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Sample records for repair rad54 acts

  1. Differential contributions of mammalian Rad54 paralogs to recombination, DNA damage repair, and meiosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wesoly (Joanna); S. Agarwal (Sheba); S. Sigurdsson (Stefan); W. Bussen (Wendy); S. Komen (Stephen); J. Qin (Jian); H. van Steeg (Harry); J. van Benthem (Jan); E. Wassenaar (Evelyne); W.M. Baarends (Willy); M. Ghazvini (Mehrnaz); A. Tafel (Agnieszka); H. Heath (Helen); N.J. Galjart (Niels); J. Essers (Jeroen); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); N. Arnheim (Norman); O.Y. Bezzubova (Olga); J-M. Buerstedde; P. Sung (Patrick); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHomologous recombination is a versatile DNA damage repair pathway requiring Rad51 and Rad54. Here we show that a mammalian Rad54 paralog, Rad54B, displays physical and functional interactions with Rad51 and DNA that are similar to those of Rad54. While ablation of Rad54 in mouse embryoni

  2. Role of Rad54, Rad54b and Snm1 in DNA damage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wesoly (Joanna)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to investigate the function of a number of genes involved in mammalian DNA damage repair, in particular in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Among a large number of different damages that can be introduced to DNA, DSBs are especially toxic. If left unre

  3. Role of Rad54, Rad54b and Snm1 in DNA damage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wesoly (Joanna)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to investigate the function of a number of genes involved in mammalian DNA damage repair, in particular in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Among a large number of different damages that can be introduced to DNA, DSBs are especially toxic. If

  4. Rad54 and Mus81 cooperation promotes DNA damage repair and restrains chromosome missegregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghamrasni, S El; Cardoso, R; Li, L;

    2016-01-01

    Rad54 and Mus81 mammalian proteins physically interact and are important for the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway; however, their functional interactions in vivo are poorly defined. Here, we show that combinatorial loss of Rad54 and Mus81 results in hypersensitivity to DNA......-damaging agents, defects on both the homologous recombination and non-homologous DNA end joining repair pathways and reduced fertility. We also observed that while Mus81 deficiency diminished the cleavage of common fragile sites, very strikingly, Rad54 loss impaired this cleavage to even a greater extent....... The inefficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) cells was accompanied by elevated levels of chromosome missegregation and cell death. Perhaps as a consequence, tumor incidence in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) mice remained comparable to that in Mus81(-/-) mice. Our study highlights...

  5. Comparison of clastogen-induced gene expression profiles in wild-type and DNA repair-deficient Rad54/Rad54B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Benthem Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we found that Rad54/Rad54B cells are more sensitive towards mitomycin C (MMC as compared to wild-type (WT cells. This difference in sensitivity was absent upon exposure to other clastogens like bleomycin (BLM and γ-radiation. In order to get further insight into possible underlying mechanisms, gene expression changes in WT and Rad54/Rad54B MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts after exposure to the clastogens MMC and BLM were investigated. Exposures of these cells to mutagens (N-ac-AAF and ENU and vehicle were taken as controls. Results Most exposures resulted in an induction of DNA damage signaling and apoptosis genes and a reduced expression of cell division genes in cells of both genotypes. As expected, responses to N-ac-AAF were very similar in both genotypes. ENU exposure did not lead to significant gene expression changes in cells of both genotypes, presumably due to its short half-life. Gene expression responses to clastogens, however, showed a genotype-dependent effect for BLM and MMC. MMC treated Rad54/Rad54B MEFs showed no induction of p53-signaling, DNA damage response and apoptosis as seen for all the other treatments. Conclusion These data support our finding that different types of clastogens exist and that responses to these types depend on the DNA repair status of the cells.

  6. Mouse RAD54 Affects DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and Sister Chromatid Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkert, Mies L. G.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Johnson, Roger D.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Jasin, Maria; Kanaar, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Cells can achieve error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination through gene conversion with or without crossover. In contrast, an alternative homology-dependent DSB repair pathway, single-strand annealing (SSA), results in deletions. In this study, we analyzed the effect of mRAD54, a gene involved in homologous recombination, on the repair of a site-specific I-SceI-induced DSB located in a repeated DNA sequence in the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells. We used six isogenic cell lines differing solely in the orientation of the repeats. The combination of the three recombination-test substrates used discriminated among SSA, intrachromatid gene conversion, and sister chromatid gene conversion. DSB repair was most efficient for the substrate that allowed recovery of SSA events. Gene conversion with crossover, indistinguishable from long tract gene conversion, preferentially involved the sister chromatid rather than the repeat on the same chromatid. Comparing DSB repair in mRAD54 wild-type and knockout cells revealed direct evidence for a role of mRAD54 in DSB repair. The substrate measuring SSA showed an increased efficiency of DSB repair in the absence of mRAD54. The substrate measuring sister chromatid gene conversion showed a decrease in gene conversion with and without crossover. Consistent with this observation, DNA damage-induced sister chromatid exchange was reduced in mRAD54-deficient cells. Our results suggest that mRAD54 promotes gene conversion with predominant use of the sister chromatid as the repair template at the expense of error-prone SSA. PMID:10757799

  7. Influence of different inhibitors on the activity of the RAD54 dependent step of DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siede, W.; Obermaier, S.; Eckhardt, F.

    1985-01-01

    The recombinagenic pathway of DNA repair in yeast was characterized by the effect of different inhibitors on the temperature-dependent survival after ..gamma..-irradiation in haploid cells of the thermoconditional mutant rad54-3. Blocking protein synthesis with cycloheximide in replicating cells caused partial inhibition of the RAD54 dependent function but some repair activity remained detectable. This indicates that ..gamma..-rays can induce RAD54 activity above some constitutive level of function. Inhibition of DNA replication by hydroxyurea efficiently blocked the RAD54 dependent function in stationary-phase cells but not in logarithmic-phase cells. In logarithmic-phase cells, the authors found a strong inhibitory effect of caffeine on the RAD54 mediated repair process.

  8. Two DNA repair and recombination genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, are induced during meiosis

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    Cole, G.M.; Mortimer, R.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Schild, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-07-01

    The DNA repair and recombination genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, were transcriptionally induced approximately 10- to 15-fold in sporulating MATa/{alpha} cells. Congenic MATa/a cells, which did not sporulate, did not show similar increases. Assays of {beta}-galactosidase activity in strains harboring either a RAD52- or RAD54-lacZ gene fusion indicated that this induction occurred at a time concomitant with a commitment to meiotic recombination, as measured by prototroph formation from his1 heteroalleles.

  9. The human RAD54 recombinational DNA repair protein is a double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Essers (Jeroen); J. de Wit (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDNA double-strand break repair through the RAD52 homologous recombination pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires, among others, the RAD51, RAD52, and RAD54 genes. The biological importance of homologous recombination is underscored by the conservation of

  10. Synergistic interactions between RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54, three partially homologous yeast DNA repair genes each in a different repair pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassner, B.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mortimer, R.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Considerable homology has recently been noted between the proteins encoded by the RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These genes are members of the RAD6, RAD3 and RAD50 epistasis groups, respectively, which correspond to the three major DNA repair pathways in yeast. These proteins also share homology with other eucaryotic proteins, including those encoded by SNF2 and MO1 of yeast, brahma and lodestar of Drosophila and the human ERCC6 gene. The homology shares features with known helicases, suggesting a newly identified helicase subfamily. We have constructed a series of congenic single-, double- and triple-deletion mutants involving RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 to examine the interactions between these genes. Each deletion mutation alone has only a moderate effect on survival after exposure to UV radiation. Each pairwise-double mutant exhibits marked synergism. The triple-deletion mutant displays further synergism. These results confirm the assignment of the RAD54 gene to the RAD50 epistasis group and suggest that the RAD16 gene plays a larger role in DNA repair after exposure to UV radiation than has been suggested previously. Additionally, the proteins encoded by RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54 may compete for the same substrate after damage induced by UV radiation, possibly at an early step in their respective pathways. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Failure to induce a DNA repair gene, RAD54, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not affect DNA repair or recombination phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, G.M.; Mortimer, R.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD54 gene is transcriptionally regulated by a broad spectrum of DNA-damaging agents. Induction of RAD54 by DNA-damaging agents is under positive control. Sequences responsible for DNA damage induction (the DRS element) lie within a 29-base-pair region from -99 to -70 from the most proximal transcription start site. This inducible promoter element is functionally separable from a poly(dA-dT) region immediately downstream which is required for constitutive expression. Deletions which eliminate induction of RAD54 transcription by DNA damage but do not affect constitutive expression have no effect on growth or survival of noninducible strains relative to wild-type strains in the presence of DNA-damaging agents. The DRS element is also not required for homothallic mating type switching, transcriptional induction of RAD54 during meiosis, meiotic recombination, or spontaneous or X-ray-induced mitotic recombination. We find no phenotype for a lack of induction of RAD54 message via the damage-inducible DRS, which raises significant questions about the physiology of DNA damage induction in S. cerevisiae.

  12. Mouse RAD54 affects DNA double-strand break repair and sister chromatid exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.B. Beverloo (Berna); R.D. Johnson (Roger); M. Jasin (Maria); R. Kanaar (Roland); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); M.L.G. Dronkert (Mies)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractCells can achieve error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination through gene conversion with or without crossover. In contrast, an alternative homology-dependent DSB repair pathway, single-strand annealing (SSA), results in deletions. In this study, we

  13. The PCNA interaction protein box sequence in Rad54 is an integral part of its ATPase domain and is required for efficient DNA repair and recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Burgess

    Full Text Available Rad54 is an ATP-driven translocase involved in the genome maintenance pathway of homologous recombination (HR. Although its activity has been implicated in several steps of HR, its exact role(s at each step are still not fully understood. We have identified a new interaction between Rad54 and the replicative DNA clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. This interaction was only mildly weakened by the mutation of two key hydrophobic residues in the highly-conserved PCNA interaction motif (PIP-box of Rad54 (Rad54-AA. Intriguingly, the rad54-AA mutant cells displayed sensitivity to DNA damage and showed HR defects similar to the null mutant, despite retaining its ability to interact with HR proteins and to be recruited to HR foci in vivo. We therefore surmised that the PCNA interaction might be impaired in vivo and was unable to promote repair synthesis during HR. Indeed, the Rad54-AA mutant was defective in primer extension at the MAT locus as well as in vitro, but additional biochemical analysis revealed that this mutant also had diminished ATPase activity and an inability to promote D-loop formation. Further mutational analysis of the putative PIP-box uncovered that other phenotypically relevant mutants in this domain also resulted in a loss of ATPase activity. Therefore, we have found that although Rad54 interacts with PCNA, the PIP-box motif likely plays only a minor role in stabilizing the PCNA interaction, and rather, this conserved domain is probably an extension of the ATPase domain III.

  14. Role of Human and Mouse Rad54 in DNA Recombination and Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Essers (Jeroen)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) which can be induced by endogenously produced radicals or by ionizing radiation are among the most genotoxic DNA lesions. Repair of DSBs is of cardinal importance for the prevention of chromosomal fragmentation, translocations, and deletions. The genetic i

  15. Human INO80 chromatin-remodelling complex contributes to DNA double-strand break repair via the expression of Rad54B and XRCC3 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Hur, Shin-Kyoung; Kwon, Jongbum

    2010-10-15

    Recent studies have shown that the SWI/SNF family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complexes play important roles in DNA repair as well as in transcription. The INO80 complex, the most recently described member of this family, has been shown in yeast to play direct role in DNA DSB (double-strand break) repair without affecting the expression of the genes involved in this process. However, whether this function of the INO80 complex is conserved in higher eukaryotes has not been investigated. In the present study, we found that knockdown of hINO80 (human INO80) confers DNA-damage hypersensitivity and inefficient DSB repair. Microarray analysis and other experiments have identified the Rad54B and XRCC3 (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese-hamster cells 3) genes, implicated in DSB repair, to be repressed by hINO80 deficiency. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies have shown that hINO80 binds to the promoters of the Rad54B and XRCC3 genes. Re-expression of the Rad54B and XRCC3 genes rescues the DSB repair defect in hINO80-deficient cells. These results suggest that hINO80 assists DSB repair by positively regulating the expression of the Rad54B and XRCC3 genes. Therefore, unlike yeast INO80, hINO80 can contribute to DSB repair indirectly via gene expression, suggesting that the mechanistic role of this chromatin remodeller in DSB repair is evolutionarily diversified.

  16. Rad54 protein promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazina, Olga M; Mazin, Alexander V

    2006-08-03

    Homologous recombination has a crucial function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in faithful chromosome segregation. The mechanism of homologous recombination involves the search for homology and invasion of the ends of a broken DNA molecule into homologous duplex DNA to form a cross-stranded structure, a Holliday junction (HJ). A HJ is able to undergo branch migration along DNA, generating increasing or decreasing lengths of heteroduplex. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the physical evidence for HJs, the key intermediate in homologous recombination, was provided by electron microscopy. In bacteria there are specialized enzymes that promote branch migration of HJs. However, in eukaryotes the identity of homologous recombination branch-migration protein(s) has remained elusive. Here we show that Rad54, a Swi2/Snf2 protein, binds HJ-like structures with high specificity and promotes their bidirectional branch migration in an ATPase-dependent manner. The activity seemed to be conserved in human and yeast Rad54 orthologues. In vitro, Rad54 has been shown to stimulate DNA pairing of Rad51, a key homologous recombination protein. However, genetic data indicate that Rad54 protein might also act at later stages of homologous recombination, after Rad51 (ref. 13). Novel DNA branch-migration activity is fully consistent with this late homologous recombination function of Rad54 protein.

  17. The Overexpression of FEN1 and RAD54B May Act as Independent Prognostic Factors of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Chung Hwang

    Full Text Available Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. However, the prognostic role of concordant overexpression of synthetic lethality genes in protein level rather than a combination of mutations is not clear. In this study, we explore the prognostic role of combined overexpression of paired genes in lung adenocarcinoma. We used immunohistochemical staining to investigate 24 paired genes in 93 lung adenocarcinoma patients and Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate their prognostic roles. Among 24 paired genes, only FEN1 (Flap endonuclease 1 and RAD54B (RAD54 homolog B were overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma patients with poor prognosis. Patients with expression of both FEN1 and RAD54B were prone to have advanced nodal involvement and significantly poor prognosis (HR = 2.35, P = 0.0230. These results suggest that intensive follow up and targeted therapy might improve clinical outcome for patients who show expression of both FEN1 and RAD54B.

  18. The PCNA interaction protein box sequence in Rad54 is an integral part of its ATPase domain and is required for efficient DNA repair and recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Sebesta, Marek; Sisakova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Rad54 is an ATP-driven translocase involved in the genome maintenance pathway of homologous recombination (HR). Although its activity has been implicated in several steps of HR, its exact role(s) at each step are still not fully understood. We have identified a new interaction between Rad54...... and the replicative DNA clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). This interaction was only mildly weakened by the mutation of two key hydrophobic residues in the highly-conserved PCNA interaction motif (PIP-box) of Rad54 (Rad54-AA). Intriguingly, the rad54-AA mutant cells displayed sensitivity to DNA damage...

  19. The PCNA interaction protein box sequence in Rad54 is an integral part of its ATPase domain and is required for efficient DNA repair and recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Sebesta, Marek; Sisakova, Alexandra;

    2013-01-01

    Rad54 is an ATP-driven translocase involved in the genome maintenance pathway of homologous recombination (HR). Although its activity has been implicated in several steps of HR, its exact role(s) at each step are still not fully understood. We have identified a new interaction between Rad54 and t...

  20. Pathways of homologous recombinantion and DNA interstrand cross-link repair : roles of mammalian RAD54 and SNMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.G. Dronkert (Mies)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to investigate mammalian DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair. ICLs are formed by a number of agents used in tumor therapy, like mitomycin C and cisplatin. They constitute one of the most toxic damages to DNA, as they inhibit DNA strand separation. However, l

  1. ATP-dependent and independent functions of Rad54 in genome maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Agarwal (Sheba); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); A. Guénolé (Aude); B. Eppink (Berina); S.E.V. Linsen (Sam); E. Meijering (Erik); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); R. Kanaar (Roland); J. Essers (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRad54, a member of the SWI/SNF protein family of DNA-dependent ATPases, repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through homologous recombination. Here we demonstrate that Rad54 is required for the timely accumulation of the homologous recombination proteins Rad51 and Brca2 at DSBs. Becau

  2. Homologous and homeologous intermolecular gene conversion are not differentially affected by mutations in the DNA damage or the mismatch repair genes RAD1, RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, PMS1 and MSH2

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    Porter, G.; Westmoreland, J.; Priebe, S. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) genes or genes involved in both DNA damage repair and homologous recombination might affect homeologous vs. homologous recombination differentially. Spontaneous mitotic gene conversion between a chromosome and a homologous or homeologous donor sequence (14% diverged) on a single copy plasmid was examined in wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and in MMR or DNA damage repair mutants. Homologous recombination in rad51, rad52 and rad54 mutants was considerably reduced, while there was little effect of rad1, rad50, pms1 and msh2 null mutations. DNA divergence resulted in no differential effect on recombination rates in the wild type or the mutants; there was only a five- to 10-fold reduction in homeologous relative to homologous recombination regardless of background. Since DNA divergence is known to affect recombination in some systems, we propose that differences in the role of MMR depends on the mode of recombination and/or the level of divergence. Based on analysis of the recombination breakpoints, there is a minimum of three homologous bases required at a recombination junction. A comparison of Rad{sup +} vs. rad52 strains revealed that while all conversion tracts are continuous, elimination of RAD52 leads to the appearance of a novel class of very short conversion tracts. 67 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Isolation and characterization of yeast DNA repair genes. II. Isolation of plasmids that complement the mutations rad50-1, rad51-1, rad54-3, and rad55-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, I.L.; Contopoulou, C.R.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids that complement the yeast mutations rad50-1, rad51-1, rad54-3, and rad55-3 were obtained by transforming strains that carried a leu2 marker and the particular rad mutation, with YEp 13 plasmids containing near random yeast DNA inserts. Integration of these plasmids or of fragments of these plasmids was accomplished. Genetic studies using the integrants established the presence of the genes RAD50, RAD54 and RAD55 in the respective plasmids. However, a BamHI subclone of the rad50-1 complementing plasmid failed to integrate at the RAD50 locus, indicating that no homology exists between this fragment and the RAD50 gene. A BamHI fragment for the RAD54 plasmid was shown to be internal to the RAD54 gene: its integration within a wild type copy of RAD54 causes the cell to become Rad/sup -/; its excision is X-ray inducible and restores the Rad/sup -/ phenotype. Since cells bearing a disrupted copy of RAD54 are able to survive, the author concludes that this is not essential.

  4. A conserved sequence extending motif III of the motor domain in the Snf2-family DNA translocase Rad54 is critical for ATPase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Rad54 is a dsDNA-dependent ATPase that translocates on duplex DNA. Its ATPase function is essential for homologous recombination, a pathway critical for meiotic chromosome segregation, repair of complex DNA damage, and recovery of stalled or broken replication forks. In recombination, Rad54 cooperates with Rad51 protein and is required to dissociate Rad51 from heteroduplex DNA to allow access by DNA polymerases for recombination-associated DNA synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed that Rad54 contains a perfect match to the consensus PIP box sequence, a widely spread PCNA interaction motif. Indeed, Rad54 interacts directly with PCNA, but this interaction is not mediated by the Rad54 PIP box-like sequence. This sequence is located as an extension of motif III of the Rad54 motor domain and is essential for full Rad54 ATPase activity. Mutations in this motif render Rad54 non-functional in vivo and severely compromise its activities in vitro. Further analysis demonstrated that such mutations affect dsDNA binding, consistent with the location of this sequence motif on the surface of the cleft formed by two RecA-like domains, which likely forms the dsDNA binding site of Rad54. Our study identified a novel sequence motif critical for Rad54 function and showed that even perfect matches to the PIP box consensus may not necessarily identify PCNA interaction sites.

  5. Disruption of mouse RAD54 reduces ionizing radiation resistance and homologous recombination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Essers (Jeroen); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); C. Troelstra (Christine); J. de Wit (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractDouble-strand DNA break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination occurs through the RAD52 pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its biological importance is underscored by the conservation of many RAD52 pathway genes, including RAD54, from fungi to humans. We have analyzed the phenotype o

  6. Regulation of RAD54- and RAD52-lacZ gene fusions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, G.M.; Schild, D.; Lovett, S.T.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-03-01

    The RAD52 and RAD54 genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in both DNA repair and DNA recombination. RAD54 has recently been shown to be inducible by X-rays, while RAD52 is not. To further investigate the regulation of these genes, we constructed gene fusions using 5' regions upstream of the RAD52 and RAD54 genes and a 3'-terminal fragment of the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. Yeast transformants with either an integrated or an autonomously replicating plasmid containing these fusions expressed beta-galactosidase activity constitutively. In addition, the RAD54 gene fusion was inducible in both haploid and diploid cells in response to the DNA-damaging agents X-rays, UV light, and methyl methanesulfonate, but not in response to heat shock. The RAD52-lacZ gene fusion showed little or no induction in response to X-ray or UV radiation nor methyl methanesulfonate. Typical induction levels for RAD54 in cells exposed to such agents were from 3- to 12-fold, in good agreement with previous mRNA analyses. When MATa cells were arrested in G1 with alpha-factor, RAD54 was still inducible after DNA damage, indicating that the observed induction is independent of the cell cycle. Using a yeast vector containing the EcoRI structural gene fused to the GAL1 promoter, we showed that double-strand breaks alone are sufficient in vivo for induction of RAD54.

  7. Nap1 stimulates homologous recombination by RAD51 and RAD54 in higher-ordered chromatin containing histone H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Shinichi; Takaku, Motoki; Ikura, Masae; Sun, Jiying; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Wataru; Kinomura, Aiko; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Fukuto, Atsuhiko; Matsuda, Ryo; Ura, Kiyoe; Tashiro, Satoshi; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-05-06

    Homologous recombination plays essential roles in mitotic DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and meiotic genetic recombination. In eukaryotes, RAD51 promotes the central homologous-pairing step during homologous recombination, but is not sufficient to overcome the reaction barrier imposed by nucleosomes. RAD54, a member of the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor family, is required to promote the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in nucleosomal DNA. In higher eukaryotes, most nucleosomes form higher-ordered chromatin containing the linker histone H1. However, the mechanism by which RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing occurs in higher-ordered chromatin has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that a histone chaperone, Nap1, accumulates on DSB sites in human cells, and DSB repair is substantially decreased in Nap1-knockdown cells. We determined that Nap1 binds to RAD54, enhances the RAD54-mediated nucleosome remodeling by evicting histone H1, and eventually stimulates the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in higher-ordered chromatin containing histone H1.

  8. The response of mammalian cells to UV-light reveals Rad54-dependent and independent pathways of homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppink, Berina; Tafel, Agnieszka A; Hanada, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced DNA lesions can be efficiently repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, NER is less effective during replication of UV-damaged chromosomes. In contrast, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and homologous recombination (HR) are capable of dealing....... We demonstrate using chromosome fiber analysis at the individual replication fork level, that HR activity is important for the restart of DNA replication after induction of DNA damage by UV-light in NER-deficient cells. Furthermore, our data reveal RAD54-dependent and -independent contributions of HR...

  9. The architecture of the human Rad54-DNA complex provides evidence for protein translocation along DNA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Ristic (Dejan); C. Wyman (Claire); C. Paulusma (Coen); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractProper maintenance and duplication of the genome require accurate recombination between homologous DNA molecules. In eukaryotic cells, the Rad51 protein mediates pairing between homologous DNA molecules. This reaction is assisted by the Rad54 protein. To gai

  10. The role of Candida albicans homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in DNA damage sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Theodore C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is frequently seen in immune suppressed patients, and resistance to one of the most widely used antifungals, fluconazole (FLC, can evolve rapidly. In recent years it has become clear that plasticity of the Candida albicans genome contributes to drug resistance through loss of heterozygosity (LOH at resistance genes and gross chromosomal rearrangements that amplify gene copy number of resistance associated genes. This study addresses the role of the homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in cell growth, DNA damage and FLC resistance in Candida albicans. Results The data presented here support a role for homologous recombination in cell growth and DNA damage sensitivity, as Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants were hypersensitive to MMS and menadione, and had an aberrant cell and nuclear morphology. The Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutant was defective in invasion of Spider agar, presumably due to the altered cellular morphology. In contrast, mutation of the related gene RDH54 did not contribute significantly to DNA damage resistance and cell growth, and deletion of either Candida albicans RAD54 or Candida albicans RDH54 did not alter FLC susceptibility. Conclusions Together, these results support a role for homologous recombination in genome stability under nondamaging conditions. The nuclear morphology defects in the rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants show that Rad54 performs an essential role during mitotic growth and that in its absence, cells arrest in G2. The viability of the single mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ and the inability to construct the double mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ rdh54Δ/rdh54Δ suggests that Rdh54 can partially compensate for Rad54 during mitotic growth.

  11. Efficient detection of unpaired DNA requires a member of the rad54-like family of homologous recombination proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Sauls, Pegan A; Sharp, Kevin J; Smith, Zachary J; Xiao, Hua; Groskreutz, Katie M; Malone, Tyler L; Boone, Erin C; Edwards, Kevin A; Shiu, Patrick K T; Larson, Erik D; Hammond, Thomas M

    2014-11-01

    Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD) is a process that detects unpaired regions between homologous chromosomes and silences them for the duration of sexual development. While the phenomenon of MSUD is well recognized, the process that detects unpaired DNA is poorly understood. In this report, we provide two lines of evidence linking unpaired DNA detection to a physical search for DNA homology. First, we have found that a putative SNF2-family protein (SAD-6) is required for efficient MSUD in Neurospora crassa. SAD-6 is closely related to Rad54, a protein known to facilitate key steps in the repair of double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. Second, we have successfully masked unpaired DNA by placing identical transgenes at slightly different locations on homologous chromosomes. This masking falls apart when the distance between the transgenes is increased. We propose a model where unpaired DNA detection during MSUD is achieved through a spatially constrained search for DNA homology. The identity of SAD-6 as a Rad54 paralog suggests that this process may be similar to the searching mechanism used during homologous recombination. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Opposing Roles for Two Molecular Forms of Replication Protein A in Rad51-Rad54-Mediated DNA Recombination in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial RecA protein and its eukaryotic homologue Rad51 play a central role in the homologous DNA strand exchange reaction during recombination and DNA repair. Previously, our lab has shown that PfRad51, the Plasmodium falciparum homologue of Rad51, exhibited ATPase activity and promoted DNA strand exchange in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the catalytic functions of PfRad51 in the presence of putative interacting partners, especially P. falciparum homologues of Rad54 and r...

  13. Bridge-induced chromosome translocation in yeast relies upon a Rad54/Rdh54-dependent, Pol32-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Tosato

    Full Text Available While in mammalian cells the genetic determinism of chromosomal translocation remains unclear, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an ideal model system to generate ad hoc translocations and analyze their cellular and molecular outcome. A linear DNA cassette carrying a selectable marker flanked by perfect homologies to two chromosomes triggers a bridge-induced translocation (BIT in budding yeast, with variable efficiency. A postulated two-step process to produce BIT translocants is based on the cooperation between the Homologous Recombination System (HRS and Break-Induced Replication (BIR; however, a clear indication of the molecular factors underlying the genetic mechanism is still missing. In this work we provide evidence that BIT translocation is elicited by the Rad54 helicase and completed by a Pol32-independent replication pathway. Our results demonstrate also that Rdh54 is involved in the stability of the translocants, suggesting a mitotic role in chromosome pairing and segregation. Moreover, when RAD54 is over-expressed, an ensemble of secondary rearrangements between repeated DNA tracts arise after the initial translocation event, leading to severe aneuploidy with loss of genetic material, which prompts the identification of fragile sites within the yeast genome.

  14. Human and mouse homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD54 DNA repair gene: evidence for functional conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kanaar (Roland); C. Troelstra (Christine); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); J. Essers (Jeroen); B. Smit (Bep); J.H. Franssen; A. Pastink (Albert); O.Y. Bezzubova (Olga); J-M. Buerstedde; B. Clever (Beate); W-D. Heyer (Wolf-Dietrich); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Homologous recombination is of eminent importance both in germ cells, to generate genetic diversity during meiosis, and in somatic cells, to safeguard DNA from genotoxic damage. The genetically well-defined RAD52 pathway is required for these processes in the yeast Saccharomy

  15. Participation of gene RAD54 in the repair of DNA damages induced by. gamma. -rays in cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, V.P.; Tkachenko, T.G. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1981-01-01

    Plasmid pKM101 has been observed to sensitize Escherichia coli wild strain to gamma-radiation inactivation effect. E. coli strains with DNA A-mutation are more sensitive to ionizing radiation as compared to wild strains. The plasmid effect relative to the gamma radiation lethal effect does not depend on the plasmid position in respect to the chromosome (autonomous or integrated), which makes it different from the plasmid effect relative to the UV-radiation inactivation - and mutagenic effect. The plasmid pKM101 sensitization of DNA A-strains to gamma-radiation is negligible. The gamma-radiation induction of reversions in E. coli wild strain and DNA A-strain to independence of tryptophan is completely dependent on the pKM101 plasmid presence. As in the case of UV-irradiation, the induction of mutants in DNA A-strains by gamma-radiation is possible only if the plasmid has not been integrated into the chromosome before the irradiation.

  16. Genetics of x-ray induced double strand break repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis examined the possible fates of x-ray induced double strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One possible pathway which breaks can follow is the repair pathway and this pathway was studied by assaying strains with mutations in RAD51, RAD54, and RAD57 loci for double strand break repair using neutral sucrose sedimentation. Rad54-3 strains were sensitive to x-ray at 36/sup 0/ and resistant at 23/sup 0/, while rad57-1 strains are sensitive to radiation at 23/sup 0/ and resistant at 36/sup 0/. In order of increasing radiation sensitivity one finds: rad57-1(23/sup 0/)> rad51-1(30/sup 0/)>rad54-3(36/sup 0/). At the restrictive temperature 36/sup 0/, rad54-3 cells are unaable to repair double strand breaks, while at the permissive temperature, 23/sup 0/, these strains are able to repair double strand breaks. On the other hand, strains with the rad57-1 mutation appear to be able to rejoin broken chromosomes at both the permissive and restrictive temperature. However, the low assay is not distinguishing large DNA fragments which allow cell survival from large DNA fragments which cause cell death. A rad51-1 strain also appeared able to rejoin broken chromosomes, and is thus capable of incomplete repair. The data can be explained with the hypotheses that rad54-3 cells are blocked in a later step of repair. The fate of double strand breaks when they are left unrepaired was also investigated with the temperature conditional rad54-3 mutation. If breaks are prevented from entering the RAD54 repair pathway they are modified and become uncommitted lesions. The rate these uncommitted lesions are repaired is slower than the rate the original breaks are repaired.

  17. In vivo importance of homologous recombination DNA repair for mouse neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Rousseau

    Full Text Available We characterized the in vivo importance of the homologous recombination factor RAD54 for the developing mouse brain cortex in normal conditions or after ionizing radiation exposure. Contrary to numerous homologous recombination genes, Rad54 disruption did not impact the cortical development without exogenous stress, but it dramatically enhanced the radiation sensitivity of neural stem and progenitor cells. This resulted in the death of all cells irradiated during S or G2, whereas the viability of cells irradiated in G1 or G0 was not affected by Rad54 disruption. Apoptosis occurred after long arrests at intra-S and G2/M checkpoints. This concerned every type of neural stem and progenitor cells, showing that the importance of Rad54 for radiation response was linked to the cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation and not to the differentiation state. In the developing brain, RAD54-dependent homologous recombination appeared absolutely required for the repair of damages induced by ionizing radiation during S and G2 phases, but not for the repair of endogenous damages in normal conditions. Altogether our data support the existence of RAD54-dependent and -independent homologous recombination pathways.

  18. Genetics of x-ray induced double strand break repair in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    The possible fates of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined. One possible pathway which breaks can follow, the repair pathway, was studied by assaying strains with mutations in the RAD51, RAD54, and RAD57 loci for double-strand break repair. In order of increasing radiation sensitivity one finds: rad57-1(23/sup 0/)> rad51-1(30/sup 0/)> rad54-3(36/sup 0/). At 36/sup 0/, rad54-3 cells cannot repair double-strand breaks, while 23/sup 0/, they can. Strains with the rad57-1 mutation can rejoin broken chromosomes at both temperatures. However, the low survival at 36/sup 0/ shows that the assay is not distinguishing large DNA fragments which allow cell survival from those which cause cell death. A rad51-1 strain could also rejoin broken chromosomes, and was thus capable of incomplete repair. The data can be explained with the hypothesis that rad54-3 cells are blocked in an early step of repair, while rad51-1 and rad57-1 strains are blocked in a later step of repair. The fate of double-strand breaks when they are left unrepaired was investigated with the rad54-3 mutation. If breaks are prevented from entering the RAD54 repair pathway they become uncommitted lesions. These lesions are repaired slower than the original breaks. One possible fate for an uncommitted lesion is conversion into a fixed lesion, which is likely to be an unrepairable or misrepaired double-strand break. The presence of protein synthesis after irradiation increases the probability that a break will enter the repair pathway. Evidence shows that increased probability of repair results from enhanced synthesis of repair proteins shortly after radiation. (ERB)

  19. Biological effects of exposure to intermediate neutron and repair mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Onishi, Takeo; Onizuka, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was made on cytotoxic effects of neutron capture using chicken B-cell line mutants, DT40, KURO{sup -/-}, RAD54 {sup -/-} and KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-}. Suspensions of these cells were exposed to two times X-radiation at various doses and the cell surviving was evaluated. The sensitivity to radiation was highest in the double defective mutant, KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-} and followed by that of RAD54 {sup -/-}, a homologous recombination mutant, whereas KURO {sup -/-} cell, a non-homologous end-joining mutant showed a peculiar surviving curve composed of two phases and the cell was highly sensitive to a low-dose radiation. This indicates that there are two different DNA repair systems for double-strand breaks and the system for non-homologous end-joining repair can be involved in all phases of cell cycle, but the system for the homologous one is involved only in S-phase. Therefore, it was thought that variation of sensitivity to radiation exposure depending to the phase of cell cycle might explain the alternation of repair system depending to the phase progressing of cell cycle. It was thus likely that the recovery from radiation injury, which is still a black box might be explained with the double strand breaks of DNA. (M.N.)

  20. Ionizing radiation-induced foci formation of mammalian Rad51 and Rad54 depends on the Rad51 paralogs, but not on Rad52.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelen, L.R. van; Essers, J.; Rakt, M.W.M.M. van de; Odijk, H.; Pastink, A.; Zdzienicka, M.Z.; Paulusma, C.C.; Kanaar, R.

    2005-01-01

    Homologous recombination is of major importance for the prevention of genomic instability during chromosome duplication and repair of DNA damage, especially double-strand breaks. Biochemical experiments have revealed that during the process of homologous recombination the RAD52 group proteins, inclu

  1. The SRS2 suppressor of rad6 mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts by channeling DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiestl, R.H.; Prakash, S.; Prakash, L. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    rad6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are defective in the repair of damaged DNA, DNA damage induced mutagenesis, and sporulation. In order to identify genes that can substitute for RAD6 function, the authors have isolated genomic suppressors of the UV sensitivity of rad6 deletion (rad6{Delta}) mutations and show that they also suppress the {gamma}-ray sensitivity but not the UV mutagenesis or sporulation defects of rad6. The suppressors show semidominance for suppression of UV sensitivity and dominance for suppression of {gamma}-ray sensitivity. The six suppressor mutations they isolated are all alleles of the same locus and are also allelic to a previously described suppressor of the rad6-1 nonsense mutation, SRS2. They show that suppression of rad6{Delta} is dependent on the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway since suppression is not observed in the rad6{Delta} SRS2 strain containing an additional mutation in either the RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55 or RAD57 genes. Possible mechanisms by which SRS2 may channel unrepaired DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway are discussed.

  2. Oxidative Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest in Rat C6 Astroglial Cells In ̄duced by Tri ̄ortho ̄cresyl Phosphate%比较两种 RAD54启动子调控的全酵母发光细胞对化学诱变原的评价效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田永杰; 徐秀举; 陆益新; 王超; 周天祺; 李湘鸣

    2016-01-01

    通过分子生物学技术构建2种不同RAD54启动子调控的yEGFP重组报告载体pRAD54 ̄yEGFP和pRAD54S ̄yEGFP,前者启动子DNA为1.8 kb,后者为0.5 kb,分别转入W303 ̄1A酵母细胞,构建2种启动子调控的发光酵母细胞,用不同化学诱变原作用后,用流式细胞仪和多功能发光仪测定酵母的发光强度。结果发现2种启动子调控的酵母细胞的发光强度均与化学诱变原(甲磺酸甲脂、4 ̄硝基 ̄N ̄氧化喹啉和5 ̄氟尿嘧啶)有明显的剂量效应关系,但是W303 ̄1A/RAD54 ̄yEGFP剂量效应关系较为明显,产生的最大诱导倍数(5.96、2.19和2.71)明显高于W303 ̄1A/RAD54S ̄yEGFP所产生的最大诱导倍数(2.53、1.50和1.91),可能与启动子序列中转录因子的数量以及转录因子间协同增效作用有关。同时发现,流式细胞仪测定效果明显优于发光仪测定效果。所以在构建RAD54启动子调控重组酵母细胞筛选诱变时,选用全启动子序列效果较好。%Two yEGFP yeast reporter vectors, pRAD54 ̄yEGFP and pRAD54S ̄yEGFP, regulated by two RAD54 promoters, were constructed by a molecular biological technique. The DNA lengths of the two promoters are 1.8 and 0.5 kb. These two vectors were transformed into W301 ̄A yeast cells to construct the whole fluorescent yeast cells regulated by the two RAD54 promoters, which were named as W303 ̄1A/RAD54 ̄yEGFP and W303 ̄1A/RAD54S ̄yEGFP. After that, the whole yeast cells were treated by different chemical mutagens (methylmethanesul ̄fonate, 4 ̄nitroquinoline ̄noxide and 5 ̄fluorouracil) and their fluorescent densities were measured on a flow cytome ̄ter and a multifunctional luminous instrument. The fluorescent densities from the two types of yeast cells both ex ̄hibit significant dose effect relationships with methylmethanesulfonate, 4 ̄nitroquinoline ̄noxide and 5 ̄fluorouracil concentration. The dose effect relationships of W303 ̄1A/RAD54 ̄yEGFP are more obvious. The

  3. Nonhomologous end-joining repair plays a more important role than homologous recombination repair in defining radiosensitivity after exposure to high-LET radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Kubo, Makoto; Ma, Hongyu; Nakagawa, Akiko; Yoshida, Yukari; Isono, Mayu; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation pose a major threat to cell survival. The cell can respond to the presence of DSBs through two major repair pathways: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Higher levels of cell death are induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation when compared to low-LET radiation, even at the same physical doses, due to less effective and efficient DNA repair. To clarify whether high-LET radiation inhibits all repair pathways or specifically one repair pathway, studies were designed to examine the effects of radiation with different LET values on DNA DSB repair and radiosensitivity. Embryonic fibroblasts bearing repair gene (NHEJ-related Lig4 and/or HR-related Rad54) knockouts (KO) were used and their responses were compared to wild-type cells. The cells were exposed to X rays, spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) carbon ion beams as well as with carbon, iron, neon and argon ions. Cell survival was measured with colony-forming assays. The sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) values were calculated using the 10% survival dose of wild-type cells and repair-deficient cells. Cellular radiosensitivity was listed in descending order: double-KO cells > Lig4-KO cells > Rad54-KO cells > wild-type cells. Although Rad54-KO cells had an almost constant SER value, Lig4-KO cells showed a high-SER value when compared to Rad54-KO cells, even with increasing LET values. These results suggest that with carbon-ion therapy, targeting NHEJ repair yields higher radiosensitivity than targeting homologous recombination repair.

  4. A PHF8 homolog in C. elegans promotes DNA repair via homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changrim Lee

    Full Text Available PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase, defects in which are associated with X-linked mental retardation. In this study, we examined the roles of two PHF8 homologs, JMJD-1.1 and JMJD-1.2, in the model organism C. elegans in response to DNA damage. A deletion mutation in either of the genes led to hypersensitivity to interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs, while only mutation of jmjd-1.1 resulted in hypersensitivity to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs. In response to ICLs, JMJD-1.1 did not affect the focus formation of FCD-2, a homolog of FANCD2, a key protein in the Fanconi anemia pathway. However, the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 was affected by the mutation: the accumulations of both proteins at ICLs appeared normal, but their subsequent disappearance was retarded, suggesting that later steps of homologous recombination were defective. Similar changes in the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 were seen in response to DSBs, supporting a role of JMJD-1.1 in homologous recombination. Such a role was also supported by our finding that the hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was rescued by knockdown of lig-4, a homolog of Ligase 4 active in nonhomologous end-joining. The hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was increased by rad-54 knockdown, suggesting that JMJD-1.1 acts in parallel with RAD-54 in modulating chromatin structure. Indeed, the level of histone H3 Lys9 tri-methylation, a marker of heterochromatin, was higher in jmjd-1.1 cells than in wild-type cells. We conclude that the histone demethylase JMJD-1.1 influences homologous recombination either by relaxing heterochromatin structure or by indirectly regulating the expression of multiple genes affecting DNA repair.

  5. A multistep genomic screen identifies new genes required for repair of DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Jennifer Summers; Sethi, Sunaina; Tripp, Jennifer DeMars; Nguyen, Thuy N; Sanderson, Brian A; Westmoreland, James W; Resnick, Michael A; Lewis, L Kevin

    2013-04-15

    Efficient mechanisms for rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are vital because misrepair of such lesions leads to mutation, aneuploidy and loss of cell viability. DSB repair is mediated by proteins acting in two major pathways, called homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining. Repair efficiency is also modulated by other processes such as sister chromatid cohesion, nucleosome remodeling and DNA damage checkpoints. The total number of genes influencing DSB repair efficiency is unknown. To identify new yeast genes affecting DSB repair, genes linked to gamma radiation resistance in previous genome-wide surveys were tested for their impact on repair of site-specific DSBs generated by in vivo expression of EcoRI endonuclease. Eight members of the RAD52 group of DNA repair genes (RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55, RAD57, MRE11 and XRS2) and 73 additional genes were found to be required for efficient repair of EcoRI-induced DSBs in screens utilizing both MATa and MATα deletion strain libraries. Most mutants were also sensitive to the clastogenic chemicals MMS and bleomycin. Several of the non-RAD52 group genes have previously been linked to DNA repair and over half of the genes affect nuclear processes. Many proteins encoded by the protective genes have previously been shown to associate physically with each other and with known DNA repair proteins in high-throughput proteomics studies. A majority of the proteins (64%) share sequence similarity with human proteins, suggesting that they serve similar functions. We have used a genetic screening approach to detect new genes required for efficient repair of DSBs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The findings have spotlighted new genes that are critical for maintenance of genome integrity and are therefore of greatest concern for their potential impact when the corresponding gene orthologs and homologs are inactivated or polymorphic in human cells.

  6. [DNA homologous recombination repair in mammalian cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popławski, Tomasz; Błasiak, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most serious DNA damage. Due to a great variety of factors causing DSBs, the efficacy of their repair is crucial for the cell's functioning and prevents DNA fragmentation, chromosomal translocation and deletion. In mammalian cells DSBs can be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HRR) and single strand annealing (SSA). HRR can be divided into the first and second phase. The first phase is initiated by sensor proteins belonging to the MRN complex, that activate the ATM protein which target HRR proteins to obtain the second response phase--repair. HRR is precise because it utilizes a non-damaged homologous DNA fragment as a template. The key players of HRR in mammalian cells are MRN, RPA, Rad51 and its paralogs, Rad52 and Rad54.

  7. BLM has early and late functions in homologous recombination repair in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, W K; Hanada, K; Kanaar, R;

    2010-01-01

    function of BLM remains unclear. Multiple roles have been proposed for BLM in the homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway, including 'early' functions, such as the stimulation of resection of DNA double-strand break ends or displacement of the invading strand of DNA displacement loops, and 'late...... in Rad54(-/-) cells rescued their mitomycin C (MMC) sensitivity, and decreased both the level of DNA damage and cell cycle perturbation induced by MMC, suggesting an early role for Blm. Our data are consistent with Blm having at least two roles in HR repair in mammalian cells....

  8. Approach to the classical radiation biology. Ionizing radiation effects and repair mechanism of DNA double strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2000-09-01

    Split-dose recovery has been observed under a variety of experimental conditions in many cell systems and believed to be the recovery of sublethal damage (SLD). It is considered to be one of the most widespread and important cellular responses in clinical radiotherapy. To study the molecular mechanism of this recovery, we analyzed the knockout mutants KU70{sup -/-}, RAD54{sup -/-}, and KU70{sup -/-}/ RAD54{sup -/-} of the chicken B-cell line, DT40. Rad54 participates in the homologous recombinational (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), while Ku proteins are involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Split-dose recovery was observed in the parent DT40 and KU70{sup -/-} cells. Moreover the split-dose survival enhancement had all of the characteristics of SLD recovery that had been demonstrated earlier: e.g., the reappearance of the shoulder of the survival curve with dose fractionation; repair at 25degC; and inhibition by the antibiotic actinomycin D. These results strongly suggest that SLD recovery is due to DSB repair via or mediated by HR, and that these breaks constitute SLD. The tonicity-sensitive potentially lethal damage (PLD) recovery was also found only in DT40 and KU70 {sup -/-} cells. Delayed-plating PLD recovery may be controlled by NHEJ repair that works through the cell cycle. These results lead to the conclusion that the repair of DSBs could explain the classical operational recovery phenomena. We have also investigated RBE/LET using those mutants. (author)

  9. Esc2 and Sgs1 act in functionally distinct branches of the homologous recombination repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Hickson, Ian D

    2009-01-01

    Esc2 is a member of the RENi family of SUMO-like domain proteins and is implicated in gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we identify a dual role for Esc2 during S-phase in mediating both intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint signaling and preventing the accumulation of Rad51-dependen......, and sgs1esc2 cells attempt to undergo mitosis with unprocessed HRR intermediates. We propose a model whereby Esc2 acts in an Mph1-dependent process, separately from Sgs1, to influence the repair/tolerance of MMS-induced lesions during S-phase....

  10. The Cell Biology of Rad54: Implications for homologous recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Agarwal (Sheba)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe survival of species is guaranteed by maintenance of genome stability, specifically the protection of DNA integrity. DNA is a chemically reactive molecule, which is continuously threatened by DNA-damaging agents, both exogenous (environmental, including ionizing radiation and mutageni

  11. Homologous recombination preferentially repairs heat-induced DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Kirita, Tadaaki; Pittman, Douglas L; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-11-13

    Heat shock induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but the precise mechanism of repairing heat-induced damage is unclear. Here, we investigated the DNA repair pathways involved in cell death induced by heat shock. B02, a specific inhibitor of human RAD51 (homologous recombination; HR), and NU7026, a specific inhibitor of DNA-PK (non-homologous end-joining; NHEJ), were used for survival assays of human cancer cell lines with different p53-gene status. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Lig4 (NHEJ) and/or Rad54 (HR) were used for survival assays and a phosphorylated histone H2AX at Ser139 (γH2AX) assay. MEFs lacking Rad51d (HR) were used for survival assays. SPD8 cells were used to measure HR frequency after heat shock. Human cancer cells were more sensitive to heat shock in the presence of B02 despite their p53-gene status, and the effect of B02 on heat sensitivity was specific to the G2 phase. Rad54-deficient MEFs were sensitive to heat shock and showed prolonged γH2AX signals following heat shock. Rad51d-deficient MEFs were also sensitive to heat shock. Moreover, heat shock-stimulated cells had increased HR. The HR pathway plays an important role in the survival of mammalian cells against death induced by heat shock via the repair of heat-induced DNA DSBs.

  12. DNA Double Strand Break Response and Limited Repair Capacity in Mouse Elongated Spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spermatids are extremely sensitive to genotoxic exposures since during spermiogenesis only error-prone non homologous end joining (NHEJ repair pathways are available. Hence, genomic damage may accumulate in sperm and be transmitted to the zygote. Indirect, delayed DNA fragmentation and lesions associated with apoptotic-like processes have been observed during spermatid elongation, 27 days after irradiation. The proliferating spermatogonia and early meiotic prophase cells have been suggested to retain a memory of a radiation insult leading later to this delayed fragmentation. Here, we used meiotic spread preparations to localize phosphorylate histone H2 variant (γ-H2AX foci marking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs in elongated spermatids. This technique enabled us to determine the background level of DSB foci in elongated spermatids of RAD54/RAD54B double knockout (dko mice, severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice, and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 inhibitor (DPQ-treated mice to compare them with the appropriate wild type controls. The repair kinetics data and the protein expression patterns observed indicate that the conventional NHEJ repair pathway is not available for elongated spermatids to repair the programmed and the IR-induced DSBs, reflecting the limited repair capacity of these cells. However, although elongated spermatids express the proteins of the alternative NHEJ, PARP1-inhibition had no effect on the repair kinetics after IR, suggesting that DNA damage may be passed onto sperm. Finally, our genetic mutant analysis suggests that an incomplete or defective meiotic recombinational repair of Spo11-induced DSBs may lead to a carry-over of the DSB damage or induce a delayed nuclear fragmentation during the sensitive programmed chromatin remodeling occurring in elongated spermatids.

  13. Genetic requirements for the single-strand annealing pathway of double-strand break repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E.L.; Sugawara, N.; Haber, J.E. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    HO endonuclease-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) within a direct duplication of Escherichia coli lacZ genes are repaired either by gene conversion or by single-strand annealing (SSA), with >80% being SSA. Previously it was demonstrated that the RAD52 gene is required for DSB-induced SSA. In the present study, the effects of other genes belonging to the RAD52 epistasis group were analyzed. We show that RAD51, RAD54, RAD55, and RAD57 genes are not required for SSA irrespective of whether recombination occurred in plasmid or chromosomal DNA. In both plasmid and chromosomal constructs with homologous sequences in direct orientation, the proportion of SSA events over gene conversion was significantly elevated in the mutant strains. However, gene conversion was not affected when the two lacZ sequences were in inverted orientation. These results suggest that there is a competition between SSA and gene conversion processes that favors SSA in the absence of RAD51, RAD54, RAD55 and RAD57. Mutations in RAD50 and XRS2 genes do not prevent the completion, but markedly retard the kinetics, of DSB repair by both mechanisms in the lacZ direct repeat plasmid, a result resembling the effects of these genes during mating-type (MAT) switching. 43 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Chromosome Synapsis Alleviates Mek1-Dependent Suppression of Meiotic DNA Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi V Subramanian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faithful meiotic chromosome segregation and fertility require meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes rather than the equally available sister chromatid, a bias that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the meiotic kinase, Mek1. Mek1 is thought to mediate repair template bias by specifically suppressing sister-directed repair. Instead, we found that when Mek1 persists on closely paired (synapsed homologues, DNA repair is severely delayed, suggesting that Mek1 suppresses any proximal repair template. Accordingly, Mek1 is excluded from synapsed homologues in wild-type cells. Exclusion requires the AAA+-ATPase Pch2 and is directly coupled to synaptonemal complex assembly. Stage-specific depletion experiments further demonstrate that DNA repair in the context of synapsed homologues requires Rad54, a repair factor inhibited by Mek1. These data indicate that the sister template is distinguished from the homologue primarily by its closer proximity to inhibitory Mek1 activity. We propose that once pairing or synapsis juxtaposes homologues, exclusion of Mek1 is necessary to avoid suppression of all templates and accelerate repair progression.

  15. Role of DNA repair in ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, L.; Higgins, D.

    1982-01-01

    Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced reversion of two sites which revert preferentially by GC to AT transitions, cycl-131 and cycl-115, has been examined in readiation sensitive, rad, mutants of yeast belonging to the rad52 epistasis group. The rad50, rad 51, rad52, rad54 and rad56 mutants showed reduced reversion of both tester sites when stationary phase diploid cells were treated with EMS. No correlation was found between EMS-induced reversion and EMS-induced homologous mitotic intragenic recombination. Survival of rad6 rad52 double mutants following EMS treatment indicates that there is one epistasis group for the repair of EMS-induced lethal damage in yeast. A model involving misrepair mutagenesis of specific lesions is proposed to account for the experimental results.

  16. DNA ligase IV and artemis act cooperatively to suppress homologous recombination in human cells: implications for DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Aya; Saito, Shinta; So, Sairei; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Watabe, Haruka; Adachi, Noritaka

    2013-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are two major pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, their respective roles in human somatic cells remain to be elucidated. Here we show using a series of human gene-knockout cell lines that NHEJ repairs nearly all of the topoisomerase II- and low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage, while it negatively affects survival of cells harbouring replication-associated DSBs. Intriguingly, we find that loss of DNA ligase IV, a critical NHEJ ligase, and Artemis, an NHEJ factor with endonuclease activity, independently contribute to increased resistance to replication-associated DSBs. We also show that loss of Artemis alleviates hypersensitivity of DNA ligase IV-null cells to low-dose radiation- and topoisomerase II-induced DSBs. Finally, we demonstrate that Artemis-null human cells display increased gene-targeting efficiencies, particularly in the absence of DNA ligase IV. Collectively, these data suggest that DNA ligase IV and Artemis act cooperatively to promote NHEJ, thereby suppressing HR. Our results point to the possibility that HR can only operate on accidental DSBs when NHEJ is missing or abortive, and Artemis may be involved in pathway switching from incomplete NHEJ to HR.

  17. DNA ligase IV and artemis act cooperatively to suppress homologous recombination in human cells: implications for DNA double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kurosawa

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR are two major pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; however, their respective roles in human somatic cells remain to be elucidated. Here we show using a series of human gene-knockout cell lines that NHEJ repairs nearly all of the topoisomerase II- and low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage, while it negatively affects survival of cells harbouring replication-associated DSBs. Intriguingly, we find that loss of DNA ligase IV, a critical NHEJ ligase, and Artemis, an NHEJ factor with endonuclease activity, independently contribute to increased resistance to replication-associated DSBs. We also show that loss of Artemis alleviates hypersensitivity of DNA ligase IV-null cells to low-dose radiation- and topoisomerase II-induced DSBs. Finally, we demonstrate that Artemis-null human cells display increased gene-targeting efficiencies, particularly in the absence of DNA ligase IV. Collectively, these data suggest that DNA ligase IV and Artemis act cooperatively to promote NHEJ, thereby suppressing HR. Our results point to the possibility that HR can only operate on accidental DSBs when NHEJ is missing or abortive, and Artemis may be involved in pathway switching from incomplete NHEJ to HR.

  18. The solution of major repair for hydraulic system of 36/42 MN double-acting oil hydraulic press%36/42MN双动油压机液压系统大修解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 梅立业

    2011-01-01

    The problems and solution during the major repair of 36/42MN double-acting oil hydraulic press have been discussed in the text.%文章探讨了36/42MN油压机在大修过程中所遇到的问题及其解决方案.

  19. In vivo importance of homologous recombination DNA repair for mouse neural stem and progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rousseau (Laure); O. Etienne (Olivier); T. Roque (Telma); C. Desmaze (Chantal); C. Haton (Céline); M.-A. Mouthon (Marc-André.); J. Bernardino-Sgherri (Jacqueline); J. Essers (Jeroen); R. Kanaar (Roland); F.D. Boussin (François)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe characterized the in vivo importance of the homologous recombination factor RAD54 for the developing mouse brain cortex in normal conditions or after ionizing radiation exposure. Contrary to numerous homologous recombination genes, Rad54 disruption did not impact the cortical developm

  20. Tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  1. P-glycoprotein attenuates DNA repair activity in multidrug-resistant cells by acting through the Cbp-Csk-Src cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Fang; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Pidugu, Vijaya Kumar; Ho, I-Ching; Su, Tsann-Long; Lee, Te-Chang

    2017-02-03

    Recent studies have demonstrated that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression impairs DNA interstrand cross-linking agent-induced DNA repair efficiency in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells. To date, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying how P-gp interferes with Src activation and subsequent DNA repair activity remain unclear. In this study, we determined that the C-terminal Src kinase-binding protein (Cbp) signaling pathway involved in the negative control of Src activation is enhanced in MDR cells. We also demonstrated that cells that ectopically express P-gp exhibit reduced activation of DNA damage response regulators, such as ATM, Chk2, Braca1 and Nbs1 and hence attenuated DNA double-strand break repair capacity and become more susceptible than vector control cells to DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) agents. Moreover, we demonstrated that P-gp can not only interact with Cbp and Src but also enhance the formation of inhibitory C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-Cbp complexes that reduce phosphorylation of the Src activation residue Y416 and increase phosphorylation of the Src negative regulatory residue Y527. Notably, suppression of Cbp expression in MDR cells restores cisplatin-induced Src activation, improves DNA repair capacity, and increases resistance to ICL agents. Ectopic expression of Cbp attenuates cisplatin-induced Src activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to ICL agents. Together, the current results indicate that P-gp inhibits DNA repair activity by modulating Src activation via Cbp-Csk-Src cascade. These results suggest that DNA ICL agents are likely to have therapeutic potential against MDR cells with P-gp-overexpression.

  2. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  3. X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 in base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Akbari, Mansour;

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large...

  4. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  5. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  6. Undescended testicle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  7. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  8. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  9. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  10. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors selectively target homology dependent DNA repair defective cells and elevate non-homologous endjoining activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously used the ATAD5-luciferase high-throughput screening assay to identify genotoxic compounds with potential chemotherapeutic capabilities. The successful identification of known genotoxic agents, including the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi trichostatin A (TSA, confirmed the specificity of the screen since TSA has been widely studied for its ability to cause apoptosis in cancer cells. Because many cancers have acquired mutations in DNA damage checkpoints or repair pathways, we hypothesized that these cancers may be susceptible to treatments that target compensatory pathways. Here, we used a panel of isogenic chicken DT40 B lymphocyte mutant and human cell lines to investigate the ability of TSA to define selective pathways that promote HDACi toxicity. RESULTS: HDACi induced a DNA damage response and reduced viability in all repair deficient DT40 mutants although ATM-nulls were least affected. The most dramatic sensitivity was observed in mutants lacking the homology dependent repair (HDR factor BLM or the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and HDR factors, KU/RAD54, suggesting an involvement of either HDR or NHEJ in HDACi-induced cell death. To extend these findings, we measured the frequencies of HDR and NHEJ after HDACi treatment and monitored viability in human cell lines comparably deficient in HDR or NHEJ. Although no difference in HDR frequency was observed between HDACi treated and untreated cells, HDR-defective human cell lines were clearly more sensitive than wild type. Unexpectedly, cells treated with HDACis showed a significantly elevated NHEJ frequency. CONCLUSIONS: HDACi targeting drugs induced significant increases in NHEJ activity in human cell lines but did not alter HDR frequency. Moreover, HDR is required for cellular resistance to HDACi therapy; therefore, NHEJ does not appear to be a critical axis for HDACi resistance. Rather, HDACi compounds induced DNA damage, most likely double strand breaks

  12. Shu proteins promote the formation of homologous recombination intermediates that are processed by Sgs1-Rmi1-Top3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Hickson, Ian D

    2007-01-01

    repair (HRR), their precise role(s) within this pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we have identified a specific role for the Shu proteins in a Rad51/Rad54-dependent HRR pathway(s) to repair MMS-induced lesions during S-phase. We show that, although mutation of RAD51 or RAD54 prevented...

  13. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  14. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007661.htm Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  15. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  16. Sister chromatid gene conversion is a prominent double-strand break repair pathway in mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Roger D.; Jasin, Maria

    2000-01-01

    In mammalian cells, repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occurs by both homologous and non-homologous mechanisms. By definition, homologous recombination requires a template with sufficient sequence identity to the damaged molecule in order to direct repair. We now show that the sister chromatid acts as a repair template in a substantial proportion of DSB repair events. The outcome of sister chromatid repair is primarily gene conversion unassociated with reciprocal exchange. This contras...

  17. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  18. Pectus excavatum repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002949.htm Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  19. Transcription-coupled DNA repair in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Ann; Spivak, Graciela; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) that acts specifically on lesions in the transcribed strand of expressed genes. First reported in mammalian cells, TCR was then documented in Escherichia coli. In this organism, an RNA polymerase arrested at a lesion is displaced by the transcription repair coupling factor, Mfd. This protein recruits the NER lesion-recognition factor UvrA, and then dissociates from the DNA. UvrA binds UvrB, and the assembled UvrAB* complex initiates repair. In mutants lacking active Mfd, TCR is absent. A gene transcribed by the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in E. coli also requires Mfd for TCR. The CSB protein (missing or defective in cells of patients with Cockayne syndrome, complementation group B) is essential for TCR in humans. CSB and its homologs in higher eukaryotes are likely functional equivalents of Mfd. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. When "Other" Initiate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  1. Percutaneous mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R

    2006-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  2. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-07

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  3. Repairs of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  4. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  5. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  6. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  7. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  8. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  9. Utilizing Statistical Dialogue Act Processing in Verbmobil

    CERN Document Server

    Reithinger, N; Reithinger, Norbert; Maier, Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical approach for dialogue act processing in the dialogue component of the speech-to-speech translation system \\vm. Statistics in dialogue processing is used to predict follow-up dialogue acts. As an application example we show how it supports repair when unexpected dialogue states occur.

  10. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  12. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  13. DNA ligase IV as a new molecular target for temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Natsuko [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); McKinnon, Peter J. [Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Sakaki, Toshisuke; Nakase, Hiroyuki [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is a methylating agent used in chemotherapy against glioblastoma. This work was designed to clarify details in repair pathways acting to remove DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by TMZ. Cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used which were deficient in DSB repair genes such as homologous recombination repair-related genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group 2 (XRCC2)and radiation sensitive mutant54 (Rad54), non-homologous end joining repair-related gene DNAligase IV (Lig4). Cell sensitivity to drug treatments was assessed using colony forming assays. The most effective molecular target which was correlated with TMZ cell sensitivity was Lig4. In addition, it was found that small interference RNAs (siRNA) for Lig4 efficiently enhanced cell lethality induced by TMZ in human glioblastoma A172 cells. These findings suggest that down regulation of Lig4 might provide a useful tool for cell sensitization during TMZ chemotherapy.

  14. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  15. Achilles tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  16. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  17. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  18. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  19. Inguinal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100027.htm Inguinal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through ...

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  1. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100035.htm Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  2. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on ... Overview The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth ...

  3. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  4. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  5. Cleft lip repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100010.htm Cleft lip repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... abnormal opening in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of ...

  6. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  7. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  8. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  9. Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter; Allen, James

    1994-01-01

    Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an algorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by finding word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather than using a set of prebuilt templates, we build the pattern on the fly. In a fair test, our method, when combined with a statistical model to filter possible repairs, was successful at detecting and correcting 80\\% of the repairs, without using prosodic information or a parser.

  10. Procarcinogens ? Determination and Evaluation by Yeast-Based Biosensor Transformed with Plasmids Incorporating RAD54 Reporter Construct and Cytochrome P450 Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thu Huyen; Mai, Chi Thanh; Bettarel, Yvan; Hoang, Thi Yen; Trinh, Thi Thuy Linh; Truong, Nam Hai; CHU, HOANG HA; Nguyen, Vu Thanh Thanh; Nguyen, Huu Duc; W?lfl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, a great number of toxic substances, including carcinogens and procarcinogens, from industrial and agricultural activities, food production, and healthcare services are daily released into the environment. In the present study, we report the development of novel yeast-based biosensor systems to determine both genotoxic carcinogens and procarcinogens by cotransformation with two plasmids. One plasmid is carrying human CPR and CYP (CYP3A4, CYP2B6, or CYP2D6) genes, while the other co...

  11. Groin hernia repair in young males: mesh or sutured repair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data for the optimal inguinal hernia repair in younger men with an indirect hernia is not available. We analysed nationwide data for risk of reoperation in younger men after a primary repair using a Lichtenstein operation or a conventional non-mesh hernia repair....

  12. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects ...

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007392.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  14. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  15. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, ...

  16. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  17. EPA, Seattle truck repair firm settle water pollution case

    Science.gov (United States)

    (SEATTLE - May 13, 2015) Western Peterbilt, LLC, a Seattle truck sales and repair shop, has reached a settlement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stemming from violations of the federal Clean Water Act. As part of the settlement, the company h

  18. Ago2 facilitates Rad51 recruitment and DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Min; Wei, Wei; Li, Ming Hua

    2014-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions and pose a major threat to genome stability if not properly repaired. We and others have previously shown that a class of DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) is produced from sequences around DSB sites. DiRNAs are associated with Argonaute...... (Ago) proteins and play an important role in DSB repair, though the mechanism through which they act remains unclear. Here, we report that the role of diRNAs in DSB repair is restricted to repair by homologous recombination (HR) and that it specifically relies on the effector protein Ago2 in mammalian...

  19. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  20. The 53BP1 homolog in C. elegans influences DNA repair and promotes apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sun Ryu

    Full Text Available 53BP1 contributes to activation of the G2/M checkpoint downstream of ATM and MDC1 in response to ionizing radiation and promotes nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ in mammalian cells. In order to determine whether the cellular activities of 53BP1 are conserved in the model organism C. elegans, we analyzed the function of its homolog, HSR-9 in response to DNA damage. Deletion or Mos1-insertion in hsr-9 did not affect the sensitivity of worms to double strand DNA breaks (DSBs, as reflected in embryonic survival and larval development. Nevertheless, the hsr-9 mutations, as well as a lig-4 deletion, reversed the hypersensitivity of rad-54-deficient worms to DSBs. In addition, oocyte chromosomal aberrations, which were increased by rad-54 knockdown in response to DSBs, were also reduced by the hsr-9 mutations. The hsr-9 mutations did not prevent the cell cycle arrest induced by DSBs in mitotically proliferating germ cells. However, they attenuated apoptosis induced by DSBs, but not when CEP-1 (a p53 ortholog was absent, suggesting that HSR-9 functions in the same pathway as CEP-1. We concluded that the 53BP1 homolog in C. elegans is not directly involved in cell cycle arrest in response to DSBs, but that it promotes apoptosis and also a form of NHEJ that occurs only when rad-54 is deficient.

  1. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  2. Low molecular weight heparin impairs tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virchenko, O; Aspenberg, P; Lindahl, T L

    2008-03-01

    Thrombin has many biological properties similar to those of growth factors. In a previous study, we showed that thrombin improves healing of the rat tendo Achillis. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) inhibits the activity and the generation of thrombin. We therefore considered that LMWH at a thromboprophylactic dose might inhibit tendon repair. Transection of the tendo Achillis was carried out in 86 rats and the healing tested mechanically. Low molecular weight heparin (dalateparin) was either injected a few minutes before the operation and then given continuously with an osmotic mini pump for seven days, or given as one injection before the operation. In another experiment ,we gave LMWH or a placebo by injection twice daily. The anti-factor Xa activity was analysed. Continuous treatment with LMWH impaired tendon healing. After seven days, this treatment caused a 33% reduction in force at failure, a 20% reduction in stiffness and a 67% reduction in energy uptake. However, if injected twice daily, LMWH had no effect on tendon healing. Anti-factor Xa activity was increased by LMWH treatment, but was normal between intermittent injections. Low molecular weight heparin delays tendon repair if given continuously, but not if injected intermittently, probably because the anti-factor Xa activity between injections returns to normal, allowing sufficient thrombin stimulation for repair. These findings indicate the need for caution in the assessment of long-acting thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors.

  3. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilker murat arer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a congenital herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through a retrosternal diaphragmatic defect and make up about 1 % - 5 % of all types of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernias is usually indicated when patients are symptomatic and have a high risk of strangulation or incarceration of the contained viscera. 71-year-old male patient admitted to emergency department with a 2-day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and obstipation. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia was performed. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia with mesh repair is secure, satisfactory and easily performed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 71-74

  4. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  5. Mammalian mismatch repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation...

  6. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B.

    1980-09-01

    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  7. Biologics for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  8. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  9. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  10. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  11. The journey of DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared “Molecule of the Year”. Today, we are celebrating another “year of repair”, with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  12. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  13. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  15. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  16. Groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske

    2005-01-01

    The choice of anesthesia for groin hernia repair is between general, regional (epidural or spinal), and local anesthesia. Existing data from large consecutive patient series and randomized studies have shown local anesthesia to be the method of choice because it can be performed by the surgeon......, does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...... scientific data to support the choice of anesthesia, large epidemiologic and nationwide information from databases show an undesirable high (about 10-20%) use of spinal anesthesia and low (about 10%) use of local infiltration anesthesia. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should therefore adjust their anesthesia...

  17. Coordinated sensing and autonomous repair of pressure vessels and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Hurley, David A.; Gollins, Kenneth; Gervais, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    Self-repairing structural systems can potentially improve performance ranges and lifetimes compared to those of conventional systems without self-healing capability. Self-healing materials have been used in automotive and aeronautical applications for over a century. The bulk of these systems operate by using the damage to directly initiate the repair response without any supervisory coordination. Integrating sensing and supervisory control technologies with self-healing may improve the safety and reliability of critical components and structures. This project used laboratory scale test beds to illustrate the benefit of an integrated sensing, control and self-healing system. A thermal healing polymer embedded with resistive heating wires acted as the sensing-healing material. Sensing duties were performed using an impedance, capacitance, and resistance testing device and a PC acted as the controller. As damage occurs to the polymer it is detected, located, and characterized. Based on the sensor signal, a decision is made as to whether to execute a repair and then to subsequently monitor the repair process to ensure completeness. The second demonstration was a self-sealing pressure vessel with integrated sensing and healing capability. These proof-of-concept prototypes can likely be expanded and improved with alternative sensor options, sensing-healing materials, and system architecture.

  18. Transcript-RNA-templated DNA recombination and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Havva; Shen, Ying; Huang, Fei; Patel, Mikir; Yang, Taehwan; Ashley, Katie; Mazin, Alexander V; Storici, Francesca

    2014-11-20

    Homologous recombination is a molecular process that has multiple important roles in DNA metabolism, both for DNA repair and genetic variation in all forms of life. Generally, homologous recombination involves the exchange of genetic information between two identical or nearly identical DNA molecules; however, homologous recombination can also occur between RNA molecules, as shown for RNA viruses. Previous research showed that synthetic RNA oligonucleotides can act as templates for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast and human cells, and artificial long RNA templates injected in ciliate cells can guide genomic rearrangements. Here we report that endogenous transcript RNA mediates homologous recombination with chromosomal DNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed a system to detect the events of homologous recombination initiated by transcript RNA following the repair of a chromosomal DSB occurring either in a homologous but remote locus, or in the same transcript-generating locus in reverse-transcription-defective yeast strains. We found that RNA-DNA recombination is blocked by ribonucleases H1 and H2. In the presence of H-type ribonucleases, DSB repair proceeds through a complementary DNA intermediate, whereas in their absence, it proceeds directly through RNA. The proximity of the transcript to its chromosomal DNA partner in the same locus facilitates Rad52-driven homologous recombination during DSB repair. We demonstrate that yeast and human Rad52 proteins efficiently catalyse annealing of RNA to a DSB-like DNA end in vitro. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of homologous recombination and DNA repair in which transcript RNA is used as a template for DSB repair. Thus, considering the abundance of RNA transcripts in cells, RNA may have a marked impact on genomic stability and plasticity.

  19. How to repair an episiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio .

  20. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  1. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  2. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  3. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  4. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, H; Lee, F; Patil, N G

    2001-09-01

    A 75-year-old man developed an incisional hernia over the upper abdomen following a wedge resection of a gastric stromal tumour in 1996. This is the first published report of a successful repair of an incisional hernia via a laparoscopic intraperitoneal on-lay technique using GORE-TEX DualMesh material in Hong Kong. Compared with conventional open repair of incisional hernia, long incisions and wound tension are avoided using the laparoscopic approach. This translates into a reduced risk of wound-related complications and facilitates recovery. In selected cases, minimally invasive surgery is a safe technique for the repair of incisional hernias.

  5. [Inguinal and femoral hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, B; Anthuber, M

    2011-05-01

    With an incidence of 200,000 new cases per year in Germany, inguinal hernia has a significant socioeconomic impact. The 2009 guidelines from the European Hernia Society established treatment recommendations. Hernia repair is based on reinforcing the posterior wall of the inguinal canal by suture or mesh repair by an anterior or posterior approach. Lightweight mesh reduces recurrence rates and is the treatment of choice even in primary hernias. Laparoscopic hernia repair is associated with specific risks but is superior in postoperative pain and earlier return to work.

  6. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  7. DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae: isolation and characterization of an ultraviolet sensitive mutator mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae appears to be quite different from that seen in Escherichia coli in that H. influenzae shows neither SOS nor adaptation phenomena. Repair of DNA lesions in H. influenzae has been seen to occur via recombinational, excision, and mismatch repair pathways acting independently of one another. The author has isolated an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive mutator mutant (mutB1) of H. influenzae Rd which shows deficiencies in both recombinational and mismatch repair pathways. This mutant is sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents as well as being hypermutable by alkylating agents and base analogues. MutB1 cells do not show post-UV DNA breakdown but do begin excision after UV irradiation. Genetic transformation with UV-irradiated DNA on mut B1 recipients shows that high (HE) and low (LE) efficiency markers are transformed at a ratio of 1.0 as in the mismatch repair deficient hex 1 mutant; however, kinetics of UV-inactivation experiments indicate that HE markers are sensitized and act as LE markers do on wild type recipients. Thus, the mutB gene product appears to play a role in both DNA repair and genetic transformation. A model is outlined which presents a role for a DNA helicase in both DNA repair and genetic transformation of H. influenzae.

  8. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15...

  10. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  12. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    : homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage......Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...

  13. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  14. Construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinger, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, P. [KC Integrity Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeomans, M.; Glover, A. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The presentations by Working Group 4 focused on construction, repair and maintenance of pipelines with particular reference to high-strength steels and their applications for natural gas transmission pipelines. Discussions focused on how technology can be used to provide cost-effective design and construction solutions for long distance pipelines in a manner that does not compromise safety and reliability. The role that carbon plays in increasing the toughness of steel was also discussed. A few fundamental changes in steel production technology and a reduction in carbon content can result in a simultaneous increase in strength and toughness of steels. The cost impact of this technology was summarized. It was concluded that high strength steels offer effective solutions to deliver cost-effective pipelines to transport natural gas from northern basins. This session also presented pipeline routes that transport diluted bitumens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Project and the Muskeg River Mine to upgrader facilities in Alberta. Construction issues included design conservatism, water course crossings, winter construction, winter ditching, and public consultation. Examples of high strength steel pipe applications were also included with reference to experience gained by TransCanada and Corridor Pipeline. tabs., figs.

  15. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  16. Umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    The repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias still represents a challenge to surgeons. Although a common and relatively simple procedure, there is no exact protocol today on how the repair should be done. The Mayo technique and its alterations could not stand the test of time: a recurrence rate of 20% and higher is not acceptable for any surgical procedure. Although there is no consensus opinion, one thing is clear: the importance of an anatomic repair without tension and without an artificial enlargement of the defect. In 1987 Lichtenstein reported on 6321 cases of herniorraphy with a tension free repair, and in 1994 Stuart reemphasized that special importance in his editorial in the Lancet. A newer study from Brancato and coworkers in Italy also states the advantage of a tension-free prosthetic repair in 16 patients with epigastric hernia. We have gone even further and recommend a tailored-to-the-patient repair using a customized polypropylene mesh and a one-layer running suture. The advantages should be obvious: no artificial creation of an even bigger than original defect, a completely tension-free repair, and little to no recurrence of the hernia. Our results clearly prove that assumption. Moreover, the procedure is extremely safe and complications are very rare and minor. We conclude that using a mesh plug in a customized tension-free repair of umbilical and epigastric hernia shows many advantages over the commonly used methods. And we finally conclude with the words of Albert Einstein: "The only source of knowledge is experience."

  17. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    New Jersey, USA. Repair Types, Procedures – Part I RTO-EN-AVT-156 9 - 19 [5] Drieker R, Botello C, MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle... MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR), Vol. III: Field Test Report,” AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0039, July 2000. [8

  18. Hand function after nerve repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundborg, Göran; Rosén, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

  19. Cobbler's technique for Iridodialysis repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Singh Pandav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis.

  20. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  1. Repairing Learned Knowledge Using Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    It necessar and Identify by’ 6109h nii be) learning precedent-based learning knowledge repair explanation-based learning near - miss groups 20. ABSTRACT...can a program use explanations to repair a recollection, preventing further misapplication? Near - Miss Groups Isolate Suspicious Relations If a metal...pail differs from a porcelain cup only in the position of handle attachment, then we would say that the pail is a near miss . Unfortunately, there are

  2. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  3. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  4. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  5. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  6. Genetic probing of homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining during meiotic prophase in irradiated mouse spermatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Emad A. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut (Egypt); Philippens, Marielle E.P.; Kal, Henk B. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rooij, Dirk G. de, E-mail: d.g.derooij@uu.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boer, Peter de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to obtain a better insight into the relative contribution of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at first meiotic prophase. Early and late pachytene and early diplotene spermatocytes that had completed crossing over were sampled. We studied the kinetics of {gamma}-H2AX chromatin foci removal after irradiation of mice deficient for HR and mice deficient for NHEJ. Analyzing {gamma}-H2AX signals in unirradiated RAD54/RAD54B deficient spermatocytes indicated incomplete meiotic recombination repair due to the pronounced increase of {gamma}-H2AX foci in late prophase primary spermatocytes. In these mice, 8 h after irradiation, early pachytene spermatocytes showed a reduction of the numbers of {gamma}-H2AX foci by 52% compared to 82% in the wild type, the difference being significant. However, after crossing over (in late pachytene and early diplotene), no effect of RAD54/RAD54B deficiency on the reduction of irradiation-induced foci was observed. In NHEJ deficient SCID mice, repair kinetics in early spermatocytes were similar to those in wild type mice. However, 1 h after irradiation in late pachytene and early diplotene spermatocytes 1.7 times more foci were found than in wild type mice. This difference might be related to the absence of a DNA-PKcs dependent fast repair component in SCID mice. As subsequent repair is normal, HR likely is taking over. Taken together, the results obtained in RAD54/RAD54B deficient mice and in SCID mice indicate that DSB repair in early pachytene spermatocytes is mainly carried out through HR. In late spermatocytes (late pachytenes and early diplotenes) NHEJ is active. However, probably there is an interplay between these repair pathways and when in late spermatocytes the NHEJ pathway is compromised HR may take over.

  7. Mismatch-mediated error prone repair at the immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahwan, Richard; Edelmann, Winfried; Scharff, Matthew D; Roa, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    The generation of effective antibodies depends upon somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of antibody genes by activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and the subsequent recruitment of error prone base excision and mismatch repair. While AID initiates and is required for SHM, more than half of the base changes that accumulate in V regions are not due to the direct deamination of dC to dU by AID, but rather arise through the recruitment of the mismatch repair complex (MMR) to the U:G mismatch created by AID and the subsequent perversion of mismatch repair from a high fidelity process to one that is very error prone. In addition, the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential during CSR, and the resolution of AID-generated mismatches by MMR to promote such DSBs is critical for the efficiency of the process. While a great deal has been learned about how AID and MMR cause hypermutations and DSBs, it is still unclear how the error prone aspect of these processes is largely restricted to antibody genes. The use of knockout models and mice expressing mismatch repair proteins with separation-of-function point mutations have been decisive in gaining a better understanding of the roles of each of the major MMR proteins and providing further insight into how mutation and repair are coordinated. Here, we review the cascade of MMR factors and repair signals that are diverted from their canonical error free role and hijacked by B cells to promote genetic diversification of the Ig locus. This error prone process involves AID as the inducer of enzymatically-mediated DNA mismatches, and a plethora of downstream MMR factors acting as sensors, adaptors and effectors of a complex and tightly regulated process from much of which is not yet well understood.

  8. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  9. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/crUreWGQdGo.

  10. Repairing the breech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C. Boyte

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main obstacle to genuine and productive partnerships between institutions of higher education and the professionals they prepare, on the one side, and communities, on the other, is a “knowledge war,” full of invisible hierarchies and exclusions, producing a hypercompetitive achievement culture. This knowledge war dramatically limits communities’ and citizens’ ability to act on the problems they face today. It also sharply erodes the power of higher education, professionals, and civic leaders to help shape the culture in democratic ways.We have to get beyond arrogant experts and aggrieved communities if we want to develop communities’ capacities to solve problems and also to generate a larger vision of a good society. Community is the living context for evaluating expert knowledge. But without engagement with other ways of knowing appeal to community knowledge can easily produce a Know-Nothing reaction to the larger world.If we are to build communities’ civic agency – capacities to work across differences to meet our common challenges – we need to democratize the politics of knowledge and end the knowledge war. This requires learning from effective community organizing the idea of “schools for public life,” where ordinary people develop skills, habits, and confidence of citizenship. It also means creating what might be called middle spaces, not owned by academics or professionals, but open to academic and scientific knowledge, where different ways of knowing and acting intermingle in creative ways. Middle spaces put science and academic knowledge in the mix, “on tap, not on top.” They also recognize the power and the limits of communal knowledge.Keywordscivic agency, cultural organizing, knowledge war

  11. Eukaryotic Mismatch Repair in Relation to DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A; Erie, Dorothy A

    2015-01-01

    Three processes act in series to accurately replicate the eukaryotic nuclear genome. The major replicative DNA polymerases strongly prevent mismatch formation, occasional mismatches that do form are proofread during replication, and rare mismatches that escape proofreading are corrected by mismatch repair (MMR). This review focuses on MMR in light of increasing knowledge about nuclear DNA replication enzymology and the rate and specificity with which mismatches are generated during leading- and lagging-strand replication. We consider differences in MMR efficiency in relation to mismatch recognition, signaling to direct MMR to the nascent strand, mismatch removal, and the timing of MMR. These studies are refining our understanding of relationships between generating and repairing replication errors to achieve accurate replication of both DNA strands of the nuclear genome.

  12. Inguinal hernia repair: anaesthesia, pain and convalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callesen, Torben

    2003-08-01

    Elective surgical repair of an inguinal or femoral hernia is one of the most common surgical procedures. The treatment, however, presents several challenges regarding anaesthesia for the procedure, the postoperative analgesic therapy and convalescence, as well as planning of the procedure. Local, general, and regional anaesthesia are all used for hernia repair, but to different degrees, primarily depending on traditions and whether the institution has specific interest in hernia surgery. Thus, the use of local anaesthesia varies from a few percent in Sweden, 18% in Denmark and up to almost 100% in specialised institutions, dedicated to hernia surgery. The feasibility of local anaesthesia is high, as judged by the rate of conversion to general anaesthesia (thirds have moderate or severe pain during activity, while one third still have moderate or severe pain after one week, and approximately 10% after 4 weeks. Pain after laparoscopic surgery is less pronounced than after open surgery, while different open repair techniques do not exhibit significant differences. Postoperative pain is best treated with a combination of local analgesia and peripherally acting agents (paracetamol, NSAID or their combination), while opioids should be avoided due to side effects, primarily nausea and sedation. Moderate or severe pain one year postoperatively is seen in 5-12% of patients. There seem to be no difference between different surgical or anaesthetic techniques, but the following factors have been related to a higher rate of chronic pain: previous or subsequent hernia surgery on the same side, young age, pain before surgery, high pain scores in the immediate postoperative period, and postoperative complications and prolonged convalescence. Patients should be informed about the risk of chronic pain, particularly if the hernia is asymptomatic. The duration of convalescence after hernia repair varies considerably, primarily due to variation in recommendations. No documentation is

  13. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  14. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovacevic, David; Rodeo, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site...

  15. Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000004.htm Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge To use the sharing ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 8. Read More Cleft lip and palate Cleft lip and palate repair Review Date 5/9/ ...

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000240.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge To use the sharing features ... References Orandi BJ, Black JH. Open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  17. GENETIC AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND TOLERANCE PATHWAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Radiation can damage cellular components, including DNA. Organisms have developed a panoply of means of dealing with DNA damage. Some repair paths have rather narrow substrate specificity (e.g. photolyases), which act on specific pyrimidine photoproducts in a specific type (e.g., DNA) and conformation (double-stranded B conformation) of nucleic acid. Others, for example, nucleotide excision repair, deal with larger classes of damages, in this case bulky adducts in DNA. A detailed discussion of DNA repair mechanisms is beyond the scope of this article, but one can be found in the excellent book of Friedberg et al. [1] for further detail. However, some DNA damages and paths for repair of those damages important for photobiology will be outlined below as a basis for the specific examples of genetic and molecular analysis that will be presented below.

  18. Transvesicoscopic Repair of Vesicovaginal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vesicovaginal fistula has been a social and surgical problem for centuries. Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct this abnormality, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and endoscopic approaches. The best approach is probably the one with which the surgeon feels most experienced and comfortable. Laparoscopy has become increasingly popular in urology, reducing the invasiveness of treatment and shortening the period of convalescence. We report our results of transvesicoscopic approach for VVF repair. Materials and Methods. Patients with VVF were offered repair using the transvesicoscopic route. With the patient under general anaesthesia and in modified lithotomy position cystoscopy was performed with gas insufflation. Under cystoscopic guidance the bladder was fixed to anterior abdominal wall and ports inserted into the bladder. The fistula was repaired under endoscopic vision. Results. Four women, who had VVF following abdominal hysterectomy, underwent this procedure. The operating time ranged from 175 to 235 minutes. There was minimal bleeding. Post operative complications included ileus in one and fever in another. No recurrence of VVF was noted in any patient. Conclusions. Transvesicoscopic repair of VVF is feasible, safe, and results in lower morbidity and quicker recovery time.

  19. Small Crater Expedient Repair Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Force Base, New Mexico , October 1975. 3. Rollings, Raymond S., Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Pavement Repair Materials, CEEDO-TR-7-44, Civil and...blank) APPENDIX A EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE SP6WCIFICATIONS Performance specit’ications are included i.n tl is appe udi \\ tor the following equipment: 1

  20. Outcome of quadriceps tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Gururaj S; Faraj, Adnan

    2006-04-01

    Complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a well-described injury. There is a scarcity of literature relating to the outcome of patients with this injury after surgery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had surgical repair of their quadriceps tendon at our institution over a 13-year period, totalling 21 patients. Males were more commonly affected, with a male/female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade of life. Assessment consisted of the completion of a functional knee questionnaire and a clinical examination. Symptomatic outcome following surgical repair was good with a mean symptom score generated of 19.16 out of a maximum of 25 using the Rougraff et al scoring system. Most of the patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity. Five degrees deficit and extension lag was present in three patients; these patients had the quadriceps repaired using transosseous sutures. Patients who had direct repair of the tendon using the Bunnell technique had lower Rougraff scores than the rest.

  1. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  2. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  3. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  4. [Complications of inguinal hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A; D'Urso, A; Gallinaro, L S; Lo Storto, G; Bosco, M R; Vietri, F; Beltrami, V

    2002-03-01

    It's shown by literature and confirmed by Author's experience that, on account of the excellent results, prosthetic repair of inguinal hernia is more effective than "conventional" (Bassini, Mc Vay, Shouldice). Between January 1993 and December 2000 were observed 875 patients with inguinal hernia (814 monolateral, 61 bilateral); all patients underwent a Lichtenstein repair both in the primary version and in its variations (internal ring plastic, trasversalis plicate, plug repair). The patients were discharged from hospital within 24 hours after surgery in 90% of cases. No important intraoperative complications were observed; the patients restarting work varied from 3 to 15 days after the discharging in relation to patient anxiety, onset of complications and to the type of work. The complications observed were: urine retention (1.6%), superficial haematoma (1.3%), superficial infection (1%), wound suppuration (0.5%), serous effusion (0.7%), postsurgery pain (2.1%), scrotal edema (1.7%), persistent inguinal neuralgia (0.6), local hypoesthesia (4.3%), ischemical orchitis (0.1%), recurrence (0.2%). In conclusion Authors assert that "tension free" repair allows optimal results both for the surgery point (easiness of the technique, repeatability, less invasivity, scanty incident of recurrences, low frequency of postoperative complications) and in economic terms, allowing an early mobilization of the patients. A further improvement would be obtained with more care in surgical and patient management, with more excellent results.

  5. Hsp90: A New Player in DNA Repair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Pennisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is an evolutionary conserved molecular chaperone that, together with Hsp70 and co-chaperones makes up the Hsp90 chaperone machinery, stabilizing and activating more than 200 proteins, involved in protein homeostasis (i.e., proteostasis, transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating complex DNA damage response (DDR pathways that include: (i cell cycle arrest; (ii transcriptional and post-translational activation of a subset of genes, including those associated with DNA repair; and (iii triggering of programmed cell death. The efficacy of the DDR pathways is influenced by the nuclear levels of DNA repair proteins, which are regulated by balancing between protein synthesis and degradation as well as by nuclear import and export. The inability to respond properly to either DNA damage or to DNA repair leads to genetic instability, which in turn may enhance the rate of cancer development. Multiple components of the DNA double strand breaks repair machinery, including BRCA1, BRCA2, CHK1, DNA-PKcs, FANCA, and the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, have been described to be client proteins of Hsp90, which acts as a regulator of the diverse DDR pathways. Inhibition of Hsp90 actions leads to the altered localization and stabilization of DDR proteins after DNA damage and may represent a cell-specific and tumor-selective radiosensibilizer. Here, the role of Hsp90-dependent molecular mechanisms involved in cancer onset and in the maintenance of the genome integrity is discussed and highlighted.

  6. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2010-01-01

    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair…

  7. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair garage or shop....

  8. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Bisgaard, Thue;

    2013-01-01

    Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undert...... was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair....

  9. REPAIR MECHANISM IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents practical research on repair mechanismand its four repair trajectories in FL classroom interaction. Thisshows that it is effective and efficient in assisting FL learners todevelop their communicative competence and understand theprocess of language acquisition. Repair strategies that are ofgreat value to FL teachers in FL classroom teaching are also ex-pounded.

  10. Hand function after nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, G; Rosén, B

    2007-02-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve regeneration is a complex biological process where the outcome depends on multiple biological and environmental factors such as survival of nerve cells, axonal regeneration rate, extent of axonal misdirection, type of injury, type of nerve, level of the lesion, age of the patient and compliance to training. A major problem is the cortical functional reorganization of hand representation which occurs as a result of axonal misdirection. Although protective sensibility usually occurs following nerve repair, tactile discriminative functions seldom recover--a direct result of cortical remapping. Sensory re-education programmes are routinely applied to facilitate understanding of the new sensory patterns provided by the hand. New trends in hand rehabilitation focus on modulation of central nervous processes rather than peripheral factors. Principles are being evolved to maintain the cortical hand representation by using the brain capacity for visuo-tactile and audio-tactile interaction for the initial phase following nerve injury and repair (phase 1). After the start of the re-innervation of the hand (phase 2), selective de-afferentation, such as cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm of the injured hand, allows expansion of the nerve-injured cortical hand representation, thereby enhancing the effects of sensory relearning. Recent data support the view that training protocols specifically addressing the relearning process substantially increase the possibilities for improved

  11. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  12. DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice Is Directed by Distinct MRE11 Nuclease Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shibata (Atsushi); D. Moiani (Davide); A.S. Arvai (Andrew); J. Perry (Jefferson); S.M. Harding (Shane); M.-M. Genois (Marie-Michelle); R. Maity (Ranjan); S.E. van Rossum-Fikkert (Sari); A. Kertokalio (Aryandi); F. Romoli (Filippo); A. Ismail (Amani); E. Ismalaj (Ermal); E. Petricci (Elena); M.J. Neale (Matthew); R.G. Bristow (Robert); J.-Y. Masson (Jean-Yves); C. Wyman (Claire); P.A. Jeggo (Penny); J.A. Tainer (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) versus homologous recombination (HR) remains enigmatic. Here, we employ

  13. DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice Is Directed by Distinct MRE11 Nuclease Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shibata (Atsushi); D. Moiani (Davide); A.S. Arvai (Andrew); J. Perry (Jefferson); S.M. Harding (Shane); M.-M. Genois (Marie-Michelle); R. Maity (Ranjan); S.E. van Rossum-Fikkert (Sari); A. Kertokalio (Aryandi); F. Romoli (Filippo); A. Ismail (Amani); E. Ismalaj (Ermal); E. Petricci (Elena); M.J. Neale (Matthew); R.G. Bristow (Robert); J.-Y. Masson (Jean-Yves); C. Wyman (Claire); P.A. Jeggo (Penny); J.A. Tainer (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) versus homologous recombination (HR) remains enigmatic. Here, we

  14. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  15. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  16. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  17. Methods of repairing a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  18. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  19. Shelf Stable Epoxy Repair Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    manufacturing operations are more efficient , discarding less expired film. Commercial and military aircraft repair operations at Boeing experience very similar...successfully encapsulated at concentrations greater than 50 wt% within four N N = CC Infoscitex Corporation Shelf Stable Epoxy Resin Adhesive WP-1763 8...affects the composition of the encapsulant , which in turn affects the ability of the encapsulant to wet the core phase, the barrier properties of the

  20. Repair and regeneration in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L M; Rosenberg, P A

    2011-10-01

    The ideal objective of treatment of established diseases, including irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis, is to achieve wound healing. Wound healing can result in repair or regeneration. The ultimate goal of wound healing is to restore the original architecture and biological function of the injured tissue or organ. Although humans are equipped with powerful innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect wound healing. Complete regeneration following injury in humans can occur only in the pre-natal foetus within 24 weeks of gestation. Post-natal wounds including irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis always heal by repair or by a combination of repair and regeneration. Somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts and osteoblasts, in the pulp and periapical tissues have limited potential for regeneration following injury and lack of telomerase. Wound healing of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis requires recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into tissue-committed somatic cells. Stem cell differentiation is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic micro-environmental cues. Functionality of stem cells appears to show an age-related decline because of the change in intrinsic properties and diminished signals within the extrinsic local and systemic environment that modulate the function of stem cells or their progeny. Infection induces an immuno-inflammatory response and tissue destruction, which hinders the potential of tissue regeneration. Therefore, prevention, early detection and treatment of inflammation/infection of pulpal and periapical disease can enhance regeneration and minimize the repair of pulpal and periapical tissues after endodontic therapy. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  1. Pain after groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Nielsen, R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to provide a detailed description of postoperative pain after elective day-case open inguinal hernia repair under local anaesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective consecutive case series study. After 500 hernia operations in 466 unselected patients aged 18...... between types of surgery or hernia. CONCLUSION: Pain remained a problem despite the pre-emptive use of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local anaesthesia, irrespective of surgical technique....

  2. Biologics for tendon repair

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately,...

  3. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    71. Burman S, Tejwani S, Vemuganti GK. Ophthalmic applications of preserved human amniotic membrane: a review of current indications. Cell Tissue Bank...segmental nerve deficit repair using isograft show the best performing wrap/ fixation method to be sutureless photochemical tissue bonding with the...crosslinked amnion wrap. Autograft is often unavailable in wounded warriors, due to extensive tissue damage and amputation and, importantly, we also

  4. Revisional laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Shalhoub, Joseph; Selvapatt, Nowlan; Darzi, Ara; Ziprin, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We herein report a laparoscopically performed re-do operation on a patient who had previously undergone a laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair. We describe the case of a 71-year-old patient who presented within 3 months of her primary laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with recurrence. On relaparoscopy, dense adhesions to the mesh were found, and the mesh had migrated into the hernia sac. This had allowed loops of small bowel to herniate into the sac. The initial part of the procedure involved the lysis of adhesions. A piece of Gore-Tex DualMesh with a central keyhole and a radial slit was cut so that it could provide at least 3 cm to 5 cm of overlap of the fascial defect. The tails of the mesh were wrapped around the bowel, and the mesh was secured to the margins of the hernia with circumferential metal tacking and 4 transfascial sutures. The patient remains in satisfactory condition and no recurrence or any surgery-related problem has been observed during 8 months of follow-up. Revisional laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias seems feasible and has been shown to be safe and effective in this case. The success of this approach depends on longer follow-up reports and standardization of the technical elements.

  5. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  6. Comparing Biomechanical Properties, Repair Times, and Value of Common Core Flexor Tendon Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.

  7. Base Sequence Context Effects on Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Cai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the genome when damaged by bulky DNA lesions, since inefficient repair can cause mutations and human diseases notably cancer. The structural properties of DNA lesions that determine their relative susceptibilities to NER are therefore of great interest. As a model system, we have investigated the major mutagenic lesion derived from the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 10S (+-trans-anti-B[a]P-2-dG in six different sequence contexts that differ in how the lesion is positioned in relation to nearby guanine amino groups. We have obtained molecular structural data by NMR and MD simulations, bending properties from gel electrophoresis studies, and NER data obtained from human HeLa cell extracts for our six investigated sequence contexts. This model system suggests that disturbed Watson-Crick base pairing is a better recognition signal than a flexible bend, and that these can act in concert to provide an enhanced signal. Steric hinderance between the minor groove-aligned lesion and nearby guanine amino groups determines the exact nature of the disturbances. Both nearest neighbor and more distant neighbor sequence contexts have an impact. Regardless of the exact distortions, we hypothesize that they provide a local thermodynamic destabilization signal for repair.

  8. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  9. Treatment and Controversies in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marco eFisichella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically all paraesophageal hernias were repaired surgically, today intervention is reserved for symptomatic paraesophageal hernias. In this review, we describe the indications for repair and explore the controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair, which include a comparison of open to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair, the necessity of complete sac excision, the routine performance of fundoplication, and the use of mesh for hernia repair.Methods: We searched Pubmed for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following keywords: hiatal hernias, paraesophageal hernias, regurgitation, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, aspiration, GERD, endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, proton pump inhibitors, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Nissen fundoplication, sac excision, mesh, mesh repair. Results: Indications for paraesophageal hernia repair have changed, and currently symptomatic paraesophageal hernias are recommended for repair. In addition, it is important not to overlook iron-deficiency anemia and pulmonary complaints, which tend to improve with repair. Current practice favors a laparoscopic approach, complete sac excision, primary crural repair with or without use of mesh, and a routine fundoplication.

  10. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  11. DREMECELS: A Curated Database for Base Excision and Mismatch Repair Mechanisms Associated Human Malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Shukla

    Full Text Available DNA repair mechanisms act as a warrior combating various damaging processes that ensue critical malignancies. DREMECELS was designed considering the malignancies with frequent alterations in DNA repair pathways, that is, colorectal and endometrial cancers, associated with Lynch syndrome (also known as HNPCC. Since lynch syndrome carries high risk (~40-60% for both cancers, therefore we decided to cover all three diseases in this portal. Although a large population is presently affected by these malignancies, many resources are available for various cancer types but no database archives information on the genes specifically for only these cancers and disorders. The database contains 156 genes and two repair mechanisms, base excision repair (BER and mismatch repair (MMR. Other parameters include some of the regulatory processes that have roles in these disease progressions due to incompetent repair mechanisms, specifically BER and MMR. However, our unique database mainly provides qualitative and quantitative information on these cancer types along with methylation, drug sensitivity, miRNAs, copy number variation (CNV and somatic mutations data. This database would serve the scientific community by providing integrated information on these disease types, thus sustaining diagnostic and therapeutic processes. This repository would serve as an excellent accompaniment for researchers and biomedical professionals and facilitate in understanding such critical diseases. DREMECELS is publicly available at http://www.bioinfoindia.org/dremecels.

  12. Surgical management of the failed SLAP repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephen C

    2010-09-01

    Repair of superior labral tears anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions has become an increasingly common procedure, despite the low incidence rates reported in the literature. As the incidence of these procedures increases, the surgeons will be increasingly confronted with patients with painful shoulders after SLAP repair. Persistent pain after SLAP repair is multifactorial; careful preoperative workup is necessary to elucidate the cause of pain. Simple failure of the prior SLAP repair will rarely be the cause of persistent pain. Use of tacks is especially worrisome, and suture anchor repair is preferable. Articular cartilage injuries because of either bioabsorbable or metal hardware will often create significant residual disability. Recent literature suggests that older patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  13. DNA-Protein Crosslink Proteolysis Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Bruno; Popovic, Marta; Ramadan, Kristijan

    2017-06-01

    Proteins that are covalently bound to DNA constitute a specific type of DNA lesion known as DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). DPCs represent physical obstacles to the progression of DNA replication. If not repaired, DPCs cause stalling of DNA replication forks that consequently leads to DNA double-strand breaks, the most cytotoxic DNA lesion. Although DPCs are common DNA lesions, the mechanism of DPC repair was unclear until now. Recent work unveiled that DPC repair is orchestrated by proteolysis performed by two distinct metalloproteases, SPARTAN in metazoans and Wss1 in yeast. This review summarizes recent discoveries on two proteases in DNA replication-coupled DPC repair and establishes DPC proteolysis repair as a separate DNA repair pathway for genome stability and protection from accelerated aging and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repairing sealing surfaces on aluminum castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Approach using stylus nickel plating instead of copper and cadmium plating has simplified repair procedure. Damaged sealing surfaces are stylus nickelplated in one step. Superficial scratches and porous areas are removed more easily from repaired surface by simply lapping sealing areas to required finish. Although method is aimed for aerospace components, it may be easily incorporated into conventional aluminumcasting technology. One-step repair can be considered for cast-aluminum automobile and aircraft engines to reduce time and costs.

  15. Research on Hot Gunning Repairing in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; LONG Shigang; MENG Qingmin; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2003-01-01

    The lining of blast furnace may be damaged partly,so that gunning repair is needed. The bonding strength of boundary surface between the repairing layer and remained lining of blast furnace has been studied by thermal simulation.The factors influencing the bonding strength are the ingredient gunning repair temperature,remained lining condition and water content of gunning refractory.The bonding strength decreases with the increases of remained lining temperature.

  16. Role of ubiquitination in meiotic recombination repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Programmed and unprogrammed double-strand breaks (DSBs) often arise from such physiological requirements as meiotic recombination, and exogenous insults, such as ionizing radiation (IR). Due to deleterious impacts on genome stability, DSBs must be appropriately processed and repaired in a regulatory manner. Recent investigations have indicated that ubiquitination is a critical factor in DNA damage response and meiotic recombination repair. This review summarizes the effects of proteins and complexes associated with ubiquitination with regard to homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DSB repair.

  17. Laparoscopic repair for vesicouterine fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Maioli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this video is to present the laparoscopic repair of a VUF in a 42-year-old woman, with gross hematuria, in the immediate postoperative phase following a cesarean delivery. The obstetric team implemented conservative management, including Foley catheter insertion, for 2 weeks. She subsequently developed intermittent hematuria and cystitis. The urology team was consulted 15 days after cesarean delivery. Cystoscopy indicated an ulcerated lesion in the bladder dome of approximately 1.0cm in size. Hysterosalpingography and a pelvic computed tomography scan indicated a fistula. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic repair was performed 30 days after the cesarean delivery. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position while also in an extreme Trendelenburg position. Pneumoperitoneum was established using a Veress needle in the midline infra-umbilical region, and a primary 11-mm port was inserted. Another 11-mm port was inserted exactly between the left superior iliac spine and the umbilicus. Two other 5-mm ports were established under laparoscopic guidance in the iliac fossa on both sides. The omental adhesions in the pelvis were carefully released and the peritoneum between the bladder and uterus was incised via cautery. Limited cystotomy was performed, and the specific sites of the fistula and the ureteral meatus were identified; thereafter, the posterior bladder wall was adequately mobilized away from the uterus. The uterine rent was then closed using single 3/0Vicryl sutures and two-layer watertight closure of the urinary bladder was achieved by using 3/0Vicryl sutures. An omental flap was mobilized and inserted between the uterus and the urinary bladder, and was fixed using two 3/0Vicryl sutures, followed by tube drain insertion. Results: The operative time was 140 min, whereas the blood loss was 100ml. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery, and the catheter was removed 12 days after surgery

  18. Extensor tendon repair an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Bin Fayed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extensor injuries is more than that of flexor tendon injuries. This is to a great extent because of the extensors being superficially placed and covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue over the distal part of the upper extremity. Thus they are more vulnerable to blunt and sharp trauma, the proximal and distal forearm present with laceration and cut with sharp weapon. Extensor tendon injuries are often taken lightly by many, repairs being taken-up at the ER. Repair is done in or if the retrieval of tendon ends is difficult or the wound is complicated with associated injuries such as fractures or in cases of tendon retraction. Delayed primary repair can be undertaken from 7-10 days. Assessment of the injured finger has to be very meticulous. Extension of finger is brought about by the interossei and lumbricals which are the short muscles of the hand. They extend the proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints and flex metacarpophalangeal joint, these intrinsic muscles are innervated by the ulnar and median nerves. The long extensors are innervated by the radial nerve, they primarily extend the metacarpophalangeal joints and also interphalangeal joints. In cases of injury the intrinsic system may compensate for an extensor deficit. Closed injuries of zone I may be managed by splinting of the distal interphalangeal joints and open injuries in the zone I and II can be treated with tenodermodesis. Proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints are immobilized in zone 3 and 4. Metacarpophalangeal joint is immobilized in full extension and the wrist in 10o extension.

  19. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  20. Concrete structures protection, repair and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, R Dodge

    2009-01-01

    The success of a repair or rehabilitation project depends on the specific plans designed for it. Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation provides guidance on evaluating the condition of the concrete in a structure, relating the condition of the concrete to the underlying cause or causes of that condition, selecting an appropriate repair material and method for any deficiency found, and using the selected materials and methods to repair or rehabilitate the structure. Guidance is also provided for engineers focused on maintaining concrete and preparing concrete investigation r

  1. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  2. Changes in DNA repair during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei; Mao, Zhiyong; Hine, Christpher

    2007-01-01

    DNA is a precious molecule. It encodes vital information about cellular content and function. There are only two copies of each chromosome in the cell, and once the sequence is lost no replacement is possible. The irreplaceable nature of the DNA sets it apart from other cellular molecules, and makes it a critical target for age-related deterioration. To prevent DNA damage cells have evolved elaborate DNA repair machinery. Paradoxically, DNA repair can itself be subject to age-related changes and deterioration. In this review we will discuss the changes in efficiency of mismatch repair (MMR), base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and double-strand break (DSB) repair systems during aging, and potential changes in DSB repair pathway usage that occur with age. Mutations in DNA repair genes and premature aging phenotypes they cause have been reviewed extensively elsewhere, therefore the focus of this review is on the comparison of DNA repair mechanisms in young versus old. PMID:17913742

  3. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  4. Vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamudur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair is a very rare condition. It is a complication following repeated lower uterine cesarean section. We report a case of an young married woman who was admitted in the depart­ment of urology, Banghabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital with vesico-cervical fistula following vesico­vaginal fistula repair. Reposition of cervix into vaginal vault and repair of urinary bladder was done. There was no such report of vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair from Bangladesh.

  5. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  6. Complex networks repair strategies: Dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chaoqi; Wang, Ying; Gao, Yangjun; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2017-09-01

    Network repair strategies are tactical methods that restore the efficiency of damaged networks; however, unreasonable repair strategies not only waste resources, they are also ineffective for network recovery. Most extant research on network repair focuses on static networks, but results and findings on static networks cannot be applied to evolutionary dynamic networks because, in dynamic models, complex network repair has completely different characteristics. For instance, repaired nodes face more severe challenges, and require strategic repair methods in order to have a significant effect. In this study, we propose the Shell Repair Strategy (SRS) to minimize the risk of secondary node failures due to the cascading effect. Our proposed method includes the identification of a set of vital nodes that have a significant impact on network repair and defense. Our identification of these vital nodes reduces the number of switching nodes that face the risk of secondary failures during the dynamic repair process. This is positively correlated with the size of the average degree and enhances network invulnerability.

  7. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Moodley_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32328 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Moodley_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Root Justi cations... the ontology, based on the no- tion of root justi cations [8, 9]. In Section 5, we discuss the implementation of a Prot eg e3 plugin which demonstrates our approach to ontology repair. In this section we also discuss some experimental results comparing...

  8. Arthroscopic Transosseous Bony Bankart Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Matthew D.; Burns, Joseph P.; Snyder, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of glenoid bony integrity is critical to minimizing the risk of recurrence and re-creating normal kinematics in the setting of anterior glenohumeral instability. We present an arthroscopic suture anchor–based technique for treating large bony Bankart fractures in which the fragment is secured to the intact glenoid using mattress sutures placed through the bony fragment and augmented with soft-tissue repair proximal and distal to the bony lesion. This straightforward technique has led to excellent fragment reduction and good outcomes in our experience. PMID:25973373

  9. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 60.482-9... Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown. Repair of...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870... repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the... effect the repair or replacement. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  11. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  12. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. Traditional methods relying on predefined quality rules to detect the conflict between data may fail to choose the right way to fix the detected conflict. Recent efforts turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes the advantages of both rule-based method and crowd-based method. Particularly, we investigate the interaction between crowd-based repairing and rule-based repairing, and show that by doing crowd-based repairing to a small portion of values, we can greatly improve the repairing quality of the rule-based repairing method. Although we prove that the optimal interaction scheme using the least number of values for crowd-based repairing to maximize the imputation recall is not feasible to be achieved, still, our proposed solution identifies an efficient scheme through investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Our empirical study on three data collections demonstrates the high repairing quality of CrowdAidRepair, as well as the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over baselines.

  13. Initiating Repair and Beyond: The Use of Two Repeat-Formatted Repair Initiations in Mandarin Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruey-Jiuan Regina

    2006-01-01

    As part of a growing effort to understand the organization of repair across languages, this study examines 2 repeat-formatted other-initiated repair practices in Mandarin conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis as a central framework, this study shows that the 2 Mandarin repair initiations under examination, like…

  14. Autism: Why Act Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  15. The dermatology acting internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  16. Repair of overheating linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

  17. Regenerative endodontics: regeneration or repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphane R J; Tomson, Phillip L; Berdal, Ariane

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in biotechnology and translational research have made it possible to provide treatment modalities that protect the vital pulp, allow manipulation of reactionary and reparative dentinogenesis, and, more recently, permit revascularization of an infected root canal space. These approaches are referred to as regenerative procedures. The method currently used to determine the origin of the tissue secreted during the repair/regeneration process is largely based on the identification of cellular markers (usually proteins) left by cells that were responsible for this tissue production. The presence of these proteins in conjunction with other indicators of cellular behavior (especially biomineralization) and analysis of the structure of the newly generated tissue allow conclusions to be made of how it was formed. Thus far, it has not been possible to truly establish the biological mechanism controlling tertiary dentinogenesis. This article considers current therapeutic techniques to treat the dentin-pulp complex and contextualize them in terms of reparative and regenerative processes. Although it may be considered a semantic argument rather than a biological one, the definitions of regeneration and repair are explored to clarify our position in this era of regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Burcharth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair. METHODS: In a nationwide register-based study, using data from the Civil Registration System covering all Danish citizens, we established a population-based cohort of all people living in Denmark on December 31(st, 2010. Within this population all groin hernia repairs during the past 5 years were identified using data from the ICD 10(th edition in the Danish National Hospital Register. RESULTS: The study population covered n = 5,639,885 persons. During the five years study period 46,717 groin hernia repairs were performed (88.6% males, 11.4% females. Inguinal hernias comprised 97% of groin hernia repairs (90.2% males, 9.8% females and femoral hernias 3% of groin hernia repairs (29.8% males, 70.2% females. Patients between 0-5 years and 75-80 years constituted the two dominant groups for inguinal hernia repair. In contrast, the age-specific prevalence of femoral hernia repair increased steadily throughout life peaking at age 80-90 years in both men and women. CONCLUSION: The age distribution of inguinal hernia repair is bimodal peaking at early childhood and old age, whereas the prevalence of femoral hernia repair increased steadily throughout life. This information can be used to formulate new hypotheses regarding disease etiology with regard to age and gender specifications.

  19. Improvement of adhesion performance of mortar-repair interface with inducing crack path into repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Satoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important performance for repair materials is adhesion to the substrate. The authors experimentally find out that high modulus fine aggregates in repair material enhance strength of it as well as the strength of the interface repaired with it, compared to the ordinary repair without fine aggregates. This paper elaborates the mechanisms for that with fractographic observation and FEM analysis based on the results of experiment. Also the authors discuss the ways for enhancing the strength and ductility of the repaired mortar

  20. 28 Comparative Study of Open Mesh Repair and Desarda's No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... East And Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 11 Number 2. ... new technique and the open mesh repair done in a district level general hospital set ... laparoscopic repairs or the patients given ..... Hernia repair (Open Vs.

  1. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  2. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  3. DNA repair mechanisms in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336462557

    2009-01-01

    DNA is the carrier of genetic information. DNA is constantly damaged by, for example, UV light and X-rays. Cells can utilize a large number of proteins that can repair the damages, thereby avoiding changes in the DNA sequence. Damages that are not repaired result in an increase in the number of muta

  4. Damage diagnosis and compatible repair mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Mortars for repair and maintenance of historic masonry have to meet specific requirements. Several authors have made contributions, however many cases of failure show that there still is quite a lack of knowledge on the compatibility of repair mortars for historic masonry. The diagnosis of the cause

  5. Laparoscopic Ventral and Incisional Hernia Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ventral and incisional hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations in daily surgical practice. Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair (LVIHR) is gaining increasing adoption in surgical practice. It has theoretical advantages but improvements in technique can still be

  6. Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm branched repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E. L. G.; Tielliu, I. F. J.; Ferreira, M.; Zipfel, B.; Adam, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Open thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a demanding procedure with high impact on the patient and the operating team. Results from expert centres show mortality rates between 3-21%, with extensive morbidity including renal failure and paraplegia. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneu

  7. Some aspects of RNA repair and editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk M. V.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available All cellular RNA molecules are damaged at the scale of DNA molecules, or even more. In the present review the RNA damaging agents, some mechanisms of RNA repair and editing, their difference from DNA repair mechanisms have been discussed.

  8. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature.

  9. Plan Repair using a Plan Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Plan library's have proven their added value to the efficiency of planning. In this paper, we present results on the use of a plan library to plan repair. We show that using a relatively simple library, we can already obtain significant improvements in efficiency compared to plan repair without a li

  10. Dysphagia in children with repaired oesophageal atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, C.H.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Scharbatke, H.E.; Groot, S.A. de; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem in children with repaired oesophageal atresia (OA). Abnormalities in the oropharyngeal and oesophageal phase have hardly been studied. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dysphagia in children with repaired OA and to identify and differentiate oral

  11. Targeted gene repair – in the arena

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The development of targeted gene repair is under way and, despite some setbacks, shows promise as an alternative form of gene therapy. This approach uses synthetic DNA molecules to activate and direct the cell’s inherent DNA repair systems to correct inborn errors. The progress of this technique and its therapeutic potential are discussed in relation to the treatment of genetic diseases.

  12. Perirectal mucocele after imperforate anus repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panicek, D.M.; Leeson, S.H.; Farrar, F.M.; Hitch, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A large perirectal mucocele developed in a child over an 11-year period following repair of an imperforate anus. Renal failure and large bowel obstruction secondary to compression by the mass were the presenting symptoms. Computed tomographic evaluation of the pelvis was critical for preoperative assessment of this previously unreported complication of imperforate anus repair.

  13. Other-initiated repair in Siwu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingemanse Mark

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the interactional patterns and linguistic structures associated with other-initiated repair in Siwu, a Kwa language spoken in eastern Ghana. Other-initiated repair is the set of techniques used by people to deal with problems in speaking, hearing and understanding. Formats for repair initiation in Siwu exploit language-specific resources like question words and noun class morphology. At the same time, the basic structure of the system bears a strong similarity to other-initiated repair in other languages. Practices described for Siwu thus are potentially of broader relevance to the study of other-initiated repair. This article documents how different prosodic realisations of repair initiators may index social actions and features of the speech event; how two distinct roles of repetition in repair initiators are kept apart by features of turn design; and what kinds of items can be treated as ‘dispensable’ in resayings. By charting how other-initiated repair uses local linguistic resources and yet is shaped by interactional needs that transcend particular languages, this study contributes to the growing field of pragmatic typology: the study of systems of language use and the principles that shape them.

  14. The Organization of Second Language Classroom Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Euen Hyuk (Sarah)

    1999-01-01

    Explores classroom pedagogy through a focus on classroom interaction. Takes ideas from conversation analysis as a foundation and starts to unravel some of the structures used for classroom pedagogy. Uses the notion of repair, but takes it one step further by understanding repair to be a pedagogical tool used in the English-as-a-Second-Language…

  15. Modelling in Optimal Inspection and Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rackwitz, R.; Faber, M.H.;

    1991-01-01

    A model for reliability based optimal inspection and repair strategies is described. The total expected costs in the lifetime is minimized with the number of inspections, the inspection times and efforts, the repair crack size limit and a design parameter as optimization variables. The equivalenc...

  16. Material Handling Equipment Evaluation for Crater Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    material handling equipment with a reduced logistical footprint for use by crater repair teams in airfield damage repair (ADR) scenarios. A market ...compared to currently utilized material handling equipment. This report presents the results of the market survey and equipment evaluations. Results...1 1.2 Objective and scope

  17. Pain characteristics after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette A; Strandfelt, Pernille; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown different pain characteristics in different types of laparoscopic operations, but pain pattern has not been studied in detail after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. To optimise preoperative patient information and postoperative analgesic treatment the present study...... investigated postoperative pain in terms of time course, pain intensity and individual pain components during the first 4 days after transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair (TAPP)....

  18. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    -release vitamin C tablets had increased DNA repair activity (27 (95 % CI 12, 41) % higher incision activity). These subjects also benefited from the supplementation by reduced levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. In conclusion, nutritional status, DNA repair activity and DNA damage are linked, and beneficial...

  19. Repairs the added value of being wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical structures connect systems of thought and articulation, the conditions of which hardly seem to fit each other. Repairs are productive mechanisms that solve translation problems between modules or levels by adapting derivations or representations to requirements that have to be met unconditionally. Compensating for derivational and interpretive defects, repairs

  20. Cellular strategies for enhancement of fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas E; Kumagai, Ken; Griffith, Linda; Muschler, George F

    2008-02-01

    Tissue engineering seeks to translate scientific knowledge into tangible products to advance the repair, replacement, or regeneration of organs and tissues. Current tissue engineering strategies have progressed recently from a historical approach that is based primarily on biomaterials to a cell and tissue-based approach that includes understanding of cell-sourcing and bioactive stimuli. New options include methods for harvest and transplantation of tissue-forming cells, bioactive matrix materials that act as tissue scaffolds, and delivery of bioactive molecules within scaffolds. These strategies are already benefiting patients, and they place increasing demands on orthopaedic surgeons to have a solid foundation in the contemporary concepts and principles of cell-based tissue engineering. Essentially all orthopaedic tissue engineering strategies can be distilled to a strategy or combination of strategies that seek to increase the number or relative performance of bone-forming cells. The global term connective tissue progenitors has been used to define the heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that are found in native tissue and that are capable of differentiating into one or more connective tissue phenotypes. These stem or progenitor populations are found in various tissue sources, with varying degrees of ability to differentiate along connective tissue lineages. Available cell-based strategies include targeting local cells with use of scaffolds or bioactive factors, or transplantation of autogenous connective tissue progenitor cells derived from bone marrow or other tissues, with or without processing to change their concentration or prevalence. The future may include means of homing circulating connective tissue progenitor cells with use of intrinsic chemokine systems, or modifying the biological performance of connective tissue progenitor cells by means of genetic modifications.

  1. Bankart repair versus Bankart repair plus remplissage: an in vitro biomechanical comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Jean; Diop, Amadou; Bou Ghosn, Rony; Ghosn, Rosny Bou; Lanari, Dimitri; Canonne, Adrien; Maurel, Nathalie

    2016-02-01

    To biomechanically compare Bankart lesion repair alone and Bankart lesion repair associated with infraspinatus capsulotenodesis described as «remplissage», in the treatment of combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. Seven pairs (right and left) of cadaveric shoulders have been tested, first without any lesion and then after performing a combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. For each pair, the specimens were then randomly assigned for Bankart lesion repair alone on one side or for Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage on the other side. During tests, the shoulder was placed at 90° of abduction and at maximal external rotation, which value was recorded. A 50 N postero-anterior load was then applied to the proximal humerus, and the stiffness was calculated from the obtained load-displacement curve. Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions significantly (p Bankart lesion repair alone did not restore stiffness to the level of intact, while adding the remplissage to the Bankart lesion repair did. External rotation was significantly increased after creation of the Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesion; Bankart repair restored the external rotation to the level of intact, while Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage significantly decreased external rotation compared with intact and to Bankart lesion repair alone. In cadaveric shoulders with combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions, Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage restored intact joint stiffness contrary to Bankart lesion repair alone. This increase in stiffness was associated with a decrease in external rotation.

  2. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    a learning curve of about 50-100 cases and decreases chronic pain, but slightly increases the risk of serious complications compared with open mesh repairs. Therefore, a simpler kind of operation is needed. The ONSTEP technique is a possible solution to this problem. The objective of the present randomised......INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  3. Convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette Astrup; Rosenberg, Jacob; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duration of convalescence after inguinal hernia repair is of major socio-economic interest and an often reported outcome measure. The primary aim was to perform a critical analysis of duration of convalescence from work and activity and secondary to identify risk factors for unexpected...... prolonged convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: A qualitative systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane database were searched for trials reporting convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the period from January 1990 to January 2016...... factors for prolonged convalescence extending more than a few days after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. CONCLUSIONS: Patients should be recommended a duration of 1-2 days of convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Short and non-restrictive recommendations may reduce duration...

  4. Imperfect repair and lifesaving in heterogeneous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Maxim [Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa) and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: FinkelM.SCl@mail.uovs.ac.za

    2007-12-15

    In this theoretical paper we generalize the notion of minimal repair to the heterogeneous case, when the lifetime distribution function can be modeled by continuous or a discrete mixture of distributions. The statistical (black box) minimal repair and the minimal repair based on information just before the failure of an object are considered. The corresponding failure (intensity) rate processes are defined and analyzed. Demographic lifesaving model is also considered: each life is saved (cured) with some probability (or equivalently a proportion of individuals who would have died are now resuscitated and given another chance). Those who are saved experience the statistical minimal repair. Both of these models are based on the Poisson or non-homogeneous Poisson processes of underlying events, which allow for considering heterogeneity. We also consider the new model of imperfect repair in the homogeneous case and present generalizations to the heterogeneous setting.

  5. Repair Development for a Composite Cryotank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Danley, Susan E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Cheshire, Brian C.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project is working to advance the technologies for composite cryogenic propellant tanks at diameters suitable for future heavy lift vehicles and other in-space applications. The main goals of the project are to reduce weight and cost. One aspect of this project has focused on damage evaluation and repair development. Test panels have been impacted, repaired, and tested. Several repair methods were used to compare their effectiveness at restoring the integrity of the composite. Panels were evaluated by nondestructive evaluations at several points during the process to assess the damage and repair. The testing performed and the results and conclusions from the nondestructive evaluations and the destructive testing will be discussed. These results will lead to further development of inspection techniques and repair methods.

  6. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  7. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... a learning curve of about 50-100 cases and decreases chronic pain, but slightly increases the risk of serious complications compared with open mesh repairs. Therefore, a simpler kind of operation is needed. The ONSTEP technique is a possible solution to this problem. The objective of the present randomised...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  8. Chromatin structure and DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Christoffel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The integrity of the genome is continuously challenged by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. These damaging agents can induce a wide variety of lesions in the DNA, such as double strand breaks, single strand breaks, oxidative lesions and pyrimidine dimers. The cell has evolved intricate DNA damage response mechanisms to counteract the genotoxic effects of these lesions. The two main features of the DNA damage response mechanisms are cell-cycle checkpoint activation and, at the heart of the response, DNA repair. For both damage signalling and repair, chromatin remodelling is most likely a prerequisite. Here, we discuss current knowledge on chromatin remodelling with respect to the cellular response to DNA damage, with emphasis on the response to lesions resolved by nucleotide excision repair. We will discuss the role of histone modifications as well as their displacement or exchange in nucleotide excision repair and make a comparison with their requirement in transcription and double strand break repair.

  9. Stochastic Modelling Of The Repairable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejczak Karol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available All reliability models consisting of random time factors form stochastic processes. In this paper we recall the definitions of the most common point processes which are used for modelling of repairable systems. Particularly this paper presents stochastic processes as examples of reliability systems for the support of the maintenance related decisions. We consider the simplest one-unit system with a negligible repair or replacement time, i.e., the unit is operating and is repaired or replaced at failure, where the time required for repair and replacement is negligible. When the repair or replacement is completed, the unit becomes as good as new and resumes operation. The stochastic modelling of recoverable systems constitutes an excellent method of supporting maintenance related decision-making processes and enables their more rational use.

  10. Instrument repair for remote eye units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Powdrill

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Many skilled eye surgeons in remote hospitals face the frustration that a simple instrument, once in good working order, is now bent or broken. Many eye units have a box containing instruments needing repair, hidden away in a stock room cupboard, in the hope that someone, someday, will be able to redeem them. This article gives guidelines on: 1 How to assess instruments and identify those that can be repaired locally, those that should be sent to a professional repair service and those that cannot be repaired at all. 2 How to make adjustments and carry out basic maintenance and repairs of surgical instruments. The article will refer primarily to instruments in an extracapsular cataract extraction set.

  11. Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  12. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  14. Laparoscopic repair of vesicovaginal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz Wilczyński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A vesicovaginal fistula is one of the complications that a gynaecologist is bound to face after oncological operations, especially in postmenopausal women. Over the years there have been introduced many techniques of surgical treatment of this entity, including transabdominal and transvaginal approaches.We present a case of a 46-year-old patient who suffered from urinary leakage via the vagina due to the presence of a vesicovaginal fistula that developed after radical abdominal hysterectomy and subsequent radiotherapy. The decision was made to repair it laparoscopically due to retracted, fibrous and scarred tissue in the vaginal apex that precluded a transvaginal approach. A small cystotomy followed by an excision of fistula borders was performed. After six-month follow-up no recurrence of the disease has been noted.We conclude that laparoscopy is an interesting alternative to traditional approaches that provides comparable results.

  15. [SOS-repair--60 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2013-01-01

    This review integrates 60 years of research on SOS-repair and SOS-mutagenesis in procaryotes and eucaryotes, from Jean Weigle experiment in 1953 year (mutagenesis of lambda bacteriophage in UV-irradiated bacteria) to the latest achievements in studying SOS-mutagenesis on all living organisms--Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. A key role in establishing of a biochemical basis for SOS-mutagenesis belonges to the finding in 1998-1999 years that specific error-prone DNA polymerases (PolV and others) catalysed translesion synthesis on damaged DNA. This review focuses on recent studies addressing the new models for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Home sapiens cells.

  16. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  17. Mismatch repair regulates homologous recombination, but has little influence on antigenic variation, in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joanna S; McCulloch, Richard

    2003-11-14

    Antigenic variation is critical in the life of the African trypanosome, as it allows the parasite to survive in the face of host immunity and enhance its transmission to other hosts. Much of trypanosome antigenic variation uses homologous recombination of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG)-encoding genes into specialized transcription sites, but little is known about the processes that regulate it. Here we describe the effects on VSG switching when two central mismatch repair genes, MSH2 and MLH1, are mutated. We show that disruption of the parasite mismatch repair system causes an increased frequency of homologous recombination, both between perfectly matched DNA molecules and between DNA molecules with divergent sequences. Mismatch repair therefore provides an important regulatory role in homologous recombination in this ancient eukaryote. Despite this, the mismatch repair system has no detectable role in regulating antigenic variation, meaning that VSG switching is either immune to mismatch selection or that mismatch repair acts in a subtle manner, undetectable by current assays.

  18. DNA Polymerases λ and β: The Double-Edged Swords of DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Mentegari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA is constantly exposed to both endogenous and exogenous damages. More than 10,000 DNA modifications are induced every day in each cell’s genome. Maintenance of the integrity of the genome is accomplished by several DNA repair systems. The core enzymes for these pathways are the DNA polymerases. Out of 17 DNA polymerases present in a mammalian cell, at least 13 are specifically devoted to DNA repair and are often acting in different pathways. DNA polymerases β and λ are involved in base excision repair of modified DNA bases and translesion synthesis past DNA lesions. Polymerase λ also participates in non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. However, recent data have revealed that, depending on their relative levels, the cell cycle phase, the ratio between deoxy- and ribo-nucleotide pools and the interaction with particular auxiliary proteins, the repair reactions carried out by these enzymes can be an important source of genetic instability, owing to repair mistakes. This review summarizes the most recent results on the ambivalent properties of these enzymes in limiting or promoting genetic instability in mammalian cells, as well as their potential use as targets for anticancer chemotherapy.

  19. Management and outcomes of colovesical fistula repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Elizabeth T; Ranasinghe, Nalin E; Dallas, Kai B; Divino, Celia M

    2012-05-01

    This large retrospective study presents the largest colovesical fistula (CVF) series to date. We report on recurrence risk factors and patient satisfaction based on quality of life after CVF repair. Approval was obtained from The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Institutional Review Board, and a retrospective review was performed from 2003 to 2010 involving 72 consecutive patients who underwent a colovesical fistula repair. The CVF recurrence rate was 11 per cent. Ten percent of our patients who had a history of radiation therapy were at a significantly higher risk of developing a recurrence. Noted recurrence rates were significantly higher in advanced bladder repairs compared with simple repair (P = 0.022). The modified (Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index) surveys showed overall patient satisfaction score was 3.6, out of a maximum score of 4, regardless of the type of repair or any postoperative complications. Our study found the CVF recurrence rate to be 11 per cent. Patients at higher risk of recurrence include those needing advanced bladder repair, those with "complex" CVF, and those whose fistulas involve the urethra. Patient satisfaction was found to be more closely linked to the resolution of CVF symptoms, irrespective of the type of repair performed or development of postoperative complications.

  20. Arthroscopic Quadriceps Tendon Repair: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetomo Saito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation. Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

  1. Arthroscopic quadriceps tendon repair: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

  2. Dental materials for cleft palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Faiza; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham; Muhammad, Nawshad; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    Numerous bone and soft tissue grafting techniques are followed to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP) defects. In addition to the gold standard surgical interventions involving the use of autogenous grafts, various allogenic and xenogenic graft materials are available for bone regeneration. In an attempt to discover minimally invasive and cost effective treatments for cleft repair, an exceptional growth in synthetic biomedical graft materials have occurred. This study gives an overview of the use of dental materials to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP). The eligibility criteria for this review were case studies, clinical trials and retrospective studies on the use of various types of dental materials in surgical repair of cleft palate defects. Any data available on the surgical interventions to repair alveolar or palatal cleft, with natural or synthetic graft materials was included in this review. Those datasets with long term clinical follow-up results were referred to as particularly relevant. The results provide encouraging evidence in favor of dental and other related biomedical materials to fill the gaps in clefts of lip and palate. The review presents the various bones and soft tissue replacement strategies currently used, tested or explored for the repair of cleft defects. There was little available data on the use of synthetic materials in cleft repair which was a limitation of this study. In conclusion although clinical trials on the use of synthetic materials are currently underway the uses of autologous implants are the preferred treatment methods to date.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  4. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  5. ACT Verbal Prep Course

    CERN Document Server

    Standridge, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for ACT Verbal. Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the verbal sections of the ACT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. The verbal sections are not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to "beat" the ACT, but it is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your score will improve-significantly. The ACT cannot be "beaten." But it can be mastered-through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the exercises in this book are design

  6. Chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-described 10% risk of chronic pain affecting daily activities after adult groin hernia repair, chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair has never been investigated. Studies of other childhood surgery before the age of 3 months suggest a risk of increased...... pain responsiveness later in life, but its potential relationship to chronic pain in adult life is unknown. METHODS: This was a nationwide detailed questionnaire study of chronic groin pain in adults having surgery for a groin hernia repair before the age of 5 years (n = 1075). RESULTS: The response...

  7. Repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, David B; McLellan, Jennifer A

    2013-10-01

    Umbilical and epigastric hernias are primary midline defects that are present in up to 50% of the population. In the United States, only about 1% of the population carries this specific diagnosis, and only about 11% of these are repaired. Repair is aimed at symptoms relief or prevention, and the patient's goals and expectations should be explicitly identified and aligned with the health care team. This article details some relevant and interesting anatomic issues, reviews existing data, and highlights some common and important surgical techniques. Emphasis is placed on a patient-centered approach to the repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias.

  8. Open preperitoneal groin hernia repair with mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA statement. PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were searched systematically. Studies were included if they provided clinical data with more than 30 days follow up following repair of an inguinal hernia with an open preperitoneal mesh......Background For the repair of inguinal hernias, several surgical methods have been presented where the purpose is to place a mesh in the preperitoneal plane through an open access. The aim of this systematic review was to describe preperitoneal repairs with emphasis on the technique. Data sources...

  9. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  10. Method of repairing discontinuity in fiberglass structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, L. L.; Helbert, W. B., Jr.; Enie, R. B.; Mulliken, R. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Damaged fiberglass structures are repaired by substantially filling the irregular surfaced damaged area with a liquid, self-curing resin, preferably an epoxy resin mixed with chopped fiberglass, and then applying to the resin surface the first of several woven fiberglass swatches which has stitching in a zig-zag pattern parallel to each of its edges and a fringe of warp and fill glass fibers about the edges outward of the stitching. The method is especially applicable to repair of fiberglass rocket engine casings and is particularly advantageous since it restores the repaired fiberglass structure to substantially its original strength without any significant changes in the geometry or mass of the structure.

  11. Quantum measurement act as a "speech act"

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J

    2005-01-01

    I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a ``speech act'' in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjectice -- or better a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the ``Mind-Body problem''.

  12. Fibroblast growth factors as tissue repair and regeneration therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin M. Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell communication is central to the integration of cell function required for the development and homeostasis of multicellular animals. Proteins are an important currency of cell communication, acting locally (auto-, juxta-, or paracrine or systemically (endocrine. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF family contributes to the regulation of virtually all aspects of development and organogenesis, and after birth to tissue maintenance, as well as particular aspects of organism physiology. In the West, oncology has been the focus of translation of FGF research, whereas in China and to an extent Japan a major focus has been to use FGFs in repair and regeneration settings. These differences have their roots in research history and aims. The Chinese drive into biotechnology and the delivery of engineered clinical grade FGFs by a major Chinese research group were important enablers in this respect. The Chinese language clinical literature is not widely accessible. To put this into context, we provide the essential molecular and functional background to the FGF communication system covering FGF ligands, the heparan sulfate and Klotho co-receptors and FGF receptor (FGFR tyrosine kinases. We then summarise a selection of clinical reports that demonstrate the efficacy of engineered recombinant FGF ligands in treating a wide range of conditions that require tissue repair/regeneration. Alongside, the functional reasons why application of exogenous FGF ligands does not lead to cancers are described. Together, this highlights that the FGF ligands represent a major opportunity for clinical translation that has been largely overlooked in the West.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan

    2013-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Because they combine both traumatic and degenerative elements, the surgical repair can be challenging. Even after surgical intervention, tendon residual defects or "retears" often develop. Risk factors for tendon "retears" include patient age, number of tendons involved, tear size, and smoking. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a supraphysiological concentration of platelets, which may be able to positively augment rotator cuff tendon healing. Not all PRPs are the same and those containing higher leukocyte levels may be detrimental to tendon healing. Thrombin activation triggers an immediate release of growth factors from the PRP and may actually inhibit some parts of the healing response. As yet, the clinical data does not conclusively prove a benefit from PRP, but discernment is required in evaluating the published results. As different PRPs may act differently and the results may be dose dependent requiring more PRP to achieve a beneficial threshold. How success is measured (clinical outcomes vs. intact cuff tendons) and how long the patients are followed are also critical items. Currently, the PRP fibrin matrix version holds the greatest promise for improving clinical success after rotator cuff tendon repair.

  14. The Apocryphal Acts Of Andrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan N.

    2000-01-01

    Following the first three volumes of the new series on the Acts of John (1995), the Acts of Paul and Thecla (1996) and the Acts of Peter (1998), this new volume is devoted to the Acts of Andrew. After a study of the relationship between the Acts of Andrew and the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, the maj

  15. The modified Koyanagi hypospadias repair for the one-stage repair of proximal hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata R Jayanthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineal and penoscrotal hypospadias were often managed by two-stage urethroplasty with variable results and significant number of these may need third surgery. Though modified Koyanagi one-stage repair has a learning curve, it has all the advantages of two-stage repair. The aim was to review the results of modified Koyonagi repair from the literature and our own centre experience.

  16. Thrombus Volume Change Visualization after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiora, Josu; García, Guillermo; Macía, Iván; Legarreta, Jon Haitz; Boto, Fernando; Paloc, Céline; Graña, Manuel; Abuín, Javier Sanchez

    A surgical technique currently used in the treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) is the Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR). This minimally invasive procedure involves inserting a prosthesis in the aortic vessel that excludes the aneurysm from the bloodstream. The stent, once in place acts as a false lumen for the blood current to travel down, and not into the surrounding aneurysm sac. This procedure, therefore, immediately takes the pressure off the aneurysm, which thromboses itself after some time. Nevertheless, in a long term perspective, different complications such as prosthesis displacement or bloodstream leaks into or from the aneurysmatic bulge (endoleaks) could appear causing a pressure elevation and, as a result, increasing the danger of rupture. The purpose of this work is to explore the application of image registration techniques to the visual detection of changes in the thrombus in order to assess the evolution of the aneurysm. Prior to registration, both the lumen and the thrombus are segmented

  17. 46 CFR 196.30-10 - Notice required before repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice required before repair. 196.30-10 Section 196.30... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-10 Notice required before repair. (a) No repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, shall be made to any lifesaving or fire...

  18. 40 CFR 63.171 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 63.171... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks § 63.171 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected is allowed if repair within 15 days...

  19. 40 CFR 61.242-10 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 61.242-10... Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-10 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is...

  20. 40 CFR 60.692-6 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 60.692-6... From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-6 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of facilities that are subject to the provisions of this subpart will be allowed if the repair...

  1. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  2. 46 CFR 97.30-10 - Notice required before repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice required before repair. 97.30-10 Section 97.30-10... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-10 Notice required before repair. (a) No repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, shall be made to any lifesaving or fire...

  3. 40 CFR 61.350 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 61.350... Waste Operations § 61.350 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of facilities or units that are subject to the provisions of this subpart will be allowed if the repair is technically...

  4. 40 CFR 265.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 265.1059... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if the repair...

  5. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 264.1059... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if the repair is...

  6. Recent trends in repair and refurbishing of steam turbine components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bhaduri; S K Albert; S K Ray; P Rodriguez

    2003-06-01

    The repair and refurbishing of steam generator components is discussed from the perspective of repair welding philosophy including applicable codes and regulations. Some case histories of repair welding of steam generator components are discussed with special emphasis on details of repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades and shrouds in some of the commercial nuclear power plants using procedures developed.

  7. 49 CFR 396.3 - Inspection, repair, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, repair, and maintenance. 396.3 Section..., REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.3 Inspection, repair, and maintenance. (a) General. Every motor carrier and... and maintenance operations to be performed; (3) A record of inspection, repairs, and...

  8. A Minimum Cost Flow model for Level of Repair Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2008-01-01

    Given a product design and a repair network for capital goods, a level of repair analysis determines for each component in the product (1) whether it should be discarded or repaired upon failure and (2) at which location in the repair network to do this. In this paper, we show how the problem can be

  9. A minimum cost flow model for level of repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Given a product design and a repair network for capital goods, a level of repair analysis determines for each component in the product (1) whether it should be discarded or repaired upon failure and (2) at which location in the repair network to do this. In this paper, we show how the problem can be

  10. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...

  11. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding, the...

  12. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  13. Targeting base excision repair as a sensitization strategy in radiotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vens, C.; Begg, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular DNA repair determines survival after ionizing radiation. Human tumors commonly exhibit aberrant DNA repair since they drive mutagenesis and chromosomal instability. Recent reports have shown alterations in the base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways in huma

  14. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  15. Final Design Analysis : Lake Ladora Dam Repair

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to present Rocky Mountain Arsenal with details concerning the remedial repair for Ladora Dam to meet the geotechnical concerns and hydrologic...

  16. PRP and Metaplasia in repaired tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Seyed-Forootan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It seems that using PRP has no effect on strengthening the tendons repair and may have some adverse effects. It usage needs further studies to evaluate their probable adverse side effects.

  17. DNA repair genes in the Megavirales pangenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The order 'Megavirales' represents a group of eukaryotic viruses with a large genome encoding a few hundred up to two thousand five hundred genes. Several members of Megavirales possess genes involved in major DNA repair pathways. Some of these genes were likely inherited from an ancient virus world and some others were derived from the genomes of their hosts. Here we examine molecular phylogenies of key DNA repair enzymes in light of recent hypotheses on the origin of Megavirales, and propose that the last common ancestors of the individual families of the order Megavirales already possessed DNA repair functions to achieve and maintain a moderately large genome and that this repair capacity gradually increased, in a family-dependent manner, during their recent evolution.

  18. Pain characteristics after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette A; Strandfelt, Pernille; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown different pain characteristics in different types of laparoscopic operations, but pain pattern has not been studied in detail after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. To optimise preoperative patient information and postoperative analgesic treatment the present study...

  19. NIU's Kinder, Gentler, Housing Repair System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillis, Linda; Montgomery, Rogene

    1999-01-01

    Explains the effective use of a centralized housing-repair request system at Northern Illinois University that has improved customer service and increased fiscal accountability. Describes the system and assesses of its effectiveness. (GR)

  20. Erosion Resistant Compressor Blade Repair Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate the use of wear resistant high strength nanocomposites in the turbine engine repair and refurbishment process. The...

  1. Lichtenstein versus Onstep for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Inguinal hernia is a common condition that affects millions of people world-wide every year. In Denmark (population of 5.5 million), more than 10,000 repairs of inguinal hernias are performed annually. The optimal surgical procedure for mesh placement and fixation is still being debated because...... of long-term complications such as persisting pain and impairment of sexual function. The Onstep approach is a newer type of groin hernia repair with promising preliminary results in terms of very few cases of chronic pain and recurrences. This protocol describes a randomised clinical trial the objective...... of which is to evaluate chronic pain and sexual dysfunction after inguinal hernia repair using the Lichtenstein repair compared with the Onstep approach....

  2. Lichtenstein versus Onstep for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Inguinal hernia is a common condition that affects millions of people world-wide every year. In Denmark (population of 5.5 million), more than 10,000 repairs of inguinal hernias are performed annually. The optimal surgical procedure for mesh placement and fixation is still being debated because...... of which is to evaluate chronic pain and sexual dysfunction after inguinal hernia repair using the Lichtenstein repair compared with the Onstep approach....... of long-term complications such as persisting pain and impairment of sexual function. The Onstep approach is a newer type of groin hernia repair with promising preliminary results in terms of very few cases of chronic pain and recurrences. This protocol describes a randomised clinical trial the objective...

  3. Laparoscopic transabdominal extraperitoneal repair of lumbar hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar hernias need to be repaired due to the risk of incarceration and strangulation. A laparoscopic intraperitoneal approach in the modified flank position causes the intraperitoneal viscera to be displaced medially away from the hernia. The creation of a wide peritoneal flap around the hernial defect helps in mobilization of the colon, increased length of margin is available for coverage of mesh and more importantly for secure fixation of the mesh under vision to the underlying fascia. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair by this technique is a tensionless repair that diffuses total intra-abdominal pressure on each square inch of implanted mesh. The technique follows current principles of hernia repair and appears to confer all benefits of a minimal access approach.

  4. Light-Curing Adhesive Repair Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Ronald; Haight, Andrea Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Adhesive tapes, the adhesive resins of which can be cured (and thereby rigidized) by exposure to ultraviolet and/or visible light, are being developed as repair patch materials. The tapes, including their resin components, consist entirely of solid, low-outgassing, nonhazardous or minimally hazardous materials. They can be used in air or in vacuum and can be cured rapidly, even at temperatures as low as -20 C. Although these tapes were originally intended for use in repairing structures in outer space, they can also be used on Earth for quickly repairing a wide variety of structures. They can be expected to be especially useful in situations in which it is necessary to rigidize tapes after wrapping them around or pressing them onto the parts to be repaired.

  5. Surgical repair of pulmonary artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghez, Olivier; Saeed, Imran; Serrato, Maria; Quintero, Diana Bernal; Kreitmann, Bernard; Fraisse, Alain; Uemura, Hideki; Seale, Anna; Daubeney, Piers; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, S Yen

    2013-01-01

    Surgical repair of pulmonary artery (PA) branches encompasses many different clinical scenarios and technical challenges. The most common, such as bifurcation and central PA reconstruction, are described, as well as the challenges of complex and peripheral reconstruction.

  6. Fast Cure Repair Kit for Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a need for technologies that will enable them to repair damage to composite structures. Fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are fast gaining ground...

  7. A progression of damage repair capability in self-repairing composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    This paper covers several projects in which the author sought to determine the extent of damage against which self repair would be effective. So far no limits have been reached beyond those of the fiber/matrix itself. Starting with repair of barely visible damage in airplane wings consisting of graphite fiber/resin matrix composites progression was next to self repair of ballistic damage to vinyl ester walls and epoxy resin walls and finally blast damage self repair of walls and then blast and ballistic damage were combined.

  8. Double strand break (DSB) repair in heterochromatin and heterochromatin proteins in DSB repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Charlène; Soutoglou, Evi

    2014-07-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer cells and they represent a major cause of tumorigenesis. To avoid chromosomal translocations, faithful repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) has to be ensured in the context of high ordered chromatin structure. However, chromatin compaction is proposed to represent a barrier for DSB repair. Here we review the different mechanisms cells use to alleviate the heterochromatic barrier for DNA repair. At the same time, we discuss the activating role of heterochromatin-associated proteins in this process, therefore proposing that chromatin structure, more than being a simple barrier, is a key modulator of DNA repair.

  9. Rapid Set Materials for Advanced Spall Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    cement -based polymer- cement mortar and concrete • Magnesium -ammonium- phosphate - cement mortar and concrete • Polymer-based mortar and concrete...material or lodged debris from the joint or crack. • Place a small bead of caulk over the joint or crack. • If using a cement -based repair material, soak...placement equipment immediately after use. • When using cement repair materials, either wet cure or apply curing compound. • Remove the compressible spacer

  10. Nucleotide excision repair in differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wees, Caroline van der [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Jansen, Jacob [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Vrieling, Harry [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Laarse, Arnoud van der [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Zeeland, Albert van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Mullenders, Leon [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.mullenders@lumc.nl

    2007-01-03

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the principal pathway for the removal of a wide range of DNA helix-distorting lesions and operates via two NER subpathways, i.e. global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Although detailed information is available on expression and efficiency of NER in established mammalian cell lines, little is known about the expression of NER pathways in (terminally) differentiated cells. The majority of studies in differentiated cells have focused on repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4-photoproducts (6-4PP) because of the high frequency of photolesions at low level of toxicity and availability of sensitive technologies to determine photolesions in defined regions of the genome. The picture that emerges from these studies is blurred and rather complex. Fibroblasts and terminally differentiated myocytes of the rat heart display equally efficient GGR of 6-4PP but poor repair of CPD due to the absence of p48 expression. This repair phenotype is clearly different from human terminal differentiated neurons. Furthermore, both cell types were found to carry out TCR of CPD, thus mimicking the repair phenotype of established rodent cell lines. In contrast, in intact rat spermatogenic cells repair was very inefficient at the genome overall level and in transcriptionally active genes indicating that GGR and TCR are non-functional. Also, non-differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit low levels of NER after UV irradiation. However, the mechanisms that lead to low NER activity are clearly different: in differentiated spermatogenic cells differences in chromatin compaction and sequestering of NER proteins may underlie the lack of NER activity in pre-meiotic cells, whereas in non-differentiated ES cells NER is impaired by a strong apoptotic response.

  11. Cell healing: calcium, repair and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Alison; Golding, Adriana E.; Bement, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell repair is attracting increasing attention due to its conservation, its importance to health, and its utility as a model for cell signaling and cell polarization. However, some of the most fundamental questions concerning cell repair have yet to be answered. Here we consider three such questions: 1) How are wound holes stopped? 2) How is cell regeneration achieved after wounding? 3) How is calcium inrush linked to wound stoppage and cell regeneration? PMID:26514621

  12. Role of Deubiquitinating Enzymes in DNA Repair

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Both proteolytic and nonproteolytic functions of ubiquitination are essential regulatory mechanisms for promoting DNA repair and the DNA damage response in mammalian cells. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) have emerged as key players in the maintenance of genome stability. In this minireview, we discuss the recent findings on human DUBs that participate in genome maintenance, with a focus on the role of DUBs in the modulation of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling.

  13. Chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: Chronic post herniorrhaphy groin pain is defined as pain lasting > 6 months after surgery, which is one of the most important complication occurring after inguinal hernia repair, occurs with greater frequency than previously thought. Chronic groin pain is one of the most significant complications following inguinal hernia repair, and majority of chronic pain has been attributed to ilioinguinal nerve entrapment. Various other factors are involved in development of...

  14. Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital’s database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF. The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086. The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001. Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications.

  15. The forked flap repair for hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Chadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The "Forked-Flap" repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip-flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit′s prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

  16. Achilles Tendon Repair, A Modified Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Keyhani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Wound complications following open repair for acute Achilles tendon ruptures (AATR remain the subject of significant debate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of covering repaired AATR using well-nourished connective tissues (paratenon and deep fascia to avoid complications after open repair.   Methods: In this case series study, open repair was performed for 32 active young patients with AATR. After the tendon was repaired, the deep fascia and paratenon was used to cover the Achilles tendon. Patients were followed for two years and any wound complication was recorded. During the last visit, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle-hind foot score was completed for all patients. Calf circumference and ankle range of motion were measured and compared with the contralateral side. Patients were asked about returning to previous sports activities and limitations with footwear. Results: Only, one patient developed deep wound infection (3%. None of the patients had any discomfort around the operation area, limitation with footwear, sural nerve injury, re-rupture, and skin adhesion. The AOFAS score averaged 92.5±6. Two patients (7% were unable to return to previous sports activities because of moderate pain in heavy physical exercises. The calf circumference and ankle ROM were similar between healthy and operated sides. Conclusion: The present study showed that fascial envelope for full covering of the repaired Achilles tendon may help to prevent the occurrence of wound complications.

  17. Achilles Tendon Repair, A Modified Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Keyhani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound complications following open repair for acute Achilles tendon ruptures (AATR remain the subject of significant debate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of covering repaired AATR using well-nourished connective tissues (paratenon and deep fascia to avoid complications after open repair.   Methods: In this case series study, open repair was performed for 32 active young patients with AATR. After the tendon was repaired, the deep fascia and paratenon was used to cover the Achilles tendon. Patients were followed for two years and any wound complication was recorded. During the last visit, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle-hind foot score was completed for all patients. Calf circumference and ankle range of motion were measured and compared with the contralateral side. Patients were asked about returning to previous sports activities and limitations with footwear. Results: Only, one patient developed deep wound infection (3%. None of the patients had any discomfort around the operation area, limitation with footwear, sural nerve injury, re-rupture, and skin adhesion. The AOFAS score averaged 92.5±6. Two patients (7% were unable to return to previous sports activities because of moderate pain in heavy physical exercises. The calf circumference and ankle ROM were similar between healthy and operated sides. Conclusion: The present study showed that fascial envelope for full covering of the repaired Achilles tendon may help to prevent the occurrence of wound complications.

  18. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  19. Immunobiology of Facial Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Shi-ming; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Immunobiological study is a key to revealing the important basis of facial nerve repair and regeneration for both research and development of clinic treatments. The microenvironmental changes around an injuried facial motoneuron, i.e., the aggregation and expression of various types of immune cells and molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, impenetrate from the start to the end of the repair of an injured facial nerve. The concept of "immune microenvironment for facial nerve repair and regeneration", mainly concerns with the dynamic exchange between expression and regulation networks and a variaty of immune cells and immune molecules in the process of facial nerve repair and regeneration for the maintenance of a immune microenvironment favorable for nerve repair.Investigation on microglial activation and recruitment, T cell behavior, cytokine networks, and immunological cellular and molecular signaling pathways in facial nerve repair and regeneration are the current hot spots in the research on immunobiology of facial nerve injury. The current paper provides a comprehensive review of the above mentioned issues. Research of these issues will eventually make immunological interventions practicable treatments for facial nerve injury in the clinic.

  20. Schwann cells for spinal cord repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudega M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of spinal cord injury appears to demand a multifactorial repair strategy. One of the components that will likely be included is an implant that will fill the area of lost nervous tissue and provide a growth substrate for injured axons. Here we will discuss the role of Schwann cells (SCs in cell-based, surgical repair strategies of the injured adult spinal cord. We will review key studies that showed that intraspinal SC grafts limit injury-induced tissue loss and promote axonal regeneration and myelination, and that this response can be improved by adding neurotrophic factors or anti-inflammatory agents. These results will be compared with several other approaches to the repair of the spinal cord. A general concern with repair strategies is the limited functional recovery, which is in large part due to the failure of axons to grow across the scar tissue at the distal graft-spinal cord interface. Consequently, new synaptic connections with spinal neurons involved in motor function are not formed. We will highlight repair approaches that did result in growth across the scar and discuss the necessity for more studies involving larger, clinically relevant types of injuries, addressing this specific issue. Finally, this review will reflect on the prospect of SCs for repair strategies in the clinic.

  1. New design of nucleotide excision repair (NER) inhibitors for combination cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Francesco; Tuszynski, Jack A; Barakat, Khaled H

    2016-04-01

    Many cancer chemotherapy agents act by targeting the DNA of cancer cells, causing substantial damage within their genome and causing them to undergo apoptosis. An effective DNA repair pathway in cancer cells can act in a reverse way by removing these drug-induced DNA lesions, allowing cancer cells to survive, grow and proliferate. In this context, DNA repair inhibitors opened a new avenue in cancer treatment, by blocking the DNA repair mechanisms from removing the chemotherapy-mediated DNA damage. In particular, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) involves more than thirty protein-protein interactions and removes DNA adducts caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1)-xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA) protein (XPA-ERCC1) complex seems to be one of the most promising targets in this pathway. ERCC1 is over expressed in cancer cells and the only known cellular function so far for XPA is to recruit ERCC1 to the damaged point. Here, we build upon our recent advances in identifying inhibitors for this interaction and continue our efforts to rationally design more effective and potent regulators for the NER pathway. We employed in silico drug design techniques to: (1) identify compounds similar to the recently discovered inhibitors, but more effective at inhibiting the XPA-ERCC1 interactions, and (2) identify different scaffolds to develop novel lead compounds. Two known inhibitor structures have been used as starting points for two ligand/structure-hybrid virtual screening approaches. The findings described here form a milestone in discovering novel inhibitors for the NER pathway aiming at improving the efficacy of current platinum-based therapy, by modulating the XPA-ERCC1 interaction.

  2. Investigation of DNA repair in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroudi, S.

    2010-01-01

    DNA repair genes are expressed in mammalian embryos and in human germinal vesicles, however, little is known about DNA repair in human preimplantation embryos. This project had three aims: 1) to produce a DNA repair profile of human MII oocytes and blastocysts using expression arrays and identify repair pathways that may be active before and after embryonic genome activation; 2) to design an in vitro functional assay that targeted mismatch repair and which could be applied to human oocytes...

  3. Cortical Button Fixation: A Better Patellar Tendon Repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Gabriella E; Piasecki, Dana P; Habet, Nahir A; Peindl, Richard D

    2016-10-01

    Patellar tendon ruptures require surgical repair to optimize outcomes, but no consensus exists regarding the ideal repair technique. Cortical button fixation is a secure method for tendon repair that has not been studied in patellar tendons. Cortical button repair is biomechanically superior to the standard transpatellar repair and biomechanically equivalent to suture anchor repair. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-three fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were used to compare 3 techniques of patellar tendon repair after a simulated rupture at the inferior pole of the patella. Repairs were performed at 45° of flexion using a standard transpatellar suture repair (n = 7), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) suture anchor repair (n = 8), or cortical button repair (n = 8). All specimens were tested on a custom apparatus to simulate cyclic open kinetic chain quadriceps contraction from extension to 90(o) of flexion. Outcomes of gap formation up to 250 cycles, maximum load to failure, and mode of failure were evaluated. Cortical button repair had significantly less gap formation than anchor repair after 1 cycle (P button repair sustained significantly higher loads to failure than anchor repair and suture repair (P button repairs either failed through the suture (n = 5), secondary failure of the patellar tendon (n = 2), or subsidence of the button through the anterior cortex of the patella (n = 1). Patellar tendon repair using cortical button fixation demonstrated mechanical advantages over suture repair and anchor repair in cadaveric specimens. Cortical button fixation showed less cyclic gap formation and withstood at least twice the load to failure of the construct. The biomechanical superiority of cortical button fixation may impart clinical advantages in accelerating postoperative rehabilitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Repairable-conditionally repairable damage model based on dual Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, B K; Persson, L M; Edgren, M R; Hedlöf, I; Brahme, A

    2003-09-01

    The advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy makes it increasingly important to model the response accurately when large volumes of normal tissues are irradiated by controlled graded dose distributions aimed at maximizing tumor cure and minimizing normal tissue toxicity. The cell survival model proposed here is very useful and flexible for accurate description of the response of healthy tissues as well as tumors in classical and truly radiobiologically optimized radiation therapy. The repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) model distinguishes between two different types of damage, namely the potentially repairable, which may also be lethal, i.e. if unrepaired or misrepaired, and the conditionally repairable, which may be repaired or may lead to apoptosis if it has not been repaired correctly. When potentially repairable damage is being repaired, for example by nonhomologous end joining, conditionally repairable damage may require in addition a high-fidelity correction by homologous repair. The induction of both types of damage is assumed to be described by Poisson statistics. The resultant cell survival expression has the unique ability to fit most experimental data well at low doses (the initial hypersensitive range), intermediate doses (on the shoulder of the survival curve), and high doses (on the quasi-exponential region of the survival curve). The complete Poisson expression can be approximated well by a simple bi-exponential cell survival expression, S(D) = e(-aD) + bDe(-cD), where the first term describes the survival of undamaged cells and the last term represents survival after complete repair of sublethal damage. The bi-exponential expression makes it easy to derive D(0), D(q), n and alpha, beta values to facilitate comparison with classical cell survival models.

  5. Mechanisms of DNA repair and radio-induced mutagenesis in higher eukaryotes; Mecanismes de reparation et mutagenese radio-induite chez les eucaryotes superieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbeck, D. [Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond-Latarjet, UMR 2027 CNRS, 91 (France)

    2000-10-01

    Cells of higher eukaryotes possess several very efficient systems for the repair of radiation-induced lesions in DNA. Different strategies have been adopted at the cellular level to remove or even tolerate various types of lesions in order to assure survival and limit the mutagenic consequences. In mammalian cells, the main DNA repair systems comprise direct reversion of damage, excision of damage and exchange mechanisms with intact DNA. Among these, the direct ligation of single strand breaks (SSB) by a DNA ligase and the multi-enzymatic repair systems of mismatch repair, base and nucleotide excision repair as well as the repair of double strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination or non homologous end-joining are the most important systems. Most of these processes are error-free except the non homologous end-joining pathway used for the repair of DSB. Moreover, certain lesions can be tolerated by more or less accurately acting polymerases capable of performing trans-lesion DNA syntheses. The DNA repair systems are intimately integrated in the network of cellular regulation. Some of their components are DNA damage inducible. Radiation-induced mutagenesis is largely due to unrepaired DNA damage but also involves error-prone repair processes like the repair of DSB by non-homologous end-joining. Generally, mammalian cells are well prepared to repair radiation-induced lesions. However, some questions remain to be asked about mechanistic details and efficiencies of the systems for removing certain types of radiation-damage and about their order and timing of action. The answers to these questions would be important for radioprotection as well as radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  7. DNA polymerase delta, RFC and PCNA are required for repair synthesis of large looped heteroduplexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrette-Bennett, Stephanie E; Borgeson, Claudia; Sommer, Debbie; Burgers, Peter M J; Lahue, Robert S

    2004-01-01

    Small looped mispairs are corrected by DNA mismatch repair (MMR). In addition, a distinct process called large loop repair (LLR) corrects loops up to several hundred nucleotides in extracts of bacteria, yeast or human cells. Although LLR activity can be readily demonstrated, there has been little progress in identifying its protein components. This study identified some of the yeast proteins responsible for DNA repair synthesis during LLR. Polyclonal antisera to either Pol31 or Pol32 subunits of polymerase delta efficiently inhibited LLR in extracts by blocking repair just prior to gap filling. Gap filling was inhibited regardless of whether the loop was retained or removed. These experiments suggest polymerase delta is uniquely required in yeast extracts for LLR-associated synthesis. Similar results were obtained with antisera to the clamp loader proteins Rfc3 and Rfc4, and to PCNA, i.e. LLR was inhibited just prior to gap filling for both loop removal and loop retention. Thus PCNA and RFC seem to act in LLR only during repair synthesis, in contrast to their roles at both pre- and post-excision steps of MMR. These biochemical experiments support the idea that yeast polymerase delta, RFC and PCNA are required for large loop DNA repair synthesis.

  8. The impact of heterochromatin on DSB repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Aaron A; Noon, Angela T; Jeggo, Penny A

    2009-06-01

    DNA NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) is the major DNA DSB (double-strand break) repair pathway in mammalian cells. Although NHEJ-defective cell lines show marked DSB-repair defects, cells defective in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) repair most DSBs normally. Thus NHEJ functions independently of ATM signalling. However, approximately 15% of radiation-induced DSBs are repaired with slow kinetics and require ATM and the nuclease Artemis. DSBs persisting in the presence of an ATM inhibitor, ATMi, localize to heterochromatin, suggesting that ATM is required for repairing DSBs arising within or close to heterochromatin. Consistent with this, we show that siRNA (small interfering RNA) of key heterochromatic proteins, including KAP-1 [KRAB (Krüppel-associated box) domain-associated protein 1], HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) and HDAC (histone deacetylase) 1/2, relieves the requirement for ATM for DSB repair. Furthermore, ATMi addition to cell lines with genetic alterations that have an impact on heterochromatin, including Suv39H1/2 (suppressor of variegation 3-9 homologue 1/2)-knockout, ICFa (immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome type a) and Hutchinson-Guilford progeria cell lines, fails to have an impact on DSB repair. KAP-1 is a highly dose-dependent, transient and ATM-specific substrate, and mutation of the ATM phosphorylation site on KAP-1 influences DSB repair. Collectively, the findings show that ATM functions to overcome the barrier to DSB repair posed by heterochromatin. However, even in the presence of ATM, gamma-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) foci form on the periphery rather than within heterochromatic centres. Finally, we show that KAP-1's association with heterochromatin is diminished as cells progress through mitosis. We propose that KAP-1 is a critical heterochromatic factor that undergoes specific modifications to promote DSB repair and mitotic progression in a manner that allows localized and transient

  9. Intrinsic repair protects cells from pore-forming toxins by microvesicle shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Matthew; Keyel, Michelle; Shi, Guilan; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E; Keyel, Peter A

    2017-02-10

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are used by both the immune system and by pathogens to disrupt cell membranes. Cells attempt to repair this disruption in various ways, but the exact mechanism(s) that cells use are not fully understood, nor agreed upon. Current models for membrane repair include (1) patch formation (e.g., fusion of internal vesicles with plasma membrane defects), (2) endocytosis of the pores, and (3) shedding of the pores by blebbing from the cell membrane. In this study, we sought to determine the specific mechanism(s) that cells use to resist three different cholesterol-dependent PFTs: Streptolysin O, Perfringolysin O, and Intermedilysin. We found that all three toxins were shed from cells by blebbing from the cell membrane on extracellular microvesicles (MVs). Unique among the cells studied, we found that macrophages were 10 times more resistant to the toxins, yet they shed significantly smaller vesicles than the other cells. To examine the mechanism of shedding, we tested whether toxins with engineered defects in pore formation or oligomerization were shed. We found that oligomerization was necessary and sufficient for membrane shedding, suggesting that calcium influx and patch formation were not required for shedding. However, pore formation enhanced shedding, suggesting that calcium influx and patch formation enhance repair. In contrast, monomeric toxins were endocytosed. These data indicate that cells use two interrelated mechanisms of membrane repair: lipid-dependent MV shedding, which we term 'intrinsic repair', and patch formation by intracellular organelles. Endocytosis may act after membrane repair is complete by removing inactivated and monomeric toxins from the cell surface.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 10 February 2017; doi:10.1038/cdd.2017.11.

  10. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act..., and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment...

  11. 77 FR 29680 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... funds appropriated or made available by the Recovery Act may be used for a project for the construction, alteration, maintenance, or repair of a public building or public work unless all of the iron, steel, and... interest; (2) iron, steel, and the relevant manufactured goods are not produced in the U.S. in...

  12. 76 FR 61377 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... funds appropriated or made available by the Recovery Act may be used for a project for the construction, alteration, maintenance, or repair of a public building or public work unless all of the iron, steel, and... interest; (2) iron, steel, and the relevant manufactured goods are not produced in the U.S. in...

  13. The Effectiveness of Open Repair Versus Percutaneous Repair for an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Heidi; David, Shannon

    2016-12-01

    Clinical Scenario: There are 2 approaches available for surgical repair of the Achilles tendon: open or percutaneous. However, there is controversy over which repair is superior. Focused Clinical Question: Which type of surgery is better in providing the best overall patient outcome, open or percutaneous repair, in physically active men and women with acute Achilles tendon ruptures? Summary of Search, "Best Evidence" Appraised, and Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies of level 3 evidence or higher that investigated the effectiveness of open repair versus percutaneous repair on acute Achilles tendon ruptures in physically active men and women. The literature search resulted in 3 studies for possible inclusion. All 3 good-quality studies were included. Clinical Bottom Line: There is supporting evidence to indicate that percutaneous repair is the best option for Achilles tendon surgery when it comes to the physically active population. Percutaneous repair has faster surgery times, less risk of complications, and faster recovery times over having an open repair, although it is acknowledged that every patient has a different situation and best individual option may vary patient to patient.

  14. Laparoscopic repair of large incisional hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Harris H; Nottingham, James M; Bynoe, Raymond P; Yost, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    Incisional hernias after abdominal operations are a significant cause of long-term morbidity and have been reported to occur in 3 to 20 per cent of laparotomy incisions. Traditional primary suture closure repair is plagued with up to a 50 per cent recurrence rate. With the introduction of prosthetic mesh repair recurrence decreased, but complications with mesh placement emerged ushering in the development of laparoscopic incisional herniorrhaphy. The records of patients who underwent laparoscopic incisional hernia repair between June 1, 1995 and September 1, 2001 were reviewed. Patient demographics, hernia defect size, recurrence, operative time, and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Fifty patients (22 male and 28 female, mean age 57 years with range of 24-83) were scheduled for laparoscopic incisional hernia repair between June 1, 1995 and September 1, 2001. The average patient was obese with a mean body mass index of 35.8 kg/m2 (range 16-57 kg/m2). Two patients (4%) had primary ventral hernias. Forty-eight patients (96%) had incisional hernias with 22 (46%) of these previously repaired with prosthetic mesh. Mean defect size was 206.1 cm2 (range 48-594 cm2). The average mesh size was 510.2 cm2 (range 224-1050 cm2). Gore-Tex DualMesh and Bard Composite Mesh were used in 84 and 16 per cent of the repairs, respectively. Mean operating time was 97 minutes. There were no deaths. Complications were seen in 12 per cent patients (six occurrences) and included two small bowel enterotomies, a symptomatic seroma requiring aspirate, a mesh reaction requiring a short course of intravenous antibiotics, and trocar site pain (two patients). There were no recurrences during a mean follow-up of 41 months (range 3-74 months). We conclude that laparoscopic incisional herniorrhaphy offers a safe and effective repair for large primary and recurrent ventral hernia with low morbidity.

  15. Proximal Contact Repair of Complex Amalgam Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zguri, M N; Casey, J A; Jessup, J P; Vandewalle, K S

    2017-01-12

    The carving of a complex amalgam restoration may occasionally result in light proximal contact with the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of complex amalgam restorations repaired with a proximal slot amalgam preparation. Extracted human third molars of similar coronal size were sectioned 1 mm apical to the height of the contour using a saw and were randomly distributed into 9 groups of 10 teeth each. One pin was placed at each line angle of the flattened dentinal tooth surface. A metal matrix band was placed and an admixed alloy was condensed and carved to create a full crown contour but with a flat occlusal surface. A proximal slot was prepared with or without a retention groove and repaired using a single-composition spherical amalgam 15 minutes, 24 hours, one week, or six months after the initial crown condensation. The specimens were stored for 24 hours in 37°C water before fracture at the marginal ridge using a round-ended blade in a universal testing machine. The control group was not repaired. The mean maximum force in newtons and standard deviation were determined per group. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance as well as Tukey and Dunnett tests (α=0.05). Significant differences were found between groups based on type of slot preparation (p=0.017) but not on time (p=0.327), with no significant interaction (p=0.152). No significant difference in the strength of the marginal ridge was found between any repair group and the unrepaired control group (p>0.076). The proximal repair strength of a complex amalgam restoration was not significantly different from an unrepaired amalgam crown. Placing a retention groove in the proximal slot preparation resulted in significantly greater fracture strength than a slot with no retention grooves. Time of repair had no significant effect on the strength of the repair.

  16. Inguinal hernia repair: toward Asian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanto, Davide; Cheah, Wei-Keat; Faylona, Jose Macario; Huang, Ching Shui; Lohsiriwat, Darin; Maleachi, Andy; Yang, George Pei Cheung; Li, Michael Ka-Wai; Tumtavitikul, Sathien; Sharma, Anil; Hartung, Rolf Ulrich; Choi, Young Bai; Sutedja, Barlian

    2015-02-01

    Groin hernias are very common, and surgical treatment is usually recommended. In fact, hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed worldwide. In countries such as the USA, China, and India, there may easily be over 1 million repairs every year. The need for this surgery has become an important socioeconomic problem and may affect health-care providers, especially in aging societies. Surgical repair using mesh is recommended and widely employed in Western countries, but in many developing countries, tissue-to-tissue repair is still the preferred surgical procedure due to economic constraints. For these reason, the development and implementation of guidelines, consensus, or recommendations may aim to clarify issues related to best practices in inguinal hernia repair in Asia. A group of Asian experts in hernia repair gathered together to debate inguinal hernia treatments in Asia in an attempt to reach some consensus or develop recommendations on best practices in the region. The need for recommendations or guidelines was unanimously confirmed to help overcome the discrepancy in clinical practice between countries; the experts decided to focus mainly on the technical aspects of open repair, which is the most common surgery for hernia in our region. After the identification of 12 main topics for discussion (indication, age, and sex; symptomatic and asymptomatic hernia: type of hernia; type of treatment; hospital admission; preoperative care; anesthesia; surgical technique; perioperative care; postoperative care; early complications; and long-term complications), a search of the literature was carried out according to the five levels of the Oxford Classification of Evidence and the four grades of recommendation.

  17. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  18. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    with an awareness of larger political, economic, geographical and art-related aspects. The concept of ‘acts of research’ is suggested as a way to understand knowledge production as a creative act in which research carried out in relation to a specific material challenges and resists the protocols of conventional...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...

  19. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  20. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  1. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  2. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  3. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  4. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  5. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  6. The Corporations Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  7. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Gen1/Yen1 resolvases links DNA damage signaling to DNA double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric P Bailly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR, which can involve Holliday junction (HJ intermediates that are ultimately resolved by nucleolytic enzymes. An N-terminal fragment of human GEN1 has recently been shown to act as a Holliday junction resolvase, but little is known about the role of GEN-1 in vivo. Holliday junction resolution signifies the completion of DNA repair, a step that may be coupled to signaling proteins that regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Using forward genetic approaches, we identified a Caenorhabditis elegans dual function DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage signaling protein orthologous to the human GEN1 Holliday junction resolving enzyme. GEN-1 has biochemical activities related to the human enzyme and facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks, but is not essential for DNA double-strand break repair during meiotic recombination. Mutational analysis reveals that the DNA damage-signaling function of GEN-1 is separable from its role in DNA repair. GEN-1 promotes germ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a pathway that acts in parallel to the canonical DNA damage response pathway mediated by RPA loading, CHK1 activation, and CEP-1/p53-mediated apoptosis induction. Furthermore, GEN-1 acts redundantly with the 9-1-1 complex to ensure genome stability. Our study suggests that GEN-1 might act as a dual function Holliday junction resolvase that may coordinate DNA damage signaling with a late step in DNA double-strand break repair.

  8. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    , it is evident that proteins from the different DNA repair pathways interact [Y. Wang, D. Cortez, P. Yazdi, N. Neff, S.J. Elledge, J. Qin, BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures, Genes Dev. 14 (2000) 927-939; M. Christmann, M......DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA.......T. Tomicic, W.P. Roos, B. Kaina, Mechanisms of human DNA repair: an update, Toxicology 193 (2003) 3-34; N.B. Larsen, M. Rasmussen, L.J. Rasmussen, Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA repair: similar pathways? Mitochondrion 5 (2005) 89-108]. Protein interactions are not only important for function, but also...

  9. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Failed SLAP Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Miller, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    In general, favorable outcomes have been achieved with arthroscopic repair of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears. However, some patients remain dissatisfied or suffer further injury after SLAP repair and may seek additional treatment to alleviate their symptoms. The cause of persistent pain or recurrent symptoms after repair is likely multifactorial; therefore, careful preoperative workup is required to elucidate the cause of pain. Review of the details of previous surgical procedures is crucial because certain fixation methods are prone to failure or can cause additional injury. Failed SLAP repair can be managed with nonsurgical or surgical options. Nonsurgical modalities include physical therapy and strengthening programs, anti-inflammatory agents, and activity modification. Surgical options include revision SLAP repair and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis with or without revision SLAP repair. Outcomes after surgical management of failed SLAP repair are inferior to those of primary repair. Select patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  10. Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormont, John [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Nanocomposite wellbore repair materials have been developed, tested, and modeled through an integrated program of laboratory testing and numerical modeling. Numerous polymer-cement nanocomposites were synthesized as candidate wellbore repair materials using various combinations of base polymers and nanoparticles. Based on tests of bond strength to steel and cement, ductility, stability, flowability, and penetrability in opening of 50 microns and less, we identified Novolac epoxy reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and/or alumina nanoparticles to be a superior wellbore seal material compared to conventional microfine cements. A system was developed for testing damaged and repaired wellbore specimens comprised of a cement sheath cast on a steel casing. The system allows independent application of confining pressures and casing pressures while gas flow is measured through the specimens along the wellbore axis. Repair with the nanocomposite epoxy base material was successful in dramatically reducing the flow through flaws of various sizes and types, and restoring the specimen comparable to an intact condition. In contrast, repair of damaged specimens with microfine cement was less effective, and the repair degraded with application of stress. Post-test observations confirm the complete penetration and sealing of flaws using the nanocomposite epoxy base material. A number of modeling efforts have supported the material development and testing efforts. We have modeled the steel-repair material interface behavior in detail during slant shear tests, which we used to characterize bond strength of candidate repair materials. A numerical model of the laboratory testing of damaged wellbore specimens was developed. This investigation found that microannulus permeability can satisfactorily be described by a joint model. Finally, a wellbore model has been developed that can be used to evaluate the response of the wellbore system (casing, cement, and microannulus

  11. Evaluation of Repair Tension in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Does It Really Matter to the Integrity of the Rotator Cuff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hoon; Jang, Young Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Hwa-Ryeong; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-11-01

    Repair tension of a torn rotator cuff can affect healing after repair. However, a measurement of the actual tension during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is not feasible. The relationship between repair tension and healing of a rotator cuff repair remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repair tension on healing at the repair site. The hypothesis was that repair tension would be a major factor in determining the anatomic outcome of rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs (132 patients) for full-thickness rotator cuff tears were analyzed. An intraoperative model was designed for the estimation of repair tension using a tensiometer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed approximately 1 year (mean [±SD], 12.7 ± 3.2 months) postoperatively for the evaluation of healing at the repair site. Multivariable analysis was performed for tear size, amount of retraction, and fatty degeneration (FD) of rotator cuff muscles. The mean repair tension measured during the arthroscopic procedure was 28.5 ± 23.1 N. There was a statistically significant correlation between tension and tear size (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC], 0.529; P rotator cuff muscles were included for multivariable logistic regression analysis, only FD of the infraspinatus showed an association with the anatomic outcome of repair (Exp(B) = 0.596; P = .010). Our intraoperative model for the estimation of rotator cuff repair tension showed an inverse correlation of repair tension with healing at the repair site, suggesting that complete healing is less likely with high-tension repairs. A significant association was observed on MRI between a high level of FD of the infraspinatus and repaired tendon integrity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. In utero repair of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Julie S

    2014-08-01

    Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most common congenital malformation of the central nervous system compatible with long-term survival and is associated with significant lifelong disabilities. Postnatal care of MMC involves covering the exposed spinal cord, infection prevention, and ventricular shunting for hydrocephalus. The aim of postnatal MMC surgery is not to reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, but to palliate. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic in utero damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma-the two-hit hypothesis. With the ability to accurately diagnose spina bifida prenatally and the concept of the two-hit hypothesis, in utero repair to decrease exposure and alter the antenatal course of neurologic destruction was conceived. Through animal models and human pilot studies, the feasibility of fetal spina bifida repair was demonstrated. Subsequently, the prospective randomized multicenter Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial) revealed a decreased need for shunting, reversal of hindbrain herniation, and preservation of neurologic function, making in utero repair an accepted care alternative for select women carrying a fetus with spina bifida. This article will highlight the background and rationale for in utero repair, and the progression to becoming an alternative standard of care. The future directions of fetal spina bifida repair will also be addressed.

  13. Umbilical Hernia Repair: Analysis After 934 Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, José L; Cano-Valderrama, Oscar; Marcos, Alberto; Bonachia, Oscar; Ramos, Beatriz; Alcaide, Benito; Villar, Sol; Sánchez-Cabezudo, Carlos; Quirós, Esther; Alonso, María T; Castillo, María J

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of consensus about the surgical management of umbilical hernias. The aim of this study is to analyze the medium-term results of 934 umbilical hernia repairs. In this study, 934 patients with an umbilical hernia underwent surgery between 2004 and 2010, 599 (64.1%) of which were evaluated at least one year after the surgery. Complications, recurrence, and the reoperation rate were analyzed. Complications were observed in 5.7 per cent of the patients. With a mean follow-up time of 35.5 months, recurrence and reoperation rates were 3.8 per cent and 4.7 per cent, respectively. A higher percentage of female patients (60.9 % vs 29 %, P = 0.001) and a longer follow-up time (47.4 vs 35 months, P = 0.037) were observed in patients who developed a recurrence. No significant differences were observed between complications and the reoperation rate in patients who underwent Ventralex(®) preperitoneal mesh reinforcement and suture repair; however, a trend toward a higher recurrence rate was observed in patients with suture repair (6.5 % vs 3.2 %, P = 0.082). Suture repair had lower recurrence and reoperation rates in patients with umbilical hernias less than 1 cm. Suture repair is an appropriate procedure for small umbilical hernias; however, for larger umbilical hernias, mesh reinforcement should be considered.

  14. Repair of mismatched basepairs in mammalian DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.H.; Hare, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    We have concentrated on three specific areas of our research plan. Our greatest emphasis is on the role of single strand nicks in influencing template strand selection in mismatch repair. We have found, that the ability of a nick in one strand to influence which strand is repaired is not a simple function of distance from the mismatched site but rather that an hot spot where a nick is more likely to have an influence can exist. The second line was production of single-genotype heteroduplexes in order to examine independently the repair of T/G and A/C mispairs within the same sequence context as in our mixed mispair preparations. We have shown preparations of supercoiled heteroduplex can be prepared that were exclusively T/G or exclusively A/C at the mispair site. The third effort has been to understand the difference in repair bias of different cell lines or different transfection conditions as it may relate to different repair systems in the cell. We have identified some of the sources of variation, including cell cycle position. We hope to continue this work to more precisely identify the phase of the cell cycle.

  15. Combining rhinoplasty with septal perforation repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T; Magdy, Emad A

    2006-11-01

    A combined septal perforation repair and rhinoplasty was performed in 80 patients presenting with septal perforations (size 1 to 5 cm) and external nasal deformities. The external rhinoplasty approach was used for all cases and the perforation was repaired using bilateral intranasal mucosal advancement flaps with a connective tissue interposition graft in between. Complete closure of the perforation was achieved in 90% of perforations of size up to 3.5 cm and in only 70% of perforations that were larger than 3.5 cm. Cosmetically, 95% were very satisfied with their aesthetic result. The external rhinoplasty approach proved to be very helpful in the process of septal perforation repair especially in large and posteriorly located perforations and in cases where the caudal septal cartilage was previously resected. Our results show that septal perforation repair can be safely combined with rhinoplasty and that some of the routine rhinoplasty maneuvers, such as medial osteotomies and dorsal lowering, could even facilitate the process of septal perforation repair.

  16. Repair Optimal Erasure Codes through Hadamard Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Papailiopoulos, Dimitris S; Cadambe, Viveck R

    2011-01-01

    In distributed storage systems that employ erasure coding, the issue of minimizing the total {\\it communication} required to exactly rebuild a storage node after a failure arises. This repair bandwidth depends on the structure of the storage code and the repair strategies used to restore the lost data. Designing high-rate maximum-distance separable (MDS) codes that achieve the optimum repair communication has been a well-known open problem. In this work, we use Hadamard matrices to construct the first explicit 2-parity MDS storage code with optimal repair properties for all single node failures, including the parities. Our construction relies on a novel method of achieving perfect interference alignment over finite fields with a finite file size, or number of extensions. We generalize this construction to design $m$-parity MDS codes that achieve the optimum repair communication for single systematic node failures and show that there is an interesting connection between our $m$-parity codes and the systematic-...

  17. Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Martin; Lukasova, Emilie; Kozubek, Stanislav

    The genetic information of cells continuously undergoes damage induced by intracellular processes including energy metabolism, DNA replication and transcription, and by environmental factors such as mutagenic chemicals and UV and ionizing radiation. This causes numerous DNA lesions, including double strand breaks (DSBs). Since cells cannot escape this damage or normally function with a damaged genome, several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved. Although most "single-stranded" DNA lesions are rapidly removed from DNA without permanent damage, DSBs completely break the DNA molecule, presenting a real challenge for repair mechanisms, with the highest risk among DNA lesions of incorrect repair. Hence, DSBs can have serious consequences for human health. Therefore, in this chapter, we will refer only to this type of DNA damage. In addition to the biochemical aspects of DSB repair, which have been extensively studied over a long period of time, the spatio-temporal organization of DSB induction and repair, the importance of which was recognized only recently, will be considered in terms of current knowledge and remaining questions.

  18. Interparietal hernias after open retromuscular hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, A M

    2008-12-01

    The retromuscular or sublay repair of ventral hernias, popularized by Rives and Stoppa, requires that a layer of tissue be reapproximated dorsal to the mesh to separate the bowel from the prosthetic. This is the first report of two patients who developed bowel obstruction resulting from interparietal incarceration between the posterior rectus sheath and the prosthetic graft through a defect in this dorsal layer. Both patients underwent open retromuscular hernia repair, one with lightweight polypropylene mesh, the other with human acellular dermal matrix. Postoperatively (day 3 and day 42, respectively), the patients developed signs of bowel obstruction. Computed tomography demonstrated the herniation of the small bowel into the potential space between the prosthesis and the posterior rectus sheath. The first patient underwent successful laparoscopic repair, while the second patient had an open operation to reduce the incarcerated bowel and repair the defect. In the patient convalescing from an uneventful retromuscular hernia repair who develops signs and symptoms of a bowel obstruction, there should be a high index of suspicion that an interparietal hernia may have formed, with the small bowel herniated into the surgically created space between the prosthetic and the posterior rectus sheath.

  19. DNA repair responses in human skin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

    1981-07-01

    Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

  20. Transcription-coupled repair: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Graciela

    2016-11-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile pathway that removes helix-distorting DNA lesions from the genomes of organisms across the evolutionary scale, from bacteria to humans. The serial steps in NER involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER dedicated to the repair of lesions that, by virtue of their location on the transcribed strands of active genes, encumber elongation by RNA polymerases. In this review, I report on recent findings that contribute to the elucidation of TCR mechanisms in the bacterium Escherichia coli, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cells. I review general models for the biochemical pathways and how and when cells might choose to utilize TCR or other pathways for repair or bypass of transcription-blocking DNA alterations.

  1. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  2. FACT Assists Base Excision Repair by Boosting the Remodeling Activity of RSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Richard, John Lalith; Shukla, Manu Shubhdarshan; Menoni, Hervé; Ouararhni, Khalid; Lone, Imtiaz Nisar; Roulland, Yohan; Papin, Christophe; Ben Simon, Elsa; Kundu, Tapas; Hamiche, Ali; Angelov, Dimitar; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    FACT, in addition to its role in transcription, is likely implicated in both transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and DNA double strand break repair. Here, we present evidence that FACT could be directly involved in Base Excision Repair and elucidate the chromatin remodeling mechanisms of FACT during BER. We found that, upon oxidative stress, FACT is released from transcription related protein complexes to get associated with repair proteins and chromatin remodelers from the SWI/SNF family. We also showed the rapid recruitment of FACT to the site of damage, coincident with the glycosylase OGG1, upon the local generation of oxidized DNA. Interestingly, FACT facilitates uracil-DNA glycosylase in the removal of uracil from nucleosomal DNA thanks to an enhancement in the remodeling activity of RSC. This discloses a novel property of FACT wherein it has a co-remodeling activity and strongly enhances the remodeling capacity of the chromatin remodelers. Altogether, our data suggest that FACT may acts in concert with RSC to facilitate excision of DNA lesions during the initial step of BER.

  3. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  4. Sumoylation influences DNA break repair partly by increasing the solubility of a conserved end resection protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Sarangi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein modifications regulate both DNA repair levels and pathway choice. How each modification achieves regulatory effects and how different modifications collaborate with each other are important questions to be answered. Here, we show that sumoylation regulates double-strand break repair partly by modifying the end resection factor Sae2. This modification is conserved from yeast to humans, and is induced by DNA damage. We mapped the sumoylation site of Sae2 to a single lysine in its self-association domain. Abolishing Sae2 sumoylation by mutating this lysine to arginine impaired Sae2 function in the processing and repair of multiple types of DNA breaks. We found that Sae2 sumoylation occurs independently of its phosphorylation, and the two modifications act in synergy to increase soluble forms of Sae2. We also provide evidence that sumoylation of the Sae2-binding nuclease, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex, further increases end resection. These findings reveal a novel role for sumoylation in DNA repair by regulating the solubility of an end resection factor. They also show that collaboration between different modifications and among multiple substrates leads to a stronger biological effect.

  5. Sumoylation Influences DNA Break Repair Partly by Increasing the Solubility of a Conserved End Resection Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Prabha; Steinacher, Roland; Altmannova, Veronika; Fu, Qiong; Paull, Tanya T.; Krejci, Lumir; Whitby, Matthew C.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Protein modifications regulate both DNA repair levels and pathway choice. How each modification achieves regulatory effects and how different modifications collaborate with each other are important questions to be answered. Here, we show that sumoylation regulates double-strand break repair partly by modifying the end resection factor Sae2. This modification is conserved from yeast to humans, and is induced by DNA damage. We mapped the sumoylation site of Sae2 to a single lysine in its self-association domain. Abolishing Sae2 sumoylation by mutating this lysine to arginine impaired Sae2 function in the processing and repair of multiple types of DNA breaks. We found that Sae2 sumoylation occurs independently of its phosphorylation, and the two modifications act in synergy to increase soluble forms of Sae2. We also provide evidence that sumoylation of the Sae2-binding nuclease, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex, further increases end resection. These findings reveal a novel role for sumoylation in DNA repair by regulating the solubility of an end resection factor. They also show that collaboration between different modifications and among multiple substrates leads to a stronger biological effect. PMID:25569253

  6. Orchestrating the nucleases involved in DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengerová, Blanka; Wang, Anderson T; McHugh, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) pose a significant threat to genomic and cellular integrity by blocking essential cellular processes, including replication and transcription. In mammalian cells, much ICL repair occurs in association with DNA replication during S phase, following the stalling of a replication fork at the block caused by an ICL lesion. Here, we review recent work showing that the XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease and the hSNM1A exonuclease act in the same pathway, together with SLX4, to initiate ICL repair, with the MUS81-EME1 fork incision activity becoming important in the absence of the XPF-SNM1A-SLX4-dependent pathway. Another nuclease, the Fanconi anemia-associated nuclease (FAN1), has recently been implicated in the repair of ICLs, and we discuss the possible ways in which the activities of different nucleases at the ICL-stalled replication fork may be coordinated. In relation to this, we briefly speculate on the possible role of SLX4, which contains XPF and MUS81- interacting domains, in the coordination of ICL repair nucleases.

  7. Repairing VLSI/WSI Redundant Memories with Minimum Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维康; F.Lombardi

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to repair memory chips with redundancy is proposed.This approach s based on the minimization of the repair cost.Algorithms for cost driven repair are presented.The algorithms can be executed either on -line(concurrently with the testing of the memory),or off-lin(at completion of testing).Analytical expressions for the repair cost under both circumstances are given.The presented algorithms are also perfect in the sense that they can correctly diagnose a repairable/unrepairable memory and find the optimal repair-solution.

  8. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  9. Macrophages in Tissue Repair, Regeneration, and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A; Vannella, Kevin M

    2016-03-15

    Inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. After tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, such that uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators and growth factors, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contribute to a state of persistent injury, and this could lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound-healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue-regenerating phenotypes after injury, and we highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically.

  10. Mitral Valve Repair: The Chordae Tendineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-A Mestres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Repair of the mitral valve is the treatment of choice for mitral valve regurgitation when the anatomy is favorable. It is well known that mitral valve repair enjoys better clinical and functional results than any other type of valve substitute. This fact is beyond doubt regardless of the etiology of the valve lesion and is of particular importance in degenerative diseases.This review analyzes the most important advances in the knowledge of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and chordal function of the mitral valve as well as the different alternatives in the surgical repair and clinical results of the most prevalent diseases of the mitral valve. An attempt has been made to organize the acquired information available in a practical way.

  11. Transactivation of repair genes by BRCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a link between the BRCA1 tumor suppressor and transcriptional regulation of a group of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair. There is some controversy regarding the precise mechanism of upregulation of XPE DDB2 or XPC by BRCA1, with some evidence suggesting that p53 is involved in their regulation. Some evidence suggests BRCA1 may stabilize p53 and direct regulation of DNA repair genes, although how BRCA1 stabilizes p53 remains unclear and whether BRCA1 can upregulate DNA repair genes in a p53-independent manner remains a possibility. A transcriptional component to the action of BRCA1 and involvement of XP genes brings up new and interesting questions about breast cancer development and therapy.

  12. Exosomes and cardiac repair after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Susmita; Losordo, Douglas W

    2014-01-17

    Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of death among all cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of molecular mechanisms by which the ischemic myocardium initiates repair and remodeling indicates that secreted soluble factors are key players in communication to local and distant tissues, such as bone marrow. Recently, actively secreted membrane vesicles, including exosomes, are being recognized as new candidates with important roles in intercellular and tissue-level communication. In this review, we critically examine the emerging role of exosomes in local and distant microcommunication mechanisms after myocardial infarction. A comprehensive understanding of the role of exosomes in cardiac repair after myocardial infarction could bridge a major gap in knowledge of the repair mechanism after myocardial injury.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS UPON ASSIMILATED ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Although the classic administrative courts know as object the acts against classic administrative acts, it should not be lost sight of the assimilated administrative acts, which also may be subject to acts in this litigation. Taking in consideration this category of acts, this study will examine the documents falling into this category and the impact that such acts have on public authorities. Given the significant increase of administrative cases that have as object assimilated administrative...

  14. Global genome nucleotide excision repair is organized into domains that promote efficient DNA repair in chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shirong; Evans, Katie; Bennett, Mark; Webster, Richard M.; Leadbitter, Matthew; Teng, Yumin; Waters, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The rates at which lesions are removed by DNA repair can vary widely throughout the genome, with important implications for genomic stability. To study this, we measured the distribution of nucleotide excision repair (NER) rates for UV-induced lesions throughout the budding yeast genome. By plotting these repair rates in relation to genes and their associated flanking sequences, we reveal that, in normal cells, genomic repair rates display a distinctive pattern, suggesting that DNA repair is highly organized within the genome. Furthermore, by comparing genome-wide DNA repair rates in wild-type cells and cells defective in the global genome–NER (GG-NER) subpathway, we establish how this alters the distribution of NER rates throughout the genome. We also examined the genomic locations of GG-NER factor binding to chromatin before and after UV irradiation, revealing that GG-NER is organized and initiated from specific genomic locations. At these sites, chromatin occupancy of the histone acetyl-transferase Gcn5 is controlled by the GG-NER complex, which regulates histone H3 acetylation and chromatin structure, thereby promoting efficient DNA repair of UV-induced lesions. Chromatin remodeling during the GG-NER process is therefore organized into these genomic domains. Importantly, loss of Gcn5 significantly alters the genomic distribution of NER rates; this has implications for the effects of chromatin modifiers on the distribution of mutations that arise throughout the genome. PMID:27470111

  15. Laparoscopic repair of a Morgagni hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherigar J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of laparoscopic repair of symptomatic Morgagni hernia (MH in an adult. A tension-free closure of the defect was carried out using a polypropylene mesh. The recovery was quick and uneventful. Two years after surgery, the patient is doing well. A search of the English-language surgical literature revealed a total of 55 cases of laparoscopic repair of MH reported: 40 in adults and 15 in children. The various modalities of diagnosis, operative techniques, and disease presentation are discussed.

  16. Valve radio and audio repair handbook

    CERN Document Server

    MILLER, CHAS

    2000-01-01

    This book is not only an essential read for every professional working with antique radio and gramophone equipment, but also dealers, collectors and valve technology enthusiasts the world over. The emphasis is firmly on the practicalities of repairing and restoring, so technical content is kept to a minimum, and always explained in a way that can be followed by readers with no background in electronics. Those who have a good grounding in electronics, but wish to learn more about the practical aspects, will benefit from the emphasis given to hands-on repair work, covering mechanical as

  17. Chromatin challenges during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Rocha, Walter; Verreault, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inheritance and maintenance of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are central for eukaryotic life. To orchestrate DNA-replication and -repair processes in the context of chromatin is a challenge, both in terms of accessibility and maintenance of chromatin organization. To meet...... the challenge of maintenance, cells have evolved efficient nucleosome-assembly pathways and chromatin-maturation mechanisms that reproduce chromatin organization in the wake of DNA replication and repair. The aim of this Review is to describe how these pathways operate and to highlight how the epigenetic...

  18. Enhanced recovery after giant ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Brøndum, T L; Harling, H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Giant ventral hernia repair is associated with a high risk of postoperative morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Enhanced recovery (ERAS) measures have proved to lead to decreased morbidity and LOS after various surgical procedures, but never after giant hernia repair. The current....... Pain, nausea and fatigue were registered prospectively in all patients treated according to ERAS, as well as continuous measurement of transcutaneous capillary oxygen saturation. Postoperative morbidity and LOS were compared between patients treated according to ERAS and a historic group treated...

  19. Silanising agents promote resin-composite repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staxrud, Frode; Dahl, Jon E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silane in the repair of old and new resin-composite restorations. Part 1: repair of old composite was performed on 60 resin-composite substrates that were 6 years old and were made of six different brands of composite. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, the substrates were ground flat and composite was fixed to the surface with bonding agent without silane (i.e. Clearfil Bond SE only, the control). Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested according to ISO/TS 11405 after thermocycling. In the second experiment, the same 60 substrates were ground again and treated with bis-silane a 2-part silane mixed shortly before application before applying bonding agent (Clearfil Bond SE plus silane) and repair composite before SBS testing. In the third experiment, the same substrates were ground again and a one-step bonding product containing silane (Scotchbond Universal bond containing silane) was used for the repair procedure before SBS testing. Part 2: to evaluate the repair of newly made composite restorations, 66 composite substrates were made and stored in water for 2 months. The specimens were divided into three groups and were tested using the same protocols as used to evaluate repair of old composite. Mean SBS (± standard deviation), in MPa, for repair of old composite was 6.2 ± 4.0 (Clearfil Bond SE only, control), 14.8 ± 7.8 (Clearfil Bond SE plus silane) and 15.3 ± 5.6 (Scotchbond Universal bond with silane), whereas for new composite mean SBS was 15.4 ± 8.6 (Clearfil Bond SE only, control), 23.4 ± 8.3 (Clearfil Bond SE with silane) and 23.7 ± 5.8 (Scotchbond Universal containing silane). A significant difference was observed between the control and the test groups with silanising agents, both in Part 1 (P resin composite repair. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Laparoscopic Incisional Hernia Repair in Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is coming to the forefront as a preferred method of repair due to the advantages offered by minimally invasive techniques. To evaluate safety and feasibility of this approach in obese patients when performed by a general surgeon trained in basic laparoscopy with no prior experience in this technique, we reviewed our early experience in the first 18 patients. Methods: All patients with incisional hernias presenting to a single surgeon from 2000 to 2002 were offered laparoscopic repair. Patients were informed about the limited experience of the surgeon in this particular field. Those who consented were repaired laparoscopically using a standard 4-port technique, one 12-mm port and three 5-mm ports. All patients with body mass index ≥30 were included in this review. A retrospective review of the data included demographics, operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction. Results: Nineteen laparoscopic repairs were completed in 18 patients. No conversions to open repair were necessary. All patients were females except for 2. All hernia sacs were left in place, some of which were empty while others required extensive lysis of adhesions to release sac contents. Mean fascial defect was 102.5 cm2. One defect was closed primarily without mesh, while the rest were closed using Composix mesh in 1 and Dual Plus Gore-Tex mesh in the rest. Three patients were discharged from the recovery room. Mean follow-up was 24 months. No wound or mesh infections occurred. Eight patients had no complications. Eight patients had asymptomatic seromas. Two patients had hematomas; none of them required drainage. One patient had nonspecific dizziness. One patient presented with bowel obstruction secondary to early recurrence (within a week). The repair was salvaged laparoscopically. Upon evaluation by telephone calls, all patients indicated extreme satisfaction with the results

  1. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  2. Laser repairing of parts in metallurgical industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xichen; Wang, Yunshan; Zhao, Xin

    1999-09-01

    A new repair system for hardfacing of parts in metallurgical industries has been developed. The system can produce single pass quenching or cladding width of 10 - 35 mm, thickness of 0.5 - 10 mm. The wide range of powder materials can be deposited to provide hardfacing layers against wear, corrosion and oxidation. Comparing with welding and flame spraying, it presents clear advantages with low distortion, low dilution, low cost and small postclad machining. It has been successfully used to repair some of parts, for example, roll, drawing wire wheel in high speed wire, and so on.

  3. Native Tissue Prolapse Repairs: Comparative Effectiveness Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siff, Lauren N; Barber, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    This report reviews the success rates and complications of native tissue (nonmesh) vaginal reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse by compartment. For apical prolapse, both uterosacral ligament suspensions and sacrospinous ligament fixations are effective and provided similar outcomes in anatomy and function with few adverse events. In the anterior compartment, traditional colporrhaphy technique is no different than ultralateral suturing. In the posterior compartment, transvaginal rectocele repair is superior to transanal repair. For uterine preservation, sacrospinous hysteropexy is not inferior to vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension for treatment of apical uterovaginal prolapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel...

  5. Effect of chemical surface treatments and repair material on transverse strength of repaired acrylic denture resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojdani Mahroo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the transverse strength of a denture base resin (H, repaired with an autopolymerizing acrylic resin (A or a visible light-curing (VLC resin (T following the use of three chemical solvents: methyl methacrylate monomer, aceton or chloroform. Materials and Methods: Eighty specimens (65.0 x 10.0 x 3.3 mm of H were fabricated and stored in distilled water at 37°C for seven days. Specimens were divided into eight equal groups of 10. In each group, specimens were sectioned in the middle to create a 10 mm gap. Two groups served as controls and had no surface treatment. They were repaired with A or T materials. In the remaining six experimental groups, specimen surfaces were treated with ac for 30 sec or mma for 180 sec or ch for 5 sec. Then A or T material was placed on the treated surfaces, using the same preparation molds. After seven days′ storage at 37°C, the transverse bond strength (MPa of the specimens was measured using a three-point bending test. A two-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD were performed to identify significant differences ( P < 0.05. The nature of the failures was noted as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. Results: Significant differences were found between the controls and experimental groups ( P < 0.05. In the control groups, repair with A showed significantly higher strength (60.3 MPa than those repaired with T (51.3 MPa. Mean transverse strength of experimental specimens repaired with A was (75.06 MPa which was significantly greater than those repaired with T (67.9 MPa. Although surface treatment increased repair strength, no significant differences were detected between the effects of the chemical etchants. Conclusions: The autopolymerizing resin exhibited significantly higher repair strength than VLC resin. The transverse strength of the repaired specimens was increased significantly after chemical treatments.

  6. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  7. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-06-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  8. Satisfaction, function and repair integrity after arthroscopic versus mini-open rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L A Fink; Kim, H M; Caldwell, J-M; Buza, J; Ahmad, C S; Bigliani, L U; Levine, W N

    2017-02-01

    Advances in arthroscopic techniques for rotator cuff repair have made the mini-open approach less popular. However, the mini-open approach remains an important technique for repair for many surgeons. The aims of this study were to compare the integrity of the repair, the function of the shoulder and satisfaction post-operatively using these two techniques in patients aged > 50 years. We identified 22 patients treated with mini-open and 128 patients treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of July 2007 and June 2011. The mean follow-up was two years (1 to 5). Outcome was assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and satisfaction. The integrity of the repair was assessed using ultrasonography. A power analysis ensured sufficient enrolment. There was no statistically significant difference between the age, function, satisfaction, or pain scores (p > 0.05) of the two groups. The integrity of the repair and the mean SST scores were significantly better in the mini-open group (91% of mini-open repairs were intact versus 60% of arthroscopic repairs, p = 0.023; mean SST score 10.9 (standard deviation (sd) 1.3) in the mini-open group; 8.9 (sd 3.5) in arthroscopic group; p = 0.003). The ASES scores were also higher in the mini-open group (mean ASES score 91.0 (sd 10.5) in mini-open group; mean 82.70 (sd 19.8) in the arthroscopic group; p = 0.048). The integrity of the repair and function of the shoulder were better after a mini-open repair than after arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear in these patients. The functional difference did not translate into a difference in satisfaction. Mini-open rotator cuff repair remains a useful technique despite advances in arthroscopy. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:245-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. DNA damage and repair in plants under ultraviolet and ionizing radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Gill, Ritu; Jha, Manoranjan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Being sessile, plants are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging agents present in the environment such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiations (IR). Sunlight acts as an energy source for photosynthetic plants; hence, avoidance of UV radiations (namely, UV-A, 315-400 nm; UV-B, 280-315 nm; and UV-C, exposure, plants make use of several DNA repair mechanisms. In the light of recent breakthrough, the current minireview (a) introduces UV/IR and overviews UV/IR-mediated DNA damage products and (b) critically discusses the biochemistry and genetics of major pathways responsible for the repair of UV/IR-accrued DNA damage. The outcome of the discussion may be helpful in devising future research in the current context.

  10. Regulation of global genome nucleotide excision repair by SIRT1 through xeroderma pigmentosum C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Mei; Shea, Christopher R.; Guo, Xiumei; Li, Xiaoling; Soltani, Keyoumars; Han, Weinong; He, Yu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway by mutations can cause xeroderma pigmentosum, a syndrome predisposing affected individuals to development of skin cancer. The xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) protein is essential for initiating global genome NER by recognizing the DNA lesion and recruiting downstream factors. Here we show that inhibition of the deacetylase and longevity factor SIRT1 impairs global genome NER through suppressing the transcription of XPC in a SIRT1 deacetylase-dependent manner. SIRT1 enhances XPC expression by reducing AKT-dependent nuclear localization of the transcription repressor of XPC. Finally, we show that SIRT1 levels are significantly reduced in human skin tumors from Caucasian patients, a population at highest risk. These findings suggest that SIRT1 acts as a tumor suppressor through its role in DNA repair. PMID:21149730

  11. The battle of the bulge: re-evaluating hair follicle stem cells in wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Clare L; Ansell, David M

    2017-02-01

    The hair follicle has an established role in wound re-epithelialisation, a phenomenon that has been appreciated since at least the first half of the last century. The bulge niche, one location of hair follicle epithelial stem cells has been of particular interest to researchers over recent years, with numerous studies showing its ability to directly contribute to epidermal repair. However, recent work has highlighted other progenitor regions of the hair follicle that appear to act as stem cells during epidermal repair. In addition, several studies within the last 12 months have questioned the importance of the bulge during re-epithelialisation, producing conflicting literature. Here we provide a new model to demonstrate how several important differences in experimental design between studies could account for these seemingly opposing findings, which may have implications for how future studies are conducted.

  12. The Slx5-Slx8 complex affects sumoylation of DNA repair proteins and negatively regulates recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Rahman, Sadia; Lisby, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Recombination is important for repairing DNA lesions, yet it can also lead to genomic rearrangements. This process must be regulated, and recently, sumoylation-mediated mechanisms were found to inhibit Rad51-dependent recombination. Here, we report that the absence of the Slx5-Slx8 complex, a newly...... identified player in the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathway, led to increased Rad51-dependent and Rad51-independent recombination. The increases were most striking during S phase, suggesting an accumulation of DNA lesions during replication. Consistent with this view, Slx8 protein localized...... propose that, during replication, the Slx5-Slx8 complex helps prevent DNA lesions that are acted upon by recombination. In addition, the complex inhibits Rad51-independent recombination via modulating the sumoylation of DNA repair proteins....

  13. DNA repair genotypes and phenotypes and cancer susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyi Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The role of DNA repair in the etiology of cancers has been well illustrated in several hereditary syndromes, in which an inherited defect in DNA repair and related biological processes is associated with extraordinarily high incidence of cancer.

  14. Sequelae of Endoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair : Incidence, evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmans, J.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic preperitoneal technique (TEP) is an appealing inguinal hernia repair technique, theoretically superior to other approaches. In practice some problems remain unsolved. Real incidences of chronic postoperative inguinal pain (CPIP) and other important sequelae of endoscopic hernia repair

  15. Databases and Bioinformatics Tools for the Study of DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Milanowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA is continuously exposed to many different damaging agents such as environmental chemicals, UV light, ionizing radiation, and reactive cellular metabolites. DNA lesions can result in different phenotypical consequences ranging from a number of diseases, including cancer, to cellular malfunction, cell death, or aging. To counteract the deleterious effects of DNA damage, cells have developed various repair systems, including biochemical pathways responsible for the removal of single-strand lesions such as base excision repair (BER and nucleotide excision repair (NER or specialized polymerases temporarily taking over lesion-arrested DNA polymerases during the S phase in translesion synthesis (TLS. There are also other mechanisms of DNA repair such as homologous recombination repair (HRR, nonhomologous end-joining repair (NHEJ, or DNA damage response system (DDR. This paper reviews bioinformatics resources specialized in disseminating information about DNA repair pathways, proteins involved in repair mechanisms, damaging agents, and DNA lesions.

  16. Phosphorylation: The Molecular Switch of Double-Strand Break Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Summers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of double-stranded breaks (DSBs is vital to maintaining genomic stability. In mammalian cells, DSBs are resolved in one of the following complex repair pathways: nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ, homologous recombination (HR, or the inclusive DNA damage response (DDR. These repair pathways rely on factors that utilize reversible phosphorylation of proteins as molecular switches to regulate DNA repair. Many of these molecular switches overlap and play key roles in multiple pathways. For example, the NHEJ pathway and the DDR both utilize DNA-PK phosphorylation, whereas the HR pathway mediates repair with phosphorylation of RPA2, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Also, the DDR pathway utilizes the kinases ATM and ATR, as well as the phosphorylation of H2AX and MDC1. Together, these molecular switches regulate repair of DSBs by aiding in DSB recognition, pathway initiation, recruitment of repair factors, and the maintenance of repair mechanisms.

  17. Risk of Morbidity, Mortality, and Recurrence After Parastomal Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Surgical outcome results after repair for parastomal hernia are sparsely reported and based on small-scale studies.......Surgical outcome results after repair for parastomal hernia are sparsely reported and based on small-scale studies....

  18. Optimization of repair cycles of VOMD-24 blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosarev, N.P.; Kuznetsov, S.V. (Sverdlovskii Gornyi Institut (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Evaluates service life, reliability and repair of VOMD-24 blowers used for ventilation in underground coal mines in the USSR. Depending on operational conditions and ventilation systems, the overhaul life ranges from 7.2 to 14.7 months or 17.7 and 22.5 months (if general overhauls are considered). The mean-time-to repair ranges from 23.3 to 24.0 months, mean-time-to general overhaul from 32.6 to 38.0 months. The average labor consumption of blower repair and of general overhauls is analyzed along with labor consumption of service operations and repair. The recommended and actual standard repair cost, labor consumption and repair intervals are comparatively evaluated. Mathematical models for optimization of repair intervals are evaluated. Use of mathematical modeling for reducing repair cost, increasing blower reliability and reducing losses caused by blower failures is analyzed. 4 refs.

  19. Outcome of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in a South African private practice setting. ... South African Journal of Surgery ... hernia recurrence, chronic pain and technique preference if they had previously undergone an open repair.

  20. Sequelae of Endoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair : Incidence, evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmans, J.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic preperitoneal technique (TEP) is an appealing inguinal hernia repair technique, theoretically superior to other approaches. In practice some problems remain unsolved. Real incidences of chronic postoperative inguinal pain (CPIP) and other important sequelae of endoscopic hernia repair

  1. Fragile DNA Repair Mechanism Reduces Ageing in Multicellular Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe Søgaard; Trusina, Ala

    2012-01-01

    DNA damages, as well as mutations, increase with age. It is believed that these result from increased genotoxic stress and decreased capacity for DNA repair. The two causes are not independent, DNA damage can, for example, through mutations, compromise the capacity for DNA repair, which in turn...... to DNA damage can undergo full repair, go apoptotic, or accumulate mutations thus reducing DNA repair capacity. Our model predicts that at the tissue level repair rate does not continuously decline with age, but instead has a characteristic extended period of high and non-declining DNA repair capacity...... of compromised cells, thus freeing the space for healthy peers. This finding might be a first step toward understanding why a mutation in single DNA repair protein (e.g. Wrn or Blm) is not buffered by other repair proteins and therefore, leads to severe ageing disorders...

  2. The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hayden A; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Murrell, George A C

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are often surgically repaired, generally with good results. However, repairs not infrequently retear, and how important repair integrity is with respect to early functional outcomes after rotator cuff repair is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a retear on overhead activities in a large cohort of patients after rotator cuff repair. This was a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data from 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs. Outcomes were based on patient responses to the L'Insalata Shoulder Questionnaire and findings on examination preoperatively and at 6 months of follow-up. Repair integrity was determined by ultrasound imaging at the 6-month follow-up visit. The 1600 patients (885 men, 715 women) were a mean age of 58 years. Postoperative ultrasound imaging found 13% (211 of 1600) of repairs had retorn. Significant improvements were seen irrespective of rotator cuff integrity in pain levels with overhead activity (P rotation strength (P rotator cuff repair integrity on shoulder function. Patients who had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reported significant improvements in overhead pain levels irrespective of the repair integrity at 6 months. Repair integrity influenced supraspinatus and external rotation power, where patients with intact repairs were stronger than those with a retear. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MUTYH and the mismatch repair system: partners in crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Renée C; Sijmons, Rolf H; Ou, J; Olthof, Sandra G M; Osinga, Jan; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Weiss, Marjan M; Tops, Carli M J; Hes, Frederik J; de Bock, Geertruida H; Buys, Charles H C M; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2006-03-01

    Biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH-a gene encoding a base excision repair protein-are associated with an increased susceptibility of colorectal cancer. Whether monoallelic MUTYH mutations also increase cancer risk is not yet clear, although there is some evidence suggesting a slight increase of risk. As the MUTYH protein interacts with the mismatch repair (MMR) system, we hypothesised that the combination of a monoallelic MUTYH mutation with an MMR gene mutation increases cancer risk. We therefore investigated the prevalence of monoallelic MUTYH mutations in carriers of a germline MMR mutation: 40 carriers of a truncating mutation (group I) and 36 of a missense mutation (group II). These patients had been diagnosed with either colorectal or endometrial cancer. We compared their MUTYH mutation frequencies with those observed in a group of 134 Dutch colorectal and endometrial cancer patients without an MMR gene mutation (0.7%) and those reported for Caucasian controls (1.5%). In group I one monoallelic MUTYH mutation was found (2.5%). In group II five monoallelic germline MUTYH mutations were found (14%), four of them in MSH6 missense mutation carriers (20%). Of all patients with an MMR gene mutation, only those with a missense mutation showed a significantly higher frequency of (monoallelic) MUTYH mutations than the Dutch cancer patients without MMR gene mutations (P = 0.002) and the published controls (P = 0.001). These results warrant further study to test the hypothesis of mutations in MMR genes (in particular MSH6) and MUTYH acting together to increase cancer risk.

  4. Failure strengths of repair devices versus meniscus suturing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Asik, Mehmet; Sener, Nadir; Dikici, Fatih; Sen, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the load to failure of different common suturing techniques with that of repair devices. Methods: Seventy-one calf medial menisci were cut to simulate peripheral longitudinal tears and repaired using either one of the two suture techniques or one of the seven repair devices. Then the two parts of the meniscus were pulled using an Instron tensometer until failure occurred. The techniques and repair devices tested included vertical (0 PDS,...

  5. DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutage...

  6. Prognostic factors in sensory recovery after digital nerve repair

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Tugrul; Akgun, Ulas; Citlak, Atilla; Aslan, Cihan; Sener, Ufuk; Sener, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The prognostic factors that affect sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair are variable because of nonhomogeneous data, subjective tests, and different assessment/scoring methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair and to investigate the prognostic factors in sensorial healing.Methods: Ninety-six digital nerve repairs of 63 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All nerves were repaired with end-to-end ...

  7. Total Extraperitoneal Preperitoneal Laparoscopic Hernia Repair Using Spinal Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Molinelli, Bruce M.; Tagliavia, Alfonso; Bernstein, David

    2006-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy is a well-debated approach to inguinal hernia repair. Multiple technical and outcome variables have been compared with those of traditional open inguinal hernia repairs. One of these variables is the choice of anesthesia. To date, no reports describe the use of spinal anesthesia for laparoscopic hernia repairs. We present herein a review of our experience with spinal anesthesia for the total extraperitoneal preperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair (TEP)....

  8. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differen...

  9. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined.

  10. Total Extraperitoneal Preperitoneal Laparoscopic Hernia Repair Using Spinal Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy is a well-debated approach to inguinal hernia repair. Multiple technical and outcome variables have been compared with those of traditional open inguinal hernia repairs. One of these variables is the choice of anesthesia. To date, no reports describe the use of spinal anesthesia for laparoscopic hernia repairs. We present herein a review of our experience with spinal anesthesia for the total extraperitoneal preperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair (TEP)....

  11. Acting like a Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marlon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Saturday morning acting class in the Pearson Hall auditorium at Miles College boasts the school's highest attendance all year. The teacher, actress Robin Givens, was a lure few students--and others from surrounding areas--could resist. Some came to learn about their prospective field from a professional. Others were there for pointers to…

  12. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    and the United States signed an act on July 19, 1862, wherein the U.S. Navy agreed to unload “all negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade.” Yet, despite the two countries’ mutual interests in employing “laborers of African Extraction...

  13. ST–ACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    various geo–statistical data sources and intuitive principles, models the so far neglected aspects. ST–ACTS considers that (1) objects (representing mobile users) move from one spatio–temporal location to another with the objective of performing a certain activity at the latter location; (2) not all users...

  14. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...

  15. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  16. Acting like a Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marlon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Saturday morning acting class in the Pearson Hall auditorium at Miles College boasts the school's highest attendance all year. The teacher, actress Robin Givens, was a lure few students--and others from surrounding areas--could resist. Some came to learn about their prospective field from a professional. Others were there for pointers to…

  17. Strategies for Zonal Cartilage Repair using Hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Travis J.; Rizzi, Simone C.; Reichert, Johannes C.; Georgi, Nicole; Malda, Jos; Schuurman, Wouter; Crawford, Ross W.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly hydrated tissue with depth-dependent cellular and matrix properties that provide low-friction load bearing in joints. However, the structure and function are frequently lost and there is insufficient repair response to regenerate high-quality cartilage. Several hydrog

  18. Umbilical Hernia Repair with Proceed Ventral Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati Sajad Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical hernia is one the commonest surgical lesions and there is a variety of methods available for its repair. Proceed Ventral Patch is a recent and novel innovation in hernia management and we present a successful management of umbilical hernia in a 45 years old obese patient with this technique

  19. Macrophage diversity in renal injury and repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricardo, Sharon D.; van Goor, Harry; Eddy, Allison A.

    2008-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages can determine the outcome of the immune response and whether this response contributes to tissue repair or mediates tissue destruction. In addition to their important role in immune-mediated renal disease and host defense, macrophages play a fundamental role in tissue re

  20. Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2017-01-01

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span. PMID:26385091

  1. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic sur

  2. Parabolic resection for mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Daniel H; Drake, Charles G; Recchia, Dino

    2010-02-01

    Parabolic resection, named for the shape of the cut edges of the excised tissue, expands on a common 'trick' used by experienced mitral surgeons to preserve tissue and increase the probability of successful repair. Our objective was to describe and clinically analyze this simple modification of conventional resection. Thirty-six patients with mitral regurgitation underwent valve repair using parabolic resection in combination with other techniques. Institution specific mitral data, Society of Thoracic Surgeons data and preoperative, post-cardiopulmonary bypass (PCPB) and postoperative echocardiography data were collected and analyzed. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated mitral regurgitation ranging from moderate to severe. PCPB transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no regurgitation or mild regurgitation in all patients. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 2.8%. Serial echocardiograms demonstrated excellent repair stability. One patient (2.9%) with rheumatic disease progressed to moderate regurgitation 33 months following surgery. Echocardiography on all others demonstrated no or mild regurgitation at a mean follow-up of 22.8+/-12.8 months. No patient required mitral reintervention. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated 80% freedom from cardiac death, reintervention and greater than moderate regurgitation at four years following repair. Parabolic resection is a simple technique that can be very useful during complex mitral reconstruction. Early and intermediate echocardiographic studies demonstrate excellent results.

  3. Cockayne syndrome: defective repair of transcription?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Gool (Alain); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); E. Citterio (Elisabetta); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn the past years, it has become increasingly evident that basal metabolic processes within the cell are intimately linked and influenced by one another. One such link that recently has attracted much attention is the close interplay between nucleotide excision DNA repair and transcripti

  4. PRP and Metaplasia in repaired tendon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Seyed-Forootan; Hamid Karimi; Ahmad-Reza Dayani

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate effects ofPRP injection in strengthening of repaired tendon.Methods:This study was conducted in animal lab of our hospital on20 rats.The animals were divided into two groups randomly and distal third of leftAchillis tendons were cut and then repaired with Vicryl2/0.The first group was control group and in the second group0.5 cc ofPRP was injected into the repair site.After4 weeks all of the rats were executed and70% of tendons were sent randomly for tensilometry and the force that required to rupture the tendons were measured.In next stage the tendons were sent for pathological exam.Results:The force that was needed to rupture the tendon were not significantly different in the two groups.Neovascularization were more prevalent inPRP group but not statistically significant.There were two cases ofCartilage Metaplasia inPRP group.Conclusion:It seems that usingPRP has no effect on strengthening the tendons repair and may have some adverse effects.It usage needs further studies to evaluate their probable adverse side effects.

  5. ROAD REPAIR WORKS ON THE MEYRIN SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-TFM Group

    2001-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 23 July, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for one week depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  6. Postpartum perineal repair performed by midwives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, S; Stehouwer, M; Hvidman, L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a continuous suture technique with interrupted stitches using inverted knots for postpartum perineal repair of second-degree lacerations and episiotomies. DESIGN: A double-blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A Danish university hospital with more than 4800 deliveries...

  7. Careers Canada. Volume 3, Mechanical Repair Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the third of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in mechanical repair occupations. The pamphlet is divided into eight major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of work; (3) nature of work (this section is subdivided into automotive repair…

  8. Qualification of M256 Breechblock Repair Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Best Available Copy AD-A280 508 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-94013 QUALIFICATION OF M256 BREECHBLOCK REPAIR PROCEDURE DAVID A. PORTER WILLIAM E. MARCOUX...DEVELOPMENT ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL ATTN: DEPT FOR SCI AND TECH 1 ATTN: SMCRI-ENM THE PENTAGON ROCK ISLAND, IL 61299-5000 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20310-0103 MIAC/ CINDAS

  9. The Onstep Method for Inguinal Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Andresen, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common surgical procedures and several different surgical techniques are available. The Onstep method is a new promising technique. The technique is simple with a number of straightforward steps. This paper provides a full description of the technique...

  10. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic

  11. Ceramic restoration repair: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Araújo Raposo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The esthetic and functional rehabilitation of patients with multiple missing teeth can be performed with several techniques and materials. Ceramic restorations provide reliable masticatory function and good esthetics. However, fracture can occur in some cases due to their brittle behavior. In some cases, the replacement of an extensive prosthesis is a problem due to the high treatment cost. In this paper, two cases are presented, in which fractures occurred in extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures, and their replacement was not possible. Ceramic repair was chosen and the sequences of treatment with and without presence of the ceramic fragment are also discussed. The cases illustrate that, in some situations, fractured metal-ceramic partial dentures can be successfully repaired when prosthetic replacement is not a choice. Prosthodontists must use alternatives that allow a reliable repair to extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures. Surface preparation of the ceramic with hydrofluoric acid in conjunction with a silane coupling agent is essential for a predictable bonding of composite resin. The repair performed with composite resin is an esthetic and functional alternative when extensive fixed partial dentures cannot be replaced.

  12. Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yujeong

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair…

  13. Collaborative Repair in EFL Classroom Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Zara

    1996-01-01

    Drawing data from audiotaped lessons with 10 native-speaker English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teachers and 12 EFL learners of varied linguistic backgrounds, a study explored some of the ways in which classroom talk by learners is collaboratively built to repair errors, misunderstandings, and non-communication. Focus is on both explicit and…

  14. Back Channelling, Repair, Pausing, and Private Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on differences in back channelling, repair, repetition, pausing, and private speech among Japanese and American study participants, based on sales negotiations. Findings indicate that differences in the deployment of such features as back channelling and pausing can result in pragma-linguistic breakdown, which is linked to culturally…

  15. Repairing Hidden Cracks in Coolant Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. C., Sr.; Duesberg, J.

    1984-01-01

    Repair technique closes leaks in tubes or conduits where access limited to wall opposite crack. Technique applicable to any tubular assembly where tubes bundled together or bonded to supporting shell, such as in heat exchangers. Procedure provides structural support to area failed and uninterrupted flow without significantly altering heat-transfer profile.

  16. DNA repair, immunosuppression, and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2004-11-01

    UV radiation (UVR) produces erythema within the first 24 hours of exposure, suppression of the immune system within the first 10 days, and, for many people, over the course of decades, skin cancer. Although UVR damages many skin targets, DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) is an important mediator of these sequelae. The action spectrum for erythema parallels the action spectrum for CPD formation in skin, and in the absence of repair, as in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), skin cancer rates are dramatically increased. DNA repair in skin can be enhanced by the delivery of DNA repair enzymes encapsulated in liposomes. Used in this way, photoreactivation of CPDs greatly diminishes erythema and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). UV endonucleases delivered by liposomes also prevent UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity. In a clinical study of patients with XP, T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) liposome lotion applied for one year reduced the rates of actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer compared with placebo. These results showed that strategies to increase sun protection should include measures to reduce DNA damage and increase the rate of DNA repair.

  17. Repair technology for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Jung, Young Moo; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-02-01

    The most commonly used sleeving materials are thermally treated Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690 Alloy. Currently, thermally treated Alloy 690 and Alloy 800 are being offered although Alloy 800 has not been licensed in the US. To install sleeve, joint strength, leak tightness, PWSCC resistance, evaluation on process parameter range and the effect of equipments and procedures on repair plan and radiation damage have to be investigated before sleeving. ABB CE provides three type of leak tight Alloy 690 TIG welded and PLUSS sleeve. Currently, Direct Tube Repair technique using Nd:YAG laser has been developed by ABB CE and Westinghouse. FTI has brazed and kinetic sleeve designs for recirculating steam generator and hydraulic and rolled sleeve designs for one-through steam generators. Westinghouse provides HEJ, brazed and laser welded sleeve design. When sleeve is installed in order to repair the damaged S/G tubes, it is certain that defects can be occurred due to the plastic induced stress and thermal stress. Therefore it is important to minimize the residual stress. FTI provides the electrosleeve technique as a future repair candidate using electroplating.

  18. Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shien Weng

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  19. Repairing A Shaft Prone To Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Roger A.; Larsen, David V.; Bates, Garold A.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft of hydraulic motor now outlives its bearings. Procedure for repairing John Deere Series 50 (or equivalent) hydraulic motor solves problem posed by common type of fatigue failure of shaft. Includes forming internally threaded hole in end of shaft, inserting double-threaded end stud, and adding washers and collars.

  20. CLEFT-PALATE REPAIR - FURLOW VERSUS VONLANGENBECK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPAUWEN, PHM; GOORHUISBROUWER, SM; SCHUTTE, HK

    1992-01-01

    The Furlow cleft palate repair using a double opposing Z-plasty appears to be very promising. In order to detect advantages and disadvantages concerning the technique as well as speech- and hearing results, the Furlow palatoplasty was compared with the classical von Langenbeck technique. Data analys

  1. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  2. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57.19109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and repair work in vertical...

  4. 46 CFR 131.575 - Yearly inspections and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yearly inspections and repair. 131.575 Section 131.575..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.575 Yearly inspections and repair. (a) Each lifeboat, rescue boat, rigid... expiration date must be replaced during the annual inspection and repair if this date has passed. (d)...

  5. 46 CFR 170.005 - Vessel alteration or repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel alteration or repair. 170.005 Section 170.005... REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.005 Vessel alteration or repair. (a) Alterations and repairs to inspected vessels must be done— (1) Under the direction of the Officer in...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56.19109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and repair work in vertical...

  7. 40 CFR 1033.815 - Maintenance, operation, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance, operation, and repair... Maintenance, operation, and repair. All persons who own, operate, or maintain locomotives are subject to this... components of the diagnostics system itself. For most repairs, this paragraph (b) requires that...

  8. 40 CFR 92.1004 - Maintenance and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and repair. 92.1004... Owners and Operators of Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.1004 Maintenance and repair. (a) Unless..., all maintenance and repair of locomotives and locomotive engines subject to the provisions of...

  9. 46 CFR 169.211 - Permit to proceed for repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit to proceed for repair. 169.211 Section 169.211... Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.211 Permit to proceed for repair. (a) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may issue a permit to proceed to another port for repair, Form...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.804 - Bottom board repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottom board repair. 3285.804....804 Bottom board repair. (a) The bottom board covering must be inspected for any loosening or areas... to be replaced prior to closure and repair of the bottom board. (b) Any splits or tears in the...

  11. 32 CFR 174.14 - Maintenance and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and repair. 174.14 Section 174.14... REVITALIZING BASE CLOSURE COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Maintenance and Repair § 174.14 Maintenance and repair. (a) Facilities and equipment located on installations being closed are often...

  12. 48 CFR 1352.271-87 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—ship repair. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.118, insert the following clause: Changes—Ship Repair (APR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1352.271-87 Section 1352.271-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES...

  13. Content-Related Repairing of Inconsistencies in Distributed Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Feng Du; De-Rong Shen; Tie-Zheng Nie; Yue Kou; Ge Yu

    2016-01-01

    Conditional functional dependencies (CFDs) are a critical technique for detecting inconsistencies while they may ignore some potential inconsistencies without considering the content relationship of data. Content-related conditional functional dependencies (CCFDs) are a type of special CFDs, which combine content-related CFDs and detect potential inconsistencies by putting content-related data together. In the process of cleaning inconsistencies, detection and repairing are interactive: 1) detection catches inconsistencies, 2) repairing corrects caught inconsistencies while may bring new incon-sistencies. Besides, data are often fragmented and distributed into multiple sites. It consequently costs expensive shipment for inconsistencies cleaning. In this paper, our aim is to repair inconsistencies in distributed content-related data. We propose a framework consisting of an inconsistencies detection method and an inconsistencies repairing method, which work iteratively. The detection method marks the violated CCFDs for computing the inconsistencies which should be repaired preferentially. Based on the repairing-cost model presented in this paper, we prove that the minimum-cost repairing using CCFDs is NP-complete. Therefore, the repairing method heuristically repairs the inconsistencies with minimum cost. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of repairing, we propose distinct values and rules sequences. Distinct values make less data shipments than real data for communication. Rules sequences determine appropriate repairing sequences to avoid some incorrect repairs. Our solution is proved to be more effective than CFDs by empirical evaluation on two real-life datasets.

  14. 14 CFR 145.209 - Repair station manual contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual contents. 145.209... manual contents. A certificated repair station's manual must include the following: (a) An organizational... for revising the repair station's manual and notifying its certificate holding district office...

  15. 27 CFR 555.216 - Repair of magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Repair of magazines. 555... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.216 Repair of magazines. Before repairing the interior of magazines, all explosive materials are to be removed and the...

  16. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed....

  17. 21 CFR 872.3570 - OTC denture repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC denture repair kit. 872.3570 Section 872.3570...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3570 OTC denture repair kit. (a) Identification. An OTC denture repair kit is a device consisting of a material, such as a resin monomer system...

  18. 10 CFR 35.605 - Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair. 35.605... Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair. (a) Only a person specifically licensed by the Commission or an Agreement State shall install, maintain, adjust, or repair a remote afterloader unit,...

  19. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  20. 49 CFR 237.133 - Supervision of repairs and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of repairs and modifications. 237.133... Supervision of repairs and modifications. Each repair or modification pursuant to this part shall be performed under the immediate supervision of a railroad bridge supervisor as defined in § 237.55 of this part...

  1. Performance of shcc with bacteria for concrete patch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of concrete patch repair systems depends on the durability of and compatibility between the concrete substrate and the repair material. This paper investigates the performance of a new type of SHCC material with embedded bacteria as a repair material. The bacteria are a

  2. Endoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair of bilateral inguinal hernias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T.T. Knock (M. T T); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); L.P. Stassen (Laurents); R.U. Boelhouwer (Roelof Ubbo); C.J. van Steensel (C.)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recurrence rates associated with bilateral inguinal hernia repair with a giant prosthesis (Stoppa procedure) are low. Endoscopic totally extraperitoneal bilateral inguinal hernia repair with a giant prosthesis combines the low recurrence rate of the Stoppa repair and the adva

  3. Language Repair Strategies in Bilingual Tutoring of Mathematics Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Meskill, Carla; Judson, Darlene; Gregory, Karen; Rogers, Patterson; Imperial, Christopher J.; Casler-Failing, Shelli

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the "language repair strategies" (aimed at repairing communication problems) of two bilingual speakers during mathematics word problem tutoring sessions. Bilingual repair was shown to gradually shift from a linguistic to an epistemic focus during problem solving (i.e., communication became more conceptually focused…

  4. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for... refastening of deck or hull planking, plating, and structural members; repair of plate or frame cracks; damage repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks,...

  5. Repair welding process of friction stir welding groove defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-jie; ZHANG Hui-jie

    2009-01-01

    The groove defect formed in the friction stir welding dramatically deteriorates weld appearances and mechanical properties of the joints owing to its larger size and penetration. Therefore, the friction stir repair welding was utilized to remove such a groove defect, and the focus was placed on the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the repair joints so as to obtain an optimum repair welding process. The experimental results indicate that the groove defect can be removed by friction stir repair welding, and the offset repair welding process is superior to the symmetrical repair welding process. In the symmetrical repair welding process, a large number of fine cavity defects and an obvious aggregation of hard-brittle phase Al2Cu occur, accordingly the mechanical properties of the repair joint are weakened, and the fracture feature of repair joint is partially brittle and partially plastic. A good-quality repair joint can be obtained by the offset repair welding process, and the repair joint is fractured near the interface between the weld nugget zone and thermal-mechanically affected zone.

  6. 21 CFR 870.3710 - Pacemaker repair or replacement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker repair or replacement material. 870.3710... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3710 Pacemaker repair or replacement material. (a) Identification. A pacemaker repair or replacement material is an...

  7. Bueno y la autorreparacion ("Bueno" and Conversational Self Repairs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Isolda

    The paper discusses the Spanish expression "bueno," which marks the beginning or the end of background and assertion self-repairs in conversation, and often co-occurs with other expressions, such as "viste" and "no?" which mark the other end of the repair. Background repairs provide information the speaker considers necessary for the hearer to…

  8. A heart team's perspective on interventional mitral valve repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treede, Hendrik; Schirmer, Johannes; Rudolph, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair carries an elevated perioperative risk in the presence of severely reduced ventricular function and relevant comorbidities. We sought to assess the feasibility of catheter-based mitral valve repair using a clip-based percutaneous edge-to-edge repair system in selected...

  9. Assessment of Human DNA Repair (NER) Capacity With DNA Repair Rate (DRR) by Comet Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI ZHENG; JI-LIANG HE; LI-FEN JIN; JIAN-LIN LOU; BAO-HONG WANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective Alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA repair (nucleotide excision repair, NER) capacity of human fresh lymphocytes from 12 young healthy non-smokers (6 males and 6 females). Methods Lymphocytes were exposed to UV-C (254 nm) at the dose rate of 1.5 J/m2/sec. Novobiocin (NOV) and aphidicolin (APC), DNA repair inhibitors, were utilized to imitate the deficiency of DNA repair capacity at the incision and ligation steps of NER. Lymphocytes from each donor were divided into three grougs: UVC group, UVC plus NOV group, and UVC plus APC group. DNA single strand breaks were detected in UVC irradiated cells incubated for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after UVC irradiation. DNA repair rate (DRR) served as an indicator of DNA repair capacity. Results The results indicated that the maximum DNA damage (i.e. maximum tail length) in the UVC group mainly appeared at 90 min. The ranges of DRRs in the UVC group were 62.84%-98.71%. Average DRR value was 81.84%. The DRR difference between males and females was not significant (P<0.05). However, the average DRR value in the UVC plus NOV group and the UVC plus APC group was 52.98% and 39.57% respectively, which were significantly lower than that in the UVC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The comet assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive screening test to assess individual DNA repair (NER) capacity. It is suggested that the time to detect DNA single strand breaks in comet assay should include 0 (before UV irradiation), 90 and 240 min after exposure to 1.5 J·m-2 UVC at least. The DRR, as an indicator, can represent the individual DNA repair capacity in comet assay.

  10. Controversies in laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarela Abeezar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incisional hernias can be a significant problem after open abdominal surgery. Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair (LIHR is conceptually appealing: a large, abdominal wall re-incision with potential wound-related ill effects is avoided and an intra-peritoneal onlay mesh is expected to provide security that is equivalent to open, retro-muscular mesh repair. As such, LIHR has gained substantial popularity despite sparse, randomised clinical data to compare with conventional, open repair. Aim: To enumerate and discuss important, controversial issues in patient-selection, technique and early post-operative care for LIHR. Materials and Methods: Pragmatic summary of comprehensive review of English language literature, discussion with experts and personal experience. Outcomes: Six important areas of some dispute were identified: 1. Size of abdominal-wall defect that is suitable for LIHR: Generally, defect-diameter > 10 cm is better served by open retromuscular repair with tension-free re-approximation of the edges of the defect. 2. Extent of adhesiolysis: Complete division of adhesions to the anterior abdominal wall may identify sub-clinical "Swiss-cheese" defects but incurs some risk of additional complications. 3. Intra-operative recognition of enterotomy: Possible options are either laparoscopic suture of bowel injury and simultaneous completion of LIHR, or staged LIHR or conversion to open suture-repair. 4. Choice of mesh: "Composite" meshes are regarded as the current standard of care but there is paucity of data regarding potential dangers of intra-peritoneal polypropylene mesh. 5. Technique of mesh-fixation: Trans-parietal sutures are more secure than tacks, with limited data to correlate with post-operative pain. 6. Alarm over post-operative pain: Unlike other advanced laparoscopic operations, the specificity of pain as a marker of intra-abdominal sepsis after LIHR remains unclear. Conclusion : Recognition of and attention to

  11. Repair of dental resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Veronika; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-03-01

    The study analyzed the reparability and compatibility of light-curing resin-based composites (RBCs) of the categories "microhybrid," "nanohybrid," and "packable." Six RBCs with different matrix and filler formulation--purely methacrylate-based composites (MBCs), ormocer-based composites (OBCs), and silorane-based composites (SBCs)--were used for the specimens. Every material was combined with itself and with the other five RBCs, resulting in a total of 36 combination groups (n = 20). The specimens were polymerized, aged for 8 weeks in distilled water at 37 °C, and then repaired by means of a repair kit. Shear bond strength and fracture mode were measured after aging of the specimens, undergoing storage for 24 h in distilled water at 37 °C followed by thermocycling (5,000 cycles, 5-55 °C) and an additional 4-week storage in distilled water at 37 °C. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA with TUKEY HSD post hoc test (α = 0.05). On average, the OBC Admira reached the highest value as a substrate material (30.41 MPa), and the SBC Filtek Silorane reached the lowest value (8.14 MPa). Filtek Silorane was identified as the repair material with the highest bond strength value (28.70 MPa), while a packable composite reached the lowest bond strength value (15.55 MPa). The analysis of the break modes showed that adhesive breaks are typical when strength is at its lowest (6.27 MPa). A large number of cohesive fractures are conspicuous when identical materials are used for repair, except Filtek Silorane (2 % cohesive fractures). The study demonstrated that the effect of the different materials on bond strength varies strongly, depending on whether the material is used as filling or as repair material. It is generally advisable but not compulsory to combine identical RBCs.

  12. Endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Xiquan; Chen, Zhong; Zhu, Wei; Pan, Xiaolin [Dept. of nterventional Vascular, The 148th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Zibo (China); Dong, Peng; Sun, Yequan [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Weifang Medical University, Weifang (China); Qi, Deming [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Qilu Medical University, Zibo (China)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endovascular repair for blunt popliteal arterial injuries. A retrospective analysis of seven patients with clinical suspicion of popliteal arterial injuries that were confirmed by arteriography was performed from September 2009 to July 2014. Clinical data included demographics, mechanism of injury, type of injury, location of injury, concomitant injuries, time of endovascular procedures, time interval from trauma to blood flow restoration, instrument utilized, and follow-up. All patients were male (mean age of 35.9 ± 10.3 years). The type of lesion involved intimal injury (n = 1), partial transection (n = 2), complete transection (n = 2), arteriovenous fistula (n = 1), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). All patients underwent endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Technical success rate was 100%. Intimal injury was treated with a bare-metal stent. Pseudoaneurysm and popliteal artery transections were treated with bare-metal stents. Arteriovenous fistula was treated with bare-metal stent and coils. No perioperative death and procedure-related complication occurred. The average follow-up was 20.9 ± 2.3 months (range 18–24 months). One patient underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis due to stent thrombosis at 18 months after the procedure. All limbs were salvaged. Stent migration, deformation, or fracture was not found during the follow-up. Endovascular repair seems to be a viable approach for patients with blunt popliteal arterial injuries, especially on an emergency basis. Endovascular repair may be effective in the short-term. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair.

  13. Alzheimer’s Disease-Associated Neurotoxic Peptide Amyloid-Β Impairs Base Excision Repair in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Forestier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the leading cause of dementia in developed countries. It is characterized by two major pathological hallmarks, one of which is the extracellular aggregation of the neurotoxic peptide amyloid-β (Aβ, which is known to generate oxidative stress. In this study, we showed that the presence of Aβ in a neuroblastoma cell line led to an increase in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage. Unexpectedly, a concomitant decrease in basal level of base excision repair, a major route for repairing oxidative DNA damage, was observed at the levels of both gene expression and protein activity. Moreover, the addition of copper sulfate or hydrogen peroxide, used to mimic the oxidative stress observed in AD-affected brains, potentiates Aβ-mediated perturbation of DNA damage/repair systems in the “Aβ cell line”. Taken together, these findings indicate that Aβ could act as double-edged sword by both increasing oxidative nuclear/mitochondrial damage and preventing its repair. The synergistic effects of increased ROS production, accumulated DNA damage and impaired DNA repair could participate in, and partly explain, the massive loss of neurons observed in Alzheimer’s disease since both oxidative stress and DNA damage can trigger apoptosis.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN LAPAROSCOPIC TRANSABDOMINAL PREPERITONEAL REPAIR AND TOTAL EXTRAPERITONEAL REPAIR OF INGUINAL HERNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Groin hernia surgeries have come a long way since knowledge of modern surgery. Among them laparoscopic hernia repair is the advanced and better method in terms of less pain and speedy recovery. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To compare and assess the outcome between laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal repair and total extraperitoneal repair of inguinal hernia. 1. To compare the duration of procedure between two techniques. 2. To assess the complications encountered (Intraoperative and postoperative. 3. To evaluate the post-operative pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS 40 cases of groin hernia admitted in Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur, between 2013 and 2015 randomly picked for TAPP and TEP surgeries, assigning 20 for each, prospective analysis made results compared and evaluated using Fischer’s test and Chisquare test. RESULTS Comparatively TEP repair took more operative time and TAPP repair had more post-operative pain. CONCLUSION No major complications seen in both procedures. Laparoscopy repair has long learning curve, which demands skills. TEP is more technically demanding and takes more time than TAPP, but with postoperative pain in comparison.

  15. A new incision for unilateral cleft lip repair developed using animated simulation of repair on computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahay A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral cleft lip repair continues to leave behind some amount of dissatisfaction, as a scope for further improvement is always felt. Most surgeons do not like to deviate from the standard Millard′s/ triangular techniques, or their minor modifications, as no one likes to experiment on the face for fear of unfavourable outcomes. The computer can be utilized as a useful tool in the analysis and planning of surgery and new methods can be developed and attempted subsequently with greater confidence. Aim: We decided to see if an improved lip repair could be developed with the use of computers. Materials and Methods: Analysis of previous lip repairs was done to determine where an improvement was required. Movement of tissues, by simulating an ideal repair, using image warping software, on digital images of cleft lip was studied in animation sequences. A repair which could reproduce these movements was planned. A new incision emerged, which had combined the principles of Millard′s and Randall / Tennyson repairs, with additional features. The new method was performed on 30 cases. Conclusions: The results were encouraging as the shortcomings of these methods were minimized, and the advantages maximized.

  16. Meniscal repair by fibrocartilage in the dog : Characterization of the repair tissue and the role of vascularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB; Nielsen, HKL; deGroot, JH; Pennings, AJ; Kuijer, R

    1996-01-01

    Lesions in the avascular part of 20 canine menisci were repaired by implantation of a porous polyurethane. Seven menisci were not repaired and served as controls. The repair tissue was characterized by biochemical and immunological analysis. The role of vascularity in healing was studied by perfusio

  17. Kinematic effect of MGHL incorporation into Bankart repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Alexander C; Argintar, Evan; Shin, Sang-Jin; McGarry, Michelle H; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-05-01

    Surgical treatment for traumatic shoulder instability has progressed in tandem with the evolution of the current understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder. Proponents of incorporating the middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) in Bankart repair believe this technique could increase repair strength. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to compare the range of motion and humeral head kinematic changes that result from including the MGHL in a Bankart repair in an effort to identify possible changes in shoulder biomechanics as a result of this addition in surgical repair.Six cadaveric shoulders were tested in 4 conditions: intact, Bankart lesion, repair excluding the MGHL, and repair including the MGHL. Each condition was tested for range of motion, glenohumeral translation, and humeral head apex position. Standard Bankart repair and repair with MGHL inclusion resulted in decreased range of motion, but no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 repair types (P=.846). Anterior translation was significantly reduced with both the Bankart repair (4.8 ± .9; P=.049) and included MGHL repair (4.6 ± 0.9; P=.029). No statistically significant difference was found between both repairs (P=.993). Although both repairs showed posterior displacement of the humeral head apex when in external rotation, this trend only reached statistical significance when compared with the Bankart lesion in 90° of external rotation (P=.0456); however, no significant difference was found between the 2 repairs (P=.999). Inclusion or exclusion of the MGHL in a Bankart repair does not significantly affect the range of motion, translation, or kinematics of the glenohumeral joint. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. The New Technology of Composite Materials Repairing by Light Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-min; CHEN Yu-ming; YU Xiao-lei; WANG Le-xin

    2004-01-01

    The repairing of damaged composite materials becomes a hot research subject in the late 1990s.In this paper a new technology of repairing composite materials is given on the basis of our previous research.The light wave of 675nm transmitted by optical fiber is used as repairing light source,special repairable adhesive which can be stimulated by the light is adopted.By comparing the stiffness of the composite material before and after being damaged,it can be concluded that the mechanical property will not be changed with the feasible repairing technology.

  19. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg

    2014-01-01

    individuals in Denmark conduct and experience walking, and the ‘rationalities’ (Giddens 1984) that lie behind their choice of mobility. It provides insight into how different lifestyles perceive and act walking in their everyday life. Kaufmann (2002) describes how the individual mobility is influenced......’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The individual...... by individual strategies, values, perceptions and habits, and how appropriation of mobility is constructed through the internalization of standards and values. The act of walking could thus be understood as the result of dynamic internal negotiation of individual, everyday mobility strategies (Lassen 2005...

  20. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    The term ‘knowledge society’ is used to refer to the increasing relevance of nonmanual knowledge-producing labour in current post-industrial economies. Contemporary art, especially since 1989, has not been left out of this trend, to the extent that today it is not rare to see artists and curators...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...