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Sample records for repair automobile bodies

  1. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  2. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

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    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  3. Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Heer; Das, Subir; Mehta, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.

  4. Evaluation of nephrotoxic effect of lead exposure among automobile repairers in Nnewi Metropolis

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    Ubuo K. Amah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead toxicity is one of the most common occupational hazards that affect several organs of the body, kidney inclusive. Auto repairers are exposed to lead in petrol, radiator, leaded battery, lead soldering wire, and spray paints, thus this study was designed to evaluate lead-induced nephrotoxic effect among automobile repairers. Methods: A total of 80 male subjects within the age range of 20 and 65 years were recruited for this study. 50 subjects were occupationally exposed automobile repairers, of which 15 were electricians, 21 mechanics and 14 panel beaters/spray painters, whereas 30 were non-exposed students and staff from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. Blood sample was collected from these individuals and their blood lead levels were determined alongside creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Results: The results showed that the mean levels of blood lead is significantly higher in automobile repairers than in control group (P 0.05. The evaluation of the renal function markers show that, there were significant increases in the mean serum concentration of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in the study group compare to the control subjects (P 0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that blood lead level is high among automobile repairers above CDC recommended level for adults. This high blood lead level among automobile repairers may be responsible for raised levels of renal markers which may eventually lead to their renal damage. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1107-1111

  5. PRIORITY DISPATCH SCHEDULING IN AN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP

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    KOYEJO OYEBOLA T.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work applied a simulation model in determining the optimal number of artisans to employ to carry out routine checks on vehicles on a waiting line. The waiting line under consideration is that of an automobile repair and maintenance workshop in South- Western Nigeria. The data collection was based on arrival pattern of vehicles and service pattern of artisans in the maintenance workshop. A discrete distribution was assumed for both the inter–arrival and service time patterns. An optimal number of 7 servers serving one queue were obtained as against 4 servers and 1 queue in the system in use. There was also a savings in cost of N2.45 Million per month when compared to the system in use. The results of this research work will be significant and important for decision making.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  7. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  8. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required of Automobile Repair Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to show the important need of academic skills, specifically general education coursework, to the effectiveness of the technician's expertise in the field of automobile repair. Additionally, I emphasized that one of the keys to the quality of the technician's education is the method of instruction analyzed through…

  9. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required of Automobile Repair Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to show the important need of academic skills, specifically general education coursework, to the effectiveness of the technician's expertise in the field of automobile repair. Additionally, I emphasized that one of the keys to the quality of the technician's education is the method of instruction analyzed…

  10. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  11. ALGORITHM OF PRETREATMENT ON AUTOMOBILE BODY POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; ZHOU Yu; DU Farong; QU Weiwei; XIONG Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    As point cloud of one whole vehicle body has the traits of large geometric dimension, huge data and rigorous reverse precision, one pretreatment algorithm on automobile body point cloud is put forward. The basic idea of the registration algorithm based on the skeleton points is to construct the skeleton points of the whole vehicle model and the mark points of the separate point cloud, to search the mapped relationship between skeleton points and mark points using congruence triangle method and to match the whole vehicle point cloud using the improved iterative closed point (ICP) algorithm. The data reduction algorithm, based on average square root of distance, condenses data by three steps, Computing datasets' average square root of distance in sampling cube grid, sorting order according to the value computed from the first step, choosing sampling percentage. The accuracy of the two algorithms above is proved by a registration and reduction example of whole vehicle point cloud of a certain light truck.

  12. Advanced welding technology of automobile body%先进的车身焊接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广勇

    2013-01-01

    With the application of new material of galvanized steel and high strength steel and aluminum alloy in the body manufacturing, automobile body welding technology based on the power frequency of resistance welding and MAG welding doesn't meet the development trend "lightweight, safety, energy saving" of the body manufacturing.Advanced welding techniques such as MF resistance welding and laser penetration welding and laser filler wire welding and laser tailor-welded blanks and CMT welding technology and friction stir welding technology has been applied in automobile body manufacturing.This paper describes the working principle and technical characteristics of the above several advanced welding technology, and their application in automobile body manufacturing and economic benefits .There is some reference function to the body design and welding process.%随着镀锌钢板、高强度钢、铝合金等新材料在车身制造中的应用,以工频电阻焊为主,辅以MAG焊的车身焊接技术,逐步难以满足车身制造“轻量、安全、节能”的发展趋势.先进的焊接技术,例如中频电阻焊、激光钎焊、激光熔焊、激光拼焊板技术、CMT焊接技术、摩擦搅拌点焊技术等在车身制造中逐步得到应用.简述了几种先进焊接技术的工作原理和技术特点,及其在车身制造中的应用特点和经济效益.对车身设计和焊装工艺方案规划有一定的借鉴作用.

  13. Auto Body Repair. Supplementary Units. Instructor Key and Student Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Linda; Muench, James F., Ed.

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply auto body repair skills. The material specifically supplements the Auto Body Repair Curriculum Guide (University of Missouri-Columbia 1988), and is intended for instructors serving the occupational needs of various categories of disadvantaged and handicapped…

  14. A study on morbidity among automobile service and repair workers in an urban area of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mathew; Alex, Reginald G; Sunny, Soumya S; Alwan, Anand; Guzzula, Deepak; Srinivasan, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Service sector in Indian industrial growth has obtained significant numbers. Automobile service industry is one of the largest in the world with a majority of the workers in unorganized sector of the industry. This study was carried out among auto service industry workers in Vellore urban area to assess possible occupation related morbidity. A cross-sectional observation study was carried out among 106 automobile repair shop workers. Half (47%) suffered work related stress, 32 (30.2%) reported exposure to dust, 81 (76%) to heat, and 50 (17%) to hazardous chemicals and heavy metals. More than 90% reported over exposure to petroleum products. A third reported cough for more than 2 weeks, more than a quarter reported gastrointestinal symptoms associated with work. Half of them reported musculoskeletal complaints associated with work with a quarter reporting un-intentional work place injuries. A tenth of them were found to have reduced pulmonary function on testing and nearly half had impaired sensory functions in peripheries. Reduced pulmonary function was found to be significantly associated with heavy metal exposure (P = 0.001). Peripheral neuropathy was significantly associated with years of occupation (P = 0.001), exposure to petroleum products (P = 0.03) and exposure to heavy metals (P = 0.018). Half of the workers were unaware of health problems associated with their occupational exposures and thereby the use of personal protection is abysmally low. A very high proportion of workers had symptoms of cough, breathlessness, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort and muscle aches. Almost a quarter of the workers had un-intentional occupational injuries in the last 6 months. Though they work in a high-risk environment with chances of fire hazard, falls and chemical exposures, none of the workshops had fire-extinguishers, first aid kits or any such safety devices.

  15. A study on morbidity among automobile service and repair workers in an urban area of South India

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    Mathew Philip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Service sector in Indian industrial growth has obtained significant numbers. Automobile service industry is one of the largest in the world with a majority of the workers in unorganized sector of the industry. This study was carried out among auto service industry workers in Vellore urban area to assess possible occupation related morbidity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observation study was carried out among 106 automobile repair shop workers. Results: Half (47% suffered work related stress, 32 (30.2% reported exposure to dust, 81 (76% to heat, and 50 (17% to hazardous chemicals and heavy metals. More than 90% reported over exposure to petroleum products. A third reported cough for more than 2 weeks, more than a quarter reported gastrointestinal symptoms associated with work. Half of them reported musculoskeletal complaints associated with work with a quarter reporting un-intentional work place injuries. A tenth of them were found to have reduced pulmonary function on testing and nearly half had impaired sensory functions in peripheries. Reduced pulmonary function was found to be significantly associated with heavy metal exposure (P = 0.001. Peripheral neuropathy was significantly associated with years of occupation (P = 0.001, exposure to petroleum products (P = 0.03 and exposure to heavy metals (P = 0.018. Discussion: Half of the workers were unaware of health problems associated with their occupational exposures and thereby the use of personal protection is abysmally low. A very high proportion of workers had symptoms of cough, breathlessness, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort and muscle aches. Almost a quarter of the workers had un-intentional occupational injuries in the last 6 months. Though they work in a high-risk environment with chances of fire hazard, falls and chemical exposures, none of the workshops had fire-extinguishers, first aid kits or any such safety devices.

  16. EXTERNAL MAGNETIC PULSE STRAIGHTENING – NEW TECHNOLOGY CAR BODY REPAIR

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    А. Gnatov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative equipment of external contactless magnetic impulse straightening developed by the laboratory of Electromagnetic Technology of Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University is presented in this paper. The effect of metal hyper-plasticity at magnetic impulse acting is described. Suggestions concerning practical testing of advanced technology of damaged car body panels by external contactless magnetic impulse straightening are presented. The processing route of external contactless magnetic impulse straightening process is specified.

  17. Cumulative asbestos exposure for US automobile mechanics involved in brake repair (circa 1950s-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Brent L; Richter, Richard O; Mowat, Fionna S; Mlynarek, Steve; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Warmerdam, John M; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2007-11-01

    We analyzed cumulative lifetime exposure to chrysotile asbestos experienced by brake mechanics in the US during the period 1950-2000. Using Monte Carlo methods, cumulative exposures were calculated using the distribution of 8-h time-weighted average exposure concentrations for brake mechanics and the distribution of job tenure data for automobile mechanics. The median estimated cumulative exposures for these mechanics, as predicted by three probabilistic models, ranged from 0.16 to 0.41 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm(3)) year for facilities with no dust-control procedures (1970s), and from 0.010 to 0.012 f/cm(3) year for those employing engineering controls (1980s). Upper-bound (95%) estimates for the 1970s and 1980s were 1.96 to 2.79 and 0.07-0.10 f/cm(3) year, respectively. These estimates for US brake mechanics are consistent with, but generally slightly lower than, those reported for European mechanics. The values are all substantially lower than the cumulative exposure of 4.5 f/cm(3) year associated with occupational exposure to 0.1 f/cm(3) of asbestos for 45 years that is currently permitted under the current occupational exposure limits in the US. Cumulative exposures were usually about 100- to 1,000-fold less than those of other occupational groups with asbestos exposure for similar time periods. The cumulative lifetime exposure estimates presented here, combined with the negative epidemiology data for brake mechanics, could be used to refine the risk assessments for chrysotile-exposed populations.

  18. Bioaccumulation and cancer risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in leafy vegetables grown in soils within automobile repair complex and environ in Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Edu; Ibanga, Felicia; Essien, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and an incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) assessment model, the bioaccumulation and cancer risk of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in leafy vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina and Lasianthera africanum) grown in soils within an automobile repair complex environment in Uyo, Nigeria was studied. The total PAHs concentrations recorded for soils ranged from 0.02 to 1.77 mg/kg. The highest level of 1.77 mg/kg was recorded for soils from the main automobile repair complex (site 1). Low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs were predominant although some high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs suites (0.04 mg/kg of chrysene and 0.04 of benzo[k]fluoranthene) were also found in site 1. The leafy vegetables accumulated PAHs were mostly LMW. Accumulation levels were similar but the extent of PAH uptake in vegetables was species dependent as V. amygdalina accumulated more (0.81 mg/kg). The bioaccumulation factors (BaFs) calculated ranged from 0.22 to 0.63 for L. africanum, and 0.18 to 0.55 for V. amygdalina in site 1 where high PAH levels were recorded in soil. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed a strong positive relation between the PAH content of soil and the amount accumulated by L. africanum (r = 0.5) and V. amygdalina (r = 0.8) at p = 0.05. The vegetable's potential to bioaccumulate PAHs is indicative of their use as good bioindicators for PAH contamination in soil. Only two of the USEPA possible human carcinogenic PAHs were detected, and carcinogenic risk assessment based on occupational exposures to soil particles by adults revealed that the total risk level (7.17 × 10(-5)) contribution from incidental soil ingestion, dermal contact, and soil particle dust inhalation slightly exceed the USEPA acceptable limits (automobile repair complexes across Nigeria.

  19. How vulnerable are automobile repair workers to HIV/AIDS? A quantitative and qualitative assessment in a slum of Kolkata,India

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    Mukherjee Shuvankar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile repair workers may run high risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS infection owing to their socio cultural background. A cross- sectional study was conducted among them in Chetla, Kolkata to assess knowledge, attitude and practices related to HIV/AIDS and to find out difference in knowledge status based on different socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods: Both qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted. A total of 114 male workers were interviewed from randomly selected 12 automobile garages using pre-designed, pre-tested schedule. A uniform scoring system for knowledge was adopted. Chi-square test was applied to find out difference in knowledge score based on different socio-demographic variables. Qualitative analysis was performed after conducting in-depth interview with 24 participants. Results: About 84% belonged to 15-35 years age group with mean age 26.3(+ 2.7 years. Overall, 63.2% had poor knowledge score. Higher difference in knowledge score was obtained with higher literacy status and age (p<0.05. About 29 % of the respondents opined that People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs should not continue their work and 47.4% commented that PLHAs should not reveal their HIV status. One of the three participants who had commercial sex in last 12 months did not use condom. Two participants complained about symptom of genital discharge in last 12 months and none underwent any treatment. Qualitative analysis revealed low awareness level and discriminatory attitude towards PLHAs.Conclusions: Poor level of knowledge and unfavourable attitude of the participants were observed from both quantitative and qualitative analyses though they could not be considered high risk group. Appropriate communication for behavioural change both by group approach and by interpersonal communication was required.

  20. Optimal Allocation of Repair Shops in the Automobile Recall%缺陷汽车召回所需安排的最优维修店数目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊中楷; 刘学勇; 郭年

    2012-01-01

    讨论了缺陷汽车产品制造商在汽车召回事件中如何安排最优维修店数目.假设汽车制造商在召回期限内维修几乎全部召回汽车,车主逗留时间和维修时间都服从指数分布,并且假设维修人员会根据库存水平(车位)调整维修速度.选取制造商安排组织的维修店数目为决策变量,利用有限源排队理论建立了成本控制模型.搜索算法确定了最优的维修店数目,使得期望总成本最小.%Toyota Motor Corporation has recalled more than 8.5 million defective vehicles since March 2010 according to a Reuters report. The State Administration of Quality Supervision Defective Product Management Center ( AQSIQ) is formed by nearly 60 domestic and foreign automobile manufacturers. An AQSIQ report shows that there had been 212 active recall, and recall of 321 thousand units of vehicles from 2004 to 2009.In 2009 China had 57 auto recalls, and involved 1, 364, 820 vehicles and 33 companies. The number of auto recalls in 2009 is 1. 5 times more than that in 2008. Twenty nine recalls involve 1, 283 , 400 domestic cars. The number of recalls is higher than that of imported cars. The average recall completion rate of enterprises is more than 85. 5% . Regardless the number of recalls, the number of auto recall in China reached the in the history of a new high record, according to the AQSIQ. Car market in 2009 and 2010, a significant change in the recall is voluntarily recalling its own brand awareness began to increase. As a corporate strategic decision, the subtle optimization on product recall decision leads to fruitful academic contributions and managerial insights.When launching product recall, the motor manufacturer must organize repairers to recover defective vehicles as well as bear the repair fees and necessary logistical costs. Then, the optimal number of repairers is an important managerial issue. If too few repairers are organized, the great number of defective vehicles that wait

  1. 汽车发动机的维修与保养分析%Repair and maintenance of automobile engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈航

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth of the national economy, people's living standards improve, the automotive in-dustry significantly increased the pace of development. Car engine is a core part of automotive parts, but also to start the car the only member which is not only to ensure quality performance guarantee safe driving cars, but also extend vehicle life. Therefore, to do routine maintenance and repair car engine work is very important. Articles will be corporate engine repair and maintenance work to discuss, to understand the basic principles of automotive engine, and its routine mainte-nance and repair to propose effective countermeasures.%随着国民经济持续增长,人们生活水平不断提高,汽车工业的发展速度显著提高。汽车发动机是汽车零部件的核心部分,也是启动汽车的唯一部件,其质量性能保障不仅保证汽车安全驾驶,还延长汽车使用寿命。因此,做好汽车发动机日常维修与保养工作十分重要。文章将对企业发动机的维修与保养工作展开讨论,了解汽车发动机的基本原理,并对其日常保养与维修提出有效的对策。

  2. Research on key influence factors of laser overlap welding of automobile body galvanized steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Genyu; Mei, Lifang; Zhang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zujian

    2013-02-01

    In views of structure characteristics of the auto-body parts, the influences of the beam incident angle and joint gap on the performance of laser overlap welded joints were investigated. The experimental results indicate that there were the critical values of beam incident angle and joint gap during laser overlap welding of galvanized steel. The thickness of sheet and the width of joint had a certain influence on the critical beam incident angle and the limit joint gap. With regard to thicker sheet, the limit joint gap can increase appropriately, but the critical beam incident angle should not be too big. With narrow weld width, the laser beam incident angle can increase appropriately, but the joint gap should not be bigger. Additionally, the critical beam incident angle and the limit joint gap were varied with the thickness of the upper sheet. The tensile-shear tests show that the maximum tensile-shear strength of the joint can be obtained with an optimized beam incident angle and joint gap.

  3. Analysis of application of various materials for manufacturing parts of motor car bodies in automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Григорівна Гаврилова

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents an analysis of applying various steels for manufacturing motor-car bodies. There is a brief description of cold-rolled sheet steels RRST 1405 produced according to the standards DIN 1623 and DIN 1541; UST 1203, UST 1303 according to DIN 1624 and DIN 1606; ST 4, 08MnSiAlTi, 07MnNbAl and also a classification and a brief description of steels made according to USLAB: IF-steel with increased formability, thermo-strengthened BH-steel, dual phase (DP steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steels, martensitic (Mart steels, austenitic high-tensile steels – (TWIP steels, high strength steels of new generation of AHSS type (advanced high-strength steels and UHSS (ultra high-strength steels, high-strength steels and superplastic steels of new generation for lightweight constructions (TRIPLEX-steel, hot-rolled nano-structured steel NANOHITEN. It has been shown that the main tendency in modern approach to engineering and manufacturing sheet steel used in automotive industry is to increase strength while maintaining formability characteristics, reducing the coefficient of normal plastic anisotropy (Lankford value ratio, as well as increasing srengthening at deformation. The advantages and disadvantages of the materials used in the automotive industry have been shown, as well as ways of their improving. The work represents a compilation of several publications. The materials can be used for developing a training course «Materials to be used in transport» within the framework of the International Project on reforming curricula TEMPUS «MMATENG»: «Two-stage Training Program for Engineering Materials Curriculum Modernization»

  4. An Exploration into The Application of Multi-media Teaching in Automobile Maintenance and Repair Major%多媒体网络教学在汽车维修中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元钦

    2015-01-01

    校园网上实现多媒体教学,是每个学校致力开发一个项目。汽车产业作为国民支柱的重要领头项目,其中汽车维修起着举足轻重地位,有着得天独厚的优势。多媒体网络教学的应用和发展有利于提高汽车维修教学改革水平,扩展教学改革思路。通过我校多媒体教学的尝试,探索多媒体网络教学在现代职业教育层面上的作用,特别是在汽车维修中应用的几点体会,为机电一体化教学改革提出新的思路,有利于我国汽车维修事业的蓬勃发展。%To achieve teaching through multi-media in campus network is a program that each school is engaged in,automobile industry is an important national leading pillar program,and automobile maintenance and repair plays an important role and it has special advantages,the application and development of teaching through multi-media network helps to improve the teaching and reform level of automobile maintenance and repair and extend the thought on teaching reform.Attempts to teaching through multi-media network in our school,exploration into the effect of teaching through multi-media network on modern vocational education and the experience about the application in automobile maintenance and repair provide new ideas for the reform of the teaching of integration of mechatronics,it would be conducive to the flourishing development of automobile maintenance and repair business.

  5. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  6. The body as a resource for other-initiation of repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses how the human body serves as a resource for other initiation of repair. It describes how a hand gesture, a cupped hand behind the ear, is oriented to as a repair initiation in a foreign language classroom. The gesture typically occurs in the absence of speech and is treated...

  7. An Analysis on Working-learning Integrated Teaching Mode or Automobile Maintenance & Repair Major%汽车维修专业"工学一体化"教学模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江清秀

    2015-01-01

    With the reform of teaching,working-learning integrated teaching mode has become critical point to the reform of teaching in automobile maintenance and repair major in vocational colleges,it is playing an important role.and can meet the demand on competent personnel specialized in automobile maintenance and repair in social market,it also conform to the objective law of social economic development.so as to push the modernization of vocational education in our country onto a new way.%在教学改革中,"工学一体化"教学模式已成为当前职业院校汽车维修专业教学改革的关键点,扮演着重要的角色,能够满足社会市场对汽车维修专业高素质人才的需求,也是对社会经济发展客观规律的顺应. 以此,不断推动我国现代化职业教育走上全新的发展道路.

  8. Unusual foreign body in the nasal cavity of an adult with repaired cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Nagabhairava; GunaShekhar, M; Prasad, S Raghavendra; Lalitha, N; Raju, P Ramanjaneya; Natesh, Y A

    2015-03-01

    Intranasal foreign bodies arising from dental clinical practice, especially in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) occur rarely and are very scarce in the literature. This article reports an unusual case of a dental impression material presenting as a foreign body in the nasal cavity of an adult with repaired CLP who presented for dental prosthetic rehabilitation. To our knowledge, this is only the second report presenting nasal foreign body in a cleft patient arising due to a dental impression procedure.

  9. 汽车底盘的保养与维修方法探讨%Discussion on maintenance and repair methods of automobile chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李展交

    2016-01-01

    The chassis is an important part of the car,car driven mainly by the subject,strengthen the daily maintenance of the chassis and maintenance is to extend the service life of automobile is an important way,is also promoting China's automobile production and application to achieve further technology high quality development in an effective way,realize the modern means of science and technology in the automobile industry in the development of application and innovation and development.%汽车底盘是汽车车中的重要组成部分,是汽车驱动下主要受重主体,加强对汽车底盘的日常保养和维护是延长汽车寿命的重要途径,同时也是促进我国汽车生产、应用进一步实现技术高质量发展的有效途径,实现现代科学技术手段在汽车事业发展中的应用与创新发展。

  10. Understanding the Influence of Pressure and Radial Loads on Stress and Displacement Response of a Rotating Body: The Automobile Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the use of the finite element technique for analyzing stress and displacement distributions in wheels of automotive vehicles when subject to the conjoint influence of inflation pressure and radial load. The most commonly used considerations in the design of the rotating body are elucidated. A potentially viable technique for finite element modeling of radial wheel, subjected to loading, is highlighted. The extrinsic influence of inflation pressure on performance of the rotating body, that is, the wheel, is rationalized.

  11. Cross-sectional neck response of a total human body FE model during simulated frontal and side automobile impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas A; Moreno, Daniel P; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Human body finite element (FE) models are beginning to play a more prevalent role in the advancement of automotive safety. A methodology has been developed to evaluate neck response at multiple levels in a human body FE model during simulated automotive impacts. Three different impact scenarios were simulated: a frontal impact of a belted driver with airbag deployment, a frontal impact of a belted passenger without airbag deployment and an unbelted side impact sled test. Cross sections were created at each vertebral level of the cervical spine to calculate the force and moment contributions of different anatomical components of the neck. Adjacent level axial force ratios varied between 0.74 and 1.11 and adjacent level bending moment ratios between 0.55 and 1.15. The present technique is ideal for comparing neck forces and moments to existing injury threshold values, calculating injury criteria and for better understanding the biomechanical mechanisms of neck injury and load sharing during sub-injurious and injurious loading.

  12. The tolerance of the human body to automobile collision impact - a systematic review of injury biomechanics research, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Duprey, Sonia; Bose, Dipan; Del Pozo de Dios, Eduardo; Subit, Damien; Gillispie, Tim; Crandall, Jeff R; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Road traffic injuries account for 1.3 million deaths per year world-wide. Mitigating both fatalities and injuries requires a detailed understanding of the tolerance of the human body to external load. To identify research priorities, it is necessary to periodically compare trends in injury tolerance research to the characteristics of injuries occurring in the field. This study sought to perform a systematic review on the last twenty years of experimental injury tolerance research, and to evaluate those results relative to available epidemiologic data. Four hundred and eight experimental injury tolerance studies from 1990-2009 were identified from a reference index of over 68,000 papers. Examined variables included the body regions, ages, and genders studied; and the experimental models used. Most (20%) of the publications studied injury to the spine. There has also been a substantial volume of biomechanical research focused on upper and lower extremity injury, thoracic injury, and injury to the elderly - although these injury types still occur with regularity in the field. In contrast, information on pediatric injury and physiological injury (especially in the central nervous system) remains lacking. Given their frequency of injury in the field, future efforts should also include improving our understanding of tolerances and protection of vulnerable road users (e.g., motorcyclists, pedestrians). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auto Body Welding 2 (Course Outline), Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 1: 9033.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 90-hour course is a foundation quinmester course in welding for the auto body repairman. The outline consists of seven blocks of instruction (orientation, 6 hours; auto body oxyacetylene welding, 10 hours; electric arc welding equipment, 6 hours; auto body electric arc welding, 8 hours; position welding, 40 hours; electric spot welders, 16…

  14. Application of NURBS Mothld in Geometry Modeling of Automobile Body Part Die Surface%NURBS方法在覆盖件模具型面几何建模中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方贵盛

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of surface design by using NURBS and the application of NURBS in 3D modeling of surface of automobile body part die.Taking the top automobile surface as an example,the process,the advantage & disadvantage of surface design by using NURBS are introduced.The smoothing of primitive data points of automobile body part and fitting of NURBS curves and surfaces are also discussed.%分析NURBS方法进行曲面设计的特点,并将之应用到汽车覆盖件模具工作型面的三维设计过程中.同时以汽车顶盖模具型面设计为例,具体说明采用NURBS方法进行曲面设计的设计过程及其优缺点,并深入探讨了汽车覆盖件原始数据点的光顺处理及NURBS曲线曲面的插值拟合等内容.

  15. Analysis on the Current Situation of“Dual-Qualification”Teachers in the Teaching of “Automobile Repair and Maintenance”Major%“双师型”教师在“汽修”专业教学中的现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢英杰

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of automo-bile industry, more and more automobile related occupations ap-peared, and the demand for professional automobile talents is ris-ing. Therefore, secondary vocational schools and higher vocation-al colleges all over the country have successively opened related majors such as automobile repair and maintenance, automobile manufacture and assembling, automobile marketing, etc., in order to train application-oriented automobile talents with certain technical ability. However, vocational education is faced with many problems, such as poor basic knowledge of students, insuf-ficient funds, backward equipment, and even the gap between the basic conditions of running a vocational school and national re-quirements, especially the big problems of teaching staff, etc. This paper detailed and analyzed the current situation of“dual-qualifi-cation”teachers in the teaching of automobile repair and mainte-nance major.%近年来,随着汽车产业的快速发展,与汽车相关的职业岗位越来越多,对汽车专业人才的需求也随之高涨。因此,在全国各地市中等职业学校和高等职业院校相继开设汽车检测与维修、汽车制造与装配、汽车营销等相关专业,以培养具有一定技术能力水平的汽车专业应用型人才十分必要。但是,职业教育面临着很多问题,比如学生入学成绩和知识基础差,学校资金不足,设备落后,甚至办学基本条件都达不到国家要求,尤其是在师资力量方面存在很大的问题。本文就“双师型”教师在汽车检测与维修专业教学中的现状做具体阐述分析。

  16. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  17. 游戏化汽车维修学习软件的开发研究%Research and development of automobile repair game-based learning software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂淼

    2014-01-01

    The common automotive repair knowledge is selected as the main content in this study. The car owners and car major students are taken as the target population to develop games-based learning software by means of Flash game engine. The game-based learning software has transcended the old onefold teaching method which only adopts the introductory content such as characters,images,etc. It use Flash technology to make a virtual auto repair factory in which learners can learn vehicle main-tenance knowledge intuitively. Meanwhile the enjoyment of the game makes learners more actively to achieve better learning out-come.%该研究选取常见的汽车维修知识为主要内容,以有车一族和汽车专业学习者为目标人群,利用Flash游戏引擎开发游戏化学习软件。在该游戏化学习软件中,突破了以往仅仅是文字、图片等介绍性为主的单一教学方式,通过Flash技术让现实中的汽车修理厂再现,让学习者能够在创设的虚拟情景中直观地学习汽车维修知识。同时游戏的趣味性能够让学习者在学习中更加主动,取得较好的学习效果。

  18. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  19. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF OSCILLATIONS OF BEARING BODY FRAME OF EMERGENCY AND REPAIR RAILCARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina KHROMOVA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the importance of maintenance and effective use of available railcars in the railway transport is growing, and researchers and technical experts are working to address this issue with the use of various techniques. The authors address the use of analytical technique, which includes mathematical solutions for flexural and longitudinal fluctuations of the bearing framework of a railcar body frame. The calculation is performed in connection with the modernization of the body frame of emergency and repair rail service car, taking into account the variability in section, mass, longitudinal stiffness, and bending stiffness. It allows for extension of the useful life of their operation, with special focus on vehicles owned by Joint-Stock Company "Uzbekistan Railways". The simulation of equivalent bearing body frame of emergency and repair rail service car was carried out using an elastic rod with variable parameters including stiffness and mass. The difference between the proposed model and the existing ones is due to the variability in cross section, mass, and the longitudinal and bending stiffness along the length of equivalent beam, which corresponds to the actual conditions of operation and data of the experimental studies conducted by the authors on the bearing frames of electric locomotives’ variable sections. The frequency analysis that was carried out with the use of the Mathcad 14 programming showed that the frequencies of natural oscillations change on n harmonicas = 1, 2, 3 … 5. As regards longitudinal oscillations of system, in case of introduction of the damping subfloor, the frequency of natural oscillations of the upgraded rail car frame λ1mn increases on comparing with standard λ1n (for example, in case of n = 5 the frequency is 0.587 and 0.602 Hz/m, respectively.

  1. Tracheal injury during extraction of an esophageal foreign body: Repair utilizing venovenous ECMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunpei Okochi, MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is a form of life support with an ever-expanding range of indications. Veno-venous (VV ECMO is often utilized to support children with respiratory compromise, and has been employed successfully in the acute setting of traumatic tracheobronchial injury as well as during elective tracheal surgery. We present a successful case of VV ECMO used in the perioperative management of a tracheal repair for a traumatic laceration caused by attempts to retrieve an esophageal foreign body. While this mechanism of injury appears to be rare, we believe that VV-ECMO allowed for the optimal management of this child and should be considered for other extensive tracheal injuries in children.

  2. The rupture and repair of the couple's communal body with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Karen D

    2011-06-01

    Intimate partners' ability to adopt a "we" outlook in relation to cancer has consistently been associated with optimal adaptation for couples. This investigation adds to the growing body of literature on dyadic coping and resiliency in couples through an in-depth examination of five well-adjusted couples' experiences with prostate cancer. Of specific interest were (1) how the experience of prostate cancer affected the couple's unique intersubjective identity, and how in turn (2) the couple's identity and relationship culture influenced their adjustment to cancer. An ethnographic mode of inquiry was adopted. Marital partners were interviewed together on two separate occasions with the intention of having them deepen their conjoint reflexive processing of their relationship. During the interviews, couples were asked to reflect upon and articulate their sense of themselves as a couple, their experience of "we-ness" and shared identity, and the interaction between the illness and we-ness. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the grounded theory method. The grounded theory analysis yielded three main themes portraying the couples' experience of prostate cancer: (1) riding the vortex, (2) holding the communal body intact, and (3) invincibility and its underbelly. A more broad understanding to arise from this investigation was the notion of a "communal body" and that couples participated in a shared corporeality, to which each partner's identity and sense of self was intricately tied. It is concluded that the intersubjective embodiment displayed by couples in this study was instrumental to the "repair" of the communal body ruptured by prostate cancer.

  3. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  4. Hydrogen storage for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an analysis of hydrogen-fueled automobiles are presented as a part of a continuing study conducted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on Energy Storage Systems for Automobile Propulsion. The hydrogen is stored either as a metal hydride at moderate pressure in TiFe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 1/H/sub x/ and at low pressure in MgH/sub x/ catalyzed with 10 wt % Ni, or it is stored in hollow glass microspheres at pressures up to about 400 atm. Improved projections are given for the two hydrides, which are used in combination to take advantage of their complementary properties. In the dual-hydride case and in the microsphere case where Ti-based hydride is used for initial operation, hydrogen is consumed in an internal-combustion engine; whereas in the third case, hydrogen from Ti-based hydride is used with air in an alkaline fuel cell/Ni-Zn battery combination which powers an electric vehicle. Each system is briefly described; and the results of the vehicle analysis are compared with those for the conventional automobile and with electric vehicles powered by Pb-acid or Ni-Zn batteries. Comparisons are made on the basis of automobile weight, initial user cost, and life-cycle cost. In this report, the results are limited to those for the 5-passenger vehicle in the period 1985-1990, and are provided as probable and optimistic values.

  5. 汽车轮胎金属异物探测原理与探测系统设计%Detection principle of metallic foreign body in automobile tire and design of detective system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟; 马骁

    2012-01-01

    以汽车轮胎金属异物探测为目标,讨论金属异物探测原理,以电涡流传感器为基础,通过感应电涡流的变化实现金属异物探测.设计了一种金属异物探测系统,该探测器能伸进汽车轮胎面与翼子板、挡泥板之间的狭小空隙,有效地检测出刺入汽车轮胎的金属异物.探测器的设计使用PIC16F877单片机为核心处理部件,探测采样的感应信号经A/D转换后,采用频域分析法处理.结果表明,该探测器克服了传统的探测器抗干扰能力差的弱点,探测灵敏度和准确性高.%Taking the detection of metallic foreign body within automobile tire as a target, the detection principle of metallic foreign body was discussed. The detection of metallic foreign body was achieved by u-sing the change of inductive eddy current detected by inductive current sensor. A kind of detective system for detecting metallic foreign body in vehicle tire was designed. This detector could be put into the narrow space between the tire surface and wings plate or fender, and the metallic foreign body in automobile tires could be detected effectively. The PIC16F877 monolithic computer was used as core processing unit in the detector. After A/D conversion, the detecting sampling signals were analyzed by using the method of frequency domain processing. The result showed that the detective system could overcome the weakness of anti-interference ability with a traditional detector, and this system exhibited high sensitivity and accuracy.

  6. On the role of baculovirus photolyases in DNA repair upon UV damage of occlusion bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biernat, M.A.; Caballero, P.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of baculoviruses in insect biocontrol is hampered by their sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light. This irradiation induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA. CPD-photolyases repair CPDs using visible light. Plusiine baculoviruses encode photolyases, which could potentially repair

  7. Environmentally Benign Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Schipper, Lee; Deluchi, Mark; Wang, Quanlu

    1992-01-01

    His dream has come true. There's now more than one vehicle for every licensed driver in the United States, and other developed countries are not far behind. But has the car's success created the conditions for its own demise? Conventional wisdom of market researchers, consultants, and other experts is that the automobile and its petroleum-powered internal combustion engine will be with us for a long time and that any energy and environmental problems can be readily solved. T...

  8. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  9. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational Curricula. Auto Body Repair. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Larry; Shin, Masako

    This document, one of eight in a multi-cultural competency-based vocational/technical curricula series, is on auto body repair. This program is designed to run 40 weeks and cover 7 instructional areas: use of basic repair tools; metal bumping (theory and practice); metal refinishing (theory and practice); panel replacement; glass work; spot…

  10. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  11. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training Manual for Effective Learning ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) > ... College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability.

  12. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. 基于P ro/E三维建模的汽车车身产品整体化设计及快速成形%Overall design and rapid prototyping of automobile body products based on Pro/E 3D modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨财; 刘晓晶; 贺永辉; 刘恒; 李续博; 刘训达; 王哲

    2015-01-01

    随着汽车行业的发展,对汽车产品的研发周期要求越来越短,同时对产品质量和外观设计水平的要求也越来越高,如何快速设计新型汽车车身产品成为汽车行业发展的关键问题之一。应用Pro/ENGINEER软件,设计出新型汽车车身整体的CAD模型,评价分析了成型型面质量并修改了问题型面;通过选择设定合理的工艺参数,使用熔融挤压快速成型机实现了汽车车身模型的快速原型制造。方便、快速地实现了新型汽车车身产品的设计开发,缩短了研发周期。%With the development of automobile industry, the research and development cycle of automobile body products is getting shorter and shorter than before. At the same time, the requirements for product quality and ap⁃pearance design level are also getting higher. How to design a new model of the automobile body becomes one of the key issues in the auto industry development. A new type of automobile body CAD model was designed by using Pro ENGINEER software. Then the quality of molding surfaces was evaluated and analyzed and the molding surface that has problem was revised. The rapid prototyping of the automobile body model was manufactured by choosing and setting reasonable process parameters, and using the melted extrusion modeling ( MEM) prototyping machine, the design and development of a new type of automobile body product are realized conveniently and quickly, which shortens the research and development cycle.

  14. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  15. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  16. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  17. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  18. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  19. Transbrachial branch cannulation during Zenith fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using a robotically guided body-floss technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukgu M. Han, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Caudal angulation and stenosis of the renal arteries pose significant challenges in branch cannulation during the standard fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR. We describe an alternative technique of branch cannulation during FEVAR in a patient with a 6.5-cm juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, renal artery stenosis, and bilateral caudally oriented renal arteries. A brachiofemoral or “body-floss” access was established by traversing the top scallop. The brachial sheath was deflected toward the target fenestration using a steerable robotic femoral sheath, enabling transbrachial cannulation of the downgoing target renal artery. Postoperatively, the patient was discharged without complications. Steerable sheath-guided body-floss technique may facilitate cannulation of severely downgoing branch vessels during FEVAR.

  20. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  1. Application of high-strength steel sheets for automobiles in Japan; Utilisation des aciers a haute resistance dans l'industrie automobile au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M.; Ohashi, H. [Nippon Steel Corporation (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    In Japan, automobile and steel engineers are working together for automotive body weight reduction. They are focusing on weight reduction from the point of view of both body structure and material. In order to meet the increasingly severe requirements for weight reduction, aiming at the limitation of the fuel consumption, an expansion in the range of application of HSS is vital. To realize further reduction, joint research by steelmakers and automobile manufacturers will become increasingly important. (authors)

  2. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Filling and Solidification of Magnesium Alloy Bottom-shell Body for Automobile%镁合金汽车下壳体充型和凝固过程数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力; 王翠芳

    2011-01-01

    对镁合金汽车下壳体铸件在液态和半固态条件下的充型凝固过程进行了数值模拟,并对两种状态下的零件在铸造过程中可能出现缺陷的位置进行了预测.结果表明,半固态合金熔体的充填有利于平稳充填型腔、型腔的气体能及时排出,减少了铸件的内部缺陷.同时,铸件的整体温度场相对均匀,有利于铸件内部的补缩和残余气体的排放,从而提高了铸件质量.%With the help of numerical simulation method, filling and solidification process of magnesium alloy bottom-shell body for automobile in liquid state and in semi-solid state were simulated, and potential position of defects in the parts in two different states was predicted. The results show that semi-solid magnesium melt is beneficial for smoothly filling cavity and exhaustion of gas in the cavity in time to eliminate the internal defects in the parts. Meanwhile, the whole temperature field of the parts is relatively homogeneous, which is helpful for the internal feeding and exhaustion of residual gas in the cavity, improving the quality of the magnesium alloy parts.

  4. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  5. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  6. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles)...

  7. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  8. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  9. Repairing sealing surfaces on aluminum castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Approach using stylus nickel plating instead of copper and cadmium plating has simplified repair procedure. Damaged sealing surfaces are stylus nickelplated in one step. Superficial scratches and porous areas are removed more easily from repaired surface by simply lapping sealing areas to required finish. Although method is aimed for aerospace components, it may be easily incorporated into conventional aluminumcasting technology. One-step repair can be considered for cast-aluminum automobile and aircraft engines to reduce time and costs.

  10. Approaches of Japan and Western nations to automobile fuel consumption improvement; Jidosha nenpi kaizen ni kansuru Nippon Obei no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M. [Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Some views are expressed toward the improvement of automobile fuel consumption. There is no need to give up the convenience that the automobile offers for the purpose of energy-saving. What is needed is the effective use of energy, and the most important technological tasks in this connection is the improvement of fuel consumption. Thanks to the efforts exerted by Japanese businesses, and to reduction in automobile size and improvement on engine performance in the Western countries, fuel consumption has steadily improved, only to reach a level where no more large-scale progress is expected without innovative technologies. For example, the adoption of the lean-burn system for higher performance will deteriorate the convenience that automobiles offer and efforts for lightening automobile bodies will encounter constraints (germane to recycling and pricing) in choosing proper materials. This report also evaluates alternate-energy automobiles and comments on Japan`s decision on its fuel consumption improvement targets. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  12. ABOUT CERTIFICATION IN THE AUTOMOBILE FIELD (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor NORDIN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The transport industry development in the Russian Federation makes urgent the problem of transportation security, rendering qualitative services in the goods (passengers transportation field, checkup and repairing motor transport vehicle and etc. Certification is the basic mechanism the work of which should be directed not only at the conformity of service assessment at automobile transport to the specified requirements but also be a regulator of preventing negative developments due to implementing services quality and security improvement. Particularities and stages of conformity assessment are considered in the article also it is offered to differentiate transportation services in levels according to the value of their complex quality level.

  13. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  14. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  15. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  16. Roadway Automobile Stability. A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Nedev, Valentin; Bachvarov, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of the roadway automobile motion is numerically analyzed. This model is intended to describe the roadway automobile stability. A previous paper [6] described the model in detail and the general method of qualitative analysis. In the present paper, we continue the discussion of stability by numerical simulations and the specific question we attempted to answer is: which parameter(s) of automobile geometry and quality of the roadway can serve as a reliable predictor(s) for ...

  17. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  18. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.……

  19. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.

  20. CRUISE FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMOBILE WITH CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To develop cruise control system of an automobile with the metal pushing V-belt type CVT, the dynamic model of automobile travelling longitudinally is established, and the fuzzy controller of control system is designed. Considering uncertainty system parameter and exterior resistance disturbances, the stability of controller is investigated by simulating. The results of its simulation show that the fuzzy controller designed has practicability.

  1. DNA repair: Dynamic defenders against cancer and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Jill O.; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2006-04-01

    You probably weren't thinking about your body's cellular DNA repair systems the last time you sat on the beach in the bright sunshine. Fortunately, however, while you were subjecting your DNA to the harmful effects of ultraviolet light, your cells were busy repairing the damage. The idea that our genetic material could be damaged by the sun was not appreciated in the early days of molecular biology. When Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 [1], it was assumed that DNA is fundamentally stable since it carries the blueprint of life. However, over 50 years of research have revealed that our DNA is under constant assault by sunlight, oxygen, radiation, various chemicals, and even our own cellular processes. Cleverly, evolution has provided our cells with a diverse set of tools to repair the damage that Mother Nature causes. DNA repair processes restore the normal nucleotide sequence and DNA structure of the genome after damage [2]. These responses are highly varied and exquisitely regulated. DNA repair mechanisms are traditionally characterized by the type of damage repaired. A large variety of chemical modifications can alter normal DNA bases and either lead to mutations or block transcription if not repaired, and three distinct pathways exist to remove base damage. Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA base alterations that do not distort the overall structure of the DNA helix such as bases damaged by oxidation resulting from normal cellular metabolism. While BER removes single damaged bases, nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes short segments of nucleotides (called oligonucleotides) containing damaged bases. NER responds to any alteration that distorts the DNA helix and is the mechanism responsible for repairing bulky base damage caused by carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo [a]pyrene (found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust) as well as covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine bases resulting from the ultraviolet

  2. Evaluation of a synthetic bone defect test model to aid in the selection of materials for use in vertebral body compression fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Lewis, Gladius; Xu, J; Moseley, Jon; Cole, Jantzen; Haggard, Warren

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic test model was developed to assist in screening injectable cements with a focus on mechanical strength for vertebral body compression fracture repair. The two-part defect model consisted of a polyurethane foam cube to simulate trabecular bone and a defect to which various injectable cements could be introduced. In addition, a finite element analysis model was developed and the results were compared to laboratory testing. Agreement was found between the finite element analysis and test results. Once the finite element analysis model was validated with experimental data, an additional finite element analysis was conducted to study various parameters affecting mechanical performance such as simulated bone and cement stiffness. Finite element analysis models were also created using orthotropic bone properties typical of healthy trabecular bone and were compared to various foam stiffnesses. The foam model was a good in vitro representation of actual trabecular bone found in vertebral bodies and is a valid model to evaluate the mechanical strength of injectable cements for percutaneous vertebral body fracture repair.

  3. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  4. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  6. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  7. Lessons from China’s automobile industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世锦

    2009-01-01

    Two controversies have emerged in the development of China’s automobile industry.The first is the role of government approval in economy of scale,industrial concentration and redundant construction.Second is the role of foreign-funded companies in the growth of China’s automobile industry.Correct understanding of these matters offers a unique"intellectual asset"for approaching the institutional and policy matters of China’s automobile industry and other sectors.It also serves as guidance in the selection of growth patterns.

  8. Random torsional vibration in automobile transmissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The action of a road profile to the torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions is studied. The model to calculate the random torsional vibrations in the transmissions is proposed and the values of the model parameters are determined by both computation and experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics and the responses of automobile transmissions to the random excitation of road profile are calculated. The results of road experiment demonstrate that the theoretic analyses and the calculation are correct, which imply that the low frequency torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions are caused by the random excitation of a road profile.

  9. How Can Nanotechnology Help to Repair the Body? Advances in Cardiac, Skin, Bone, Cartilage and Nerve Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Marchal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i skin; (ii cartilage; (iii bone; (iv nerve; and (v cardiac.

  10. ASSES SMENT OF PREVALENCE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AUTOMOBILE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global automotive repair and maintenance service industries are expected to be worth almost $306 billion by 2015. The automotive service sectors currently are having employees an estimated 787 , 77702 and increasing at rate of 12% per annum. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: ( 1 To assess the prevalence morbidities among automobile workers (2 To increase the awareness about safety (PPE at work place (3 To motivate about social security schemes coverage. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross - sectional study was carried out in the territory area of IMSR M edical C ollage of Satara districts. The total no of 117 participants were included for the study. A pretested , predesigned Prof o rma was used to collect the Information’s under supervisi on & analyzed & interpreted with help of percentages & chi square test. RESULT: About 32.76% were only having less than 10 years of service. 68.41% of subjects have dropped their study before high school. Only 25.74% have their own garage , along with 29.25 % of subjects were having specialized training. PPE was available with 29.25% of subjects. Stress , Muscle/bony pain & dyspepsia along with bowl disorders were significant morbidities observed. CONCLUSION: P revalence of morbidities is significant in this st udy & need more medical attention towards automobile workers.

  11. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  12. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  13. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  14. Types,harm and prevention of common oral bad repair body%常见口腔不良修复体的类型、危害与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗新林

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the types and harm of all kinds of bad repair body.Methods: Through the diagnosis and treatment of 126 cases of oral bad repair body,we summaried the types and harm of all kinds of bad repair body.126 cases of fixed and activities bad repair body were dismantled by using fast or slow turbo machine,crown pliers,needle holder.Results:All kinds of bad repair body could cause oral hard and soft tissue injury.Conclusion:Good repair body not only can restore the appearance, masticatory function,but also have physical health care function on oral tissue.%目的:探讨口腔不良修复体的类型和危害。方法:通过对126例口腔不良修复体诊断与治疗,总结各种不良修复体的类型及危害。并用快慢速涡沦机、去冠钳、持针器,拆除126例固定、活动不良修复体。结果:各种不良修复体均可以造成口腔软硬组织损伤。结论:良好修复体不但要恢复外观、咀嚼功能,还要对口腔组织有生理保健作用。

  15. Whole body perfusion for hybrid aortic arch repair: evolution of selective regional perfusion with a modified extracorporeal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Philip; Walsh, Graham; Walsh, Stephanie; O'Neil, Michael; Gelinas, Jill; Chu, Michael W A

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing hybrid aortic arch reconstruction require careful protection of vital organs. We believe that whole body perfusion with tailored dual circuitry may help to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Our circuit has evolved from a secondary circuit utilizing a cardioplegia delivery device for lower body perfusion to a dual-oxygenator circuit. This allows individually controlled regional perfusion with ease of switching from secondary to primary circuit for total body flow. The re-design allows for separate flow and temperature regulation with two oxygenators in parallel. All patients underwent a single-stage operation for simultaneous treatment of arch and descending aortic pathology via a sternotomy, using a hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique. We report six consecutive patients undergoing hybrid arch and frozen elephant trunk reconstruction using a dual-oxygenator circuit. Five patients underwent elective surgery and one was emergent. One patient had an acute dissection while three underwent concomitant procedures, including a Ross procedure and two valve-sparing root reconstructions. Three cases were redo sternotomies. The mean pump time was 358 ± 131 min, the aortic cross clamp time 243 ± 135 min, the cardioplegia volume of 33,208 ml ± 16,173, cerebral ischemia 0 min, lower body ischemia 76 ± 34 min and the average lower body perfusion time was 142 min. Two patients did not require any donor blood products. The median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS) were two days and 10 days, respectively. The average peak serum lactate on CPB was 7.47 mmol/L and, at admission to the ICU, it was 3.37 mmol/L. Renal and respiratory failure developed in the salvage acute type A dissection patient. No other complications occurred in this series. Whole body perfusion as delivered through individually controlled dual-oxygenator circuitry allows maximum flexibility for hybrid aortic arch reconstruction. A modified circuit perfusion

  16. Future possibilities for energy-storage automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, L.G.

    1981-04-23

    Because of the potential threat of a future petroleum shortage, there is increased interest in developing alternative propulsion systems for automobiles, systems that will allow the nation to reduce its demand for petroleum by this part of the transportation sector. A four-year study which assessed the future of energy storage devices for use in automobile propulsion systems has been completed. Results of the energy storage device evaluation are presented. This includes projections of future device characteristics. In addition, the results of the propulsion system analysis are given. Future energy storage automobiles were conceptually designed and they are compared to each other and the baseline internal combustion engine vehicle for several levels of performance.

  17. Consumption values and consumer attitude towards automobile purchase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Naveed Altaf; Selvan Perumal; Zolkifli Hussin

    2017-01-01

    .... A survey of 200 automobile consumers from Islamabad, Pakistan, selected via convenience sampling, was used to draw results on how consumers' consumption values affected their attitude towards automobile purchase...

  18. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  19. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  20. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.11 Special rules for automobile...

  1. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  2. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  3. Active Engine Mount Technology for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Z.; Spanos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control using a variant of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [1,2,3] for supressing automobile engine/drive-train vibration disturbances. The algorithm presented here has a simple structure and may be implemented in a low cost micro controller.

  4. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  5. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  6. An investigation of thermal comfort inside an automobile during the heating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Kilic, Muhsin [Uludag Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bursa (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a combined theoretical and experimental study of thermal comfort during the heating period inside an automobile. To investigate the effects of thermal conditions on the human physiology and thermal comfort during the heating period, temperature, humidity and air velocity were measured at a number of points inside the automobile, so thermal conditions were accurately determined. The human body was divided into 16 sedentary segments, and the change of temperature was observed both experimentally and theoretically. During transient conditions of the heating period, heat and mass transfer between the human body and the interior environment of an automobile were simulated by a computational model, and predictions were compared with the measured data. It is shown that there is a good agreement between the model predictions and experimental results. By means of the present model, the effects of the fast transient conditions of the heating period on the sensible and latent heat transfer from the body, body segments skin temperatures and thermal sensation were investigated in detail. (Author)

  7. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2011-01-01

    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.

  8. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Jorge; Velez, Fernando J.; Ferro, João M.

    2008-01-01

    Some applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to the automobile are identified, and the use of Crossbow MICAz motes operating at 2.4 GHz is considered together with TinyOS support. These WSNs are conceived in order to measure, process and supply to the user diverse types of information during an automobile journey. Examples are acceleration and fuel consumption, identification of incorrect tire pressure, verification of illumination, and evaluation of the vital signals of the driver. A brief survey on WSNs concepts is presented, as well as the way the wireless sensor network itself was developed. Calibration curves were produced which allowed for obtaining luminous intensity and temperature values in the appropriate units. Aspects of the definition of the architecture and the choice/implementation of the protocols are identified. Security aspects are also addressed.

  9. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  10. Tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  11. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  12. Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in an automobile body shop worker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Rohl, A.N.; Suzuki, Y.; Bigman, O.

    1985-09-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often of uncertain etiology and is therefore named idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Some occupational exposures, however, are known to cause interstitial fibrosis, asbestos and silica being well-known examples. The authors present clinical and pathological findings of a case with IPF and the results of microchemical analysis of inorganic particulate matter in the lung tissue. A very high lung burden of inorganic contaminants was found, including silica and metallic compounds. Emphasis is given to the importance of obtaining detailed occupational histories and conducting microchemical analysis of lung tissue in order to clarify etiological factors in cases with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  14. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  15. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  17. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  18. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  19. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  20. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (Pwater bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  1. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  3. Effect of automobiles on global warming: A modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming threatens our environment as well as basic human needs. In the present scenario, increasing demand and excessive use of automobiles have increased the level of carbon dioxide emission in the environment, providing a significant contribution to increase the global warming. This paper deals with the modeling of the effect of automobiles on global warming. For this, three nonlinearly interacting variables namely; density of human population, density of automobiles and the concentration of carbon dioxide have been taken into account. In the modeling process, it is assumed that the density of automobiles increases in proportion to human population following a logistic growth. The model is analyzed using stability theory of ordinary differential equations. Local and global stability conditions are established to study the feasibility of the model system. It is shown that with increase in human population, the demand for automobiles increases which has significant effect on global warming increase.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  5. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  6. Opportunities for energy harvesting in automobile factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, E. I.; Edwards, R. M.; Whittow, Will; Bindel, Axel; Peca, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities of deploying distributed sensors within the manufacturing environment of a large scale automobile plant using energy harvesting techniques. Measurements were taken in three domains at the plant in order to characterize ambient energy. Due to the location of the plant, the RF power density for radio access technologies present varied between -127 dBm/cm2 and -113 dBm/cm2. The maximum temperature difference measured within accessible distance from machine parts on the production lines surveyed was 10°C. Indoor lighting was dominant at the plant via fluorescent tubes, with average irradiance of 1 W/m2. The results obtained from this measurement campaign showed that indoor lighting was the most suitable ambient source for energy harvesting.

  7. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  8. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  9. Methemoglobinemia secondary to automobile exhaust fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.F.; Hoffman, R.S. (Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of cyanosis. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department cyanotic and short of breath after exposure to noxious automobile fumes. He did not improve with the administration of 100% oxygen therapy. The initial arterial blood gas with cooximetry was: pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 43 mm Hg, PaO2 of 118 mm Hg, measured oxygen saturation of 70%, and a methemoglobin level of 24.8%. Methylene blue was given (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient's symptoms resolved. On the following day he was discharged home without complication. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed no reported cases of methemoglobinemia secondary to accidental exposure to exhaust fumes.17 references.

  10. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  11. Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoruk, Marion J; Kerger, Brent D

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the passenger cabin of selected sedan automobiles under static (parked, unventilated) and specified conditions of operation (i.e., driving the vehicle using air conditioning alone, vent mode alone, or driver's window half open). Data were collected on five different passenger sedan vehicles from three major automobile manufacturers. Airborne concentrations were assessed using 90-min time-weighted average (TWA) samples under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method IP-1B to assess individual VOC compounds and total VOCs (TVOCs) calibrated to toluene. Static vehicle testing demonstrated TVOC levels of approximately 400-800 microg/m(3) at warm interior vehicle temperatures (approximately 80 degrees F), whereas TVOCs at least fivefold higher were observed under extreme heat conditions (e.g., up to 145 degrees F). The profile of most prevalent individual VOC compounds varied considerably according to vehicle brand, age, and interior temperature tested, with predominant compounds including styrene, toluene, and 8- to 12-carbon VOCs. TVOC levels under varied operating conditions (and ventilation) were generally four- to eightfold lower (at approximately 50-160 microg/m(3)) than the static vehicle measurements under warm conditions, with the lowest measured levels generally observed in the trials with the driver's window half open. These data indicate that while relatively high concentrations of certain VOCs can be measured inside static vehicles under extreme heat conditions, normal modes of operation rapidly reduce the inside-vehicle VOC concentrations even when the air conditioning is set on recirculation mode.

  12. Comparative study of bone repair in mandibular body osteotomy between metallic and absorbable 2.0 mm internal fixation systems. Histological and histometric analysis in dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverzut, C E; Kato, R B; Rosa, A L; Trivellato, A E; Sverzut, A T; da Silveira, K M; de Oliveira, P T

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bone repair along a mandibular body osteotomy stabilized with 2.0 mm absorbable and metallic systems. 12 male, adult mongrel dogs were divided into two groups (metallic and absorbable) and subjected to unilateral osteotomy between the mandibular third and fourth premolars, which was stabilized by applying two 4-hole plates. At 2 and 18 weeks, three dogs from each group were killed and the osteotomy sites were removed and divided equally into three parts: the upper part was labelled the tension third (TT), the lower part the compression third (CT), and the part between the TT and CT the intermediary third (IT). Regardless of the treatment system, union between the fragments was observed at 18 weeks and the CT showed more advanced stages of bone repair than the TT. Histometric analysis did not reveal any significant differences among the 3 parts or systems in the distance between bone fragments at 2 weeks. Although at 18 weeks the proportions of newly formed bone did not differ among TT, IT and CT, significantly enhanced bone formation was observed in all sections for the metallic group. The patterns of repair were distinct between treatments.

  13. The ergonomics simulation and evaluation architecture for the automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Ying; Sun, Shouqian; Liu, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The architecture of ergonomics simulation and evaluation for the automobile was described. Ergonomics analysis and evaluation is one of the most important processes in product design at present. This ergonomics simulation system based on the elements of ergonomics analysis and evaluation can provide an excellent solution to take human element into account earlier in the design phase and make proactive choices in automobile design than those traditional methods. Thinking of the characteristics of the automobile industry, this system adopted the anatomy-based and parameterized human model for Chinese, the simulation technique using motion editing and the mathematical models of ergonomics to solve real ergonomic design problems in the design phases.

  14. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  15. Service Quality Challenges in an Indian Automobile Service Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Mangesh D. Jadhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market scenario in past decade changes very fast due to computation in a market. Changing a technology and launching new models in market are as per customer demand. Providing service quality is a big task to many organizations. Today automobile service sector faces many problems due to increase of customer expectation from branded company. This study overview the challenges faced by an Indian automobile service sector and find the various gaps which will directly or indirectly affects on service quality and factor which affects the service. The paper concludes with the gaps that affects on current position of four wheeler service industries their market share in automobile service industries.

  16. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  17. Reliability-based design for automobiles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The level of automobile design and manufac-turing is an important sign of leadership in science and technology and economic power. The achievements of theories and methods for reliability-based design of auto-mobiles in China are reviewed. For reliability-based design, the theories and practices, optimization, sensitiv-ity, and robustness are estimated. The techniques of reli-ability-based design for automobiles are developed. The techniques service to the "hollow" phenomena of kernel technology, product innovative power, and independent development power can be solved.

  18. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  19. Analysis for the Dynamic Characteristic of the Automobile Transmission Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujin Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Automobile transmission gearbox, as one of the major components, which will inevitably bring about the vibration and noise of automobile vehicle. The objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of automobile transmission by structural optimization of the gearbox in order to better control its functional operation and improve its performance. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the gearbox, modal analysis of automobile transmission gearbox is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the modal test of gearbox is conducted also. Through comparing model analysis results to test results, test results verify the correctness of the finite element analysis results, thus provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the gearbox structure as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  20. Speakeasy. English for Special Purposes Series: Autobody Repair. Korean Translation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Ok

    This guide to spoken usage with exercises is designed to enrich the English vocabulary of speakers of Korean. Narrative portions of the text are in Korean. Emphasis is on survival skills and automobile repair skills. Chapters include "Time,""Getting to Know You,""Eating Out,""Opening a Savings Account,""Asking and Giving Directions,""Buying Work…

  1. Speakeasy. English for Special Purposes Series: Autobody Repair. Ilocano Translation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzabal, Ofelia G.

    This guide to spoken usage with exercises is designed to enrich the English vocabulary of speakers of Ilocano. Narrative portions of the text are in Ilocano. Emphasis is on survival language skills and automobile repair skills. Chapters include "Time,""Getting to Know You,""Eating Out,""Opening a Savings Account,""Asking and Giving…

  2. Speakeasy. English for Special Purposes Series: Autobody Repair. Vietnamese Translation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Tanh, Phan

    This guide to spoken usage with exercises is designed to enrich the English vocabulary of speakers of Vietnamese. Narrative portions of the text are in Vietnamese. Emphasis is on survival skills and automobile repair skills. Chapters include "Time,""Getting to Know You,""Eating Out,""Opening a Savings Account,""Asking and Giving…

  3. Titanium in the family automobile: The cost challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, F. H.; Friedrich, H.; Kiese, J.; Bergoint, D.

    2004-02-01

    With advances in extraction/fabrication techniques and ever-increasing gasoline prices, the advantage of using lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and titanium in automobiles continues to increase, particularly for the first two metals. The major drawback for titanium, much more so than the other light metals, is high cost. However, innovative extraction and fabrication approaches are leading to decreased cost. This paper discusses the present status and future potential for titanium use in the family automobile.

  4. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiang Li; Weiqiang Xia; Liwen Nan; Youjia Zhao; Fujin Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completel...

  5. Emissions reductions as a result of automobile improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal S; Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Slott, Robert

    2003-11-15

    Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred by federal regulations is thought to have brought about these trends.

  6. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  7. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  8. Undescended testicle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  9. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  10. (1) H-NMR with Multivariate Analysis for Automobile Lubricant Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siwon; Yoon, Dahye; Lee, Dong-Kye; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Suhkmann

    2017-02-23

    Identification of suspected automobile-related lubricants could provide valuable information in forensic cases. We examined that automobile lubricants might exhibit the chemometric characteristics to their individual usages. To compare the degree of clustering in the plots, we co-plotted general industrial oils that were highly dissimilar with automobile lubricants in additive compositions. (1) H-NMR spectroscopy was used with multivariate statistics as a tool for grouping, clustering, and identification of automobile lubricants in laboratory conditions. We analyzed automobile lubricants including automobile engine oils, automobile transmission oils, automobile gear oils, and motorcycle oils. In contrast to the general industrial oils, automobile lubricants showed relatively high tendencies of clustering to their usages. Our pilot study demonstrated that the comparison of known and questioned samples to their usages might be possible in forensic fields.

  11. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  12. 面向人体尺寸测量系统的点云孔洞修补方法%A Holes Repairing Method of Point Cloud for Body Measurement System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亮; 孙志海; 吴以凡; 张桦

    2014-01-01

    Measurement methods based on the three-dimensional human point cloud are important ways for extracting measurement of body in a non-contract way .However , due to the body's own shelter , scanning dead and other issues , the resultant scanning point cloud often has lots of holes .In this paper , we present a method to repair holes in the point cloud for body measurement system .Firstly, it adjusts the position of the body point cloud, and divides the body point cloud using the mapping method to take a cross-section.It then determines the cross-sectional profile of the holes on the location .Finally through conic fitting based on least squares patch point cloud data , it repairs the holes .Experiments prove that the measurements of the body point cloud model obtained by our method are consistent with the measurement manually acquired , whose difference is within 3%.%基于三维人体点云的尺寸提取是非接触式人体尺寸测量的重要方法之一。但是由于人体自身遮挡以及扫描死角等问题,扫描人体所得点云往往存在大量孔洞。为此,该文提出了一种面向人体尺寸测量系统的点云孔洞修补方法。该方法首先调整人体点云位置,然后采用映射法分割人体点云取横截面,接着确定横截面轮廓上孔洞位置,最后通过基于最小二乘的二次曲线拟合修补点云数据。实验结果表明,利用该算法拟合得到的人体点云横截面尺寸与直接对模特手工测量得到的尺寸基本一致,对尺寸测量数据的比较得出误差小于3%。

  13. Evaluation of asbestos exposure within the automotive repair industry: a study involving removal of asbestos-containing body sealants and drive clutch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2008-12-01

    Two independent assessments were performed of airborne asbestos concentrations generated during automotive repair work on vintage vehicles . The first involved removal of asbestos-containing seam sealant, and the second involved servicing of a drive clutch. Despite the relatively high concentrations (5.6-28%) of chrysotile fibers detected within bulk samples of seam sealant, the average asbestos concentration for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples during seam sealant removal was 0.006 f/cc (fibers/cubic centimeter of air). Many other air samples contained asbestos at or below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). Pneumatic chiseling of the sealant material during removal resulted in 69% of area air samples containing asbestos. Use of this impact tool liberated more asbestos than hand scraping. Asbestos fibers were only detected in air samples collected during the installation of a replacement clutch. The highest asbestos corrected airborne fiber concentration observed during clutch installation was 0.0028 f/cc. This value is approximately 100 times lower than Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1f/cc. The airborne asbestos concentrations observed during the servicing of vintage vehicles with asbestos-containing seam sealant and clutches are comparable to levels reported for repair work involving brake components and gaskets.

  14. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  15. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  16. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  17. Effect of Pigeon body and stretch mark repair cream on stretch marks of 30 cases%贝亲孕纹修护霜对30例妊娠纹的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁文嘉; 贾晓青

    2015-01-01

    目的:论述妊娠纹产生的原因,评估贝亲孕纹修护霜对于妊娠纹的修护作用。方法选取健康女性受试者30人,平均年龄28岁。要求产后6个月以上,妊娠纹出现不满1年,且腹部周围有明显妊娠纹,颜色处于红色状态。以腹中线为界将腹部划分为两个区域,随机选取其中一侧作为产品使用部位,另一侧作为对照部位,每天2次使用妊娠纹修护霜。在初始、2周、4周、8周、12周由专业人员评估妊娠纹颜色均一性、妊娠纹松弛度及妊娠纹严重程度,由皮肤扫描仪评估皮肤细纹和粗糙度。结果在使用贝亲孕纹修护霜8周和12周后,受试部位妊娠纹严重程度与对照部位相比有显著性差异( t值分别为2.11、4.23,均P<0.05),表现为受试部位妊娠纹严重程度好转。使用12周后,受试部位皮肤细纹、粗糙度也有显著性差异(t值分别为1.99、2.30,均P<0.05),表现为受试部位皮肤细纹和粗糙度好转。结论贝亲孕纹修护霜对于妊娠纹具有一定的改善作用。%Objective To discuss how stretch marks generate and evaluate the repair effect of Pigeon body and stretch mark repair cream on stretch marks.Methods Totally 30 healthy females with mean age of 28 years were tested at least 6 months after delivery.The stretch mark appeared less than one year ago, which was obviously seen around abdomen and the color was red.Taking the midline of abdomen as boundary, abdomen was divided into two sides.One side was randomly selected as product testing side, and the other as control side. Pigeon body and stretch mark repair cream was used twice a day.At the very beginning, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after using the cream, the color uniformity, looseness and severity of stretch marks were assessed by professionals and skin texture and roughness were assessed by skin scanner.Results After using Pigeon product for 8 weeks and 12

  18. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...... of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety...

  19. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  20. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  1. Nanotechnology developments in automobiles: activities and visions; Nanotechnologie im Auto: Aktivitaeten und Visionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presting, H.; Koenig, U. [DaimlerChrysler Research (REM/CS), Ulm (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology components in automobiles are already on the market and are presently developed to create significant improvement to comfort, safety and saving of resources. Several examples underline the role of nanotechnology in cars. By the introduction of nanocomposites and nanostructured materials improvements of the fuel cell technology as well of fossil fuel injection are demonstrated for powertrain components. Nano-materials with higher hardness, stiffness and lighter weight yield advantages for a lighter car body as well as for windows. Furthermore improved solar cells with nanodots on the car body offer solar cooling and back feed of the solar energy into the car's battery, finally the thermoelectric conversion of the waste heat in cars is discussed. (orig.) [German] Die bereits jetzt auf dem Markt befindlichen und derzeit in der Forschung untersuchten, nanotechnologischen Komponenten fuer's Automobil schaffen signifikante Verbesserungen fuer Komfort, Sicherheit sowie fuer die Ressourcenschonung. Beispiele werden aufgezeigt. Durch die Einfuehrung von Nanokompositen und durch die Nanostrukturierung verschiedener Materialien werden Verbesserungen der Brennstoffzellentechnologie und der Kraftstoffeinspritzung bei den Antriebskomponenten erreicht. Durch verbesserte Nanokomposit-Werkstoffe mit groesserer Haerte u. Steifigkeit bei gleichzeitig geringerem Gewicht ergeben sich Vorteile beim Karosserieleichtbau. Schliesslich werden verbesserte Solarzellen mit Nanodots fuer die Fahrzeugkarosserie zur solaren Standlueftung und zur Batterierueckspeisung diskutiert sowie Verlustwaermenutzung mit verbesserten thermoelektrischen Wirkungsgraden von Nano-Komponenten in konventionellen thermoelektrischen Materialien. (orig.)

  2. Study on Stratification Cultivation of Automobile after-sale Service Talents in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on AHP%基于AHP法的高职汽车售后服务人才分层培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍婷婷

    2014-01-01

    汽车售后服务人才是影响汽车维修企业发展的核心要素。运用AHP法对汽车售后服务人才所需要的能力进行分析,从专业技能、社会技能和概念技能三个方面构建人才评价体系,并提出了相应的分层培养策略。%Automobile after-sale service talents are the key factor of the development of automobile repair enterprises. This paper an⁃alyzes the abilities required by automobile after-sale service talents based on AHP. The talents evaluating system is constructed from the three aspects of professional skills, social skills and conceptual skills, and corresponding tactics for stratification cultivation are put forward.

  3. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  4. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  5. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  6. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, S. M; Wang, D. F; Zan, J. M

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the interior noise of the automobile in the low and middle frequency band in the design and development stage, the hybrid FE-SEA model of an automobile was created using hybrid FE-SEA method...

  7. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  8. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  9. 汽车维修行业现存问题与对策研究%Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Automobile Maintenance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋开正

    2016-01-01

    There are many problems in modern automobile maintenance enterprises.Based on full research, this paper ana-lyzes main problems in domestic automobile repair industry in China,and discusses reform measures for maintenance enterprise to survive and develop.%现代汽车维修企业,存在诸多的问题。文章在充分调研研究的基础上,针对我国国内汽车维修行业现存主要问题进行了分析,并探讨了维修企业要生存和发展所必须采取的改革措施。

  10. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  11. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  12. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  13. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal Trade... Advertising for New Automobiles (``Fuel Economy Guide'' or ``Guide'') pending completion of ongoing review by... prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles and to facilitate the use of fuel...

  14. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  15. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  16. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak curr...

  17. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low...

  18. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  19. Vehicles motors and environment; Moteurs automobiles et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionnet, F.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the problem of the pollutants emission by the motors of automobiles. The european regulations lead the automotive industry to develop research programs to decrease the emission level more and more difficult to raise. He discusses the new catalysts, the diesel engines, the direct injection and the natural gas fuels. (A.L.B.)

  20. Market Energy efficient and new fuel automobile developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tsinghua University develops mini electric car OUYANG Mingbao, dean of automotive engineering and director of the key national laboratory of automobile safety and energy efficiency, has recently delivered a speech on the development of mini electric car in the university.

  1. Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-gao; BAI Shi-qiang; CAI Jing-bo; XU Chuang

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic properties and total contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in 30 automobile emission particulate samples indicated the presence of magnetic particles in them. The values of frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd)showed the absence of superparamagnetic (SP) grains in the samples. The IRM20 mT (isothermal remanent magnetization at 20 mT)being linearly proportional to SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) (R2=0.901), suggested that ferrimagnetic minerals were responsible for the magnetic properties of automobile emission particulates. The average contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in automobile emission particulates were 95.83, 22.14, 30.58 and 34727.31 mg/kg, respectively. Significant positive correlations exist between the magnetic parameters and the contents of Pb, Cu and Fe. The magnetic parameters of automobile emission particulates reflecting concentration of magnetic particles increased linearly with increase of Pb and Cu content, showed that the magnetic measurement could be used as a preliminary index for detection of Pb and Cu pollution.

  2. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  3. ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES ON THE MARKET AUTOMOBILE GASOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Safina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the statistical analysis based on results of selective investigation of customers in the market of automobile gasoline is offered. The analysis makes the possibility for finding preferences of respondents in choices of gasoline brand depending of social and economics status of customers.

  4. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... seaters. A car line shall be classed as “Two Seater” if the majority of the vehicles in that car line have...

  5. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  6. Determination of the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of simulated leachate from an automobile workshop soil on eukaryotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Okunola Adenrele; Omosebi, Omotoyosi; Chizea, Ifychukwwu

    2015-07-01

    Contamination of soil and water bodies with spent engine oil and petroleum products is a serious ecological problem, primarily in the automobile workshops and garages. This has potential short and chronic adverse health risks. Information is currently scarce on the potential mutagenicity and genotoxicity of such wastes. In this study, the potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of simulated leachate from automobile workshop soil in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria, were investigated. The assays utilized were bone marrow micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA), sperm morphology and sperm count in mice. The physicochemical analysis of the leachate was also carried out. Experiments were carried out at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (volume per volume; leachate:distilled water) of the leachate sample. MN analysis showed a concentration-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. In the CA test, there was concentration-dependent significant reduction in mitotic index and induction of different types of CAs. Assessment of sperm shape showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities with significant decrease in mean sperm count in treated groups. Heavy metals analyzed in the tested sample are believed to contribute significantly to the observed genetic damage. This indicates that automobile workshop soil-simulated leachate contains potential genotoxic agents and constitutes a genetic risk in exposed human population.

  7. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  8. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007661.htm Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  9. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  10. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  11. Mind the gap; The vicious circle of measuring automobile fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Figueroa, M.J.; Price, L. (Strategic Air Command, Offutt AFB, NE (United States). Aircraft Engineering Div.); Espey, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics)

    1993-12-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. Significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. (author)

  12. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  13. Polímeros e a indústria automobilística Polymers and the automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Hemais

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Gradativamente, devido a razões econômicas e tecnológicas, nos últimos trinta anos, os plásticos passaram a ocupar um lugar de destaque como um dos materiais mais utilizados pela indústria automobilística. Este trabalho tem por objetivo identificar a intensidade do uso de polímeros pela indústria automobilística brasileira. Inicialmente é apresentada uma classificação dos polímeros, de acordo com suas características técnicas e econômicas. Em seguida, é feita uma breve explanação sobre a indústria de polímeros no Brasil, bem como sobre a indústria automobilística, com seu grande potencial de atrair inovações tecnológicas. São apresentados, também, os principais polímeros com aplicação no automóvel. Por último, é discutida a questão da inovação tecnológica na indústria brasileira de polímeros, tendo como fator catalisador a indústria automobilística.Gradually, owing to economic and technological reasons, in the last thirty years, plastics have gained an increasing presence in automobiles. This paper examines the use of plastics in the Brazilian car industry. First, polymers are classified according to their technical and economic characteristics. The paper then reports briefly on the Brazilian polymer industry, as well as on the auto industry, focusing on its great potential for attracting technological innovations. The main applications for plastics in cars are also outlined. Finally, the paper discusses the question of technological innovation in the Brazilian polymer industry, with the auto industry as a catalyst.

  14. Cartilage change after arthroscopic repair for an isolated meniscal tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Takashi; Murakami, Hidetaka; Inoue, Takashi; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Katouda, Michihiro; Nagata, Kensei

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the direct effect to the cartilage caused by the meniscal repair, we examined patients who underwent an isolated meniscal repair without any other abnormalities by arthroscopic examination. A total of 17 patients were examined by second-look arthroscopy after an average interval of 9 months from the meniscal repair, and have been evaluated the status of the repaired meniscus and of the relative femoral condylar cartilage. Changes in the severity of the cartilage lesion between at the time of meniscal repair and the time of the second-look arthroscopy were considered based on the status of the repaired meniscus. Regardless of the healing status of the repair site, it was possible to prevent degeneration in the cartilage in 9 of the 10 patients who demonstrated no degeneration in the meniscal body. Of the 7 patients who demonstrated degeneration in the meniscal body, progression in cartilage degeneration was noted as 1 grade in 2 patients and 2 grades in another 3 patients. Even in those in which stable fusion of the repair site was achieved, the condition of the inner meniscal body was not necessarily maintained favorably in all cases, indicating that degeneration in the meniscal body was a risk factor for cartilage degeneration. It was concluded that recovery could not be expected even at 9 months after the repair if the lesion had already demonstrated degeneration in the meniscal body at the time of repair.

  15. Welding distortion control of automobile engine stator by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-jun YAN; Xue-song LIU; Huan-yu XU; Jian-guo YANG; Hong-yuan FANG; Jing-yang LU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a thermal elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the plasma welding process in order to predict the welding distortion of automobile stator iron core. Six spatial symmetrical welding torches are adopted in the welding process so as to make the iron core rings welded firmly and the distortion symmetric. The effect of rigid clamp on actual welding process is replaced by the contact function between rigid body and deformation element in the MSC software, MARC. The welding process restrained by clamp and deformation analysis after the removal of clamp was successfully simulated. The predictions show good agree-ment with the test results when the rigid clamps are taken into account in the welding simulation, which satisfies the design requirement for manufacture.

  16. An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Over the Rear End of a Notchback Automobile Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the flow over the rear end of a 0.16 scale notchback automobile configuration has been conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The objective of this work was to investigate the flow separation that occurs behind the backlight and obtain experimental data that can be used to understand the physics and time-averaged structure of the flow field. A three-component laser velocimeter was used to make non-intrusive, velocity measurements in the center plane and in a single cross-flow plane over the decklid. In addition to off-body measurements, flow conditions on the car surface were documented via surface flow visualization, boundary layer measurements, and surface pressures. The experimental data show several features previously identified by other researchers, but also reveal differences between the flow field associated with this particular configuration and the generally accepted models for the flow over a notchback rear end.

  17. Coupled analysis of engine noise and interior noise of an automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭; 毛杰; 郝志勇

    2015-01-01

    The coupled model of a four-cylinder internal combustion engine and a dash panel was constructed to analyze the relationship between the engine noise and interior noise of an automobile. Finite element analysis, flexible multi-body dynamics, and boundary element analysis were integrated to obtain the tetrahedron-element models, structural vibration response, and radiated noise, respectively. The accuracy of the finite-element model of the engine was validated by modal analysis via single-input multi-output technology, while the dash panel was validated by sound transmission loss experiment. The block was optimized to reduce the radiated acoustic power from the engine surface. The acoustic transfer path between the engine cabin and passenger compartment was then established. The coupled analysis results reveal that the interior noise is optimized due to the engine noise reduction.

  18. 江南某城镇河道水体污染现状分析及修复%SOUTH OF YANGZI RIVER SOME CITIES RIVER COURSE WATER BODY POLLUTION PRESENT SITUATION ANALYSIS AND REPAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同祺; 李勇; 李大鹏; 刘玉杰

    2011-01-01

    Through monitors many times, analyzing the south of Yangzi River some river course black odor pollution reasons, and through the artificial aeration, throwing adds the microorganism microbial inoculum, the sediments control, the planter aquatic plant to carry on the advanced treatment to this river course, the project can remove pollutant effectively and so on water body organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, plays the emergency repair stream pollution, the persistent effect maintains the rivers water quality, achieves the anticipated target.%通过多次监测,分析了引起江南某河道污染黑臭的原因,通过采取人工曝气、投加微生物菌剂、底泥控制、种植水生植物等措施对该河道进行深度处理.实际运行结果表明,工程能够有效去除水体中的有机物、氨氮、磷等污染物,起到应急修复河流污染、长效保持河流水质的作用,达到预期目标.

  19. 汽车悬架系统建模与仿真研究%The Model Building And Simulation Of The Automobile Suspension System Reserch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海宾; 赵巍

    2016-01-01

    The automobile suspension is a multi-body system and the motion relationship among the parts is very complicated, so it brings many difficulties to compute the various characteristics with traditional methods. The Automobile suspension kinetics and dynamic simulation has been a very critical task in automobile design and development and it provides a rapid and effective method to design automobile suspension.%汽车悬架系统是一个比较复杂的多体系统,其构件之间的运动关系十分复杂,这就给使得传统的计算方法分析悬架的各种特性带来许多的困难。因此,悬架的运动学和动力学仿真分析在汽车悬架特性的研究中起着重要作用,并为悬架系统的设计和开发提供了一种先进高效快捷的方法。

  20. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  1. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  2. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  3. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  4. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  5. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  6. Color Difference Management of Automobile Manufacturing Process%汽车制造过程中的色差管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱余山

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the chroma was introduced; color difference matching was stated from the color difference control technology and car body color difference management. It provides effective reference for the automobile manufacturing process color difference management.%  介绍了色度学概念,从色差控制技术和车身色差管理方面阐述色差匹配,为汽车制造过程色差管理提供有效参考。

  7. Research Into Automobile Movement on a Curve Under Winter Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kemzūraitė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the movement of the car on the curve on the slippery and snowy road surface with asphalted ruts. The paper reviews literature related to lateral and longitudinal vehicle acceleration and dynamics of vehicle movement. The experimental facts of vehicle lateral acceleration are given in graphical charts. The article also describes the acceleration values and stability of the automobile depending on the speed in the curve. The findings are given based on the results.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana A. Salimova; Lyudmila A. Fedos’kina

    2017-01-01

    Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buye...

  9. Public health, autonomous automobiles, and the rush to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ben

    2017-01-23

    The USA has the worst motor vehicle safety problem among high-income countries and is pressing forward with the development of autonomous automobiles to address it. Government guidance and regulation, still inadequate, will be critical to the safety of the public. The analysis of this public health problem in the USA reveals the key factors that will determine the benefits and risks of autonomous vehicles around the world.

  10. Chang Jiang and Her "Automobiles and China" Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ANCHORWOMAN Chang Jiang of China Central Television (CCTV) enjoys popularity for her Automobiles and China program, which she writes and hosts. The program which started in 1994 aroused a comparatively strong response in the society because of its serious and deep thought about this absorbing topic. It took her twenty months to finish this program. Hundreds of people were interviewed and five notebooks were filled with reference materials. The script was revised seven times.

  11. Simulation Research in Mutualism Behavior ofAutomobile Industry Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhang; Guangle Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper adopts the concept and mechanism of mathematical ecology theory, researches the revolutionary of automobile industry chain by setting up mutualism model of two species. Results of simulation show that automakers are more sensitive to the change of environmental resource. Automakers depending on suppliers excessively will increase the structural risk of the industry. Suppliers must make efficient utilization of the system resources; otherwise they inhibit the growth of automakers.

  12. Comment la production modulaire transforme l'industrie automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Frigant; Bernard Jullien

    2014-01-01

    ?In this paper, we explain why and how the ado? ?ption of a modular product-architecture transforms the organisation of industry. Considering the auto industry, we show that modularity-as-process transforms the overall automobile industry: carmakers, suppliers and buyer/suppliers relationships. Modularity-as-process is a key driver of carmakers’ vertical disintegration, growth of suppliers and emergence of mega-suppliers, international division of labour and delocalizations. This single-indus...

  13. Automobile shredder residue: some recycling, resource recovery and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Obsolete automobiles are the most recycled high-volume consumer product, with a recovery rate of between 75 and 80 per cent by weight. Ferrous scrap metal from old automobiles in North America amounts to about 10 million tons per year. However, each ton of steel that is recovered, produces about 300 kg of automobile shredder residue (ASR), comprised of plastics, rubber, glass, foam, and textiles, contaminated by oil and other fluids. All combined, this represents about 0.3 million tons of waste materials from the 22 shredders in Canada. This amount is likely to increase as the amount of steel in automobiles decreases due to downsizing and weight reduction, emphasizing the need for new resource recovery and application techniques to deal with the ASR problem. This paper describes a number of new initiatives primarily in two areas: separation technologies, ranging from selective disassembly to physical/mechanical/chemical separation processes, and pyrolysis techniques for the recovery of valuable hydrocarbon resources contained in the plastics in the ASR. Recycling of the material into high performance composite materials, such as additives to concrete for increased tensile strength, shrinkage and crack resistance, without adverse effect on other properties such as durability and workability, also received attention. Energy recovery options and engineered landfilling wherein ASR is used as a landfill day cover material, are some other techniques that show considerable promise. In landfill applications the high absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metals such as lead, its high compressibility, erosion resistance, and good traction make it a highly desirable choice for use as day cover material. 25 refs.

  14. Image Branding of Locally Manufactured Automobiles (Cars & Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ehtisham Ali

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the brand identity and image of locally manufactured automobiles of Pakistan. A composite model for assessing image branding was developed and close ended questionnaire based on a Likert rating scale was administered to vendors. The field survey was carried out in November 2006. Results present individual vehicle scores on different dimensions of brand image and standard statistical tests were applied to assess significant difference among mean scores.

  15. MANAGEMENT TOOLS USED IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Beuren, Ilse Maria; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB; Guth, Sérgio Cavagnoli; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB

    2010-01-01

    The durability of business strategies is diminishing at the same rate as the rhythm of environmental changes is increasing, which implies the necessity for uninterrupted transformations and processes of restructuring within organizations. From this perspective, this work’s objective is to demonstrate the management tools that were, are or will be used in those automobile industries established in Brazil. To this purpose, an empirical descriptive study, in the form of a survey, was conducted e...

  16. 130 Modeling of the automobile suspension by the functional model

    OpenAIRE

    桐山, 啓; 角田, 鎭男; 長松, 昭男; 御法川, 学; 岩原, 光男; Kiriyama, Akira; Sumida, Shizuo; Nagamatsu, Akio; Minorikawa, Gaku; Iwahara, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Modeling for an action simulation is performed focusing on the suspension system of a car using the modeling technique called the functional model that had been developed by one of the authors. Simulation analysis of the suspension system of a car was performed in the three dimensional field. It was shown that the method based on the modeling concept of functional model can express the general dynamic characteristic of the automobile suspension.

  17. Coatings Manufacturing Technology for China's Automobile Industry Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's automobile industry is experiencing continued phenomenal growth with the first 11 months of 2003 seeing an output of over 4 million units.This has lead to a huge growth in the consumption of automotive coatings with a 30% growth expected in 2004,reaching 200,000 tons-compared to a 7% average growth for the coatings industry as a whole.Output is predieted to reach 300,000 tons by 2010!

  18. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  19. Automobile park and greenhouse effect. Acting upon the automobile park to reduce the greenhouse effect; Parc automobile et effet de serre. Agir sur le parc automobile pour reduire l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauret, L. [INESTENE, 75 - Paris (France); Crozet, Y. [Lyon-1 Univ. Louis Lumiere, LET, 69 (France); Darbera, R. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC-LATTS), 75 - Paris (France); Faudry, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Golovtchenko, N.; Zelem, M.C. [Toulouse-2 Univ., CERTOP, 31 (France); Mirabel, F. [Universite de Montpellier, CREDEN, 34 - Montpellier (France); Nicolas, J.P. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Evironnement et le Developpement (CIRED), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-03-01

    This study is the result of the works carried out by eight research teams (LET, LATTS, IEPE-CNRS, CERTOP, CREDEN, ENTPE, CIRED and INESTENE). These teams belong to the same coordinated research program named Ecodev and which aims at studying the institutional, economical, fiscal, regulatory etc. conditions of selective diffusion policies of technical advances for the benefit of durable development. This study analyzes the impact of automobile development on the consumption of fossil fuels and its consequences on the local and global environment. It deals with the conditions of renewal of the automobile park for a better mastery of its impact on the greenhouse effect (purchase criteria, conditions of use and public policies to be developed): 1 - the evolution of the automobile park: development factors (economic and socio-demographic factors, pollution and public opinion), the aging of the park (causes, role of public policies), development of diesel vehicles, increase of vehicles power (impact on fuel consumptions and pollutant emissions, purchase criteria and lifestyles, fiscality regulation and evolution of vehicles characteristics); 2 - instruments of action: action on the demand (fiscality, regulation, financial incentives for an anticipated withdrawal), action on the offer (average consumption standards, voluntary agreement with makers, labelling etc..), the role of mediators, public information and education. (J.S.)

  20. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  1. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completely to simulate the actual load conditions and complete the process of analysis for the gear shaft. Analytical results show that all gear shafts can fully meet the strength requirements, in addition to the input shaft which has any further improvements. Hence, it is indicated that a new design concept is put forward, that is, using specialized software MASTA for transmission modeling and simulation analysis can heavily improve the design level of the gear shaft, provide the theoretic basis to analyze the dynamic characteristics of gear shaft as well. Finally, it can provide references for the development and application of gear shaft of the automobile transmission.

  2. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  3. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  4. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

  5. Des automobiles et des hommes : les débuts de l'Automobile Club Dauphinois (1899-1904)

    OpenAIRE

    Arriola, Élodie

    2008-01-01

    Publication partielle du vol. 1 (22 p. sur 143).; Dès son invention, l'automobile passionne les hommes. Son introduction dans la société est le résultat de l'action de quelques hommes, des passionnés de modernité qui voient en ce nouveau moyen de transport une façon d'affirmer la suprématie de l'homme sur la machine et le temps. En Isère, ces hommes s'organisent autour de l'Automobile Club Dauphinois (ACD), dès la fin du XIXe siècle. L'aventure de l'ACD est remarquable. Cette association uniq...

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  7. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  8. Effect of automobile operating condition on the subjective equivalence of steering wheel vibration and sound

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the manufacturers of automobiles, automobile components and fuels, subjective equivalence relationships between vibration and sound can be used as a reference against which to plot the results from simulations or tests of specific operational conditions. The research described here was performed to define curves of subjective equivalence between steering wheel rotational vibration and sound using stimuli from different automobile operating conditions. The steering wheel acceleration stimu...

  9. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Dalei Wang; Airong Chen

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control ...

  10. High oil price compel automobile to 'slim',Light metal castings enjoy great popularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The fuel consumption of automobiles has a close relationship with their weight, and due to short supply and high prices of energy sources, numerous automakers are trying every means to make the automobile "slim" (or less heavy).According to available data, every 100-kg reduction in automobile weight will result in a 0.3-liter gasoline saving for every hundred kilometers of driving. Therefore, automobile parts with light weight, thin wall, excellent dimensional accuracy and high strength and toughness become the development trend.

  11. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  12. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  13. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  14. Meteorological Conditions for Functioning Automobile Transport in Moscow Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate weather and climate conditions of functioning automobile transport in Moscow region. For this, statistics on the daily number of accidents in the City of Moscow in 2013-2014 were studied and compared with the weather conditions. Various weather phenomena and meteorological parameters that affect the increase and decrease in the number of accidents in warm and cold seasons were identified; the extent of this influence was assessed. Moreover, an analysis of the distribution and change of the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena and meteorological parameters in 1961-2010 in Moscow region was conducted. In the cold season, there are much more weather events influencing the growth in the number of accidents than in the warm season. Fallout of more than 2 cm of snow per date, the reduction in meteorological visibility, drizzle and snow storms lead to an increase of accident rate by 5-15%. In the warm season, when thunderstorms and heavy rainfall there is a decrease in accidents; increase in the number of accidents happens in hot weather (maximum air temperatures over +30 °C). In the period 1991-2010 compared to 1961-1990 in the Moscow oblast the sustained cold period and amount of precipitation under negative air temperature has reduced; a decrease in the number of days with reduced visibility range and the offset of the date of the fallout of the first snow aside winter months is observed, which is favorable for automobile transport. At the same time, there is an increase in the number of days with transitions of air temperature through 0 °C, and the number of hot days, which negatively affects the functioning automobile transport.

  15. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  16. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  17. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J E; McClafferty, K; Orton, R B; Tokarewicz, A C; Nowak, E S

    1995-01-01

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated. PMID:7553495

  18. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  19. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Salimova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buyers is the availability of presales and aftersales service. The current research works in the sphere of logistics services are analyzed which refer to the approaches to its definition as well as selecting the criteria for its functional quality. It is established that the increase of interest in the activities of logistics centers of car service is due to several reasons such as the growing complexity of their construction and the increased competition in this area. The critical review of the scientific literature was conducted as well as the analysis of the scientific problem of determining the functional areas of logistics service of an automobile company with a view to ensuring quality and enhancing the satisfaction of end users of automobiles. The key areas of corporate logistics services were systematized and classified detailing for each of these areas was made. Different approaches were described to defining the range of services at different stages of the life cycle of technical means. Basing on the studied viewpoints four components of the functional activities of service centers were formulated presales service car sales aftersales maintenance and disposal of vehicles. Basing on these components a model of brand service of a car company was formed taking into account the functional characteristics of each component. Scientific novelty a functional model was developed of the system of service vehicles in a brand servicesales chain automotive company allowing to provide

  20. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujimoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  1. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  2. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  3. Automobile Transmission Shift Control Based on MMAS and BP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The neural network control model of automobile automatic transmission has been developed, which make the optimum shift decision based on the vehicle velocity, the vehicle acceleration and the throttle opening. The MAX-MIN ant syste (MMAS is introduced to train the neural network weights and thresholds. The basic theory and steps of MMAS algorithm are given, and applied in the automatic transmission shift control. Experimental results show that the automatic transmission shift control system based on MMAS, comparing to the system based on ACO-BP, has better capability of gear recognition, and can make shift decision promptly and effectively.

  4. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  5. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  6. Pectus excavatum repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002949.htm Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  7. When "Other" Initiate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  8. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away...

  9. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  10. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM Agreement''). In addition, it appears that China has failed to... Measures for the Administration of National Export Bases of Automobiles and Parts and Components (for Trial... Administration of National Export Bases of Automobiles and Parts and Components (Revised Draft); MOFCOM,...

  11. 75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... date for the final rule published on November 29, 2010 at 75 FR 72965 remains November 29, 2010. The...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous...

  12. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  13. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11... OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  15. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  16. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  17. [Cohort mortality study of workers in an automobile foundry factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Yu; Liu, Fu-Ying; Zhang, Min; Lu, Rui; Yao, Hui-Lin; Yang, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Wei-Hong

    2008-10-01

    To understand the major causes of death in automobile foundry workers and investigate casting manipulations hazards to health. A cohort study of 3529 foundry workers registered in one big automobile factory in Shiyan city of China was performed. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the main causes of death by using Chinese national mortality rates as reference. The cohort mortality was traced from 1980 to the end of 2005 with an accumulation of 84 999 person-years, revealed 265 deaths. The results of this study showed that the standardized mortality ratio for all subjects was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85 approximately 1.08), which was very close to that expected on the basis of the China national mortality rates. The SMR increased with age, the SMR became greater than 1 in all groups of age 50 and higher. The results showed that malignant neoplasm (3.43%), accidents (1.16%), cerebro-vascular diseases (1.08%), cardio-vascular diseases (0.79%) were the first four illnesses that threatened workers' life span. Statistically significant mortality of malignant neoplasm (SMR = 7.87), accidents (SMR = 2.70), cardio-vascular diseases (SMR = 2.68) and digestive diseases (SMR = 2.79) were found in the foundry workers. The relative risk of malignant neoplasm for first line workers to assistant workers was 1.99 (P < 0.05). The occupational hazards in foundry factory have harmful impact on the workers' health and life span.

  18. Automobile shredder residue : a waste or a resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology

    2000-07-01

    In recent years several recycling and resource recovery technologies have been tested for the challenging task of recycling automobile shredder residues (ASR) with varying degrees of success. ASR is the nonrecyclable residue that remains after recyclable metals are extracted from old automobiles. The use of ASR as a landfill day cover seems to be a viable alternative for this material. Scientific evidence suggests that ASR is capable of acting as a sponge for heavy metals. The absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metal lead was presented along with evaluations for both standard leaching test protocols and dynamic column testing. Compared to soil, ASR has a greater absorption capacity for heavy metals such as lead. ASR also has other desirable features that make it an ideal choice for landfill day cover. For example, ASR provides a stable mat for vehicle traffic, minimizes erosion due to rainfall run off and is less prone to dusting. ASR is also capable of compression to less than 5 cm when overfilled. This conserves landfill volume and allows excavated soil to be used for other purposes. In addition, the use of ASR could prevent contamination of groundwater by preventing the leaching of heavy metals from landfills. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Automobile shredded residue valorisation by hydrometallurgical metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Moscardini, Emanuela; Furlani, Giuliana; Pagnanelli, Francesca; Toro, Luigi

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work was developing a hydrometallurgical process to recover metals from automobile shredded residue (or car fluff). Automobile shredded residue (ASR) was characterised by particle size distribution, total metal content and metal speciation in order to guide the choice of target metals and the operating conditions of leaching. Characterisation results showed that Fe is the most abundant metal in the waste, while Zn was the second abundant metal in the fraction with diameter lower than 500 μm. Sequential extractions denoted that Zn was easily extractable by weak acid attack, while Fe and Al required a strong acid attack to be removed. In order to recover zinc from leaching tests were operated using acetic acid, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide at different concentrations. Sulphuric acid determined the highest zinc extraction yield, while acetic acid determined the highest zinc extractive selectivity. Sodium hydroxide promoted an intermediate situation between sulphuric and acetic acid. Zn recovery by electro winning using acetic leach liquor determined 95% of Zn electro deposition yield in 1h, while using sulphuric leach liquor 40% yield in 1h and 50% yield in 2h were obtained. Simulation results showed that the sulphuric leaching process was more attractive than acetic leaching process.

  20. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  1. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

  2. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  4. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... CFR Part 20 Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request... FTC's ``Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry.'' DATES... used parts (e.g., engines and transmissions). The Commission first addressed the used automobile...

  5. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  6. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  9. Percutaneous mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R

    2006-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  10. A comparative study among the three wheeler automobile drivers on pulmonary function tests in adult males of Gulbarga city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Afroz, Salgar Veeresh B, Sugoor Manjushree, Swati I Amrutha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of our country has led to rapid urbanization and there is increasing use of automobiles that is aggravating environmental pollution. Occupational exposure to automobile exhaustand industrial smokes has been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was taken up to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT in auto rickshaw drivers of Gulbargacity. Methods: Fifty non –smoker male auto drivers in the age group of 20–50 years for more than 5 years of auto driving experience formed the study group. Age and sex matched individuals not exposed to auto rickshaw driving [administrative staff] formed the control group. Pulmonary function parametersFVC, FEV1, FEV1%, PEFR, PIFR, FEF25-75, FEF50 and MVV were assessed using a computerized Spiro meter during their working hours and were statistically analyzed. Results: There was a highly significant decrease in FVC and FEV1 in the study group compared to control group. The decrease in FEV1%, PIFR, FEF25-75 and FEF50 were statistically significant but the decrease in PEFR and MVV were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Our findings point towards the adverse effects of vehicle exhaust on lung functions, mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

  11. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  12. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  13. Dynamic modelling of household automobile transactions within a microsimulation framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, A.

    2002-07-01

    This thesis presents a newly developed dynamic model of household automobile transactions within an integrated land-use transportation and environment (ILUTE) modeling system framework. It is a market-based decision-making tool for use by individuals who have to choose between adding new vehicles to a fleet, disposing of vehicles, trading one of the vehicles of a fleet, or do-nothing. Different approaches were used within the model, including an artificial neural network, hedonic price, regression, and vehicle class and vintage choices. The model can also predict the complex activity of individuals' behaviour to become active in the market. An estimation approach was used to incorporate the vehicle type choice model into the main dynamic transaction choice model.

  14. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  15. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  16. Pulmonary adverse effects of welding fume in automobile assembly welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Aminian, Omid

    2011-01-01

    Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease.

  17. Mechanical behavior of plastic materials for automobile cockpit module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Changsu.; Park, Hyunsung.; Jo, Jinho.

    2013-12-01

    Engineering plastics are used in instrument panels, interior trims, and other vehicle applications, and the thermo-mechanical behaviors of plastic materials are strongly influenced by many environmental factors such as temperature, sunlight, and rain. As the material properties change, the mechanical parts create unexpected noise. In this study, the dynamic mechanical property changes of plastics used in automobiles are measured to investigate the effect of temperature. Visco-elastic properties such as the glass transition temperature and storage modulus and loss factors under temperature and frequency sweeps were measured. The data results were compared with the original ones before aging to analyze the behavioral changes. It was found that as the temperature increased, the storage modulus decreased and the loss factor increased slightly.

  18. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  19. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  20. Development of High-Temperature Superconducting DC Motor for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hitoshi; Shinzato, Tsuyoshi

    In recent years, electrification of automobiles is in progress. Following the advent of passenger electric vehicles, large size commercial vehicles with electric drive are also being developed. One of the problems in the development of large electric vehicles is the heavy weight which leads to short driving distances. Energy saving by the use of high-efficiency motors will be a solution. The authors have developed a prototype electric vehicle equipped with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motor and a refrigerator. The test results showed that the motor has torque of 136 Nm and an output of 30 kW, and the prototype vehicle obtains the maximum speed of 80 km/h.

  1. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry.

  2. Life cycle optimization of automobile replacement: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A; Grande, Darby E; Bean, James C

    2003-12-01

    Although recent progress in automotive technology has reduced exhaust emissions per mile for new cars, the continuing use of inefficient, higher-polluting old cars as well as increasing vehicle miles driven are undermining the benefits of this progress. As a way to address the "inefficient old vehicle" contribution to this problem, a novel life cycle optimization (LCO) model is introduced and applied to the automobile replacement policy question. The LCO model determines optimal vehicle lifetimes, accounting for technology improvements of new models while considering deteriorating efficiencies of existing models. Life cycle inventories for different vehicle models that represent materials production, manufacturing, use, maintenance, and end-of-life environmental burdens are required as inputs to the LCO model. As a demonstration, the LCO model was applied to mid-sized passenger car models between 1985 and 2020. An optimization was conducted to minimize cumulative carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and energy use over the time horizon (1985-2020). For CO, NMHC, and NOx pollutants with 12000 mi of annual mileage, automobile lifetimes ranging from 3 to 6 yr are optimal for the 1980s and early 1990s model years while the optimal lifetimes are expected to be 7-14 yr for model year 2000s and beyond. On the other hand, a lifetime of 18 yr minimizes cumulative energy and CO2 based on driving 12000 miles annually. Optimal lifetimes are inversely correlated to annual vehicle mileage, especially for CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions. On the basis of the optimization results, policies improving durability of emission controls, retiring high-emitting vehicles, and improving fuel economies are discussed.

  3. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-07

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  4. Risk Factors of Prolonged Postoperative Pleural Effusion After Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Liang

    2005-09-01

    Conclusion: Prolonged PE is a significant morbidity after TOF repair. The risk factors for prolonged PE are gender, age at repair, body weight, bypass time, low oxygen saturation before surgery, wound infection after surgery, duration of endotracheal intubation, length of hospital stay, and Nakata index. Oxygen saturation before surgery and wound infection were major risk factors while age at repair was a confounder.

  5. Research on the Bionics Design of Automobile Styling Based on the Form Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, Zhao; Long, Jiang

    2017-09-01

    From the heritage of form gene point of view, this thesis has analyzed the gene make-up, cultural inheritance and aesthetic features in the evolution and development of forms of brand automobiles and proposed the bionic design concept and methods in the automobile styling design. And this innovative method must be based on the form gene, and the consistency and combination of form element must be maintained during the design. Taking the design of Maserati as an example, the thesis will show you the design method and philosophy in the aspects of form gene expression and bionic design innovation for the future automobile styling.

  6. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Edge determination algorithm of game road for intelligent automobile based on plane array CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kun; WANG Fu-bin; PAN Xiao-di; LIU Jie; HUANG Chang-fa

    2009-01-01

    The contribution factor of automobile movement stability on the structure feature of seek road intelligent automobile chassis was analyzed. The kinematic model of linear two-degree freedom for intelligent automobile was established. The noise influence to the image of game road on the image rebuilding of different acquisition data of game road was analyzed. The threshold for image division was determined by the statistical analysis to grey histogram of game road image. This method indicates its adaption to CCD image of low distinguish ability.

  8. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  9. Epigenetic changes of DNA repair genes in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Lahtz; Gerd P. Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    'Every Hour Hurts, The Last One Kills'. That is an old saying about getting old. Every day, thousands of DNA damaging events take place in each cell of our body, but efficient DNA repair systems have evolved to prevent that. However, our DNA repair system and that of most other organisms are not as perfect as that of Deinococcus radiodurans, for example, which is able to repair massive amounts of DNA damage at one time. In many instances, accumulation of DNA damage has been linked to cancer, and genetic deficiencies in specific DNA repair genes are associated with tumor-prone phenotypes. In addition to mutations, which can be either inherited or somatically acquired, epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes may promote tumorigenesis. This review will summarize current knowledge of the epigenetic inactivation of different DNA repair components in human cancer.

  10. Physiological investigation of automobile driver's activation index using simulated monotonous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K

    2004-01-01

    Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state.

  11. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  12. Repairs of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  13. Exposure Assessment Suggests Exposure to Lung Cancer Carcinogens in a Painter Working in an Automobile Bumper Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boowook Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.33 μg/m3. Analysis of the paint bulk materials showed that hexavalent chromium was mostly found in the form of lead chromate. Interestingly, strontium chromate was also detected, and the concentration of strontium chromate increased in line with the brightness of the yellow color. Some paints contained about 1% crystalline silica in the form of quartz.

  14. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  15. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  16. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  17. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  18. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults' Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitomi Nakanishi; John Black

    2015-01-01

      An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more "green" transportation...

  19. DETECTION RELEVANCY OF SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING ON AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Radkevich, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence between the pavement evenness and the emissions of air pollutants from automobile – road sector is detected. It is proposed to take the pavement evenness for the assessment criterion of greenhouse and other gases emissions.

  20. DETECTION RELEVANCY OF SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING ON AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radkevich, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence between the pavement evenness and the emissions of air pollutants from automobile – road sector is detected. It is proposed to take the pavement evenness for the assessment criterion of greenhouse and other gases emissions.

  1. Main factors influencing the fall of sales in the Russian automobile market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya A. Kurilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the negative factors affecting the development of the Russian automobile market. Methods systemic approach generalization and comparison of results method of induction. The findings are based on the research results and observations obtained with the comparativehistorical dialecticalsynthetic and abstractlogical methods. Results basing on data of the International organization of motor vehicle manufacturers OICA the rate of vehicles overproduction worldwide was determined the analysis of motorization index in various countries allowed to form the forecast for the development of automotive fleet in Russia basing on the analysis of macroeconomic data the main factors influencing the development of the Russian automobile market were determined. Scientific novelty the regularities of dynamics of development of the global and Russian automobile markets were revealed. The factors influencing the Russian car market were identified. Practical significance the Russian car manufacturers can use information about the development of the global and Russian automobile markets to create plans for their activities. nbsp

  2. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  3. Brand Loyalty and the Decline of American Automobile Firms; Comments and Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mannering, Fred; Winston, Clifford; Griliches, Zvi; Schmalensee, Richard

    1991-01-01

      The historical quality and value of a brand of automobile and the reputation it has developed among consumers as reflected in brand loyalty directly affect its current and future performance in the marketplace...

  4. Biodegradable Materials for Bone Repairs: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Tan; Xiaoming Yu; Peng Wan; Ke Yang

    2013-01-01

    With attractive research and development of biomaterials,more and more opportunities have been brought to the treatments of human tissue repairs.The implant is usually no need to exist in the body accompanied with the recovery or regeneration of the tissue lesions,and the long-term effect of exotic substance to human body should be reduced as lower as possible.For this purpose,biodegradable materials,including polymers,magnesium alloys and ceramics,have attracted much attention for medical applications due to their biodegradable characters in body environment.This paper in turn introduces these three different types of widely studied biodegradable materials as well as their advantages as implants in applications for bone repairs.Relevant history and research progresses are summarized.

  5. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  6. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  7. Analytical evaluation of technical and operational indicators impact on the transportation technology by automobile trailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Tson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of technological and operational indicators on the efficiency of using operational time during goods transportation by automobile trailers is analytically studied. The failure cause of automobile trailers undercarriages is analysed. The analytical dependences for the preliminary assessment of metal undercarriages performance in the design phases are developed. The proposed mathematical standard vehicle-performance test is compared with the obtained experimental data.

  8. Self-Healing Concept for Damaged Composite Structure of Automobile Bonnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunbum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a structural design and analysis on automobile bonnet using natural flax fiber composite is performed. Through the structural analyses using commercial FEM software, it is confirmed that the designed automobile bonnet using natural composite is acceptable for structural safety. And also, the damage is a critical problem in composites during their service in structural applications. Therefore, study on self-healing concept of bonnet structure was performed.

  9. Managing the Risks of the Automobile: A Study of a Swedish Car Manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Svenson

    1984-01-01

    Hazard management of the risks of human injury and death related to the automobile are described and exemplified by the Swedish car manufacturer Volvo. The study presents the Volvo units engaged in accident hazard management and their roles in the elaborate system of feedbacks (information, penalties and rewards) created by the company and society for maintaining a high level of automobile safety. Improvements are suggested although the overall quality of the accident hazard management proces...

  10. Research on Integrated Casting and Forging Process of Aluminum Automobile Wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Cao, Miao; ZHANG, DAWEI; Zhang, Shuai; Sun, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Integrated casting and forging process (ICFP) is a new manufacturing method combining the advantages of both casting and forging. Aluminum structure parts, such as aluminum alloy automobile wheel, with complex shape and excellent mechanical properties can be produced by this process. The effects of different process parameters on the ICFP of the automobile wheel were simulated by Forge software. Microstructure of forging region and the nonforging region were studied by experiment. The results...

  11. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate.

  12. PHYSICAL VALUE MAPPING ALGORITHM OF MESH IN FINE CAE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOBILE BODY STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ping; Gong Kejia; Bao Yidong

    2005-01-01

    A physical value mapping (PVM) algorithm based on finite element mesh from the stamped part in stamping process to the product is presented. In order to improve the efficiency of the PVM algorithm, a search way from the mesh of the product to the mesh of the stamped part will be adopted. At the same time, the search process is divided into two steps: entire search (ES) and local search (LS), which improve the searching efficiency. The searching area is enlarged to avoid missing projection elements in ES process. An arc-length method is introduced in LS process. The validity is confirmed by the results of the complex industry-forming product.

  13. Synthesis of a Novel High Solid Coating Used in Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lu; CHEN Hua-lin; LIANG Shou-tian; LIU Bai-ling

    2004-01-01

    High solid coating is one of the most important environmental friendly coatings, and has been obtained great attention since 70s' last century. For there are high volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the conventional coatings, which cause both a serious pollution and consume of a plentiful of natural resource, such as petroleum. The development and production of high solid coatings is pressing target for all the countries, especially for China due to our heavy population and short of resources. Based on the requirement, a novel coating with high solid content has been developed in our lab. The solid content of the resin is 80%, compared to the 55% of conversional resin. This coating is characterized by its unique molecular architecture, it is a kind of hyper-branched polymer with uniform distribution of the reactive groups along the molecular backbone, which can react with other chemicals to form a cross-linking structure at high temperature.The coating has a lower viscosity and lower Tg corresponding to its branched structure( scheme 1).This coating has been applied in the automobile finishing. The experimental results indicated that the developed coating presented high performance properties in fastness, mar resistance, and hardness, it also reduced the baking temperature, resulting in a energy saving.

  14. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  15. Pulmonary effects of spot welding in automobile assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Zeeba; Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Aminian, Omid; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Spot welding is a type of resistance welding in which pieces of metals are pressed together and an electric current is passed through them. Spot welders are at risk of contact with some potentially hazardous agents but there are few studies about the respiratory effects of spot welding. Our objective was to study lung function and respiratory symptoms among spot welders and office workers at an automobile assembly factory in Iran. This was a cross-sectional study of 137 male spot welders and 129 office workers. We used a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms. Spirometry was performed to assess lung function status. Metal fume samples from the respiratory zone of spot welders were analysed. The concentrations of metal fume were less than the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values. There were significantly lower values for average forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV(1)), FEV(1)/forced vital capacity and 25-75% forced expiratory flow in spot welders compared to controls. There was also a significantly raised prevalence of respiratory symptoms (sputum and dyspnoea) in spot welders. Fifteen per cent of spot welders and 1% of controls had an obstructive pattern in spirometry. Our survey suggests that spot welders are at risk of developing respiratory symptoms and decreasing pulmonary function values despite their exposure to components of welding fume being within ACGIH guidelines.

  16. Automobile Shredder Residues in Italy: characterization and valorization opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Zanetti, M C

    2012-08-01

    At the moment Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) is usually landfilled worldwide, but European draft Directive 2000/53/CE forces the development of alternative solutions, stating the 95%-wt recovery of an End of Life Vehicle (ELV) weight to be fulfilled by 2015. This work describes two industrial tests, each involving 250-300 t of ELVs, in which different pre-shredding operations were performed. The produced ASR materials underwent an extended characterization and some post-shredding processes, consisting of dimensional, magnetic, electrostatic and densimetric separation phases, were tested on laboratory scale, having as main purpose the enhancement of ASR recovery/recycling and the minimization of the landfilled fraction. The gathered results show that accurate depollution and dismantling operations are mandatory to obtain a high quality ASR material which may be recycled/recovered and partially landfilled according to the actual European Union regulations, with particular concern for Lower Heating Value (LHV), heavy metals content and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as critical parameters. Moreover post-shredding technical solutions foreseeing minimum economic and engineering efforts, therefore realizable in common European ELVs shredding plants, may lead to multi-purposed (material recovery and thermal valorization) opportunities for ASR reuse/recovery.

  17. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.; Allen, James; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that is required for the converter to be effective. In order to compare the effectiveness of catalytic converters, time-resolved measurements were performed on several vehicles, including a 2010 Toyota Prius, a 2010 Honda Fit, a 1994 Honda Civic, and a 1967 Oldsmobile 442 (which is not equipped with a catalytic converter but is used as a baseline). The newer vehicles demonstrate bot a reduced overall level of CO and hydrocarbon emissions but are also effective more quickly than older units. The time-resolved emissions will be discussed along with the impact of catalytic converter design and location on the measured emissions.

  18. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  19. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  20. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system.

  1. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  2. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  3. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  4. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  5. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  6. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  7. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  8. Laparoscopic repair of large incisional hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Harris H; Nottingham, James M; Bynoe, Raymond P; Yost, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    Incisional hernias after abdominal operations are a significant cause of long-term morbidity and have been reported to occur in 3 to 20 per cent of laparotomy incisions. Traditional primary suture closure repair is plagued with up to a 50 per cent recurrence rate. With the introduction of prosthetic mesh repair recurrence decreased, but complications with mesh placement emerged ushering in the development of laparoscopic incisional herniorrhaphy. The records of patients who underwent laparoscopic incisional hernia repair between June 1, 1995 and September 1, 2001 were reviewed. Patient demographics, hernia defect size, recurrence, operative time, and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Fifty patients (22 male and 28 female, mean age 57 years with range of 24-83) were scheduled for laparoscopic incisional hernia repair between June 1, 1995 and September 1, 2001. The average patient was obese with a mean body mass index of 35.8 kg/m2 (range 16-57 kg/m2). Two patients (4%) had primary ventral hernias. Forty-eight patients (96%) had incisional hernias with 22 (46%) of these previously repaired with prosthetic mesh. Mean defect size was 206.1 cm2 (range 48-594 cm2). The average mesh size was 510.2 cm2 (range 224-1050 cm2). Gore-Tex DualMesh and Bard Composite Mesh were used in 84 and 16 per cent of the repairs, respectively. Mean operating time was 97 minutes. There were no deaths. Complications were seen in 12 per cent patients (six occurrences) and included two small bowel enterotomies, a symptomatic seroma requiring aspirate, a mesh reaction requiring a short course of intravenous antibiotics, and trocar site pain (two patients). There were no recurrences during a mean follow-up of 41 months (range 3-74 months). We conclude that laparoscopic incisional herniorrhaphy offers a safe and effective repair for large primary and recurrent ventral hernia with low morbidity.

  9. Analyzing and simulating supply chain disruptions to the automobile industry based on experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Kenji; Akakura, Yasuhiro; Kanda, Masami; Ishihara, Masatoyo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake revealed serious weaknesses in the supply chain management (SCM) employed by Japanese industries, and particularly by the automobile industry. Observed supply chain disruptions and production line shutdowns are recognized as symbolic of weaknesses in industrial SCM. The Japanese automobile industry in particular is now keen to improve supply chain resiliency in terms of automobile assembly line continuity. In view of this, we i) review observed negative impacts...

  10. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  11. Achilles tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  12. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  13. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  14. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  15. Inguinal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100027.htm Inguinal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through ...

  16. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100035.htm Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  17. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on ... Overview The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth ...

  18. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  19. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  20. Cleft lip repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100010.htm Cleft lip repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... abnormal opening in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of ...

  1. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment.

  2. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  3. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  4. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  5. Automobile air-conditioning. Its energy and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maximum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the international climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-conditioning (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment-recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential-led ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. (author)

  6. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates.

  7. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  8. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  9. Glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchetti, E T; Weidner, Z; Lawrence, J T R; Sennett, B J; Huffman, G R

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about outcomes of glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We hypothesized that following repair, pitching performance would not be significantly different from an uninjured cohort. Fifty-one pitchers were identified who pitched in at least one MLB game prior to undergoing isolated glenoid labral repair. For the three years prior to and following surgery, demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with labral injury and repair, and compared to a control cohort of MLB pitchers without history of repair. Following surgery, 72.5% of pitchers returned to MLB at a mean of 13.1 months with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers had a higher risk of labral injury requiring repair (p< or =0.05). Pitchers that returned to play averaged more innings pitched in the seasons prior to surgery and had a higher body mass index than those that did not return to play (p< or =0.05). Approximately 70% of MLB pitchers undergoing labral repair can be expected to return to competition postoperatively with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers are more likely to undergo repair, but pitchers with greater preoperative innings pitched per season have a greater likelihood of returning to play.

  10. Comparison of energy-storage devices for use in future automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, L.G.

    1981-06-20

    The Transportation System Research Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a study over a four year period to determine which energy-storage devices and their associated propulsion systems are likely to be capable of providing credible alternatives to current type automotive propulsion systems between now and the year 2000. It was found that a complete spectrum of automotive performance levels can be achieved by energy storage automobiles during this time period. These range from automobiles with general-purpose performance equivalent to internal combustion engine (ICE) performance to performance suitable for vehicles with specific missions. These automobiles will likely be more expensive to purchase than their ICE counterparts. Large scale introduction of such vehicles can be constrained not only by the development of energy storage technology, but also by the abailability of the required manufacturing capability and service infrastructure.

  11. Computer simulations and experimental study on crash box of automobile in low speed collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Ding, Lin; Yan, Shengyuan; Yang, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on the problems of energy-absorbing components in the automobile low speed collision process, according to crash box frontal crash test in low speed as the example, the simulation analysis of crash box impact process was carried out by Hyper Mesh and LS-DYNA. Each parameter on the influence modeling was analyzed by mathematics analytical solution and test comparison, which guaranteed that the model was accurate. Combination of experiment and simulation result had determined the weakness part of crash box structure crashworthiness aspect, and improvement method of crash box crashworthiness was discussed. Through numerical simulation of the impact process of automobile crash box, the obtained analysis result was used to optimize the design of crash box. It was helpful to improve the vehicles structure and decrease the collision accident loss at most. And it was also provided a useful method for the further research on the automobile collision.

  12. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control model and straight driving ideal-driver model. Finally, taking a medium-size commercial bus as an example, the reason of its lateral instability is interpreted and the influence of cross wind speed and driving speed on its lateral driving stability is shown by parameter study.

  13. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  14. Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd.—China’s Heavy Truck Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd. (formerly Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant) was originally a weak enterprise. Relying on the reorganization of assets,the introduction of the"Double Best"project and opportunities for development,it has entered the fast track of development by es- tablishing a brand image and implementing a forward-looking strategy.In 1990,Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.Ltd.was a loss- making enterprise with an annual sales of 100 million yuan ($14.1 million).In 2007,its sales income surpassed 10 billion yuan ($1.4 billion),and it was not only listed among China’s top 500 companies,but also ranked 37th among the top 500 machinery companies of China and came first in Shaanxi Province

  15. Theoretic Analysis & Study on Automobile EMC Based on the Synergetics Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. H.; Chang, X.; He, L. Q.; Tian, X. L.

    2006-10-01

    Considering the microelectronic application in the automobile of equipment increases, and the electromagnetic environment of external world worsens day by day, it is important to study the problems of the auto EMC. The traditional researching approaches of EMC have already become riper, but because of the complicated characteristics of the automobile's complex electronic system, there is no simple mathematical model to describe and analyze the auto EMC. The traditional methods mostly proceed with parameters of the circuits, and they have not risen to the system grade. They are based on the thought of reduction. As a kind of brand-new theory, synergetics pay more attention to the cooperation and competition between subsystems, and then it can reach harmonious stability from the whole. This paper investigates a new thought about applying the synergetics theory to the EMC' s analysis of the complex system like the Automobile's, thus received corresponding theory support.

  16. Riveted joint and welds repairs about the automobile frame%汽车车架的铆接和焊修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦公远

    2005-01-01

    汽车车架铆钉松动应重铆,裂纹或断裂可焊修,也可以铆焊结合。铆接质量可靠,但工艺不如焊修简便。一般车架大修有80%~90%不同程度的断裂,大多经过铆接或焊修后可继续使用。

  17. Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter; Allen, James

    1994-01-01

    Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an algorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by finding word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather than using a set of prebuilt templates, we build the pattern on the fly. In a fair test, our method, when combined with a statistical model to filter possible repairs, was successful at detecting and correcting 80\\% of the repairs, without using prosodic information or a parser.

  18. Effect of Solvents on Microalbuminuria Among Automobile Painters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Shushtarizadeh

    2008-06-01

    SPSS 11.5.Results: Several studies showed that solvents cause renal disorder (tubular and glomerular, although glomerulonephritis is more prevalent. The mean age of the solvent group was 28.6 ±2.7 years and was 33.7 ±7 years in control group (p<0.05. The mean duration of solvent exposure was 4.8 ±1.5 years. Statistically meaningful differences were found between solvent and control groups for microalbuminuria, increased serum BUN and creatinine levels (p<0.05, although there was no significant correlation between these parameters and the duration of exposure (p>0.05.Conclusion: The results suggest that kidney dysfunction results from chronic occupational exposure to solvents at levels found in automobile painting rooms in Iran. We recommend increased monitoring of workers using solvents and increased review and enforcement of safety regulations regarding such use of solvents.

  19. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the settled dust of automobile workshops, health and carcinogenic risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Khoder, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Al Khalaf, Abdulrahman; Costa, Max

    2017-12-01

    There are studies available on the occurrence of PAHs in indoor settled dust from residential and different occupational settings in literature but limited data is available on their occurrence and potential health risk assessment in automobile workshops. In recent decades Saudi Arabia has experienced tremendous growth in the petroleum industry and as a result, the automobile industry is booming. People working in automobile workshops are at a greater risk of exposure to chemicals releasing from the petroleum products. The main objective of this study was to report PAHs in settled dust from different automobile workshops of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate health risk for workers through dust exposure. Pyrene (1585-13500ng/g), Benz[a]anthracene (risk assessment was calculated based on benzo[a]pyrene equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and daily exposure to PAHs via dust ingestion. The median concentration of BaPE was 285ng/g, ILCR was up to 6.78×10(-3) (exceeded reference values of USEPA (range between 1×10(-6) and 1×10(-4))), and worker's exposure via dust ingestion on daily bases reached up to 33ng/kgbw/day for ∑12PAHs. This study showed people working in automobile workshops in the studied area are getting expose to high levels of PAHs via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. This is the first study reporting PAHs in automobile workshops settings from Middle East. The incremental lifetime cancer risk to workers via dust exposure exceeded set limits of USEPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Review of Design Methods for Lightweight of Automobile Structure%汽车结构的轻量化设计方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传博; 谢然; 郭琳

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight of automobile structure is important for vehicle emissions reduction and fuel consumption. It can be realized by using lightweight-high-strength materials, relative advanced forming process for automobile structure parts, connection technology and structure optimization or other innovation methods. This article describes a few representative research projects on automotive structural lightweight; elaborates the use of high strength steel, aluminum-magnesium alloy, plastics and other lightweight- high-strength materials in the lightweight of body structure; analyzes advanced forming process for new materials, such as tailored blanks, hydraulic and pneumatic forming, hot stamping, and advanced connectivity technology of the self-pierce riveting. It also presents the relative methods for structural optimization and innovative design. Finally, it prospects the development trend of design method for lightweight of automobile structure.%汽车结构轻量化对降低汽车排放和油耗具有重要意义.文章介绍了汽车结构轻量化的几个代表性研究项目;对高强度钢板、铝镁合金及塑料等轻质高强度材料在车身结构轻量化中的应用进行了阐述;围绕新材料的先进成形工艺,如激光拼焊板、液压和气压成形,热冲压工艺等成形工艺,以及自冲铆接等先进连接工艺进行了分析;同时还介绍了有关的汽车结构优化和创新设计方法,最后对汽车结构轻量化设计方法的发展动向进行了展望.

  2. AUTOMOBILE AND SELFHOOD: CAR NARRATIVES IN TURKISH LITERATURE / OTOMOBİL VE BENLİK: TÜRK EDEBİYATINDA ARABA OLGUSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Seyit Battal UĞURLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The automobile that entered into the Turkish novelwith Recaizâde Mahmut Ekrem's Car Affairs, in onerespect, is one of the status determinant in traditionalTurkish culture that has taken part instead of horse. Theautomobiles power is still measured as horse powerwhich has close psycho-cultural ties with the discourse of'horse, woman and the gun', that is considerable code oftraditional Turkish culture. Thinking its accreditation ofcapacity of speed performance it can be stressed thatautomobiles have changeable genders depending on menand women. When producing new models, cardesignator’s inspiration is greatly feminity and body ofwomen. Becoming one of the attractive ways of selfrealization of individuals, the automobile, protects usagainst lack of confidence of the external, presentsindividuals a lot of opportunities. Automobile’sattractiveness comes from its power to provide manypossibilities of supremacy over pedestrian way of life aswell as gigantic prosperous life style. The reflections ofthis important device of modern world seems in theTurkish literature parallel with social life. In YellowTractor by Talip Apaydın, Slender Rose of my Thought byAdalet Ağaoğlu, “The Clown Rusen” by Sevim Burak andIcy Swords by Latife Tekin narration can be mentioned afocus on human technology relation as a social fact. “TheCold” by Ömer Seyfettin, “The Spare Part of Civilization”by Aziz Nesin, and “Jaguar” by Peride Celâl focuses on automobile and its social reflections. A close scrutinyhas been conducted into cars as an important mediumof self identification within the context of modern man,its reflections in Turkish literature with provocativepsycho-social factors though a critical and analyticalpoint of view.

  3. The 'Overly-Broad' Selden Patent, Henry Ford and Development in the Early US Automobile Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    A current policy concern is that the alleged uncertainty over the enforceability of “overly-broad” patents of “dubious validity” may retard innovation. We take the Selden patent on the automobile as a classic of this type of patent. We review the evidence of commercial development during its term...... not support the broad construction of those claims. Ford’s and the Ford Motor Co.’s confidence in their understanding was powerfully illustrated by their Company’s public offer to indemnify purchasers of Ford automobiles against the threatened suits for infringement under the Selden patent. This and other...

  4. Stress testing German banks in a downturn in the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann, Klaus; Erdelmeier, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of 28 German banks based on a Mertontype multi-factor credit risk model. The ad-hoc stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile industry that constitutes an exceptional but plausible event suggested by historical data. Rather than on a particular stress forecast, the focus of the paper is on the main drivers of the stress impact on banks' credit portfolios. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low ...

  5. Organizational and economic aspects of benchmarking innovative products at the automobile industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Taraniuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the nature and characteristics of the use of benchmarking in the activity of domestic enterprises of automobile industry under current economic conditions. The results of the analysis. The article identified the concept of benchmarking, examining the stages of benchmarking, determination the efficiency of benchmarking in work automakers. It is considered the historical aspects of the emergence of benchmarking method in world economics. It is determined the economic aspects of the benchmarking in the work of enterprise automobile industry. The analysis on the stages of benchmarking of innovative products in the modern development of the productive forces and the impact of market factors on the economic activities of companies, including in the enterprise of automobile industry. The attention is focused on the specifics of implementing benchmarking at companies of automobile industry. It is considered statistics number of owners of electric vehicles worldwide. The authors researched market of electric vehicles in Ukraine. Also, it is considered the need of benchmarking using to improve the competitiveness of the national automobile industry especially CJSC “Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant”. Authors suggested reasonable steps for its improvement. The authors improved methodical approach to assessing the selection of vehicles with the best technical parameters based on benchmarking, which, unlike the existing ones, based on the calculation of the integral factor of technical specifications of vehicles in order to establish better competitive products of companies automobile industry among evaluated. The main indicators of the national production of electric vehicles are shown. Attention is paid to the development of important ways of CJSC “Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant”, where authors established the aspects that need to pay attention in the management of the

  6. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  7. Groin hernia repair in young males: mesh or sutured repair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data for the optimal inguinal hernia repair in younger men with an indirect hernia is not available. We analysed nationwide data for risk of reoperation in younger men after a primary repair using a Lichtenstein operation or a conventional non-mesh hernia repair....

  8. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects ...

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007392.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  10. Laparoscopic Incisional Hernia Repair in Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is coming to the forefront as a preferred method of repair due to the advantages offered by minimally invasive techniques. To evaluate safety and feasibility of this approach in obese patients when performed by a general surgeon trained in basic laparoscopy with no prior experience in this technique, we reviewed our early experience in the first 18 patients. Methods: All patients with incisional hernias presenting to a single surgeon from 2000 to 2002 were offered laparoscopic repair. Patients were informed about the limited experience of the surgeon in this particular field. Those who consented were repaired laparoscopically using a standard 4-port technique, one 12-mm port and three 5-mm ports. All patients with body mass index ≥30 were included in this review. A retrospective review of the data included demographics, operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction. Results: Nineteen laparoscopic repairs were completed in 18 patients. No conversions to open repair were necessary. All patients were females except for 2. All hernia sacs were left in place, some of which were empty while others required extensive lysis of adhesions to release sac contents. Mean fascial defect was 102.5 cm2. One defect was closed primarily without mesh, while the rest were closed using Composix mesh in 1 and Dual Plus Gore-Tex mesh in the rest. Three patients were discharged from the recovery room. Mean follow-up was 24 months. No wound or mesh infections occurred. Eight patients had no complications. Eight patients had asymptomatic seromas. Two patients had hematomas; none of them required drainage. One patient had nonspecific dizziness. One patient presented with bowel obstruction secondary to early recurrence (within a week). The repair was salvaged laparoscopically. Upon evaluation by telephone calls, all patients indicated extreme satisfaction with the results

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - Determination of Capture Efficiency of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Spray Booth Emissions From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Spray Booth Emissions From Solvent-borne Coatings Using Panel Testing A... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... Efficiency of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Spray Booth Emissions From Solvent-borne Coatings Using...

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.453 - What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? 301-10.453 Section 301-10.453 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Special Conveyances Rental Automobiles § 301-10.453 What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?...

  13. Effects of Regional Automobile Maintenance Level on Automobile Marketing%区域汽车维修水平对汽车营销的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳; 李剑

    2011-01-01

    Taking Shangluo as an example,automobile market and maintenance level in small town were investigated,and the relationship between automobile maintenance and marketing was studied.The results indicated that maintenance level was the key factor in the after service of automobile,which plays an important role in sales promotion.Several ways of enhancing maintenance level are proposed and the market would be expanded by meeting the consumers' after service demands.%以小型城镇商洛为例,实证考察汽车市场和维修水平,研究维修与营销之间的关系。研究发现,在竞争激烈的市场环境里,汽车维修水平是售后服务过程中的关键因素,对促进营销具有重要作用。最后找到几种提高维修水平的途径,通过满足消费者的售后服务需求寻求扩大市场。

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF BRIDGE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insufficiency and delays of maintenance of the technical state of bridges is greatly related to work labour input, absence of adequate mechanical means and automation of the process of inspection of structures. The authors considered domestic and foreign Machinery which repair bridge structures and are used to conduct surveys, tests and special repairs on different levels, both above and below the vehicle position. The design of a machine with the main operational characteristics is presented. The defects detected during the inspection of bridges are enumerated. In the conditions of deterioration of the bridges of different structures and responding the requirements to reduce the risk level of engineering structures’ operation there is a demand in renewing the population of machines for investigation of the technical condition of automobile bridge, because of special vehicles deterioration, there is no staff of specialists who are able to solve the problems of maintenance and increasing the reliability of bridge structures to the required extend. Also the main principles of control and inspection of bridge structures include the requirements to technical equipment for measurements and testing equipment.

  15. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  16. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, ...

  17. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  18. The impact of fixed and variable cost on automobile demand: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and derive an expression for the full willingness to pay for characteristics that takes into account the impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We apply the model to the demand for automobiles using rich Danish register data. Estimation reveals considerable heterogeneity and a non-negligible contribution...

  19. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  20. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  1. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  2. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D T [ed.

    1979-03-01

    A detailed design of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has been developed. The gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are competitive with electric battery storage systems. The TES/Stirling engine system meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle and can be packaged in compact-sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept developed in this study is also useful for a dual-mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short-duration trips (approx. 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried onboard the vehicle used for long-duration trips (as in current automobiles). The dual-mode approach permits an automobile with the convenience and flexibility of current automobiles while offering the potential of 50% savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States. Relative to the TES-only vehicle, the dual mode approach also reduces the TES cost significantly because of the much smaller TES capacity required.

  3. The Development of Green Clusters of the Automobile Industry in the Russian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Khokhlov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the expediency of forming of a green cluster of the automobile industry and indicates the possibility of implementation through the development of electric vehicles as one of the environmentally friendly modes of transport. It is proved that their production requires the joint efforts of the automobile industry, small and medium business enterprises and organizations in other industries that manufacture components and equipment for electric cars. Further the possibility and expediency of launching of environmentally friendly vehicles is proved through the provision of issue in the process of import substitution in the automotive industry. The assumed centres of the green clusters of the automobile industry are selected, they are companies that are potential manufacturers of automobiles, having the properties of environmentally friendly vehicles: PJSC "AVTOVAZ", "GAZ". The scheme of realization of perspective projects on creation of models and production of electric vehicles is represented in the framework of activation of cooperation between state, municipal and business structures in the Russian regions. It is proposed as an institutional form of their interaction to use the concept of a consortium of the automotive industry, which principles are reflected in the text. It is concluded that in the automotive industry in the Russian regions there are possibilities of formation of territorial and production clusters based on the foundations of a green economy in the Russian Federation.

  4. Separating Moral Hazard from Adverse Selection in Automobile Insurance : Longitudinal Evidence from France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionne, G.; Michaud, P.C.; Dahchour, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data to perform tests of asymmetric information in the French automobile insurance market for the 1995-1997 period.This market is characterized by the presence of a regulated experience-rating scheme (bonusmalus).We demonstrate that the result of the test depends crucial

  5. Projections of automobile ownership and use based on household lifestyle factors. [To year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.P.

    1979-03-01

    This report projects to the year 2025 the total number of automobiles that would be owned by American households, (total ownership) and the total number of miles that these vehicles would be driven per day (total use) given certain assumptions about the future of U.S. society. These assumptions relate to demographic, economic, and geographical attrributes of U.S. society that are relevant to the automobile. The impacts of these assumptions were analyzed via a set of projection models which explicitly recognize the relationship between these particular attributes of society and the automobile. Part I presents an overivew of the research and Part II the results. The methodology used to generate the projections is discussed in some detail in Part III. In a base case projection the number of automobiles and average daily travel of Americans double by 2025 due to increases in populaion, headship rates (households per population), and incomes. economic variables account for about half of this increase as indicated by a no economic growth projection in which ownership and daily travel increase just over 40% and 50%, respectively. Other projections explore the effects of differing assumptions regarding rates of household formations, population growth, and income growth. Model projections suggest that changed work schedules and the re-emergence of cities as growth areas will have only slight impacts on future travel and vehicle ownership.

  6. Aging Workforce Management in the Automobile Industry : Defining the Concept and its Constituting Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streb, Christoph; Voelpel, Sven; Leibold, Marius

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on the automobile industry aimed at developing a concept of aging workforce management by identifying and constructing its constituting elements. Through an in-depth research investigation, it answers the question of how the challenge of an

  7. Aging Workforce Management in the Automobile Industry : Defining the Concept and its Constituting Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streb, Christoph; Voelpel, Sven; Leibold, Marius

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on the automobile industry aimed at developing a concept of aging workforce management by identifying and constructing its constituting elements. Through an in-depth research investigation, it answers the question of how the challenge of an

  8. Projections of automobile, light truck, and bus stocks and sales, to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, R.; Millar, M.

    1979-11-01

    Future stocks and sales of automobiles, light trucks, and buses are projected in this document. Automobile projections are developed for fleet and non-fleet sectors. Total auto stock is projected as a function of the number of households and of personal income, with adjustment for present and anticipated shifts from automobiles to light trucks. Automobile stocks and sales are projected to increase steadily through the year 2000 with a slightly larger growth rate associated with fleet autos. Projections of light-truck stocks and sales are developed for personal, service/utility, agriculture, manufacturing, government, wholesale/retail, and other uses based on anticipated employment and output for each of the use sectors. Projections anticipate the largest growth area to be that of personal light trucks. Bus stocks and sales are projected as a function of user populations, existing fleet characteristics, and anticipated usage patterns. School, intercity, and transit buses are included in the study. School buses are projected to have the largest percentage of growth in this sector.

  9. Abnormal Noise Source Identification and Control for Automobile Transmission in the Neutral Idle Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the abnormal noise of a domestically-made automobile transmission in the neutral idle condition, seriously affecting the vehicle market competitiveness and the riding comfort ability for customers, the objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of the automobile transmission by accurately identifying the noise source of the transmission in the neutral idle condition. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the transmission, modal analysis of automobile transmission housing is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the calculation of meshing frequency of gear pair is conducted also. Finally, through comparing model analysis results to the calculation results, it is indicated that the gear meshing impact noise of the third gear pair was identified as the noise resource of the automobile transmission in neutral idle condition, which will provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the transmission as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  10. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... posted on the Internet at http://www.gsa.gov/ftr . This amendment also revises the reimbursement amount... (TDY) and choose to use their privately owned automobile (POA) instead; updates the definition of... periodically published in FTR Bulletins; updates the definition of ``official station''; clarifies what...

  11. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  12. [Application of near infrared sensor to the technology of automobile transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-de; Han, Yun-xia; Zhu, Xiao-long; Yang, Jie-hui

    2005-07-01

    Using reflective near infrared sensor and voice record-reproducing assembly, the present article studies the voice anticollision-prompting device for backing an automobile. If there is a man or an object within a certain distance behind the backing automobile, part of the infrared signal will be reflected by the man or the object, and received by the photosensitive tube installed with a transmitting tube, and transformed to a similar frequency electric signal. The electric signal will be amplified, demodulated, and shaped by the circuit of module. After comparing and processing, the control signal will be output, which controls the work of voice record-reproducing assembly, and reminds the driver that there is a man or an object behind the backing automobile. With both the near infrared sensor and voice record-reproducing assembly being integrated, the distance-warning device has the advantages of low costs, simple wiring, strong anti-detonation ability, precise measuring, and working stability. It is suitable for being installed and used on the automobile.

  13. Separating Moral Hazard from Adverse Selection in Automobile Insurance : Longitudinal Evidence from France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionne, G.; Michaud, P.C.; Dahchour, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data to perform tests of asymmetric information in the French automobile insurance market for the 1995-1997 period.This market is characterized by the presence of a regulated experience-rating scheme (bonusmalus).We demonstrate that the result of the test depends crucial

  14. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  15. Fault Diagnosis of Automobile Crane Power Steering System Aided by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate an innovative application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES on the fault diagnosis of automobile crane hydraulic power steering (HPS system. Contents of Fe, Cu and Al were examined by ICP-AES in the oil samples of HPS system for four different mileages of Puyuan QY50H. The mileages were 2000-9000 km, 11000-19000 km, 21000-28000 km and 32000-40000 km separately. Database of major mental contents in automobile crane HPS system of Puyuan QY50H with different mileage were calibrated. Results showed that, major mental contents were increased with the increasing of driving mileage and the normal contents laid between two trend lines. Through the determination of mental contents in HPS oil sample and further compared them with the values in their database, we could not only evaluate the wear condition of automobile crane HPS system, but also helped to diagnose the faults without dissembled the problematic vehicle. The results further indicated that, in time maintenance, high quality and low cost reparation could be realized by the application of ICP-AES technology on fault diagnosis of automobile crane power steering system.

  16. Data-Driven Neural Network Model for Robust Reconstruction of Automobile Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    In computer vision system, it is a challenging task to robustly reconstruct complex 3D geometries of automobile castings. However, 3D scanning data is usually interfered by noises, the scanning resolution is low, these effects normally lead to incomplete matching and drift phenomenon. In order to solve these problems, a data-driven local geometric learning model is proposed to achieve robust reconstruction of automobile casting. In order to relieve the interference of sensor noise and to be compatible with incomplete scanning data, a 3D convolution neural network is established to match the local geometric features of automobile casting. The proposed neural network combines the geometric feature representation with the correlation metric function to robustly match the local correspondence. We use the truncated distance field(TDF) around the key point to represent the 3D surface of casting geometry, so that the model can be directly embedded into the 3D space to learn the geometric feature representation; Finally, the training labels is automatically generated for depth learning based on the existing RGB-D reconstruction algorithm, which accesses to the same global key matching descriptor. The experimental results show that the matching accuracy of our network is 92.2% for automobile castings, the closed loop rate is about 74.0% when the matching tolerance threshold τ is 0.2. The matching descriptors performed well and retained 81.6% matching accuracy at 95% closed loop. For the sparse geometric castings with initial matching failure, the 3D matching object can be reconstructed robustly by training the key descriptors. Our method performs 3D reconstruction robustly for complex automobile castings.

  17. Muscle breakdown and repair in polymyositis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R H; Wiles, C M; Round, J M; Jackson, M J; Young, A

    1979-01-01

    Muscle breakdown and repair were measured by metabolic balance techniques in a patient with polymyositis who was being treated with prednisolone and azathioprine. Changes in body muscle mass that had been estimated from nitrogen and phosphorus balances correlated with antropometric assessments of thigh muscle mass and quadriceps strength. Decline in muscle strength was associated with a net rate of muscle breakdown of 148 g/day. Recovery was associated with a net rate of muscle repair of up to 100 g/day. Early reduction in corticosteroid treatment appeared to enhance the rate of repair. Changes in the isometric contraction force of the quadriceps muscle (but not in clinical symptoms, plasma creatine kinase [CK] or erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] were found to reliably indicate whether the muscle was in a state of breakdown or repair. Treatment of the individual patient may be quantitatively monitored by metabolic balance studies or, more simply, by measurement of muscle strength.

  18. Role of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase 2 in DNA repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrik O. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification significant for the genomic stability and cell survival in response to DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribosepolymerases (PARPs, which use NAD+ as a substrate, synthesize polymer of (ADP-ribose (PAR covalently attached to nuclear proteins including PARP themselves. PARPs constitute a large family of proteins, in which PARP1 is the most abundant and best-characterized member. In spite of growing body of PARPs’ role in cellular processes, PARP2, the closest homolog of PARP1, still remains poorly characterized at the level of its contribution to different pathways of DNA repair. An overview summarizes in vivo and in vitro data on PARP2 implication in specialized DNA repair processes, base excision repair and double strand break repair.

  19. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  20. Estimation of Up-Wash Distribution Around an Automobile by Three-Dimensional Smoke Wind Tunnel Test

    OpenAIRE

    Hozumi, Koki; 穂積, 弘毅

    1986-01-01

    In an aerodynamic experiment with a hang glider wing mounted on a running automobile, it is necessasry to correct the effects of the up-wash flow field induced by the automobile itself since they significantly deteriorate the measurement accuracy. Streamlines around an automobile model were observed in a three-dimensional smoke wind tunnel. The up-wash distribution was estimated from the shape of the streamlines. The measured up-wash distribution was found to be well approximated by that of a...

  1. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  2. Investigation of vehicle repair industry%汽车维修行业现状调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑孟

    2013-01-01

    In this paper expatiates the characteristic of the automobile maintenance industry, function, foreign automobile repair industry advanced management system, based on the systematic analysis of the vehicle maintenance trade in our country present situation and problems, put forward the corresponding countermeasures. Digging out the talent lack of is the present domestic maintenance industry. Which must strengthen the cultivation of the maintenance personnel are obtained. And elaborated the automobile application and service specialty of higher vocational talents cultivation and the relationship between social needs.%本论文在阐述汽车维修行业的特点、作用,国外汽车维修行业的先进管理体制基础上,系统分析了我国汽车维修行业现状和问题,提出了相应的对策。挖掘出了维修人才缺乏才是目前国内维修行业的问题根源所在。从而得出必须加强维修人才的培养。并阐述了汽车运用与维修专业高职人才的培养及与社会需求之间的关系。

  3. Parc automobile et effet de serre. Agir sur le parc automobile pour réduire l’effet de serre

    OpenAIRE

    Cauret, Lionel; Crozet, Yves; Darbéra, Richard; Faudry, Daniel; Golovtchenko, Nicolas; MIRABEL François; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Benoît; Zélem, Marie-Christine

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Cette étude traite des conditions du renouvellement du parc automobile afin de mieux maîtriser l'impact sur l'effet de serre. Quels sont les critères d'achat et les conditions d'utilisation des véhicules ? Quelles politiques publiques peuvent orienter le choix des consommateurs et l'offre des constructeurs vers des véhicules moins polluants ? Divers instruments de politiques publiques sont analysés.

  4. Scrape on Endeavour's robotic arm during oxygen leak repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Robotic arm experts get ready for ultrasound testing on Endeavour's robotic arm. A scrape of the honeycomb shell around the arm occurred while work platforms were being installed to gain access to repair the oxygen leak in the Shuttle's mid-body. Launch of Endeavour on mission STS-113 has been postponed until no earlier than Nov. 22.

  5. 汽车转向机构建模及优化%Modeling and Optimization of Automobile Steering Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠岚; 邓传奇; 陈帅; 李学明; 唐琼; 周毅钧

    2016-01-01

    运用ADAMS动力学分析软件建立了汽车转向机构的参数化模型。在对汽车转向机构中的转向梯形进行仿真分析的同时,简单分析了悬架系统对汽车转向的影响。考虑到转向梯形机构的转向臂以及梯形底角对汽车内外转向角的影响是最大的,利用ADAMS自带优化程序创建设计变量对梯形机构的关键点进行优化计算,优化过程中将悬架机构和转向梯形机构作为不同机构,仅对转向机构进行迭代优化,得到转向臂和梯形底角的最优参数。通过对比优化前后的内外转向角随时间变化的规律,可以明显观察到,优化后的转向角之差是小于优化前的,转向特性曲线更加接近理想值,提高了汽车的安全性,增加了轮胎寿命。%In this paper, the parametric model of automobile steering mechanism is established by applying the dynamic analy-sis software ADAMS; simulation analysis on the steering trapezium of automobile steering mechanism is conducted, at the same time, simple analysis on influences of the suspension system to the automobile steering is also conducted.Considering that the steering arm and trapezoid corner have a big impact on steering angle, the built-in optimization program of ADAMS is used to creat design variables ao as to optimize the calculation of critical points of the trapezoid body; in the optimization process, the suspension mechanism and the steering trapezium are set as the different agencies, and the iterative optimization is only conducted to the steering mechanism, thus the optimal parameters of steering arm and trapezoid corner are obtained. Through comparing the law of the inner and outer steering angle changing with time before and after optimization, it could be clearly observed that the steering angle after optimization is less than before, and the steering characteristic value is closer to the ideal curve, thus it could improve safety of the vehicle and increase

  6. A REVIEW OF ECONOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF CONSUMER DEMAND FOR AUTOMOBILES AND THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN (COO EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMET ÖZÇAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.  The demand for automobiles has always been an important area for the application of various theoretical econometric models and the automotive industry remains to be the leading export sector in Turkey. This paper surveys a range of important developments in the modeling and estimation of demand for new automobiles in various regions like the U.S., Europe, and Turkey. The applied econometrician can acquire a good perspective when constructing such a model and deciding on the most appropriate econometric estimation technique. However, the applied econometrician is cautioned against some of the difficulties in modeling and forecasting the demand for automobiles. Since the Country of Origin (COO effect is known to be an important factor in explaining the demand for products including automobiles, we also review the marketing literature investigating the consumers’ biases about products related to the country in which they are made.

  7. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilker murat arer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a congenital herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through a retrosternal diaphragmatic defect and make up about 1 % - 5 % of all types of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernias is usually indicated when patients are symptomatic and have a high risk of strangulation or incarceration of the contained viscera. 71-year-old male patient admitted to emergency department with a 2-day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and obstipation. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia was performed. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia with mesh repair is secure, satisfactory and easily performed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 71-74

  8. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique-An Indian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Luthra; Vinod Kumar; Sanjay Kumar; Abid Haleem

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have ident...

  9. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  10. Mammalian mismatch repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation...

  11. Who are our neighbours? personal automobile choice, climate change and ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, P.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies

    2000-06-01

    This paper discussed the role that religious institutions have in delivering the message of personal responsibility in the matter of climate change. Private automobiles are large contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in North American, where choice and operation of the personal automobile is entirely within personal discretion. It appears that economic and enlightened self-interest arguments are inadequate to motivate behavioural changes that would reduce individual GHG emissions. The author suggested that we need to expand our understanding of neighbourhood to the globe and that since most North Americans admit to religious sentiment, the religious principle of love for neighbour should be a strong motivation for people to make changes in lifestyle such as choosing to drive smaller cars, to drive less and at lower speeds. 31 refs.

  12. Effect of cabin ventilation rate on ultrafine particle exposure inside automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; de Dear, Richard J; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-05-01

    We alternately measured on-road and in-vehicle ultrafine (automobiles and ventilation settings, a positive linear relationship was found between outdoor air flow rate and I/O ratio, with the former accounting for a substantial proportion of variation in the latter (R(2) = 0.81). UFP concentrations recorded in-cabin during tunnel travel were significantly higher than those reported by comparable studies performed on open roadways. A simple mathematical model afforded the ability to predict tunnel trip average in-cabin UFP concentrations with good accuracy. Our data indicate that under certain conditions, in-cabin UFP exposures incurred during tunnel travel may contribute significantly to daily exposure. The UFP exposure of automobile occupants appears strongly related to their choice of ventilation setting and vehicle.

  13. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  14. Visible-infrared achromatic imaging by wavefront coding with wide-angle automobile camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Sakita, Koichi; Shimano, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takashi; Shibasaki, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment of achromatic imaging with wavefront coding (WFC) using a wide-angle automobile lens. Our original annular phase mask for WFC was inserted to the lens, for which the difference between the focal positions at 400 nm and at 950 nm is 0.10 mm. We acquired images of objects using a WFC camera with this lens under the conditions of visible and infrared light. As a result, the effect of the removal of the chromatic aberration of the WFC system was successfully determined. Moreover, we fabricated a demonstration set assuming the use of a night vision camera in an automobile and showed the effect of the WFC system.

  15. 汽车主题园定位研究%Research on automobile theme park location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崇婧

    2012-01-01

    分别针对目前国内具有标准赛车级别的汽车主题园和以休闲活动为主的汽车主题园作了具体介绍,在此基础上对溧阳瓦屋山汽车炫动城的定位进行了分析和思考,提出了该项目发展思路——依托汽车赛事,以休闲娱乐为主。%This paper respectively introduced current domestic automobile theme park location had standards racing level and mainly leisure activ- ities, on this basis made analysis and reflection on the location of the Liyang Wawushan automobile tourism city, put forward the development thought was rely on ear races, mainly to leisure and entertainment.

  16. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  17. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa`, V. [ed.] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  18. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  19. Research on simulation based material delivery system for an automobile company with multi logistics center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D.; Guan, Z.; Wang, C.; Yue, L.; Peng, L.

    2017-06-01

    Distribution of different parts to the assembly lines is significant for companies to improve production. Current research investigates the problem of distribution method optimization of a logistics system in a third party logistic company that provide professional services to an automobile manufacturing case company in China. Current research investigates the logistics leveling the material distribution and unloading platform of the automobile logistics enterprise and proposed logistics distribution strategy, material classification method, as well as logistics scheduling. Moreover, the simulation technology Simio is employed on assembly line logistics system which helps to find and validate an optimization distribution scheme through simulation experiments. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme can solve the logistic balance and levels the material problem and congestion of the unloading pattern in an efficient way as compared to the original method employed by the case company.

  20. Research on Integrated Casting and Forging Process of Aluminum Automobile Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated casting and forging process (ICFP is a new manufacturing method combining the advantages of both casting and forging. Aluminum structure parts, such as aluminum alloy automobile wheel, with complex shape and excellent mechanical properties can be produced by this process. The effects of different process parameters on the ICFP of the automobile wheel were simulated by Forge software. Microstructure of forging region and the nonforging region were studied by experiment. The results show that die temperature, static pressure of the injection piston, forging speed, and material flow have significant influences on the process. Compared with nonforging region, the microstructure of forging region becomes finer, more uniform, and denser. Meanwhile, the casting defects can be removed and mechanical properties improved.

  1. Gear Meshing Transmission Analysis of the Automobile Gearbox Based on the Software MASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the main drive components of the automobile manual gearbox, the effect of gear meshing plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional gear meshing analysis, the study take a five-speed gearbox as an example, based on the MASTA software, a professional CAE software for simulating and analyzing the gearbox, to accomplish the gear mesh analysis of the automobile gearbox. Further more, the simulation modeling of the gearbox is built to simulate the actual load conditions and complete the process of analysis for the gear. It is indicated that a new design concept is put forward, that is, using specialized software MASTA for transmission modeling and simulation analysis can heavily improve the design level of the gearbox, reduce the test times and shorten the period of research and development as well. Finally, it can provide references for the development and application of new transmission gear.

  2. The competitive strategies of the automobile construction enterprises: european experience and ukrainian realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhrimenko Oksana Onufriivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative evaluation of the strategic doctrines of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the development of the automotive industry trends tracked achievement and identifies problem areas. Factors that have a positive and a negative impact on the performance of automobile construction companies have disclosed. Components of success automobile construction industry of the EU countries analyzed. The role of national regulators in the protection and development of car manufacturers is considered. The attention focuses on the imperfect strategic goals of the domestic automotive industry. Suggestions on current strategies of Ukrainian enterprises are provided. The expediency of creation strategic alliances between Ukrainian and European automotive companies in order to attract innovative technology and promotion of products on the international markets has substantiated.

  3. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  4. INTEGRITY OF GLASS/EPOXY AIRCRAFT COMPOSITE PART REPAIRED USING FIVE DIFFERENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IEA AGHACHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft repairs are considered permanent repairs. This type of permanent repair is time- consuming and needs to be accomplished in a well-guided specification and precise accuracy. The critical demand for aircraft repaired part is to meet the integrity of the original parent body while in-service, which does not give room for trial anderror. Similarly, the cost of discarding parts that have minor to medium surface damage is very high. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to find other viable repair method that could be applied to surface repair of an aircraft. It was found that the pre-preg method is still the most preferred. The infusion process, ifperformed under well-controlled environment, can be good substitute for wet layup.

  5. INFLUENCE OF VIBRATIONS AND DYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY GENERATED BY CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Andrei BARBU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations influence the human body in many different ways. The response to a vibration exposure is primarily dependent on the frequency, amplitude, and duration of exposure. This paper studies the influence of vibrations generated by automobiles on the human body, taking into account both amplitude and especially the frequency of these vibrations. Measurement of these vibrations was made through the acquisition of latest equipment by acquiring tridimensional signals.

  6. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated.

  7. Leaking Methane from Natural Gas Vehicles: Implications for US Greenhouse Gas Reductions from the Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the US automobile market is used to test the role that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) might play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Since natural gas (methane) emits less CO2 per unit of energy than petroleum products, NGVs are an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions. High and low demand scenarios are used to forecast the emissions from unrestricted growth and a modest program of conservation, respectively. Based on these scenarios, a reference scenario is developed that projects...

  8. Ratio analysis and Piotroski scoring system in the automobile industry in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Morana Mesarić

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into operational efficiency, sustainable profitability, the ability to fulfil commitments, use of funds borrowed or investment risk or operational self-sufficiency, it is necessary to conduct analyses of financial statements usually known as ratio analysis. The paper provides analyses of five Croatian general distributors of the automobile industry. Ratios used in the analyses are those used in the Piotroski f-scoring analyses, which are famous for assessing financial capaciti...

  9. Sustainability Risk for Global Production Networks in the Automobile Industry: A Case of Supplier Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Jakob,; Liyanage, Jayantha,

    2011-01-01

    Part 3: Strategy; International audience; Sustainability risk for global production networks can be considered more important than ever due to its distributed nature. The automobile industry relies heavily on its global supply networks. Nevertheless, little is being done to improve the sustainability of complex production environments. In practice, there is a number of factors that regulate the sustainability risk in any industry, and this paper pays special attention on how flexibility requi...

  10. Global Production Sharing and FDI-Trade Nexus: New Evidence from the Japanese Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhei Nishitateno

    2012-01-01

    The growing importance of global production sharing makes the analysis of the nexus between outward foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade in intermediate goods ever more important. This study examines the substitution hypothesis that FDI by upstream firms replaces intermediate exports from home, using the case of the Japanese automobile industry. In analysing newly-constructed product-level data covering 37 products and 49 host countries over the period 1999 to 2008, this study finds a co...

  11. 汽车逆向物流网络规划%Automobile Reverse Logistics Network Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉

    2016-01-01

    With the development of social economy,all walks of life are path of informatization,automobile reverse logistics,to the road network development.One is with the integer linear programming to construct network hybrid model of automobile reverse logistics,secondly,the design of the automobile reverse logistics network optimization model of heuristic algorithm based on genetic algorithm,three is to validate the network algorithm is effective,and it is implemented by an example. In this paper,from the problems existing in the automobile reverse logistics based on hypothesis model analysis,in view of the enterprise reverse logistics network planning problem put forward constructive methods,in order to in the future the same study can play a reference role.%随着社会经济的发展,各行各业都走向信息化道路,汽车逆向物流也是如此,走向了网络发展之路。一是用整数线性规划构建汽车逆向物流的网络混合的模型,二是设计了汽车逆向物流网络优化模型的启发式算法—基于遗传算法,三是验证网络算法是否有效,这一点是通过算例来实现的。文中从汽车逆向物流存在的问题基础上进行假设模型分析,针对企业逆向物流网络规划问题提出建设性的方法,以期在今后的同等研究中能够起到借鉴作用。

  12. Method for operating an automobile with a combustion engine with applied ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderton, R.A.; Smith, R.R.; Tippler, R.

    1982-01-28

    A method is proposed to operate automobiles with combustion engines with applied ignition directly after the assembly on a petrol-mineral oil mixture; this prevents a spark plug fouling when the cars which hare just been completed are operated on short distances only. This petrol-mineral oil mixture should consist preferably of 95-98 ROZ petrol and mineral oil share of less than 5 vol.% preferably 0,5 vol.%.

  13. PETROCHEMICAL EMISSIONS PRODUCED BY THE OBJECTS OF THE AUTOMOBILE AND HIGHWAY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Iurchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of experimental researches it was established that the flow of petrochemicals from the ob-jects of the automobile and highway complex that spreads over the adjoining roadside areas corre-lates with the traffic intensity at objects of the same applicability. The highest specific flow of petro-chemicals (per 1 vehicle of traffic is emitted by gas stations.

  14. Improving automobile insurance ratemaking using telematics : incorporating mileage and driver behaviour data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuso, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    We show how data collected from a GPS device can be incorporated in motor insurance ratemaking. The calculation of premium rates based upon driver behaviour represents an opportunity for the insurance sector. Our approach is based on count data regression models for frequency, where exposure is driven by the distance travelled and additional parameters that capture characteristics of automobile usage and which may affect claiming behaviour. We propose implementing a classical frequency model ...

  15. Analysis of Laser Surface Hardened Layers of Automobile Engine Cylinder Liner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-bo; YU Gang; GUO Jian; SHANG Quan-yi; ZHANG Zhen-guo; GU Yi-jie

    2007-01-01

    Gray cast iron that is used for automobile engine cylinder liners was laser surface hardened using Nd∶YAG quasi-continuous and CO2 continuous wave laser, respectively. The macromorphology and microstructure of the laser surface hardened layers were investigated using an optical microscope. Geometric dimensions including depth and width and microhardness distribution of the hardened layers were also examined in order to evaluate the quality of the hardened layers.

  16. Recovery of palladium from a spent automobile catalyst leaching solution by a thiodiglycolamide derivative

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In the sequence of previous research on the development of novel liquid-liquid amidetype compounds to efficiently and selectively extract platinum-group metals (PGMs) from concentrated hydrochloric acid media, a specific thiodiglycolamide derivative – N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dicyclohexylthiodiglycolamide (DMDCHTDGA) – has been applied for the recovery of palladium(II) from a spent automobile catalyst leaching solution, containing palladium(II) and rhodium(III) as PGMs. The results obtained are rat...

  17. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  18. Consumer’s acceptance of new technology: A netnographic study on self-driving automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Pishchenko, Vitalina; Myriounis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    A problem of non-acceptance of new information technologies becomes a predominant obstacle that results in companies’ losses and represents an arena of avid debate for researchers. Hereof this netnographic study explores changes in the individual beliefs that contribute to new information system acceptance such as autopilot in the light of the Technology Acceptance model (TAM). The research takes place within three automobile communities related to Tesla Motors and uses content analysis for i...

  19. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B.

    1980-09-01

    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  20. Exposure to hazardous volatile pollutants back diffusing from automobile exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-11-30

    As back diffusion gases from automobiles are significant sources of in-vehicular pollution, we investigated eight automobiles, five for back diffusion (driving) measurements and three for reference conditions (non-driving). To characterize the back diffusion emission conditions, seven volatile organic compounds (VOC) and four carbonyl compounds (CCs) were measured along with dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio. The data obtained from back diffusion measurements were examined after having been divided into three subcategories: (i) driving and non-driving, (ii) with and without automobile upgrading (sealing the inner line), and (iii) differences in CO emission levels. Among the VOCs, the concentrations of toluene (T) was found to be the highest (range: 13.6-155 ppb), while benzene (0.19-1.47 ppb) was hardly distinguishable from its ambient levels. Other VOCs (xylene, trimethylbenzene, and styrene) were generally below <1 ppb. Unlike VOCs, the concentrations (ppb) of CCs were seen at fairly enhanced levels: 30.1-95 (formaldehyde), 34.6-87.2 (acetaldehyde), 4.56-34.7 (propionaldehyde), and 3.45-68.8 (butyraldehyde). The results of our study suggest that the back diffusion phenomenon, if occurring, can deteriorate in-vehicle air, especially with the most imminent health hazards from a compound such as formaldehyde in view of its exceedance pattern over common guidelines.

  1. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  2. Managing bottlenecks in manual automobile assembly systems using discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch model lines are quite handy when the demand for each product is moderate. However, they are characterised by high work-in-progress inventories, lost production time when changing over models, and reduced flexibility when it comes to altering production rates as product demand changes. On the other hand, mixed model lines can offer reduced work-in-progress inventory and increased flexibility. The object of this paper is to illustrate that a manual automobile assembling system can be optimised through managing bottlenecks by ensuring high workstation utilisation, reducing queue lengths before stations and reducing station downtime. A case study from the automobile industry is used for data collection. A model is developed through the use of simulation software. The model is then verified and validated before a detailed bottleneck analysis is conducted. An operational strategy is then proposed for optimal bottleneck management. Although the paper focuses on improving automobile assembly systems in batch mode, the methodology can also be applied in single model manual and automated production lines.

  3. Subjective measures of work-related fatigue in automobile factory employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu; Wang, Tianbo; Ning, Zuojiang

    2017-09-14

    Work-related fatigue is common among automobile factory employees. The purpose of this study was to assess fatigue of employees at a Chinese automobile factory. 238 employees (119 engineers and 119 workers) participated in this study. The following questionnaires were completed: demographic survey questionnaire, working condition questionnaire (WCQ), functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue (FACIT-F), subscales of multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Both engineers and workers experienced fatigue. The workers (35.6 years old, SD = 6.7) generally felt more fatigue than engineers (42.6 years old, SD = 6.4). The engineers claimed to be more satisfied with the working conditions than workers. The WCQ showed good properties for assessing work-related factors, which were significantly correlated with fatigue (r = 0.568 for engineers and r = 0.639 for workers). For engineers, general fatigue was observed regularly and frequently, and for workers, physical fatigue usually had a long duration. The fatigue was significantly correlated with work-related factors, especially working environment and monotony. For workers, the duration of the work day also affected their fatigue. Some improvements to the working condition in this automobile factory should be considered.

  4. Managing maritime automobile terminals: an approach toward decision-support model for higher productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Beškovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes actions and strategies to obtain higher productivity on maritime automobile terminals. The main focus is on elaboration of efficient and effective organizational structure to model and implement short-term, mid-term and long-term strategies. In addition, with an empiric approach we combined the analyses of current findings in important scientific papers and our acknowledgments in practical research of north Adriatic maritime automobile terminals. The main goal is to propose actions towards increasing system's productivity. Based on our research of the north Adriatic maritime automobile terminals and with Lambert's model an in-deep analysis of limiting factors, user's expectations and possibilities for productivity increase has been performed. Moreover, with our acknowledgments a three-level decision-support model is presented. With an adequate model implementation it is possible to efficiently develop and implement different strategies of productivity measurement and productivity increase, especially in the fields of internal transport productivity, entrance/exit truck gates operations and wagon manipulations. According to our observation a significant increase might be achieved in all three fields.

  5. Metal hydride work pair development and its application on automobile air conditioning systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Feng; CHEN Jiang-ping; ZHANG Wen-feng; CHEN Zhi-jiu

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas driving automobile air conditioning systems, a hydride pair LaNi4.61Mn0.26A10.13/La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 was developed working at 393~473 K/293~323 K/263~273 K. Property tests showed that both alloys have flat plateau slopes and small hystereses; system theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.711. Based on this work pair, a function proving automobile metal hydride refrigeration system was constructed. The equivalent thermal conductivities of the activated reaction beds were merely 1.1~1.6 W/(m·K), which had not met practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power was 84.6 W at 423 K/303 K/273 K with COP being 0.26. By altering cycling parameters, experiment data showed that cooling power and system COP increase with the growth of heat source temperature as well as pre-heating and regeneration time while decrease with heat sink temperature increment. This study confirms the feasibility of automobile metal hydride refrigeration systems, while heat transfer properties of reaction beds still need to be improved for better performance.

  6. Biologics for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  7. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  8. Maintenance And Repair of Automotive Engine%汽车发动机的维护及保养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白有俊

    2014-01-01

    Correct and reasonable maintenance and repair of automotive engine is an important link to improve technical performance of the automobile, extend its life, reduce economic losses and ensure traffic safety. The article discusses in details how to have the reasonable and effective maintenance and repair for the automotive engine from the related engine knowledge.%正确合理地对汽车发动机进行维护和保养是提高汽车技术性能,延长其使用寿命,减少经济损失,保证行车安全的重要环节。文章从论述发动机相关知识等入手,对如何进行合理有效的汽车发动机维护和保养两个方面进行详细阐述。

  9. 汽车自动变速器故障诊断与维修探讨%Breakdown Maintenance on Automobile Automatic Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圆

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,problems such as breakdown of automatic transmission in automobiles appear more and more fre-quently,most comprehensive maintenance plants and 4S shops can only diagnose the breakdown and have to deliver the broken automatic transmissions to professional plants to have them repaired.Thus,professional plants should keep good relationship with comprehensive plants to expand cooperative business.Meanwhile,standards and operating process of diagnosis and maintenance technology of automatic transmission should also be made.%近几年,汽车自动变速器故障维修问题显现,多数综合性维修厂店及4S店只能对故障进行判断,然后送自动变速器专修厂维修。此故障诊断与维修分离模式矛盾时有产生。因此,专修厂和综合维修厂店应保持良好合作关系,拓展合作业务。同时,制定自动变速器诊断维修技术标准和操作流程。

  10. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  11. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  12. The journey of DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared “Molecule of the Year”. Today, we are celebrating another “year of repair”, with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  13. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  14. Apparatus for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  15. Complete pelvic floor repair in treating fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick Y H; Steele, Scott R

    2005-02-01

    Fecal incontinence is associated with 20 to 40% of the patients with pelvic floor prolapse. Successful management of fecal incontinence requires not only an understanding of anorectal function but also a thorough understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and how pelvic floor prolapse affects fecal continence. Imaging techniques have been instrumental in visualizing pelvic floor prolapse and have helped correlate surgical findings. Stabilization of the perineal body appears to be a key component to the success of pelvic floor repair and fecal continence, but the optimal repair is far from being established.

  16. Health risk assessment of exposures to a high molecular weight plasticizer present in automobile interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angela L; Liong, Monty; Plotkin, Kevin; Rickabaugh, Keith P; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an exposure and risk assessment of diundecyl phthalate (DUP), a high molecular weight phthalate plasticizer present in automobile interiors. Total daily intake of DUP was calculated from DUP measured in wipe samples from vehicle seats from six automobiles. Four of the vehicles exhibited atypical visible surface residue on the seats. Two vehicles with no visible surface residue were sampled as a comparison. DUP was the predominant organic compound identified in each of the wipes from all seats. A risk assessment of DUP via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes resulting from contact with automobile seats was conducted. The mean, standard deviation, and maximum DUP concentrations on the seats with visible surface residue were 6983 ± 7823 μg/100 cm(2) and 38300 μg/100 cm(2), respectively. The mean and 95th percentile of the mean for daily cumulative dose of DUP for all exposure routes for the seats with no visible surface residue ranged from 7 × 10(-4) to 4 × 10(-3) mg/kg-day and from 8 × 10(-4) to 5 × 10(-3) mg/kg-day, respectively. For seats with visible surface residue, cumulative doses ranged from 2 × 10(-3) to 2 × 10(-2) mg/kg-day and from 4 × 10(-3) to 2 × 10(-2) mg/kg-day, respectively. The estimated daily intake (contact or absorbed dose) of DUP from automobile seats were far lower than the NOAELs reported in and derived from animal studies, and are well below the reported Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) for the general population. Based on this analysis, using virtually any benchmark for evaluating safety, exposure to DUP via automobile seat covers did not pose a measureable increased health-risk in any population under any reasonably plausible exposure scenario.

  17. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Double-strand break repair on sex chromosomes: challenges during male meiotic prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    During meiotic prophase, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-mediated homologous recombination (HR) occurs for exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. Unlike autosomes or female sex chromosomes, human male sex chromosomes X and Y share little homology. Although DSBs are generated throughout male sex chromosomes, homologous recombination does not occur for most regions and DSB repair process is significantly prolonged. As a result, male sex chromosomes are coated with many DNA damage response proteins and form a unique chromatin structure known as the XY body. Interestingly, associated with the prolonged DSB repair, transcription is repressed in the XY body but not in autosomes, a phenomenon known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which is critical for male meiosis. Here using mice as model organisms, we briefly summarize recent progress on DSB repair in meiotic prophase and focus on the mechanism and function of DNA damage response in the XY body.

  19. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  20. Groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske

    2005-01-01

    The choice of anesthesia for groin hernia repair is between general, regional (epidural or spinal), and local anesthesia. Existing data from large consecutive patient series and randomized studies have shown local anesthesia to be the method of choice because it can be performed by the surgeon......, does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...... scientific data to support the choice of anesthesia, large epidemiologic and nationwide information from databases show an undesirable high (about 10-20%) use of spinal anesthesia and low (about 10%) use of local infiltration anesthesia. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should therefore adjust their anesthesia...

  1. 汽车产业商业模式分析%Analysis on Business Model for Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 杨一帆; 魏云捷; 季梦晨; 乔晗; 汪寿阳

    2016-01-01

    汽车产业是我国国民经济的支柱产业。在能源日益短缺、节能环保标准日趋严格,以及“互联网+”的不断冲击和“工业4.0”方兴未艾的背景下,我国汽车产业亟需进行转型升级,因此对其商业模式的研究具有重要的意义。本文从汽车制造、销售和售后的3个环节对传统汽车产业的商业模式进行了分析,将现代汽车产业的商业模式总结为信息化、服务化和绿色化的发展趋势,并针对汽车产业商业模式创新提出相关建议。%Automobile industry is the pillar industry of our national economy. In this era of "Internet +" and "industry 4.0", when energy shortage, energy saving and environmental protection standards are becoming increasingly stringent, Chinese automobile industry is urgent for transformation and upgrading. In such circumstance, it has great importance to investigate the business model of automobile industry. This paper analyzes the business model of the traditional automobile industry from the aspects of automobile manufacturing, sales and after-sales service, and summarizes the developing trend of the modern automobile industry’s business model as informatization, servitization and greening. Finally, our paper puts forward several suggestions on the innovation of business model of automobile industry.

  2. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  3. The Vertical Limit Stability Analysis of Rigid Automobile%刚性汽车的纵向极限稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴心平; 汪元波; 杨宗田

    2011-01-01

    Based on mechanical analysis of rigid automobile,Get the rigid automobile vertically rollover conditions,Analysis of the vertical limit stability of automobile,Get the measures to improve automobile vertical stability.%通过对刚性汽车进行受力分析,得到了刚性汽车发生纵翻的条件,并对汽车的纵向极限稳定性进行了分析,指出了提高汽车纵向稳定性的措施。

  4. Anyuan Automobile:Moving Steadily Towards the Global Market An Interview with Su Liqian, General Manager of Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd, located in Wuxi,China's Jiangsu Province,receives investment from Wuxi Anyuan Industry Joint Stock Co., Ltd as an R&D (research and development)center and as a production base for the export of luxurious passenger buses.The company's facilities cover a large area of 90,000 square meters. During the first phase of construction, factory buildings with a floor area of 15,000 square meters were erected, enabling an annual production capacity of 1,500 buses, worth of RMB 0.5 billion. During the second phase, another 20,000 square meters were allocated for use as factory buildings, which brought the company's annual production capacity to 5,000 buses, worth of RMB 1.5 billion. Among the company's 1,200 employees, 196 are working as technical or managerial personnel.

  5. How to repair an episiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio .

  6. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  7. Social media for knowledge sharing in automotive repair

    CERN Document Server

    Finkbeiner, Patric

    2017-01-01

    This book explores, describes and explains the predictors essential for the acceptance of social media as a digital platform to share professional knowledge in the field of automotive repair in Germany. It reports a rigorous literature review covering key elements of social media, knowledge management and technology acceptance studies. The book assumes a pragmatist approach and applies mixed methods in an exploratory sequential design, combining qualitative and quantitative methods to ensure robust collection and analysis of the collected data. Based on a survey on German automotive repair shops, the author provides a framework, for various stakeholders, to comprehend the motivations for knowledge sharing for automotive repair professionals in Germany. This book not only adds to the existing academic body of knowledge but also provides implications for industry and legislation on a European scale. .

  8. The Body Designs Medium Small Design Principle of Spare Parts%车身支架设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路忠锋

    2012-01-01

    Right now, there are more and more type of automobile produced by each automobile manufacturer : In this environment, the comprehensive competitiveness for each automobile production manufacturer is more and more important; Meanwhile the production cost to the automobile production manufacturer is also more and more important comparing to the production quality and cycle. Meanwhile, in the entire process of vehicle development, only a car body is developed involved around 300 parts, and entire small auto parts are more than half. So the importance of small parts design in the automobile type design is noticeable.%现在每个整车生产企业的车型越来越多;在这样的环境中,每一个车型的综合竞争实力显得越来越重要;从质量,周期和成本的考虑,成本也越来越重要;而在一个整车开发过程中,白车身的零件数量大约有300多个零件,而小零件的数量大约占白车身总零件数量的一半;所以小零件的设计在整个车型设计中的重要性是不可忽视。

  9. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  10. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  11. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  12. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, H; Lee, F; Patil, N G

    2001-09-01

    A 75-year-old man developed an incisional hernia over the upper abdomen following a wedge resection of a gastric stromal tumour in 1996. This is the first published report of a successful repair of an incisional hernia via a laparoscopic intraperitoneal on-lay technique using GORE-TEX DualMesh material in Hong Kong. Compared with conventional open repair of incisional hernia, long incisions and wound tension are avoided using the laparoscopic approach. This translates into a reduced risk of wound-related complications and facilitates recovery. In selected cases, minimally invasive surgery is a safe technique for the repair of incisional hernias.

  13. [Inguinal and femoral hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, B; Anthuber, M

    2011-05-01

    With an incidence of 200,000 new cases per year in Germany, inguinal hernia has a significant socioeconomic impact. The 2009 guidelines from the European Hernia Society established treatment recommendations. Hernia repair is based on reinforcing the posterior wall of the inguinal canal by suture or mesh repair by an anterior or posterior approach. Lightweight mesh reduces recurrence rates and is the treatment of choice even in primary hernias. Laparoscopic hernia repair is associated with specific risks but is superior in postoperative pain and earlier return to work.

  14. Measurements of major VOCs released into the closed cabin environment of different automobiles under various engine and ventilation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in automobile cabins were measured quantitatively to describe their emission characteristics in relation to various idling scenarios using three used automobiles (compact, intermediate sedan, and large sedan) under three different idling conditions ([1] cold engine off and ventilation off, [2] exterior air ventilation with idling warm engine, and [3] internal air recirculation with idling warm engine). The ambient air outside the vehicle was also analyzed as a reference. A total of 24 VOCs (with six functional groups) were selected as target compounds. Accordingly, the concentration of 24 VOC quantified as key target compounds averaged 4.58 ± 3.62 ppb (range: 0.05 (isobutyl alcohol) ∼ 38.2 ppb (formaldehyde)). Moreover, if their concentrations are compared between different automobile operational modes: the 'idling engine' levels (5.24 ± 4.07) was 1.3-5 times higher than the 'engine off' levels (4.09 ± 3.23) across all 3 automobile classes. In summary, automobile in-cabin VOC emissions are highly contingent on changes in engine and ventilation modes.

  15. Mesh Plug Repair of Inguinal Hernia; Single Surgeon Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Serdar Karaca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mesh repair of inguinal hernia repairs are shown to be an effective and reliable method. In this study, a single surgeon%u2019s experience with plug-mesh method performs inguinal hernia repair have been reported. Material and Method: 587 patients with plug-mesh repair of inguinal hernia, preoperative age, body / mass index, comorbid disease were recorded in terms of form. All of the patients during the preoperative and postoperative hernia classification of information, duration of operation, antibiotics, perioperative complications, and later, the early and late postoperative complications, infection, recurrence rates and return to normal daily activity, verbal pain scales in terms of time and postoperative pain were evaluated. Added to this form of long-term pain ones. The presence of wound infection was assessed by the presence of purulent discharge from the incision. Visual analog scale pain status of the patients was measured. Results: 587 patients underwent repair of primary inguinal hernia mesh plug. One of the patients, 439 (74% of them have adapted follow-ups. Patients%u2019 ages ranged from 18-86. Was calculated as the mean of 47±18:07. Follow-up period of the patients was found to be a minimum of 3 months, maximum 55 months. Found an average of 28.2±13.4 months. Mean duration of surgery was 35.07±4.00 min (min:22mn-max:52mn, respectively. When complication rates of patients with recurrence in 2 patients (0.5%, hematoma development (1.4% in 6 patients, the development of infection in 11 patients (2.5% and long-term groin pain in 4 patients (0.9% appeared. Discussion: In our experience, the plug-mesh repair of primary inguinal hernia repair safe, effective low recurrence and complication rates can be used.

  16. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  17. Laparoscopic and open incisional hernia repair: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zafer Sabuncuoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the number of major surgical procedures has increased in recent years, so there has been an increase in incisional hernias. With gained experience and new materials, laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia is now applied. This study was aimed to compare the results of incisional hernia repair with the open surgery or laparoscopic approach at the only centre in the region for laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. A total of 55 cases of incisional hernia at the General Surgery Clinic of SDU between November 2012 and 2014 were underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (L-VHR and conventional incisional hernia repair (C-VHR. From the L-VHR group 6 cases and from the C-VHR 9 cases were excluded from the study, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria or did not wish to participate in the study. The two techniques were compared in respect of operative time, length of hospital stay, postoperative pain scores, complications and recurrence. A total of 40 cases of incisional hernia repair were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was found as 12.75±4.19 months. No difference was determined between the characteristics of the patients due to age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA score, comorbidities, hernia size, and follow-up. In the laparoscopic repair group, the postoperative pain scores, complication rates and duration of hospital stay were found significantly superior to those of the open technique group. While there was no mortality seen and wound complications as a morbidity were 0 % in the L-VHR (n = 0 and 20 % in C-VHR group (n = 4. In the comparison of mean operative time, the duration of surgery was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic repair group (67.25±19.23 min compared to the open technique group (91.50±24.87 min (p=0.001. Laparoscopic repair was associated with less postoperative pain (4.35±1.03 vs 5.60±1.31, p=0.002, lesser postoperative complications (5% vs. 35%, p=0.044, and shorter

  18. Scar endometriosis developing after an umbilical hernia repair with mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, James; Craggie, James

    2004-05-01

    A 44-year-old female was initially evaluated for a 3-cm umbilical hernia, which developed after a laparoscopic myomectomy performed seven years prior. The umbilical hernia was repaired using a synthetic mesh. Eight months after the umbilical hernia repair, the patient returned with chronic pain in a 3-cm raised mass originating from the umbilical hernia repair incision. The mass and mesh were surgically removed. The umbilical fascial defect was repaired with a primary fascia-to-fascia closure and the umbilicus was reconstructed from adjacent skin. The mass was found histologically to be endometriosis and fascial scarring with a foreign body reaction to synthetic mesh. Umbilical endometriosis developed either from peritoneal endometrial seeding from a laparoscopic myomectomy or from metaplasia of multipotential cells, which developed into endometriosis due to inflammatory stimulation by the synthetic mesh. Synthetic mesh probably should be avoided in the surgical repair of a laparoscopically caused umbilical hernia in a premenopausal female especially if there is a history of pelvic endometriosis.

  19. Concurrent laparoscopic morgagni hernia repair and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Grace; Tedesco, Maureen; Eisenberg, Dan

    2012-12-01

    The Morgagni-type anterior diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect that is a very uncommon hernia presenting in an adult. Surgical repair is usually recommended upon diagnosis and often requires synthetic mesh for a durable, tension-free repair. The use of synthetic mesh concurrently with several of bariatric operations is controversial owing to the potential for mesh infection. In this report we describe a laparoscopic repair of a symptomatic Morgagni hernia with synthetic mesh, concurrently with sleeve gastrectomy, in a morbidly obese man. The patient was a 58-year-old man with a body mass index of 48 kg/m(2) and associated co-morbid conditions that included obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and osteoarthritis. He was diagnosed with Morgagni hernia with exertional dyspnia. He underwent concurrent laparoscopic Morgagni hernia repair with mesh and sleeve gastrectomy. At 2 months after surgery the patient was doing well and tolerating solid foods, and his percentage excess weight loss was 35%. He was exercising regularly and had no exertional dyspnea. Laparoscopy is an attractive approach to performing multiple intra-abdominal procedures concurrently. The Morgagni hernia repair with mesh can be performed safely and effectively using a laparoscopic approach. This can be performed concurrently with bariatric surgery in the morbidly obese.

  20. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Kong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institutions towards a new vision based upon expanded transit access, better bicycle and pedestrian facilities and financial incentives for students and staff to drive less. (Toor and Havlick, 2004 This is in stark contrast to the traditional approach to campus transportation planning of the University of Malaya (UM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that allows students, staff and visitors to drive in the campus. The objective of this study is to investigate the related issues and environmental impact of allowing automobile driving in the campus. Studies will also be done to analyse the relationship between university campus planning and traffic condition. Air quality and noise pollution data of 3 selected sites in the campus will be recorded. Subsequently, the air pollutant index and noise pollution level will be identified and data analyses will be done on the data samples. Simultaneously, a survey questionnaire will be conducted to gauge the student’s attitude and degree of awareness with air and noise pollution in the campus. This pilot study reveals that the increasing use of automobiles within the campus has a negative impact on local environment and the quality of life in campus

  1. Indirect blue light does not suppress nocturnal salivary melatonin in humans in an automobile setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Schindler, Carina; Eichhorn, Karsten; Kley, Franziska; Erren, Thomas C

    2009-09-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as being probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). In this context, light exposure during the night plays a key role because it can suppress nocturnal melatonin levels when exposures exceed a certain threshold. Blue light around 464 nm is most effective in suppressing melatonin because of the spectral sensitivity of melanopsin, a recently discovered photopigment in retinal ganglion cells; the axons of these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a circadian master clock in the brain. Due to advances in light technologies, normal tungsten light bulbs are being replaced by light-emitting diodes which produce quasi-monochromatic or white light. The objective of this study was to assess whether the light-melanopsin-melatonin axis might be affected in automobiles at night which employ the new generation diodes. To this end, we have tested in an experimental automobile setting whether indirect blue light (lambda(max) = 465 nm) at an intensity of 0.22 or 1.25 lx can suppress salivary melatonin levels in 12 male volunteers (age range 17-27 years) who served as their own controls. Daytime levels were low (2.7 +/- 0.5 pg/mL), and night-time levels without light exposure were high (14.5 +/- 1.1 pg/mL), as expected. Low-intensity light exposures had no significant effect on melatonin levels (0.22 lx: 17.2 +/- 2.8 pg/mL; P > 0.05; 1.25 lx: 12.6 +/- 2.0 pg/mL; P > 0.05). It is concluded that indirect blue light exposures in automobiles up to 1.25 lx do not cause unintentional chronodisruption via melatonin suppression.

  2. Isotopomeric characterization of N2O produced, consumed, and emitted by automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yamamoto, Sei-ichiro; Arai, Shinji; Nara, Hideki; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kashiwakura, Kiriko; Akiyama, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion is the second largest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) after agriculture. The estimated global N2O flux from combustion sources, as well as from other sources, still has a large uncertainty. Herein, we characterize automobile sources using N2O isotopomer ratios (nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios and intramolecular site preference of 15N, SP) to assess their contributions to total global sources and to deconvolute complex production/consumption processes during combustion and subsequent catalytic treatments of exhaust. Car exhaust gases were sampled under running and idling state, and N2O isotopomer ratios were measured by mass spectrometry. The N2O directly emitted from an engine of a vehicle running at constant velocity had almost constant isotopomer ratios (delta15Nbulk = -28.7 +/- 1.2 per thousand, delta18O = 28.6 +/- 3.3 per thousand, and SP = 4.2 +/- 0.8 per thousand) irrespective of the velocity. After passing through catalytic converters, the isotopomer ratios showed an increase which varied with the temperature and the aging of the catalysts. The increase suggests that both production and consumption of N2O occur on the catalyst and that their rates can be comparable. It was noticed that in the idling state, the N2O emitted from a brand new car has higher isotopomer ratios than that from used cars, which indicate that technical improvements in catalytic converters can reduce the N2O from mobile combustion sources. On average, the isotopomeric signatures of N2O finally emitted from automobiles are not sensitive to running/idling states or to aging of the catalysts. Characteristic average isotopomer ratios of N2O from automobile sources are estimated at -4.9 +/- 8.2 per thousand, 43.5 +/- 13.9 per thousand, and 12.2 +/- 9.1 per thousand for delta15Nbulk, delta18O, and SP, respectively.

  3. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15...

  5. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  7. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    : homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage......Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...

  8. Repair of Chronic Achilles Ruptures Has a High Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Mark J; DeCarbo, William T; Hofbauer, Mark H; Thun, Joshua D

    2016-11-23

    Background Despite the low incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in foot and ankle surgery, some authors report a high incidence of symptomatic DVT following Achilles tendon rupture. The purpose of this study was to identify DVT risk factors inherent to Achilles tendon repair to determine which patients may benefit from prophylaxis. Methods One hundred and thirteen patient charts were reviewed following elective and nonelective Achilles tendon repair. For elective repair of insertional or noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy, parameters examined included lateral versus prone positioning and the presence versus absence of a flexor hallucis longus transfer. For nonelective repair, acute Achilles tendon ruptures were compared to chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Results Of 113 Achilles tendon repairs, 3 venous thromboembolism (VTE) events (2.65%) occurred including 2 pulmonary emboli (1.77%). Seventeen of these repairs were chronic Achilles tendon ruptures, and all 3 VTE events (17.6%) occurred within this subgroup. Elevated body mass index was associated with VTE in patients with chronic Achilles ruptures although this did not reach significance (P = .064). No VTE events were reported after repair of 28 acute tendon ruptures or after 68 elective repairs of tendinopathy. Two patients with misdiagnosed partial Achilles tendon tears were excluded because they experienced a VTE event 3 weeks and 5 weeks after injury, prior to surgery. Conclusion In our retrospective review, chronic Achilles ruptures had a statistically significant higher incidence of VTE compared with acute Achilles ruptures (P = .048) or elective repair (P = .0069). Pharmaceutical anticoagulation may be considered for repair of chronic ruptures. Repair of acute ruptures and elective repair may not warrant routine prophylaxis due to a lower incidence of VTE.

  9. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  10. Construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinger, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, P. [KC Integrity Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeomans, M.; Glover, A. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The presentations by Working Group 4 focused on construction, repair and maintenance of pipelines with particular reference to high-strength steels and their applications for natural gas transmission pipelines. Discussions focused on how technology can be used to provide cost-effective design and construction solutions for long distance pipelines in a manner that does not compromise safety and reliability. The role that carbon plays in increasing the toughness of steel was also discussed. A few fundamental changes in steel production technology and a reduction in carbon content can result in a simultaneous increase in strength and toughness of steels. The cost impact of this technology was summarized. It was concluded that high strength steels offer effective solutions to deliver cost-effective pipelines to transport natural gas from northern basins. This session also presented pipeline routes that transport diluted bitumens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Project and the Muskeg River Mine to upgrader facilities in Alberta. Construction issues included design conservatism, water course crossings, winter construction, winter ditching, and public consultation. Examples of high strength steel pipe applications were also included with reference to experience gained by TransCanada and Corridor Pipeline. tabs., figs.

  11. Failure analysis of energy storage spring in automobile composite brake chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zai; Wei, Qing; Hu, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper set energy storage spring of parking brake cavity, part of automobile composite brake chamber, as the research object. And constructed the fault tree model of energy storage spring which caused parking brake failure based on the fault tree analysis method. Next, the parking brake failure model of energy storage spring was established by analyzing the working principle of composite brake chamber. Finally, the data of working load and the push rod stroke measured by comprehensive test-bed valve was used to validate the failure model above. The experimental result shows that the failure model can distinguish whether the energy storage spring is faulted.

  12. [Influence of embient air pollution by automobile transport on malignancies development in population of Kemerovo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, S A; Bykov, A A

    2015-01-01

    To reveal relationship between automobile transport emissions and oncologic morbidity among Kemerovo population, the authors selected crossroads and parts of highways with intense traffic. Two groups were observed among the residents of houses near the main crossroads and along highways. As a reference group, residents of houses distant from highways were selected. The study proved that oncologic morbidity is statistically reliably higher among the residents of houses near the crossroads and highways, if compared to that among the residents in houses distant from highways.

  13. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  14. The corrosion control of Wuling Automobile%五菱汽车的腐蚀控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小武; 胡阳平; 杨志超

    2013-01-01

    this article on metal corrosion definition, cause are briefly introduced, emphatically elaborated the Wuling automobile in the design, technology, manufacturing process, the process of transportation of the corrosion control measures.%  对金属腐蚀的定义、成因作了简要的介绍,着重阐述了五菱汽车在设计上、工艺上、制造过程、运输过程中对腐蚀的控制措施。

  15. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Condenser Assembly of Automobile Air Conditioning System Using CAE Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Singh, D.; Saini, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    With the automotive air-conditioning industry aiming at higher levels of quality, cost effectiveness and a short time to market, the need for simulation is at an all time high. In the present work, the use of dynamics analysis is proposed in the simulation of the automobile air conditioning condenser assembly for the vibration loads. The condenser assembly has been analyzed using the standard testing conditions. The results revealed that the components of condenser assembly may fail due to resonance in dynamic analysis. Thereafter, the condenser assembly was optimized, resulting in a 2 % reduction in mass.

  17. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  18. The automobile steel of the third generation in B-pillar reinforced panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Huijun; Li Shuli; Yang Jie; Yang Hongxin; Bai Kebin

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental research and industry, trials of the third generation automobile steel QP980 were introduced in this paper, including chemical ingredient, mechanical properties, microstructure, forming limit and basic perform- ance parameters. The application of QP steel of the B-pillar was researched, and the QP980, DP600 and hot forming steel were compared in the aspect of formability, safety and cost. The resuhs showed that the QP980 replacing DP600 steel single piece carl reduce the weight by 2.4 kg. The security and performance is basically the same as that of hot forming steel using 22MnB5, and the cost is reduced by 30 %.

  19. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  20. Umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    The repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias still represents a challenge to surgeons. Although a common and relatively simple procedure, there is no exact protocol today on how the repair should be done. The Mayo technique and its alterations could not stand the test of time: a recurrence rate of 20% and higher is not acceptable for any surgical procedure. Although there is no consensus opinion, one thing is clear: the importance of an anatomic repair without tension and without an artificial enlargement of the defect. In 1987 Lichtenstein reported on 6321 cases of herniorraphy with a tension free repair, and in 1994 Stuart reemphasized that special importance in his editorial in the Lancet. A newer study from Brancato and coworkers in Italy also states the advantage of a tension-free prosthetic repair in 16 patients with epigastric hernia. We have gone even further and recommend a tailored-to-the-patient repair using a customized polypropylene mesh and a one-layer running suture. The advantages should be obvious: no artificial creation of an even bigger than original defect, a completely tension-free repair, and little to no recurrence of the hernia. Our results clearly prove that assumption. Moreover, the procedure is extremely safe and complications are very rare and minor. We conclude that using a mesh plug in a customized tension-free repair of umbilical and epigastric hernia shows many advantages over the commonly used methods. And we finally conclude with the words of Albert Einstein: "The only source of knowledge is experience."