 10 or 100 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3. Supplemental vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D and improved recovery of peak torque at 48 h and 7 days postexercise. In vitro, 10 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3 improved muscle cell migration dynamics and resulted in improved myotube fusion/differentiation at the biochemical, morphological, and molecular level together with increased myotube hypertrophy at 7 and 10 days postdamage. Together, these preliminary data are the first to characterize a role for vitamin D in human skeletal muscle regeneration and suggest that maintaining serum 25(OH)D may be beneficial for enhancing reparative processes and potentially for facilitating subsequent hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Experimental model and analytic solution for real-time observation of vehicle's additional steer angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Liang; Pan, Deng; Cao, Chengmao; Song, Jian

    2014-03-01

    The current research of real-time observation for vehicle roll steer angle and compliance steer angle(both of them comprehensively referred as the additional steer angle in this paper) mainly employs the linear vehicle dynamic model, in which only the lateral acceleration of vehicle body is considered. The observation accuracy resorting to this method cannot meet the requirements of vehicle real-time stability control, especially under extreme driving conditions. The paper explores the solution resorting to experimental method. Firstly, a multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car is built based on the ADAMS/Car software, whose dynamic accuracy is verified by the same vehicle's roadway test data of steady static circular test. Based on this simulation platform, several influencing factors of additional steer angle under different driving conditions are quantitatively analyzed. Then ɛ-SVR algorithm is employed to build the additional steer angle prediction model, whose input vectors mainly include the sensor information of standard electronic stability control system(ESC). The method of typical slalom tests and FMVSS 126 tests are adopted to make simulation, train model and test model's generalization performance. The test result shows that the influence of lateral acceleration on additional steer angle is maximal (the magnitude up to 1°), followed by the longitudinal acceleration-deceleration and the road wave amplitude (the magnitude up to 0.3°). Moreover, both the prediction accuracy and the calculation real-time of the model can meet the control requirements of ESC. This research expands the accurate observation methods of the additional steer angle under extreme driving conditions.