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Sample records for repair articular cartilage

  1. INJURED ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR

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    Ariana Barlič

    2008-02-01

    Surveys show that the most frequently used surgical methods are mosaicplasty and bonemarrow stimulation with microfracturing. The efficacy of the autologous chondrocyte implantationmethod should be superior to microfracturing on a long run. Especially when(regeneration of the hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue (fibrocartilage is concerned.However, it has not been scientifically proved yet

  2. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

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    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing procedures mimicking native cartilage is offered in light of their use as future alternatives for cartilage tissue engineering. Inkjet cell printing, controlled deposition cell printing tools, and laser cell printing are cutting-edge techniques in this context. The development of mimetic hydrogels with specific biological properties relevant to articular cartilage native tissue will support the development of improved, functional, and novel engineered tissue for clinical application. PMID:26069634

  3. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

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    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  4. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

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    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  5. A vision on the future of articular cartilage repair

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    M Cucchiarini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An AO Foundation (Davos, Switzerland sponsored workshop "Cell Therapy in Cartilage Repair" from the Symposium "Where Science meets Clinics" (September 5-7, 2013, Davos gathered leaders from medicine, science, industry, and regulatory organisations to debate the vision of cell therapy in articular cartilage repair and the measures that could be taken to narrow the gap between vision and current practice. Cell-based therapy is already in clinical use to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions, with procedures such as microfracture and articular chondrocyte implantation. However, even though long term follow up is good from a clinical perspective and some of the most rigorous randomised controlled trials in the regenerative medicine/orthopaedics field show beneficial effect, none of these options have proved successful in restoring the original articular cartilage structure and functionality in patients so far. With the remarkable recent advances in experimental research in cell biology (new sources for chondrocytes, stem cells, molecular biology (growth factors, genes, biomaterials, biomechanics, and translational science, a combined effort between scientists and clinicians with broad expertise may allow development of an improved cell therapy for cartilage repair. This position paper describes the current state of the art in the field to help define a procedure adapted to the clinical situation for upcoming translation in the patient.

  6. Repair and tissue engineering techniques for articular cartilage.

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    Makris, Eleftherios A; Gomoll, Andreas H; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis, eventually leading to progressive total joint destruction. Although current progress suggests that biologic agents can delay the advancement of deterioration, such drugs are incapable of promoting tissue restoration. The limited ability of articular cartilage to regenerate renders joint arthroplasty an unavoidable surgical intervention. This Review describes current, widely used clinical repair techniques for resurfacing articular cartilage defects; short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these techniques are discussed. Also reviewed is a developmental pipeline of acellular and cellular regenerative products and techniques that could revolutionize joint care over the next decade by promoting the development of functional articular cartilage. Acellular products typically consist of collagen or hyaluronic-acid-based materials, whereas cellular techniques use either primary cells or stem cells, with or without scaffolds. Central to these efforts is the prominent role that tissue engineering has in translating biological technology into clinical products; therefore, concomitant regulatory processes are also discussed.

  7. MRI demonstration of hypertrophic articular cartilage repair in osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Brandt, K.D.; Albrecht, M.

    1990-01-01

    Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog produces changes in the unstable joint typical of osteoarthritis, although full-thickness catilage ulceration is rare. Information concerning the late fate of the cartilage after transection is meager. In the present study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities 3 years after transection. Plain radiographs of the osteoarthritic and contralateral knees were obtained serially. MRI was performed 3 years after anterior cruciate ligament transection, at which time all three animals exhibited knee instability. Radiographs of the osteoarthritic knees showed osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis with progression between 2 and 3 years. On MRI, articular cartilage margins in the knee were indistinct, and the cartilage was thicker than that in the contralateral knee (maximum difference = 2.7 mm). This increase in thickness is consistent with biochemical data from dogs killed up to 64 weeks after creation of knee instability, which showed marked increases in cartilage bulk and in proteoglycan synthesis and concentration. The findings emphasize that increased matrix synthesis after anterior cruciate ligament transection leads to functional cartilage repair sustained even in the presence of persistent alteration of joint mechanics. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of articular cartilage

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    Bhawan K Paunipagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

  9. Is magnetic resonance imaging reliable in predicting clinical outcome after articular cartilage repair of the knee?

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    de Windt, T.S.; Welsch, G.H.; Brittberg, M.; Vonk, L.A.; Marlovits, S.; Trattnig, S.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While MRI can provide a detailed morphological evaluation after articular cartilage repair, its additional value in determining clinical outcome has yet to be determined. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between MRI and clinical outcome after cartilage repair and to identify

  10. Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Olesen, Morten Lykke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant...

  11. Transcriptional profiling differences for articular cartilage and repair tissue in equine joint surface lesions

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    Stromberg Arnold J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions that reach to the subchondral bone yet are restricted to the chondral compartment usually fill with a fibrocartilage-like repair tissue which is structurally and biomechanically compromised relative to normal articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptional differences between chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage and repair tissue cells four months post-microfracture. Methods Bilateral one-cm2 full-thickness defects were made in the articular surface of both distal femurs of four adult horses followed by subchondral microfracture. Four months postoperatively, repair tissue from the lesion site and grossly normal articular cartilage from within the same femorotibial joint were collected. Total RNA was isolated from the tissue samples, linearly amplified, and applied to a 9,413-probe set equine-specific cDNA microarray. Eight paired comparisons matched by limb and horse were made with a dye-swap experimental design with validation by histological analyses and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Statistical analyses revealed 3,327 (35.3% differentially expressed probe sets. Expression of biomarkers typically associated with normal articular cartilage and fibrocartilage repair tissue corroborate earlier studies. Other changes in gene expression previously unassociated with cartilage repair were also revealed and validated by RT-qPCR. Conclusion The magnitude of divergence in transcriptional profiles between normal chondrocytes and the cells that populate repair tissue reveal substantial functional differences between these two cell populations. At the four-month postoperative time point, the relative deficiency within repair tissue of gene transcripts which typically define articular cartilage indicate that while cells occupying the lesion might be of mesenchymal origin, they have not recapitulated differentiation to

  12. Repair and tissue engineering techniques for articular cartilage

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    Makris, Eleftherios A.; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis, eventually leading to progressive total joint destruction. Although current progress suggests that biologic agents can delay the advancement of deterioration, such drugs are incapable of promoting tissue restoration. The limited ability of articular cartilage to regenerate renders joint arthroplasty an unavoidable s...

  13. Return to sports participation after articular cartilage repair in the knee: scientific evidence.

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    Mithoefer, Kai; Hambly, Karen; Della Villa, Stefano; Silvers, Holly; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2009-11-01

    Articular cartilage injury in the athlete's knee presents a difficult clinical challenge. Despite the importance of returning injured athletes to sports, information is limited on whether full sports participation can be successfully achieved after articular cartilage repair in the knee. Systematic analysis of athletic participation after articular cartilage repair will demonstrate the efficacy of joint surface restoration in high-demand patients and help to optimize outcomes in athletes with articular cartilage injury of the knee. Systematic review. A comprehensive literature review of original studies was performed to provide information about athletic participation after articular cartilage repair. The athlete's ability to perform sports postoperatively was assessed by activity outcome scores, rate of return to sport, timing of the return, level of postoperative sports participation, and the continuation of athletic activity over time. Twenty studies describing 1363 patients were included in the review, with an average follow-up of 42 months. Return to sports was possible in 73% overall, with highest return rates after osteochondral autograft transplantation. Time to return to sports varied between 7 and 18 months, depending on the cartilage repair technique. Initial return to sports at the preinjury level was possible in 68% and did not significantly vary between surgical techniques. Continued sports participation at the preinjury level was possible in 65%, with the best durability after autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Several factors affected the ability to return to sport: athlete's age, preoperative duration of symptoms, level of play, lesion size, and repair tissue morphology. Articular cartilage repair in the athletic population allows for a high rate of return to sports, often at the preinjury level. Return to sports participation is influenced by several independent factors. The findings provide pertinent information that is helpful for the

  14. Porous polymers for repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and articular cartilage

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    Klompmaker, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The studies presented here were initiated to answer a variety of questions concerning firstly the repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and, secondly, the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. AIMS OF THE STUDIES I To assess the effect of implantation of a porous

  15. Repair of articular cartilage defects in the knee with autologous iliac crest cartilage in a rabbit model.

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    Jing, Lizhong; Zhang, Jiying; Leng, Huijie; Guo, Qinwei; Hu, Yuelin

    2015-04-01

    To demonstrate that iliac crest cartilage may be used to repair articular cartilage defects in the knees of rabbits. Full-thickness cartilage defects were created in the medial femoral condyle on both knees of 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The 72 defects were randomly assigned to be repaired with ipsilateral iliac crest cartilage (Group I), osteochondral tissues removed at defect creation (Group II), or no treatment (negative control, Group III). Animals were killed at 6, 12, and 24 weeks post-operatively. The repaired tissues were harvested for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological studies (haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining), and mechanical testing. At 6 weeks, the iliac crest cartilage graft was not yet well integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage, but at 12 weeks, the graft deep zone had partial ossification. By 24 weeks, the hyaline cartilage-like tissue was completely integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage. Osteochondral autografts showed more rapid healing than Group I at 6 weeks and complete healing at 12 weeks. Untreated defects were concave or partly filled with fibrous tissue throughout the study. MRI showed that Group I had slower integration with surrounding normal cartilage compared with Group II. The mechanical properties of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II at 12 weeks, but this difference was not significant at 24 weeks. Iliac crest cartilage autografts were able to repair knee cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage and showed comparable results with osteochondral autografts in the rabbit model.

  16. Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair

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    Izadifar, Zohreh; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kulyk, William

    2012-01-01

    Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE). Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted. PMID:24955748

  17. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defect using stem cell-encapsulated thermogel.

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    Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Jin; Chang, Fei; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun

    2018-07-01

    Cartilage defect repair by hydrogel-based tissue engineering is becoming one of the most potential treatment strategies. In this work, a thermogel of triblock copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) was prepared as scaffold of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) for repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defect. At first, the copolymer solution showed a reversible sol-gel transition at physiological temperature range, and the mechanical properties of such thermogel were high enough to support the repair of cartilage. Additionally, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility of the thermogel were demonstrated. By implanting the BMMSC-encapsulated thermogel into the full-thickness articular cartilage defect (5.0 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in depth) in the rabbit, it was found that the regenerated cartilage integrated well with the surrounding normal cartilage and subchondral bone at 12 weeks post-surgery. The upregulated expression of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen in the repaired cartilage, and the comparable biomechanical properties with normal cartilage suggested that the cell-encapsulated PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel had great potential in serving as the promising scaffold for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Guidelines for the Design and Conduct of Clinical Studies in Knee Articular Cartilage Repair

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    Mithoefer, Kai; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Farr, Jack; Kon, Elizaveta; Zaslav, Kenneth; Cole, Brian J.; Ranstam, Jonas; Yao, Jian; Shive, Matthew; Levine, David; Dalemans, Wilfried; Brittberg, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize current clinical research practice and develop methodological standards for objective scientific evaluation of knee cartilage repair procedures and products. Design: A comprehensive literature review was performed of high-level original studies providing information relevant for the design of clinical studies on articular cartilage repair in the knee. Analysis of cartilage repair publications and synopses of ongoing trials were used to identify important criteria for the design, reporting, and interpretation of studies in this field. Results: Current literature reflects the methodological limitations of the scientific evidence available for articular cartilage repair. However, clinical trial databases of ongoing trials document a trend suggesting improved study designs and clinical evaluation methodology. Based on the current scientific information and standards of clinical care, detailed methodological recommendations were developed for the statistical study design, patient recruitment, control group considerations, study endpoint definition, documentation of results, use of validated patient-reported outcome instruments, and inclusion and exclusion criteria for the design and conduct of scientifically sound cartilage repair study protocols. A consensus statement among the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) and contributing authors experienced in clinical trial design and implementation was achieved. Conclusions: High-quality clinical research methodology is critical for the optimal evaluation of current and new cartilage repair technologies. In addition to generally applicable principles for orthopedic study design, specific criteria and considerations apply to cartilage repair studies. Systematic application of these criteria and considerations can facilitate study designs that are scientifically rigorous, ethical, practical, and appropriate for the question(s) being addressed in any given cartilage repair research project

  19. Silk fibroin-chondroitin sulfate scaffold with immuno-inhibition property for articular cartilage repair.

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    Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Xianzhu; Cai, Dandan; Li, Jun; Mu, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Shouan; Jiang, Yangzi; Shen, Weiliang; Zhang, Shufang; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2017-11-01

    The demand of favorable scaffolds has increased for the emerging cartilage tissue engineering. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and silk fibroin have been investigated and reported with safety and excellent biocompatibility as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the rapid degradation rate of pure CS scaffolds presents a challenge to effectively recreate neo-tissue similar to natural articular cartilage. Meanwhile the silk fibroin is well used as a structural constituent material because its remarkable mechanical properties, long-lasting in vivo stability and hypoimmunity. The application of composite silk fibroin and CS scaffolds for joint cartilage repair has not been well studied. Here we report that the combination of silk fibroin and CS could synergistically promote articular cartilage defect repair. The silk fibroin (silk) and silk fibroin/CS (silk-CS) scaffolds were fabricated with salt-leaching, freeze-drying and crosslinking methodologies. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated in vitro by cell adhesion, proliferation and migration with human articular chondrocytes. We found that silk-CS scaffold maintained better chondrocyte phenotype than silk scaffold; moreover, the silk-CS scaffolds reduced chondrocyte inflammatory response that was induced by interleukin (IL)-1β, which is in consistent with the well-documented anti-inflammatory activities of CS. The in vivo cartilage repair was evaluated with a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Silk-CS scaffold induced more neo-tissue formation and better structural restoration than silk scaffold after 6 and 12weeks of implantation in ICRS histological evaluations. In conclusion, we have developed a silk fibroin/ chondroitin sulfate scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering that exhibits immuno-inhibition property and can improve the self-repair capacity of cartilage. Severe cartilage defect such as osteoarthritis (OA) is difficult to self-repair because of its avascular, aneural and alymphatic nature

  20. Subchondral drilling for articular cartilage repair: a systematic review of translational research.

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    Gao, Liang; Goebel, Lars K H; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2018-05-03

    Articular cartilage defects may initiate osteoarthritis. Subchondral drilling, a widely applied clinical technique to treat small cartilage defects, does not yield cartilage regeneration. Various translational studies aiming to improve the outcome of drilling have been performed, however, a robust systematic analysis of its translational evidence has been still lacking. Here, we performed a systematic review of the outcome of subchondral drilling for knee cartilage repair in translational animal models. A total of 12 relevant publications studying 198 animals were identified, detailed study characteristics were extracted, and methodological quality and risk of bias were analyzed. Subchondral drilling was superior to defects untreated or treated with abrasion arthroplasty for cartilage repair in multiple translational models. Considerable subchondral bone changes were observed, including subchondral bone cysts and intralesional osteophytes. Furthermore, extensive alterations of the subchondral bone microarchitecture appeared in a temporal pattern in small and large animal models, together with specific topographic aspects of repair. Moreover, variable technical aspects directly affected the outcomes of osteochondral repair. The data from this systematic review indicate that subchondral drilling yields improved short-term structural articular cartilage repair compared with spontaneous repair in multiple small and large animal models. These results have important implications for future investigations aimed at an enhanced translation into clinical settings for the treatment of cartilage defects, highlighting the importance of considering specific aspects of modifiable variables such as improvements in the design and reporting of preclinical studies, together with the need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of cartilage repair following subchondral drilling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Small-Diameter Awls Improve Articular Cartilage Repair After Microfracture Treatment in a Translational Animal Model.

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    Orth, Patrick; Duffner, Julia; Zurakowski, David; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Microfracture is the most commonly applied arthroscopic marrow stimulation procedure. Articular cartilage repair is improved when the subchondral bone is perforated by small-diameter microfracture awls compared with larger awls. Controlled laboratory study. Standardized rectangular (4 × 8 mm) full-thickness chondral defects (N = 24) were created in the medial femoral condyle of 16 adult sheep and debrided down to the subchondral bone plate. Three treatment groups (n = 8 defects each) were tested: 6 microfracture perforations using small-diameter awls (1.0 mm; group 1), large-diameter awls (1.2 mm; group 2), or without perforations (debridement control; group 3). Osteochondral repair was assessed at 6 months in vivo using established macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and micro-computed tomography analyses. Compared with control defects, histological cartilage repair was always improved after both microfracture techniques (P Subchondral bone cysts and intralesional osteophytes were frequently observed after either microfracture treatment. Macroscopic grading, DNA, proteoglycan, and type I and type II collagen contents as well as degenerative changes within the adjacent cartilage remained unaffected by the awl diameter. Small-diameter microfracture awls improve articular cartilage repair in the translational sheep model more effectively than do larger awls. These data support the use of small microfracture instruments for the surgical treatment of cartilage defects and warrant prolonged clinical investigations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. POSSIBILITIES OF CURRENT CELLULAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR (ANALYTICAL REVIEW

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    M. S. Bozhokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide variety of surgical procedures utilized in clinical practice for treatment of articular cartilage lesions, the search for other options of articular reconstruction remains a relevant and open issue at the current stage of medicine and biotechnologies development. The recent years demonstrated a strong belief in cellular methods of hyaline cartilage repair such as implantation of autologous chondrocytes (ACI or cultures of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC including techniques for genetic modification of cells.The purpose of presented review is to summarize the published scientific data on up to date results of perspective cellular technologies for articular cartilage repair that are being developed. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation originally performed by Swedish researchers in 1987 is considered the first clinically applied technique for restoration of hyaline cartilage using cellular technologies. However, the transplanted cell culture featured low proliferative capacity and inability to form a regenerate resistant to high physical activity. Another generation of methods originated at the turn of the century utilized mesenchymal stem cells instead of autologous chondrocytes. Preparation of MSCs is a less invasive procedure compared to chondrocytes harvesting and the culture is featured by a higher proliferative ability. Researchers use various biodegradable carriers (matrices to secure cell fixation. Despite good clinical mid-term outcomes the transplanted tissue-engineering structures deteriorate with time due to cellular de-differentiation. Next generation of techniques being currently under pre-clinical studies is featured by the preliminary chondrogenic modification of transplanted cell culture. Usage of various growth factors, modified cell product and gene-activated matrices allow to gain a stable regulatory and key proteins synthesis and achieve a focused influence on regenerate's chondrogenic proliferation and in result

  3. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

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    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  4. Repair of articular cartilage defects by tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with adipose-derived stem cells and acellular cartilaginous matrix in rabbits.

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    Wang, Z J; An, R Z; Zhao, J Y; Zhang, Q; Yang, J; Wang, J B; Wen, G Y; Yuan, X H; Qi, X W; Li, S J; Ye, X C

    2014-06-18

    After injury, inflammation, or degeneration, articular cartilage has limited self-repair ability. We aimed to explore the feasibility of repair of articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineered cartilage constructed by acellular cartilage matrices (ACMs) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The ADSCs were isolated from 3-month-old New Zealand albino rabbit by using collagenase and cultured and amplified in vitro. Fresh cartilage isolated from adult New Zealand albino rabbit were freeze-dried for 12 h and treated with Triton X-100, DNase, and RNase to obtain ACMs. ADSCs were seeded in the acellular cartilaginous matrix at 2x10(7)/mL, and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium for 2 weeks to construct tissue-engineered cartilage. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into A, B, and C groups. Engineered cartilage was transplanted into cartilage defect position of rabbits in group A, group B obtained ACMs, and group C did not receive any transplants. The rabbits were sacrificed in week 12. The restored tissue was evaluated using macroscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the tissue-engineered cartilage group (group A), articular cartilage defects of the rabbits were filled with chondrocyte-like tissue with smooth surface. Immunohistochemistry showed type II-collagen expression and Alcian blue staining was positive. TEM showed chondrocytes in the recesses, with plenty of secretary matrix particles. In the scaffold group (group B), the defect was filled with fibrous tissue. No repaired tissue was found in the blank group (group C). Tissue-engineered cartilage using ACM seeded with ADSCs can help repair articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

  5. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

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    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  6. Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlovits, Stefan; Striessnig, Gabriele; Resinger, Christoph T.; Aldrian, Silke M.; Vecsei, Vilmos; Imhof, Herwig; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue

  7. Functional articular cartilage repair: here, near, or is the best approach not yet clear?

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    Mastbergen, S.C.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this Review we describe three approaches for cartilage tissue repair at the rheumatology–orthopaedics interface: disease-modifying osteoarthritis (OA) drug (DMOAD) treatment; cell-based therapies, and intrinsic cartilage repair by joint distraction. DMOADs can slow the progression of joint

  8. Joint distraction and movement for repair of articular cartilage in a rabbit model with subsequent weight-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Chang, F; Ishii, T; Yanai, T; Mishima, H; Ochiai, N

    2010-07-01

    We have previously shown that joint distraction and movement with a hinged external fixation device for 12 weeks was useful for repairing a large articular cartilage defect in a rabbit model. We have now investigated the results after six months and one year. The device was applied to 16 rabbits who underwent resection of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the entire tibial plateau. In group A (nine rabbits) the device was applied for six months. In group B (seven rabbits) it was in place for six months, after which it was removed and the animals were allowed to move freely for an additional six months. The cartilage remained sound in all rabbits. The areas of type II collagen-positive staining and repaired soft tissue were larger in group B than in group A. These findings provide evidence of long-term persistence of repaired cartilage with this technique and that weight-bearing has a positive effect on the quality of the cartilage.

  9. A preclinical evaluation of an autologous living hyaline-like cartilaginous graft for articular cartilage repair: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Yvonne; He, Pengfei; Chilla, Geetha Soujanya V N; Poh, Chueh Loo; Wang, Dong-An

    2015-11-09

    In this pilot study, an autologous synthetic scaffold-free construct with hyaline quality, termed living hyaline cartilaginous graft (LhCG), was applied for treating cartilage lesions. Implantation of autologous LhCG was done at load-bearing regions of the knees in skeletally mature mini-pigs for 6 months. Over the course of this study, significant radiographical improvement in LhCG treated sites was observed via magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, macroscopic repair was effected by LhCG at endpoint. Microscopic inspection revealed that LhCG engraftment restored cartilage thickness, promoted integration with surrounding native cartilage, produced abundant cartilage-specific matrix molecules, and re-established an intact superficial tangential zone. Importantly, the repair efficacy of LhCG was quantitatively shown to be comparable to native, unaffected cartilage in terms of biochemical composition and biomechanical properties. There were no complications related to the donor site of cartilage biopsy. Collectively, these results imply that LhCG engraftment may be a viable approach for articular cartilage repair.

  10. In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Oriented Scaffold-BMSC Construct for Enhancing Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaijun Jia

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE has been proven usefulness in cartilage defect repair. For effective cartilage repair, the structural orientation of the cartilage scaffold should mimic that of native articular cartilage, as this orientation is closely linked to cartilage mechanical functions. Using thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS technology, we have fabricated an oriented cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM-derived scaffold with a Young's modulus value 3 times higher than that of a random scaffold. In this study, we test the effectiveness of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC-scaffold constructs (cell-oriented and random in repairing full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits. While histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed efficient cartilage regeneration and cartilaginous matrix secretion at 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation in both groups, the biochemical properties (levels of DNA, GAG, and collagen and biomechanical values in the oriented scaffold group were higher than that in random group at early time points after implantation. While these differences were not evident at 24 weeks, the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the regenerated cartilage in the oriented scaffold-BMSC construct group were similar to that of native cartilage. These results demonstrate that an oriented scaffold, in combination with differentiated BMSCs can successfully repair full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits, and produce cartilage enhanced biomechanical properties.

  11. Nasal chondrocyte-based engineered autologous cartilage tissue for repair of articular cartilage defects: an observational first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Marcus; Barbero, Andrea; Miot, Sylvie; Wixmerten, Anke; Feliciano, Sandra; Wolf, Francine; Asnaghi, Adelaide M; Baumhoer, Daniel; Bieri, Oliver; Kretzschmar, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Haug, Martin; Schaefer, Dirk J; Martin, Ivan; Jakob, Marcel

    2016-10-22

    Articular cartilage injuries have poor repair capacity, leading to progressive joint damage, and cannot be restored predictably by either conventional treatments or advanced therapies based on implantation of articular chondrocytes. Compared with articular chondrocytes, chondrocytes derived from the nasal septum have superior and more reproducible capacity to generate hyaline-like cartilage tissues, with the plasticity to adapt to a joint environment. We aimed to assess whether engineered autologous nasal chondrocyte-based cartilage grafts allow safe and functional restoration of knee cartilage defects. In a first-in-human trial, ten patients with symptomatic, post-traumatic, full-thickness cartilage lesions (2-6 cm 2 ) on the femoral condyle or trochlea were treated at University Hospital Basel in Switzerland. Chondrocytes isolated from a 6 mm nasal septum biopsy specimen were expanded and cultured onto collagen membranes to engineer cartilage grafts (30 × 40 × 2 mm). The engineered tissues were implanted into the femoral defects via mini-arthrotomy and assessed up to 24 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were feasibility and safety of the procedure. Secondary outcomes included self-assessed clinical scores and MRI-based estimation of morphological and compositional quality of the repair tissue. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01605201. The study is ongoing, with an approved extension to 25 patients. For every patient, it was feasible to manufacture cartilaginous grafts with nasal chondrocytes embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Engineered tissues were stable through handling with forceps and could be secured in the injured joints. No adverse reactions were recorded and self-assessed clinical scores for pain, knee function, and quality of life were improved significantly from before surgery to 24 months after surgery. Radiological assessments indicated variable degrees of

  12. Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Sheep: Characterization and Autologous Transplantation in a Model of Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Paul; Baily, James; Khan, Nusrat; Biant, Leela C; Simpson, A Hamish R; Péault, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that purified perivascular stem cells (PSCs) have increased chondrogenic potential compared to conventional mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived in culture. This study aimed to develop an autologous large animal model for PSC transplantation and to specifically determine if implanted cells are retained in articular cartilage defects. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used to ascertain the reactivity of anti-human and anti-ovine antibodies, which were combined and used to identify and isolate pericytes (CD34 - CD45 - CD146 + ) and adventitial cells (CD34 + CD45 - CD146 - ). The purified cells demonstrated osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential in culture. Autologous ovine PSCs (oPSCs) were isolated, cultured, and efficiently transfected using a green fluorescence protein (GFP) encoding lentivirus. The cells were implanted into articular cartilage defects on the medial femoral condyle using hydrogel and collagen membranes. Four weeks following implantation, the condyle was explanted and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the presence of oPSCs in the defect repaired with the hydrogel. These data suggest the testability in a large animal of native MSC autologous grafting, thus avoiding possible biases associated with xenotransplantation. Such a setting will be used in priority for indications in orthopedics, at first to model articular cartilage repair.

  13. Increasing the Dose of Autologous Chondrocytes Improves Articular Cartilage Repair: Histological and Molecular Study in the Sheep Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-García, Pedro; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Guillén-Vicente, Isabel; Caballero-Santos, Rosa; Guillén-Vicente, Marta; Abelow, Stephen; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one. We compared the implantation of different doses of chondrocytes: 1 million (n = 5), 5 million (n = 5), or 5 million mesenchymal cells (n = 5) in the femoral condyle of 15 sheep. Tissue generated by microfracture at the trochlea, and normal cartilage from a nearby region, processed as the tissues resulting from the implantation, were used as references. Histological and molecular (expression of type I and II collagens and aggrecan) studies were performed. The features of the cartilage generated by implantation of mesenchymal cells and elicited by microfractures were similar and typical of a poor repair of the articular cartilage (presence of fibrocartilage, high expression of type I collagen and a low mRNA levels of type II collagen and aggrecan). Nevertheless, in the samples obtained from tissues generated by implantation of chondrocytes, hyaline-like cartilage, cell organization, low expression rates of type I collagen and high levels of mRNA corresponding to type II collagen and aggrecan were observed. These histological features, show less variability and are more similar to those of the normal cartilage used as control in the case of 5 million cells implantation than when 1 million cells were used. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes in type I/III collagen membranes at high density could be a promising tool to repair articular cartilage.

  14. The effects of different doses of IGF-1 on cartilage and subchondral bone during the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Li, L; Yang, W; Cao, Y; Shi, Y; Li, X; Zhang, Q

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different doses of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the cartilage layer and subchondral bone (SB) during repair of full-thickness articular cartilage (AC) defects. IGF-1-loaded collagen membrane was implanted into full-thickness AC defects in rabbits. The effects of two different doses of IGF-1 on cartilage layer and SB adjacent to the defect, the cartilage structure, formation and integration, and the new SB formation were evaluated at the 1st, 4th and 8th week postoperation. Meanwhile, after 1 week treatment, the relative mRNA expressions in tissues adjacent to the defect, including cartilage and SB were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. Different doses of IGF-1 induced different gene expression profiles in tissues adjacent to the defect and resulted in different repair outcomes. Particularly, at high dose IGF-1 aided cell survival, regulated the gene expressions in cartilage layer adjacent defect and altered ECM composition more effectively, improved the formation and integrity of neo-cartilage. While, at low dose IGF-1 regulated the gene expressions in SB more efficaciously and subsequently promoted the SB remodeling and reconstruction. Different doses of IGF-1 induced different responses of cartilage or SB during the repair of full-thickness AC defects. Particularly, high dose of IGF-1 was more beneficial to the neo-cartilage formation and integration, while low dose of it was more effective for the SB formation. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biofabrication of implants for articular joint repair : Cartilage regeneration in reinforced gelatin-based hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Implants were biofabricated for the repair of chondral and osteochondral articular joint defects. The implants were based on gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) hydrogels combined with printed fibers from polycaprolactone (PCL) for mechanical reinforcement. In Part I of the thesis, biological

  16. POROUS POLYMER IMPLANTS FOR REPAIR OF FULL-THICKNESS DEFECTS OF ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY IN RABBIT AND DOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, HWB; VETH, RPH; NIELSEN, HKL; DEGROOT, JH; PENNINGS, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Full-thickness defects of articular cartilage were repaired by implantation of porous polymer implants in rabbits and dogs. The quality of the repair tissue was determined by collagen typing with antibodies. Implants with varying pore sizes and chemical composition were used. The effect of loading

  17. Repair of experimentally produced defects in rabbit articular cartilage by autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, D.A.; Pitman, M.I.; Peterson, L.; Menche, D.; Klein, M.

    1989-01-01

    Using the knee joints of New Zealand White rabbits, a baseline study was made to determine the intrinsic capability of cartilage for healing defects that do not fracture the subchondral plate. A second experiment examined the effect of autologous chondrocytes grown in vitro on the healing rate of these defects. To determine whether any of the reconstituted cartilage resulted from the chondrocyte graft, a third experiment was conducted involving grafts with chondrocytes that had been labeled prior to grafting with a nuclear tracer. Results were evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative light microscopy. Macroscopic results from grafted specimens displayed a marked decrease in synovitis and other degenerative changes. In defects that had received transplants, a significant amount of cartilage was reconstituted (82%) compared to ungrafted controls (18%). Autoradiography on reconstituted cartilage showed that there were labeled cells incorporated into the repair matrix

  18. Articular cartilage repair with recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold in a preliminary porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, Virpi; Salonius, Eve; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Järvinen, Elina; Paatela, Teemu; Meller, Anna; Hannula, Markus; Björkman, Mimmi; Pyhältö, Tuomo; Ellä, Ville; Vasara, Anna; Töyräs, Juha; Kellomäki, Minna; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a novel recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold (rhCo-PLA) in the repair of full-thickness cartilage lesions with autologous chondrocyte implantation technique (ACI). The forming repair tissue was compared to spontaneous healing (spontaneous) and repair with a commercial porcine type I/III collagen membrane (pCo). Domestic pigs (4-month-old, n = 20) were randomized into three study groups and a circular full-thickness chondral lesion with a diameter of 8 mm was created in the right medial femoral condyle. After 3 weeks, the chondral lesions were repaired with either rhCo-PLA or pCo together with autologous chondrocytes, or the lesion was only debrided and left untreated for spontaneous repair. The repair tissue was evaluated 4 months after the second operation. Hyaline cartilage formed most frequently in the rhCo-PLA treatment group. Biomechanically, there was a trend that both treatment groups resulted in better repair tissue than spontaneous healing. Adverse subchondral bone reactions developed less frequently in the spontaneous group (40%) and the rhCo-PLA treated group (50%) than in the pCo control group (100%). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups. The novel rhCo-PLA biomaterial showed promising results in this proof-of-concept study, but further studies will be needed in order to determine its effectiveness in articular cartilage repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:745-753, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. MR imaging of canine osteoarthritis shows sustained hypertrophic repair of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Albrecht, M.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports MR imaging used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities in three dogs in which the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of one hind limb had been transected to produce osteoarthritis. In this model changes mirror those in human osteoarthritis, but they are not progressive after a few months. The authors performed serial plain radiography and MR imaging of the osteoarthritic knee and control knee 3 years after ACL transection. Coronal T1- weighted images and sagittal multiecho and field echo summed images were obtained. Radiographs showed osteophytes, geodes, and subchondral sclerosis of the operated knees, with no progression between 2 and 3 years. Contralateral knees were normal. On MR images in each case there was indistinctness and thickening of articular cartilage in the abnormal knee compared with the contralateral knee

  20. Towards Regeneration of Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Ohta, Yoichi; Larmour, Colleen; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage is classified into permanent hyaline cartilage and has significant differences in structure, extracelluar matrix components, gene expression profile, and mechanical property from transient hyaline cartilage found in growth plate. In the process of synovial joint development, articular cartilage is originated from the interzone, developing at the edge of the cartilaginous anlagen, it establishes zonal structure over time and supports smooth movement of the synovial joint through life. The cascade actions of key regulators such as Wnts, GDF5, Erg, and PTHLH coordinate sequential steps of articular cartilage formation. Articular chondrocytes are restrictedly controlled not to differentiate into a hypertrophic stage by autocrine and paracrine factors and extracerllular matrix microenvironment, but retain potential to undergo hypertrophy. The basal calcified zone of articular cartilage is connected with subchondral bone, but not invaded by blood vessels nor replaced by bone, which is highly contrasted with the growth plate. Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capacity, but likely possesses and potentially uses intrinsic stem cell source in the superficial layer, Ranvier’s groove, the intra-articular tissues such as synovium and fat pad, and marrow below the subchondral bone. Considering the biological views on articular cartilage, several important points are raised for regeneration of articular cartilage. We should evaluate the nature of regenerated cartilage as permanent hyaline cartilage and not just hyaline cartilage. We should study how a hypertrophic phenotype of transplanted cells can be lastingly suppressed in regenerating tissue. Further, we should develop the methods and reagents to activate recruitment of intrinsic stem/progenitor cells into the damaged site. PMID:24078496

  1. MR imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Brossmann, J.

    2001-01-01

    MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T 1 weighted gradient echo and T 2 -weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Natural Type II Collagen Hydrogel, Fibrin Sealant, and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Promising Combination for Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, Mariana; Bordeaux-Rego, Pedro; Giardini-Rosa, Renata; Duarte, Adriana S S; Baratti, Mariana Ozello; Zorzi, Alessandro Rozim; de Miranda, João Batista; Lenz Cesar, Carlos; Luzo, Ângela; Olalla Saad, Sara Teresinha

    2017-10-01

    Objective Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited ability of self-regeneration and the current clinical treatments have restricted capacity to restore damages induced by trauma or diseases. Therefore, new techniques are being tested for cartilage repair, using scaffolds and/or stem cells. Although type II collagen hydrogel, fibrin sealant, and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent suitable alternatives for cartilage formation, their combination has not yet been investigated in vivo for focal articular cartilage defects. We performed a simple experimental procedure using the combination of these 3 compounds on cartilage lesions of rabbit knees. Design The hydrogel was developed in house and was first tested in vitro for chondrogenic differentiation. Next, implants were performed in chondral defects with or without ASCs and the degree of regeneration was macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. Results Production of proteoglycans and the increased expression of collagen type II (COL2α1), aggrecan (ACAN), and sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) confirmed the chondrogenic character of ASCs in the hydrogel in vitro. Importantly, the addition of ASC induced a higher overall repair of the chondral lesions and a better cellular organization and collagen fiber alignment compared with the same treatment without ASCs. This regenerating tissue also presented the expression of cartilage glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Conclusions Our results indicate that the combination of the 3 compounds is effective for articular cartilage repair and may be of future clinical interest.

  3. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies used in the clinical repair of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brian J; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2016-08-01

    One of the most important issues facing cartilage tissue engineering is the inability to move technologies into the clinic. Despite the multitude of current research in the field, it is known that 90% of new drugs that advance past animal studies fail clinical trials. The objective of this review is to provide readers with an understanding of the scientific details of tissue engineered cartilage products that have demonstrated a certain level of efficacy in humans, so that newer technologies may be developed upon this foundation. Compared to existing treatments, such as microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation, a tissue engineered product can potentially provide more consistent clinical results in forming hyaline repair tissue and in filling the entirety of the defect. The various tissue engineering strategies (e.g., cell expansion, scaffold material, media formulations, biomimetic stimuli, etc.) used in forming these products, as collected from published literature, company websites, and relevant patents, are critically discussed. The authors note that many details about these products remain proprietary, not all information is made public, and that advancements to the products are continuously made. Nevertheless, by understanding the design and production processes of these emerging technologies, one can gain tremendous insight into how to best use them and also how to design the next generation of tissue engineered cartilage products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies used in the clinical repair of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brian J.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing cartilage tissue engineering is the inability to move technologies into the clinic. Despite the multitude of review articles on the paradigm of biomaterials, signals, and cells, it is reported that 90% of new drugs that advance past animal studies fail clinical trials (1). The intent of this review is to provide readers with an understanding of the scientific details of tissue engineered cartilage products that have demonstrated a certain level of efficacy in humans, so that newer technologies may be developed upon this foundation. Compared to existing treatments, such as microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation, a tissue engineered product can potentially provide more consistent clinical results in forming hyaline repair tissue and in filling the entirety of the defect. The various tissue engineering strategies (e.g., cell expansion, scaffold material, media formulations, biomimetic stimuli, etc.) used in forming these products, as collected from published literature, company websites, and relevant patents, are critically discussed. The authors note that many details about these products remain proprietary, not all information is made public, and that advancements to the products are continuously made. Nevertheless, by fully understanding the design and production processes of these emerging technologies, one can gain tremendous insight into how to best use them and also how to design the next generation of tissue engineered cartilage products. PMID:27177218

  5. Nanopolymers Delivery of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Plasmid to Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical application of viral vectors for gene therapy is limited for biosafety consideration. In this study, to promote articular cartilage repair, poly (lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA nanopolymers were used as non-viral vectors to transfect rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with the pDC316-BMP4-EGFP plasmid. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency in vitro were acceptable measuring by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. After transfection, Chondrogenic markers (mRNA of Col2a1, Sox9, Bmp4, and Agg of experimental cells (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers were increased more than those of control cells (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid alone. In vivo study, twelve rabbits (24 knees with large full thickness articular cartilage defects were randomly divided into the experimental group (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers and the control group (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid. The experimental group showed better regeneration than the control group 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Hyaline-like cartilage formed at week 12 in the experimental group, indicating the local delivery of BMP-4 plasmid to MSCs by PLGA nanopolymers improved articular cartilage repair significantly. PLGA nanopolymers could be a promising and effective non-viral vector for gene therapy in cartilage repair.

  6. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of

  7. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor β1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaodong; Zheng Qixin; Yang Shuhua; Shao Zengwu; Yuan Quan; Pan Zhengqi; Tang Shuo; Liu Kai; Quan Daping

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-β 1 that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-β 1 gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA 3 -TGF-β 1 gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA 3 gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The

  8. Development of artificial articular cartilage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at specific pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for firm attachment of artificial articular cartilage on ...

  9. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a

  10. Regulators of articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of hypertrophic differentiation is essential for successful cartilage repair strategies. Although this process is essential for longitudinal growth, it also is part of degenerative cartilage diseases such as osteoarthiritis. Moreover, it limits the use of cell types prone to this process

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage and cartilage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, K.L.; Almqvist, F.; Verdonk, P.; Vanderschueren, G.; Huysse, W.; Verdonk, R.; Verbrugge, G.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of articular cartilage has assumed increased importance because of the prevalence of cartilage injury and degeneration, as well as the development of new surgical and pharmacological techniques to treat damaged cartilage. This article will review relevant aspects of the structure and biochemistry of cartilage that are important for understanding MR imaging of cartilage, describe optimal MR pulse sequences for its evaluation, and review the role of experimental quantitative MR techniques. These MR aspects are applied to clinical scenarios, including traumatic chondral injury, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, and cartilage repair procedures

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage and cartilage repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, K.L. E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Almqvist, F.; Verdonk, P.; Vanderschueren, G.; Huysse, W.; Verdonk, R.; Verbrugge, G

    2004-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of articular cartilage has assumed increased importance because of the prevalence of cartilage injury and degeneration, as well as the development of new surgical and pharmacological techniques to treat damaged cartilage. This article will review relevant aspects of the structure and biochemistry of cartilage that are important for understanding MR imaging of cartilage, describe optimal MR pulse sequences for its evaluation, and review the role of experimental quantitative MR techniques. These MR aspects are applied to clinical scenarios, including traumatic chondral injury, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, and cartilage repair procedures.

  13. Current status of imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodler, J.; Resnick, D.

    1996-01-01

    Various imaging methods have been applied to assessment of articular cartilage. These include standard radiography, arthrography, CT, CT arthrography, ultrasonography, and MR imaging. Radiography remains the initial musculoskeletal imaging method. However, it is insensitive to early stages of cartilage abnormalities. MR imaging has great potential in the assessment of articular cartilage, although high-quality scans are required because imaging signs of cartilage abnormalities may be subtle. The potential and limitations of various sequences and techniques are discussed, including MR arthrography. The role of the other imaging methods in assessment of articular cartilage appears to be limited. (orig.). With 8 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Review on patents for mechanical stimulation of articular cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van C.C.; Schulz, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    To repair articular cartilage defects in osteoarthritic patients with three-dimensional tissue engineered chondrocyte grafts, requires the formation of new cartilage with sufficient mechanical properties. The premise is that mechanical stimulation during the culturing process is necessary to reach

  15. Articular Cartilage Repair Using Marrow Stimulation Augmented with a Viable Chondral Allograft: 9-Month Postoperative Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marrow stimulation is frequently employed to treat focal chondral defects of the knee. However, marrow stimulation typically results in fibrocartilage repair tissue rather than healthy hyaline cartilage, which, over time, predisposes the repair to failure. Recently, a cryopreserved viable chondral allograft was developed to augment marrow stimulation. The chondral allograft is comprised of native viable chondrocytes, chondrogenic growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins within the superficial, transitional, and radial zones of hyaline cartilage. Therefore, host mesenchymal stem cells that infiltrate the graft from the underlying bone marrow following marrow stimulation are provided with the optimal microenvironment to undergo chondrogenesis. The present report describes treatment of a trochlear defect with marrow stimulation augmented with this novel chondral allograft, along with nine month postoperative histological results. At nine months, the patient demonstrated complete resolution of pain and improvement in function, and the repair tissue consisted of 85% hyaline cartilage. For comparison, a biopsy obtained from a patient 8.2 months after treatment with marrow stimulation alone contained only 5% hyaline cartilage. These outcomes suggest that augmenting marrow stimulation with the viable chondral allograft can eliminate pain and improve outcomes, compared with marrow stimulation alone.

  16. Repair of articular cartilage and subchondral defects in rabbit knee joints with a polyvinyl alcohol/nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 biological composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Tian, Xiaobin; Li, Bo; Yang, Tianfu; Li, Yubao

    2017-11-15

    This study sought to prepare a new PVA/n-HA/PA66 composite to investigate the repair of articular cartilage and subchondral defects in rabbit knee joints. A 5 × 5 × 5 mm-sized defect was created in the patellofemoral joints of 72 healthy adult New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were then randomly divided into three groups (n = 24): PVA/n-HA+PA66 group, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) group, and control (untreated) group. Cylindrical PVA/n-HA+PA66, 5 × 5 mm, comprised an upper PVA layer and a lower n-HA+PA66 layer. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were performed at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks, postoperatively. Type II collagen was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The implant/cartilage and bone interfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. At 24 weeks postoperatively, the lower PVA/n-HA+PA66 layer became surrounded by cartilage, with no obvious degeneration. In the PVA group, an enlarged space was observed between the implant and the host tissue that had undergone degeneration. In the control group, the articular cartilage had become calcified. In the PVA/n-HA+PA66 group, positive type II collagen staining was observed between the composite and the surrounding cartilage and on the implant surface. In the PVA group, positive staining was slightly increased between the PVA and the surrounding cartilage, but reduced on the PVA surface. In the control group, reduced staining was observed throughout. Scanning electron microscopy showed increased bone tissue in the lower n-HA+PA66 layer that was in close approximation with the upper PVA layer of the composite. In the PVA group, the bone tissue around the material had receded, and in the control group, the defect was filled with bone tissue, while the superior aspect of the defect was filled with disordered, fibrous tissue. The diphase biological composite material PVA/n-HA+PA66 exhibits good histocompatibility and offers a satisfactory substitute for articular cartilage and subchondral bone.

  17. Customized Fabrication of Osteochondral Tissue for Articular Joint Surface Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0217 TITLE: Customized Fabrication of Osteochondral Tissue for Articular Joint Surface Repair PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Customized Fabrication of Osteochondral Tissue for Articular Joint Surface Repair 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...applicability of these novel osteochondral tissues for articular cartilage repair in rabbit model, using medical imaging-guided PSL. Such an approach may

  18. A preclinical evaluation of an autologous living hyaline-like cartilaginous graft for articular cartilage repair: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Peck; Pengfei He; Geetha Soujanya V. N. Chilla; Chueh Loo Poh; Dong-An Wang

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study, an autologous synthetic scaffold-free construct with hyaline quality, termed living hyaline cartilaginous graft (LhCG), was applied for treating cartilage lesions. Implantation of autologous LhCG was done at load-bearing regions of the knees in skeletally mature mini-pigs for 6 months. Over the course of this study, significant radiographical improvement in LhCG treated sites was observed via magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, macroscopic repair was effected by LhCG...

  19. Degenerated human articular cartilage at autopsy represents preclinical osteoarthritic cartilage: comparison with clinically defined osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valburg, A. A.; Wenting, M. J.; Beekman, B.; te Koppele, J. M.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether macroscopically fibrillated human articular knee cartilage observed at autopsy can be considered an early, preclinical phase of osteoarthritis (OA). Histological and biochemical characteristics of 3 types of articular knee cartilage were compared: macroscopically degenerated

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  1. Principles of cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Erggelet, Christoph; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage defects affect patients of all age groups. Surgeons, teamdoctors, general practitioners and physiotherapists alike are expected to provide adequate care. Only individual treatment plans combining a well balanced choice of various options will be successful. Background knowledge, operative and non-operative therapies are described in concise chapters: Articular cartilage biology - Diagnostics - Surgical techniques - Symptomatic and alternative medications - Physiotherapy. Diagnostic findings and surgical procedures are generously illustrated by aquarelles and colour photographs. Recommendations for additional reading, description of important clinical scoring systems and a listing of analytic tools are added for further information.

  2. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matt Denning, Jason G. Winward, Michael Becker Pardo, J. Ty Hopkins, Matthew K. Seeley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW, +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP was measured immediately before (baseline and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response.

  3. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  4. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  5. Snorc is a novel cartilage specific small membrane proteoglycan expressed in differentiating and articular chondrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, J; Taipaleenmäki, H; Roering, P

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype is a major issue in prevention of degeneration and repair of articular cartilage. Although the critical pathways in chondrocyte maturation and homeostasis have been revealed, the in-depth understanding is deficient and novel modifying components...... subgroups. Cartilage specific expression was highest in proliferating and prehypertrophic zones during development, and in adult articular cartilage, expression was restricted to the uncalcified zone, including chondrocyte clusters in human osteoarthritic cartilage. Studies with experimental chondrogenesis...... chondrocytes and adult articular chondrocytes with possible functions associated with development and maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype....

  6. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  7. Delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) can be effectively applied for longitudinal cohort evaluation of articular cartilage regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; Lambertus, W.B.; Benink, R.J.; Tsuchida, A.I.; Vincken, K.L.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) facilitates non-invasive evaluation of the glycosaminoglycan content in articular cartilage. The primary aim of this study was to show that the dGEMRIC technique is able to monitor cartilage repair following regenerative cartilage

  8. Laser biostimulation of articular cartilage: in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Guo, Zhouyi; Yang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Chang-Chun

    2004-07-01

    In the orthopaedic field, the repair of ariticular cartilage is still a difficult problem, because of the physiological characters of cartilaginous tissues and chondrocytes. To find an effective method of stimulating their regeneration, this in vitro study focuses on the biostimulation of rabbit articular chondrocytes by low-power He-Ne laser. The articular chondrocytes isolated from the cartilage of the medial condyle of the femur of the rabbit were incubated in HamF12 medium. The second passage culture were spread on 24 petri dishes and were irradiated with laser at power density of 2 - 12 mW/cm2 for 6.5 minutes, corresponding to the energy density of 1-6 J/cm2. Laser treatment was performed three times at a 24-hour interval. After lasering, incubation was continued for 24 hours. Non-irradiated cells were kept under the same conditions as the irradiated ones. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated with a XTT colorimetric method. Irradiation of 4 - 6 J/cm2 revealed a considerably higher cell proliferation activity comparing to control cultures. Thereinto, the energy density of 4 and 5 J/cm2 remarkably increased cell growth (P<0.01). The present study showed that a particular laser irradiation stimulates articular chondrocytes proliferation. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that low-power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  9. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  11. When is cartilage repair successful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raudner, M.; Roehrich, S.; Zalaudek, M.; Trattnig, S.; Schreiner, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Focal cartilage lesions are a cause of long-term disability and morbidity. After cartilage repair, it is crucial to evaluate long-term progression or failure in a reproducible, standardized manner. This article provides an overview of the different cartilage repair procedures and important characteristics to look for in cartilage repair imaging. Specifics and pitfalls are pointed out alongside general aspects. After successful cartilage repair, a complete, but not hypertrophic filling of the defect is the primary criterion of treatment success. The repair tissue should also be completely integrated to the surrounding native cartilage. After some months, the transplants signal should be isointense compared to native cartilage. Complications like osteophytes, subchondral defects, cysts, adhesion and chronic bone marrow edema or joint effusion are common and have to be observed via follow-up. Radiological evaluation and interpretation of postoperative changes should always take the repair method into account. (orig.) [de

  12. Particulated articular cartilage: CAIS and DeNovo NT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Jack; Cole, Brian J; Sherman, Seth; Karas, Vasili

    2012-03-01

    Cartilage Autograft Implantation System (CAIS; DePuy/Mitek, Raynham, MA) and DeNovo Natural Tissue (NT; ISTO, St. Louis, MO) are novel treatment options for focal articular cartilage defects in the knee. These methods involve the implantation of particulated articular cartilage from either autograft or juvenile allograft donor, respectively. In the laboratory and in animal models, both CAIS and DeNovo NT have demonstrated the ability of the transplanted cartilage cells to "escape" from the extracellular matrix, migrate, multiply, and form a new hyaline-like cartilage tissue matrix that integrates with the surrounding host tissue. In clinical practice, the technique for both CAIS and DeNovo NT is straightforward, requiring only a single surgery to affect cartilage repair. Clinical experience is limited, with short-term studies demonstrating both procedures to be safe, feasible, and effective, with improvements in subjective patient scores, and with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of good defect fill. While these treatment options appear promising, prospective randomized controlled studies are necessary to refine the indications and contraindications for both CAIS and DeNovo NT.

  13. Imaging diagnosis of the articular cartilage disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sirun; Zhu Tianyuan; Huang Li; Leng Xiaoming

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis among the chronic osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic cartilage lesions on the plain films and MR images. Methods: Eighty-nine cases, including 115 joints, underwent plain film and MRI examination, and enhanced MRI scan was performed on 32 of them, including 44 joints. MRI scan sequences consisted of T 1 WI, T 2 WI + PDWI, STIR, and 3D FS SPGR. There were 90 knee joints in this group and each of the articular cartilage was divided into four parts: patella, femoral medial condyle, femoral lateral condyle, and tibia facet on MR images. The cartilage disorders were classified according to the outerbridge method. In addition, 61 cases including 75 joints were observed as a control group on the plain films and MR images. Results: 115 cartilage lesions were found on MR images, in which thinness of the cartilage (58 cases, 50.4%), bone changes under the cartilage (22 cases, 19.7%), medullar edema (22 cases, 19.7%), and synovial hyperplasia (52 cases, 45.2%) were seen. The patella cartilage was the most likely affected part (81/90, 90%). So the patellar cartilage lesions were divided as group 1 (grade I-II) and group 2 (grade III-IV) on MR images, which were compared with the plain film signs. The narrowing of the joint space and saccules under the articular surface were statistically significant with each other, and χ 2 values were 9.349 and 9.885, respectively (P=0.002). Conclusion: No constant signs could be seen on the plain films with grade I-II cartilage disorders. While the narrowing joint space and saccules under the joint surface could be seen on them with grade III-IV cartilage disorders, which were mainly correlated with the cartilage disorders and bone changes under the articular cartilages. A combination of the plain films and MR images is the best imaging method for examining the joints and joint cartilages. Enhanced MRI scan is very helpful on the diagnosis and differential

  14. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  15. Articular cartilage changes in chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, G

    1985-11-01

    Full thickness samples of articular cartilage were removed from areas of chondromalacia on the medial and "odd" facets of the patellae of 21 adults and examined by histology, autoradiography and electron microscopy. Surface fibrillation, loss of superficial matrix staining and reduced 35SO4 labelling was seen, with little change in the deep zone. Ten cases showed "fibrous metaplasia" of the superficial cartilage with definite evidence of cell division and apparent smoothing of the surface. Scattered chondrocyte replication appeared to occur in the surrounding intact cartilage. The findings suggest that early lesions in chondromalacia patellae may heal either by cartilage or fibrous metaplasia and that this may account for the resolution of clinical symptoms.

  16. Preclinical Studies for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Mark B.; Buschmann, Michael D.; Fortier, Lisa A.; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Hunziker, Ernst B.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Sah, Robert L.; Whiteside, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Investigational devices for articular cartilage repair or replacement are considered to be significant risk devices by regulatory bodies. Therefore animal models are needed to provide proof of efficacy and safety prior to clinical testing. The financial commitment and regulatory steps needed to bring a new technology to clinical use can be major obstacles, so the implementation of highly predictive animal models is a pressing issue. Until recently, a reductionist approach using acute chondral defects in immature laboratory species, particularly the rabbit, was considered adequate; however, if successful and timely translation from animal models to regulatory approval and clinical use is the goal, a step-wise development using laboratory animals for screening and early development work followed by larger species such as the goat, sheep and horse for late development and pivotal studies is recommended. Such animals must have fully organized and mature cartilage. Both acute and chronic chondral defects can be used but the later are more like the lesions found in patients and may be more predictive. Quantitative and qualitative outcome measures such as macroscopic appearance, histology, biochemistry, functional imaging, and biomechanical testing of cartilage, provide reliable data to support investment decisions and subsequent applications to regulatory bodies for clinical trials. No one model or species can be considered ideal for pivotal studies, but the larger animal species are recommended for pivotal studies. Larger species such as the horse, goat and pig also allow arthroscopic delivery, and press-fit or sutured implant fixation in thick cartilage as well as second look arthroscopies and biopsy procedures. PMID:26069576

  17. Analysis of friction between articular cartilage and polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel artificial cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Anmin; Wang, Chengtao

    2016-05-01

    Many biomaterials are being used to repair damaged articular cartilage. In particular, poly vinyl alcohol hydrogel has similar mechanical properties to natural cartilage under compressive and shearing loading. Here, three-factor and two-level friction experiments and long-term tests were conducted to better evaluate its tribological properties. The friction coefficient between articular cartilage and the poly vinyl alcohol hydrogel depended primarily on the three factors of load, speed, and lubrication. When the speed increased from 10 to 20 mm/s under a load of 10 N, the friction coefficient increased from 0.12 to 0.147. When the lubricant was changed from Ringer's solution to a hyaluronic acid solution, the friction coefficient decreased to 0.084 with loads as high as 22 N. The poly vinyl alcohol hydrogel was severely damaged and lost its top surface layers, which were transferred to the articular cartilage surface. Wear was observed in the surface morphologies, which indicated the occurrence of surface adhesion of bovine cartilage. Surface fatigue and adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism.

  18. Similar hyaline-like cartilage repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits using isotropic and anisotropic collagen scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E.L.W. de; Hannink, G.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Daamen, W.F.; Buma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Lesions in knee joint articular cartilage (AC) have limited repair capacity. Many clinically available treatments induce a fibrous-like cartilage repair instead of hyaline cartilage. To induce hyaline cartilage repair, we hypothesized that type I collagen scaffolds with fibers aligned perpendicular

  19. Mechanical properties of hyaline and repair cartilage studied by nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, O; Durst, K; Maier, V; Göken, M; Birkholz, T; Schneider, H; Hennig, F; Gelse, K

    2007-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue that is well adapted to the functional demands in joints but difficult to replicate via tissue engineering or regeneration. Its viscoelastic properties allow cartilage to adapt to both slow and rapid mechanical loading. Several cartilage repair strategies that aim to restore tissue and protect it from further degeneration have been introduced. The key to their success is the quality of the newly formed tissue. In this study, periosteal cells loaded on a scaffold were used to repair large partial-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint of miniature pigs. The repair cartilage was analyzed 26 weeks after surgery and compared both morphologically and mechanically with healthy hyaline cartilage. Contact stiffness, reduced modulus and hardness as key mechanical properties were examined in vitro by nanoindentation in phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature. In addition, the influence of tissue fixation with paraformaldehyde on the biomechanical properties was investigated. Although the repair process resulted in the formation of a stable fibrocartilaginous tissue, its contact stiffness was lower than that of hyaline cartilage by a factor of 10. Fixation with paraformaldehyde significantly increased the stiffness of cartilaginous tissue by one order of magnitude, and therefore, should not be used when studying biomechanical properties of cartilage. Our study suggests a sensitive method for measuring the contact stiffness of articular cartilage and demonstrates the importance of mechanical analysis for proper evaluation of the success of cartilage repair strategies.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells can survive on the extracellular matrix-derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tavassoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective (s: The scarcity of articular cartilage defect to repair due to absence of blood vessels and tissue engineering is one of the promising approaches for cartilage regeneration. The objective of this study was to prepare an extracellular matrix derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold and investigate its interactions with seeded rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: Bovine articular cartilage that was cut into pieces with 2 mm thickness, were decellularized by combination of physical and chemical methods including snap freeze-thaw and treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The scaffolds were then seeded with 1, 1’-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3’, 3’-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI labeled BM-MSCs and cultured for up to two weeks. Results: Histological studies of decellularized bovine articular cartilage showed that using 5 cycles of snap freeze-thaw in liquid nitrogen and treatment with 2.5% SDS for 4 hr led to the best decellularization, while preserving the articular cartilage structure. Adherence and penetration of seeded BM-MSCs on to the scaffold were displayed by histological and florescence examinations and also confirmed by electron microscopy. Conclusion: ECM-derived decellularized articular cartilage scaffold provides a suitable environment to support adhesion and maintenance of cultured BM-MSCs and could be applied to investigate cellular behaviors in this system and may also be useful for studies of cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  2. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  3. A new source of mesenchymal stem cells for articular cartilage repair: MSCs derived from mobilized peripheral blood share similar biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo as MSCs from bone marrow in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Li; Zhou, Chun-Yan; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2014-03-01

    Bone marrow (BM) has been considered as a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but it has many disadvantages in clinical application. However, MSCs from peripheral blood (PB) could be obtained by a less invasive method and be more beneficial for autologous transplantation than BM MSCs, which makes PB a promising source for articular cartilage repair in clinical use. To assess whether MSCs from mobilized PB of New Zealand White rabbits have similar biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo as BM MSCs. Controlled laboratory study. A combined method of drug administration containing granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 was adopted to mobilize the PB stem cells of adult New Zealand White rabbits in vitro. The isolated cells were identified as MSCs by morphological characteristics, surface markers, and differentiation potentials. A comparison between PB MSCs and BM MSCs was made in terms of biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo. This issue was investigated from the aspects of morphology, immune phenotype, multiple differentiation capacity, expansion potential, antiapoptotic capacity, and ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo of PB MSCs compared with BM MSCs. Peripheral blood MSCs were successfully mobilized by the method of combined drug administration, then isolated, expanded, and identified in vitro. No significant difference was found concerning the morphology, immune phenotype, and antiapoptotic capacity between PB MSCs and BM MSCs. Significantly, MSCs from both sources compounded with decalcified bone matrix showed the same ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo. For multipluripotency, BM MSCs exhibited a more osteogenic potential and higher proliferation capacity than PB MSCs, whereas PB MSCs possessed a stronger adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential than BM MSCs in vitro. Although there are some differences in the proliferation and

  4. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  5. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  6. MRI evaluation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Wu Zhenhua; Fan Guoguang; Pan Shinong; Guo Qiyong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the MRI manifestation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee for evaluating the extension and degree of the injury and guiding treatment. Methods: MRI of 34 patients with acute articular cartilage injury of knee within one day to fifteen days confirmed by arthroscopy and arthrotomy was reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on articular cartilage and subchondral lesion. And every manifestation on MRI and that of arthroscopy and operation was compared. Results: The articular cartilage injury was diagnosed on MRI in 29 of 34 cases. Cartilage signal changes were found only in 4. The changes of cartilage shape were variable. Thinning of focal cartilage was showed in 3, osteochondral impaction in 3, creases of cartilage in 3, disrupted cartilage with fissuring in 13, cracks cartilage in 2, and cracks cartilage with displaced fragment in 1. Bone bruise and occult fracture were found only on MRI. Conclusion: The assessment of MRI and arthroscopy in acute articular cartilage injury are consistent. Combined with arthroscopy, MRI can succeed in assessing the extension and degree of acute articular injury and allowing treatment planning

  7. Articular cartilage: from formation to tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2016-05-26

    Hyaline cartilage is the nonlinear, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, poro-viscoelastic connective tissue that serves as friction-reducing and load-bearing cushion in synovial joints and is vital for mammalian skeletal movements. Due to its avascular nature, low cell density, low proliferative activity and the tendency of chondrocytes to de-differentiate, cartilage cannot regenerate after injury, wear and tear, or degeneration through common diseases such as osteoarthritis. Therefore severe damage usually requires surgical intervention. Current clinical strategies to generate new tissue include debridement, microfracture, autologous chondrocyte transplantation, and mosaicplasty. While articular cartilage was predicted to be one of the first tissues to be successfully engineered, it proved to be challenging to reproduce the complex architecture and biomechanical properties of the native tissue. Despite significant research efforts, only a limited number of studies have evolved up to the clinical trial stage. This review article summarizes the current state of cartilage tissue engineering in the context of relevant biological aspects, such as the formation and growth of hyaline cartilage, its composition, structure and biomechanical properties. Special attention is given to materials development, scaffold designs, fabrication methods, and template-cell interactions, which are of great importance to the structure and functionality of the engineered tissue.

  8. [Tribological assessment of articular cartilage. A system for the analysis of the friction coefficient of cartilage, regenerates and tissue engineering constructs; initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M L R; Schneider-Wald, B; Krase, A; Richter, W; Reisig, G; Kreinest, M; Heute, S; Pott, P P; Brade, J; Schütte, A

    2012-10-01

    Values for the friction coefficient of articular cartilage are given in ranges of percentage and lower and are calculated as a quotient of the friction force and the perpendicular loading force acting on it. Thus, a sophisticated system has to be provided for analysing the friction coefficient under different conditions in particular when cartilage should be coupled as friction partner. It is possible to deep-freeze articular cartilage before measuring the friction coefficient as the procedure has no influence on the results. The presented tribological system was able to distinguish between altered and native cartilage. Furthermore, tissue engineered constructs for cartilage repair were differentiated from native cartilage probes by their friction coefficient. In conclusion a tribological equipment is presented to analyze the friction coefficient of articular cartilage, in vivo generated cartilage regenerates and in vitro tissue engineered constructs regarding their biomechanical properties for quality assessment.

  9. Repair of large full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the rabbit: the effects of joint distraction and autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T; Ishii, T; Chang, F; Ochiai, N

    2005-05-01

    We produced large full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 33 rabbits in order to evaluate the effect of joint distraction and autologous culture-expanded bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cell transplantation (ACBMT) at 12 weeks. After fixing the knee on a hinged external fixator, we resected the entire surface of the tibial plateau. We studied three groups: 1) with and without joint distraction; 2) with joint distraction and collagen gel, and 3) with joint distraction and ACBMT and collagen gel. The histological scores were significantly higher in the groups with ACBMT collagen gel (p distraction, collagen gel and ACBMT.

  10. Diverse roles of integrin receptors in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, M; Csaki, C; Mobasheri, A

    2008-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least eighteen alpha and eight beta subunit genes have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are plasma membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and active as intra- and extracellular signalling molecules in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic spread of tumour cells. Integrin beta 1 (beta1-integrin), the protein encoded by the ITGB1 gene (also known as CD29 and VLAB), is a multi-functional protein involved in cell-matrix adhesion, cell signalling, cellular defense, cell adhesion, protein binding, protein heterodimerisation and receptor-mediated activity. It is highly expressed in the human body (17.4 times higher than the average gene in the last updated revision of the human genome). The extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage is a unique environment. Interactions between chondrocytes and the ECM regulate many biological processes important to homeostasis and repair of articular cartilage, including cell attachment, growth, differentiation and survival. The beta1-integrin family of cell surface receptors appears to play a major role in mediating cell-matrix interactions that are important in regulating these fundamental processes. Chondrocyte mechanoreceptors have been proposed to incorporate beta1-integrins and mechanosensitive ion channels which link with key ECM, cytoskeletal and signalling proteins to maintain the chondrocyte phenotype, prevent chondrocyte apoptosis and regulate chondrocyte-specific gene expression. This review focuses on the expression and function of beta1-integrins in articular chondrocytes, its role in the unique biology of these cells and its distribution in cartilage.

  11. Role of platelet-rich plasma in articular cartilage injury and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M; Fortier, Lisa A; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    Clinical and laboratory research aimed at biological approaches to cartilage repair are currently in high demand due to the poor regenerative capacity of articular cartilage in the setting of a diseased articular environment. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) takes advantage of supraphysiological concentrations of platelets and their growth factors harbored in α-granules, which together attempt to return the diseased articular cartilage to a preinjury state. The local use of PRP directly at the site of cartilage injury is thought to stimulate a natural healing cascade and accelerate the formation of cartilage repair tissue. This article provides an overview of the basic science behind the use of PRP in the treatment of cartilage injury and disease. Both initial and current examples of the use of intra-articular PRP in clinical human studies are provided. These include the use of PRP either alone or as an augmentation device with various other procedures, including arthroscopic microfracture and cell-free resorbable polyglycolic acid-hyaluronan implantation. Finally, the authors describe some of the potential future roles of PRP in clinical settings based on recent literature. These include Achilles tendon rupture, chronic tendinosis, chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy or tearing, muscle injury, and meniscal repair. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. New Frontiers for Cartilage Repair and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Zaslav, Kenneth; McAdams, Timothy; Scopp, Jason; Theosadakis, Jason; Mahajan, Vivek; Gobbi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Articular cartilage injury is common after athletic injury and remains a difficult treatment conundrum both for the surgeon and athlete. Although recent treatments for damage to articular cartilage have been successful in alleviating symptoms, more durable and complete, long-term articular surface restoration remains the unattained goal. In this article, we look at both new ways to prevent damage to articular surfaces as well as new techniques to recreate biomechanically sound and ...

  13. Polymer Formulations for Cartilage Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowska, Anna; Jasionowski, Marek; Morris, J. E.; Chrisler, William B.; An, Yuehuei H.; Mironov, V.

    2001-05-15

    Regeneration of destroyed articular cartilage can be induced by transplantation of cartilage cells into a defect. The best results are obtained with the use of autologus cells. However, obtaining large amounts of autologus cartilage cells causes a problem of creating a large cartilage defect in a donor site. Techniques are currently being developed to harvest a small number of cells and propagate them in vitro. It is a challenging task, however, due to the fact that ordinarily, in a cell culture on flat surfaces, chondrocytes do not maintain their in vivo phenotype and irreversibly diminish or cease the synthesis of aggregating proteoglycans. Therefore, the research is continuing to develop culture conditions for chondrocytes with the preserved phenotype.

  14. Articular Cartilage Increases Transition Zone Regeneration in Bone-tendon Junction Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Lee, Kwong Man; Leung, Kwok Sui

    2008-01-01

    The fibrocartilage transition zone in the direct bone-tendon junction reduces stress concentration and protects the junction from failure. Unfortunately, bone-tendon junctions often heal without fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. We hypothesized articular cartilage grafts could increase fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. Using a goat partial patellectomy repair model, autologous articular cartilage was harvested from the excised distal third patella and interposed between the residual proximal two-thirds bone fragment and tendon during repair in 36 knees. We evaluated fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration, bone formation, and mechanical strength after repair at 6, 12, and 24 weeks and compared them with direct repair. Autologous articular cartilage interposition resulted in more fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration (69.10% ± 14.11% [mean ± standard deviation] versus 8.67% ± 7.01% at 24 weeks) than direct repair at all times. There was no difference in the amount of bone formation and mechanical strength achieved. Autologous articular cartilage interposition increases fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration in bone-tendon junction healing, but additional research is required to ascertain the mechanism of stimulation and to establish the clinical applicability. PMID:18987921

  15. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration.

  16. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Toeyraes, Juha

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair

  17. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlovits, Stefan; Zeller, Philip; Singer, Philipp; Resinger, Christoph; Vecsei, Vilmos

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation

  18. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  19. Effect of donor age on DNA repair by articular chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that aging of articular chondrocytes at a cellular level results from loss of DNA repair capability was studied by two different measures: unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and O 6 -methylguanine acceptor protein (MGAP) activity. UDS following damage by 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (20J/m 2 ) was examined in intact articular cartilage from rabbits of different ages. Semiconservative DNA synthesis was suppressed with hydroxurea and repair followed by the incorporation of [ 3 H]-thymidine ([ 3 H]-dThd). After repair the cartilage was digested in proteinase K (0.5mg/ml) with dodecyl sodium sulfate (0.2%) and DNA determined with Hoechst 33258 dye. UDS (dpm [ 3 H]-dThd/μg DNA) was greater in articular cartilage from 3- than 39-month-old rabbits. MGAP was studied in cell extracts of cultured human and rabbit chondrocytes by transfer of [ 3 H] O 6 -methyl groups from exogenous DNA to protein. It was significantly less in rabbit than in human cells on a per protein or DNA basis. There was no decline in this activity in human chondrocytes from newborn to 60 years of age; and rabbits from 3- to 36-months-old. The data indicate that in the two different repair mechanisms, age differences are found with resting but not dividing chondrocytes

  20. Chitosan/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blend scaffolds for cartilage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, Sara C.; Moreira Teixeira, Liliana; Moroni, Lorenzo; Reis, Rui L.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Alves, Natália M.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; Mano, João F.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) blend 3D fiber-mesh scaffolds were studied as possible support structures for articular cartilage tissue (ACT) repair. Micro-fibers were obtained by wet-spinning of three different polymeric solutions: 100:0 (100CHT), 75:25 (75CHT) and 50:50 (50CHT) wt.%

  1. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts

  2. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Pia M.; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Link, Thomas M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair. PMID:24877139

  3. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia M. Jungmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  4. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roelof

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. METHODS: Explants of porcine

  5. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  6. Stem Cells and Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage defects represent a common problem in orthopaedic practice. Predisposing factors include traumas, inflammatory conditions, and biomechanics alterations. Conservative management of cartilage defects often fails, and patients with this lesions may need surgical intervention. Several treatment strategies have been proposed, although only surgery has been proved to be predictably effective. Usually, in focal cartilage defects without a stable fibrocartilaginous repair tissue formed, surgeons try to promote a natural fibrocartilaginous response by using marrow stimulating techniques, such as microfracture, abrasion arthroplasty, and Pridie drilling, with the aim of reducing swelling and pain and improving joint function of the patients. These procedures have demonstrated to be clinically useful and are usually considered as first-line treatment for focal cartilage defects. However, fibrocartilage presents inferior mechanical and biochemical properties compared to normal hyaline articular cartilage, characterized by poor organization, significant amounts of collagen type I, and an increased susceptibility to injury, which ultimately leads to premature osteoarthritis (OA. Therefore, the aim of future therapeutic strategies for articular cartilage regeneration is to obtain a hyaline-like cartilage repair tissue by transplantation of tissues or cells. Further studies are required to clarify the role of gene therapy and mesenchimal stem cells for management of cartilage lesions.

  7. Osteoarthritis: Control of human cartilage hypertrophic differentiation. Research highlight van: Gremlin1, frizzled-related protein, and Dkk-1 are key regulators of human articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckland, J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of articular cartilage homeostasis is important in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, key to which is activation of articular chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Healthy articular cartilage is resistant to hypertrophic differentiation, whereas growth-plate cartilage is destined to

  8. Hyaline Articular Matrix Formed by Dynamic Self-Regenerating Cartilage and Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Amanda M; Zhao, Xing; Griffin, Darvin J; Erali, Richard; Gill, Thomas J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Redmond, Robert W; Randolph, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Injuries to the articular cartilage surface are challenging to repair because cartilage possesses a limited capacity for self-repair. The outcomes of current clinical procedures aimed to address these injuries are inconsistent and unsatisfactory. We have developed a novel method for generating hyaline articular cartilage to improve the outcome of joint surface repair. A suspension of 10(7) swine chondrocytes was cultured under reciprocating motion for 14 days. The resulting dynamic self-regenerating cartilage (dSRC) was placed in a cartilage ring and capped with fibrin and collagen gel. A control group consisted of chondrocytes encapsulated in fibrin gel. Constructs were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and harvested after 6 weeks. Gross, histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and biomechanical analyses were performed. In swine patellar groove, dSRC was implanted into osteochondral defects capped with collagen gel and compared to defects filled with osteochondral plugs, collagen gel, or left empty after 6 weeks. In mice, the fibrin- and collagen-capped dSRC constructs showed enhanced contiguous cartilage matrix formation over the control of cells encapsulated in fibrin gel. Biochemically, the fibrin and collagen gel dSRC groups were statistically improved in glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline content compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical data between the dSRC groups and the control. The swine model also showed contiguous cartilage matrix in the dSRC group but not in the collagen gel and empty defects. These data demonstrate the survivability and successful matrix formation of dSRC under the mechanical forces experienced by normal hyaline cartilage in the knee joint. The results from this study demonstrate that dSRC capped with hydrogels successfully engineers contiguous articular cartilage matrix in both nonload-bearing and load-bearing environments.

  9. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Blumenkrantz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1Ρ are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imaging techniques show promise for cartilage assessment and for the study of osteoarthritis.

  10. Sonographic evaluation of femoral articular cartilage in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Hwan; Kong Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Young Ho; Song, Yeong Wook; Kang, Heung Sik

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of sonography for the evaluation of osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Ten asymptomatic volunteers and 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent sonographic evaluation. For this, the knee was maintained of full flexion in order to expose the deep portion of femoral condylar cartilage. Both transverse and longitudinal scans were obtained in standardized planes. Sonographic images of the articular cartilages were analyzed in terms of surface sharpness, echogenicity and thickness, along with associated bone changes. Normal cartilages showed a clearly-defined surface, homogeneously low echogenicity and regular thickness. Among 20 patients, the findings for medial and lateral condyles, respectively, were as follows: poorly defined cartilage surface, 16 (80%) and ten (50%); increased echogenicity of cartilage, 17 (85%) and 16 (80%); cartilage thinning, 16 (80%) and 14 (70%) (two medial condyles demonstrated obvious cartilage thickening); the presence of thick subchondral hyperechoic bands, five (25%) and four (20%); the presence of osteophytes, 13 (65%) and 12 (60%). Sonography is a convenient and accurate modality for the evaluation of femoral articular cartilage. In particular, it can be useful for detecting early degenerative cartilaginous change and for studying such change during clinical follow-up. (author)

  11. Cartilage Integration: Evaluation of the reasons for failure of integration during cartilage repair. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM Khan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a challenging tissue to reconstruct or replace principally because of its avascular nature; large chondral lesions in the tissue do not spontaneously heal. Where lesions do penetrate the bony subchondral plate, formation of hematomas and the migration of mesenchymal stem cells provide an inferior and transient fibrocartilagenous replacement for hyaline cartilage. To circumvent the poor intrinsic reparative response of articular cartilage several surgical techniques based on tissue transplantation have emerged. One characteristic shared by intrinsic reparative processes and the new surgical therapies is an apparent lack of lateral integration of repair or graft tissue with the host cartilage that can lead to poor prognosis. Many factors have been cited as impeding cartilage:cartilage integration including; chondrocyte cell death, chondrocyte dedifferentiation, the nature of the collagenous and proteoglycan networks that constitute the extracellular matrix, the type of biomaterial scaffold employed in repair and the origin of the cells used to repopulate the defect or lesion. This review addresses the principal intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impede integration and describe how manipulation of these factors using a host of strategies can positively influence cartilage integration.

  12. Endogenous Cartilage Repair by Recruitment of Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Gun-Il

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for repair after injury. The adult body has a pool of stem cells that are mobilized during injury or disease. These cells exist inside niches in bone marrow, muscle, adipose tissue, synovium, and other connective tissues. A method that mobilizes this endogenous pool of stem cells will provide a less costly and less invasive alternative if these cells successfully regenerate defective cartilage. Traditional microfracture procedures employ the concept of bone marrow stimulation to regenerate cartilage. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has very poor mechanical properties compared to those of normal hyaline cartilage. A method that directs the migration of a large number of autologous mesenchymal stem cells toward injury sites, retains these cells around the defects, and induces chondrogenic differentiation that would enhance success of endogenous cartilage repair. This review briefly summarizes chemokines and growth factors that induce recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells, endogenous cell sources for regenerating cartilage, scaffolds for delivery of bioactive factors, and bioadhesive materials that are necessary to bring about endogenous cartilage repair.

  13. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A New Path in Articular Cartilage Defect Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Philipp Stromps

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 6 million people undergo a variety of medical procedures for the repair of articular cartilage defects in the U.S. each year. Trauma, tumor, and age-related degeneration can cause major defects in articular cartilage, which has a poor intrinsic capacity for healing. Therefore, there is substantial interest in the development of novel cartilage tissue engineering strategies to restore articular cartilage defects to a normal or prediseased state. Special attention has been paid to the expansion of chondrocytes, which produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix in healthy cartilage. This review summarizes the current efforts to generate chondrocytes from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and provides an outlook on promising future strategies.

  14. The bio in the ink: cartilage regeneration with bioprintable hydrogels and articular cartilage-derived progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levato, Riccardo; Webb, William R; Otto, Iris A; Mensinga, Anneloes; Zhang, Yadan; van Rijen, Mattie; van Weeren, René; Khan, Ilyas M; Malda, Jos

    2017-10-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels are the primary building blocks for bioprinting, and, also termed bioinks, are the foundations for creating structures that can potentially recapitulate the architecture of articular cartilage. To be functional, hydrogel constructs need to unlock the regenerative capacity of encapsulated cells. The recent identification of multipotent articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs), which share important traits with adult stem cells, represents a new opportunity for cartilage regeneration. However, little is known about the suitability of ACPCs for tissue engineering, especially in combination with biomaterials. This study aimed to investigate the potential of ACPCs in hydrogels for cartilage regeneration and biofabrication, and to evaluate their ability for zone-specific matrix production. Gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA)-based hydrogels were used to culture ACPCs, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes, and as bioinks for printing. Our data shows ACPCs outperformed chondrocytes in terms of neo-cartilage production and unlike MSCs, ACPCs had the lowest gene expression levels of hypertrophy marker collagen type X, and the highest expression of PRG4, a key factor in joint lubrication. Co-cultures of the cell types in multi-compartment hydrogels allowed generating constructs with a layered distribution of collagens and glycosaminoglycans. By combining ACPC- and MSC-laden bioinks, a bioprinted model of articular cartilage was generated, consisting of defined superficial and deep regions, each with distinct cellular and extracellular matrix composition. Taken together, these results provide important information for the use of ACPC-laden hydrogels in regenerative medicine, and pave the way to the biofabrication of 3D constructs with multiple cell types for cartilage regeneration or in vitro tissue models. Despite its limited ability to repair, articular cartilage harbors an endogenous population of progenitor cells

  15. MR Imaging of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Uetani, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    MR imaging is still an evolving technique for the diagnosis of joint cartilage lesions. Early morphologic changes in the degenerative cartilage are not reliably diagnosed even with use of tailored MR imaging techniques. The detection of the biochemical changes of cartilage or high-resolution MRI will serve as an important tool for the early diagnosis of cartilage degeneration in near future. Further prospective studies are needed to establish the role of MR imaging in clinical use.

  16. Matrix development in self-assembly of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidon Ofek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a highly functional tissue which covers the ends of long bones and serves to ensure proper joint movement. A tissue engineering approach that recapitulates the developmental characteristics of articular cartilage can be used to examine the maturation and degeneration of cartilage and produce fully functional neotissue replacements for diseased tissue.This study examined the development of articular cartilage neotissue within a self-assembling process in two phases. In the first phase, articular cartilage constructs were examined at 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days immunohistochemically, histologically, and through biochemical analysis for total collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content. Based on statistical changes in GAG and collagen levels, four time points from the first phase (7, 14, 28, and 56 days were chosen to carry into the second phase, where the constructs were studied in terms of their mechanical characteristics, relative amounts of collagen types II and VI, and specific GAG types (chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan. Collagen type VI was present in initial abundance and then localized to a pericellular distribution at 4 wks. N-cadherin activity also spiked at early stages of neotissue development, suggesting that self-assembly is mediated through a minimization of free energy. The percentage of collagen type II to total collagen significantly increased over time, while the proportion of collagen type VI to total collagen decreased between 1 and 2 wks. The chondroitin 6- to 4- sulfate ratio decreased steadily during construct maturation. In addition, the compressive properties reached a plateau and tensile characteristics peaked at 4 wks.The indices of cartilage formation examined in this study suggest that tissue maturation in self-assembled articular cartilage mirrors known developmental processes for native tissue. In terms of tissue engineering, it is

  17. Impact of exercise on articular cartilage: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bricca, Alessio

    2018-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the evidence on the impact of exercise on articular cartilage. No evidence was found to support beneficial effects of exercise on articular cartilage, although in people at risk of, or with, knee osteoarthritis, exercise is not harmful for articular cartilage structure and ...

  18. Segmenting articular cartilage automatically using a voxel classification approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F

    2007-01-01

    We present a fully automatic method for articular cartilage segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which we use as the foundation of a quantitative cartilage assessment. We evaluate our method by comparisons to manual segmentations by a radiologist and by examining the interscan...... reproducibility of the volume and area estimates. Training and evaluation of the method is performed on a data set consisting of 139 scans of knees with a status ranging from healthy to severely osteoarthritic. This is, to our knowledge, the only fully automatic cartilage segmentation method that has good...... agreement with manual segmentations, an interscan reproducibility as good as that of a human expert, and enables the separation between healthy and osteoarthritic populations. While high-field scanners offer high-quality imaging from which the articular cartilage have been evaluated extensively using manual...

  19. New Frontiers for Cartilage Repair and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslav, Kenneth; McAdams, Timothy; Scopp, Jason; Theosadakis, Jason; Mahajan, Vivek; Gobbi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage injury is common after athletic injury and remains a difficult treatment conundrum both for the surgeon and athlete. Although recent treatments for damage to articular cartilage have been successful in alleviating symptoms, more durable and complete, long-term articular surface restoration remains the unattained goal. In this article, we look at both new ways to prevent damage to articular surfaces as well as new techniques to recreate biomechanically sound and biochemically true articular surfaces once an athlete injures this surface. This goal should include reproducing hyaline cartilage with a well-integrated and flexible subchondral base and the normal zonal variability in the articular matrix. A number of nonoperative interventions have shown early promise in mitigating cartilage symptoms and in preclinical studies have shown evidence of chondroprotection. These include the use of glucosamine, chondroitin, and other neutraceuticals, viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma, and pulsed electromagnetic fields. Newer surgical techniques, some already in clinical study, and others on the horizon offer opportunities to improve the surgical restoration of the hyaline matrix often disrupted in athletic injury. These include new scaffolds, single-stage cell techniques, the use of mesenchymal stem cells, and gene therapy. Although many of these treatments are in the preclinical and early clinical study phase, they offer the promise of better options to mitigate the sequelae of athletically induced cartilage.

  20. Study of the collagen structure in the superficial zone and physiological state of articular cartilage using a 3D confocal imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ming H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The collagen structure in the superficial zone of articular cartilage is critical to the tissue's durability. Early osteoarthritis is often characterized with fissures on the articular surface. This is closely related to the disruption of the collagen network. However, the traditional histology can not offer visualization of the collagen structure in articular cartilage because it uses conventional optical microscopy that does not have insufficient imaging resolution to resolve collagen from proteoglycans in hyaline articular cartilage. This study examines the 3D collagen network of articular cartilage scored from 0 to 2 in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society, and aims to develop a 3D histology for assessing early osteoarthritis. Methods Articular cartilage was visually classified into five physiological groups: normal cartilage, aged cartilage, cartilage with artificial and natural surface disruption, and fibrillated. The 3D collagen matrix of the cartilage was acquired using a 3D imaging technique developed previously. Traditional histology was followed to grade the physiological status of the cartilage in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society. Results Normal articular cartilage contains interwoven collagen bundles near the articular surface, approximately within the lamina splendens. However, its collagen fibres in the superficial zone orient predominantly in a direction spatially oblique to the articular surface. With age and disruption of the articular surface, the interwoven collagen bundles are gradually disappeared, and obliquely oriented collagen fibres change to align predominantly in a direction spatially perpendicular to the articular surface. Disruption of the articular surface is well related to the disappearance of the interwoven collagen bundles. Conclusion A 3D histology has been developed to supplement the traditional histology and study the subtle changes in

  1. Articular cartilage tissue engineering with plasma-rich in growth factors and stem cells with nano scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Abbassy, Hadeer A.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. There is a great promise to advance current cartilage therapies toward achieving a consistently successful approach for addressing cartilage afflictions. Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. In this paper, current and emergent approach in the field of cartilage tissue engineering is presented for specific application. In the next years, the development of new strategies using stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium could improve the quality of new formed cartilage.

  2. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic

  3. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly

  4. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly

  5. Automatic quantification of local and global articular cartilage surface curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the surface curvature of the articular cartilage from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and to investigate its role in populations with varying radiographic signs of osteoarthritis (OA), cross-sectionally and longitudinally...

  6. Three-Dimensional Printing Articular Cartilage: Recapitulating the Complexity of Native Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Lembong, Josephine; Zhang, Lijie Grace; Fisher, John P

    2017-06-01

    In the past few decades, the field of tissue engineering combined with rapid prototyping (RP) techniques has been successful in creating biological substitutes that mimic tissues. Its applications in regenerative medicine have drawn efforts in research from various scientific fields, diagnostics, and clinical translation to therapies. While some areas of therapeutics are well developed, such as skin replacement, many others such as cartilage repair can still greatly benefit from tissue engineering and RP due to the low success and/or inefficiency of current existing, often surgical treatments. Through fabrication of complex scaffolds and development of advanced materials, RP provides a new avenue for cartilage repair. Computer-aided design and three-dimensional (3D) printing allow the fabrication of modeled cartilage scaffolds for repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage tissues. Specifically, the various processes of 3D printing will be discussed in details, both cellular and acellular techniques, covering the different materials, geometries, and operational printing conditions for the development of tissue-engineered articular cartilage. Finally, we conclude with some insights on future applications and challenges related to this technology, especially using 3D printing techniques to recapitulate the complexity of native structure for advanced cartilage regeneration.

  7. Tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage : the current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, L.M.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Ito, K.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and disability. It involves all ages and 70% of people aged >65 have some degree of osteoarthritis. Natural cartilage repair is limited because chondrocyte density and metabolism are low and cartilage has no blood supply. The

  8. Platelet lysate activates quiescent cell proliferation and reprogramming in human articular cartilage: Involvement of hypoxia inducible factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2018-03-01

    The idea of rescuing the body self-repair capability lost during evolution is progressively gaining ground in regenerative medicine. In particular, growth factors and bioactive molecules derived from activated platelets emerged as promising therapeutic agents acting as trigger for repair of tissue lesions and restoration of tissue functions. Aim of this study was to assess the potential of a platelet lysate (PL) for human articular cartilage repair considering its activity on progenitor cells and differentiated chondrocytes. PL induced the re-entry in the cell cycle of confluent, growth-arrested dedifferentiated/progenitor cartilage cells. In a cartilage permissive culture environment, differentiated cells also resumed proliferation after exposure to PL. These findings correlated with an up-regulation of the proliferation/survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with an induction of cyclin D1. In short- and long-term cultures of articular cartilage explants, we observed a release of proliferating chondroprogenitors able to differentiate and form an "in vitro" tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha increase, its nuclear relocation and the binding to HIF-1 responsive elements. These events were possibly related to the cell proliferation because the HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine inhibited HIF-1 binding to HIF-1 responsive elements and cell proliferation. Our study demonstrates that PL induces quiescent cartilage cell activation and proliferation leading to new cartilage formation, identifies PL activated pathways playing a role in these processes, and provides a rationale to the application of PL for therapeutic treatment of damaged articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An ex vivo human cartilage repair model to evaluate the potency of a cartilage cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Christoph; Meixner, Miriam; Giesemann, Petra; Roël, Giulietta; Bulwin, Grit-Carsta; Smink, Jeske J

    2016-11-15

    Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation are promising therapeutic approaches to treat cartilage defects to prevent further cartilage degeneration. To assure consistent quality of cell-based therapeutics, it is important to be able to predict the biological activity of such products. This requires the development of a potency assay, which assesses a characteristic of the cell transplant before implantation that can predict its cartilage regeneration capacity after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed as quality assessment tool for potency and applied to co.don's chondrosphere product, a matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implant (chondrocyte spheroids) that is in clinical use in Germany. Chondrocyte spheroids were generated from 14 donors, and implanted into a subchondral cartilage defect that was manually generated in human articular cartilage tissue. Implanted spheroids and cartilage tissue were co-cultured ex vivo for 12 weeks to allow regeneration processes to form new tissue within the cartilage defect. Before implantation, spheroid characteristics like glycosaminoglycan production and gene and protein expression of chondrogenic markers were assessed for each donor sample and compared to determine donor-dependent variation. After the co-cultivation, histological analyses showed the formation of repair tissue within the cartilage defect, which varied in amount for the different donors. In the repair tissue, aggrecan protein was expressed and extra-cellular matrix cartilage fibers were present, both indicative for a cartilage hyaline-like character of the repair tissue. The amount of formed repair tissue was used as a read-out for regeneration capacity and was correlated with the spheroid characteristics determined before implantation. A positive correlation was found between high level of aggrecan protein expression in spheroids before implantation and a higher regeneration potential

  10. An ex vivo human cartilage repair model to evaluate the potency of a cartilage cell transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation are promising therapeutic approaches to treat cartilage defects to prevent further cartilage degeneration. To assure consistent quality of cell-based therapeutics, it is important to be able to predict the biological activity of such products. This requires the development of a potency assay, which assesses a characteristic of the cell transplant before implantation that can predict its cartilage regeneration capacity after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed as quality assessment tool for potency and applied to co.don’s chondrosphere product, a matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implant (chondrocyte spheroids that is in clinical use in Germany. Methods Chondrocyte spheroids were generated from 14 donors, and implanted into a subchondral cartilage defect that was manually generated in human articular cartilage tissue. Implanted spheroids and cartilage tissue were co-cultured ex vivo for 12 weeks to allow regeneration processes to form new tissue within the cartilage defect. Before implantation, spheroid characteristics like glycosaminoglycan production and gene and protein expression of chondrogenic markers were assessed for each donor sample and compared to determine donor-dependent variation. Results After the co-cultivation, histological analyses showed the formation of repair tissue within the cartilage defect, which varied in amount for the different donors. In the repair tissue, aggrecan protein was expressed and extra-cellular matrix cartilage fibers were present, both indicative for a cartilage hyaline-like character of the repair tissue. The amount of formed repair tissue was used as a read-out for regeneration capacity and was correlated with the spheroid characteristics determined before implantation. A positive correlation was found between high level of aggrecan protein expression in spheroids

  11. Laser solder welding of articular cartilage: tensile strength and chondrocyte viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züger, B J; Ott, B; Mainil-Varlet, P; Schaffner, T; Clémence, J F; Weber, H P; Frenz, M

    2001-01-01

    The surgical treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint remains a therapeutic challenge. Recently, new techniques for articular cartilage transplantation, such as mosaicplasty, have become available for cartilage repair. The long-term success of these techniques, however, depends not only on the chondrocyte viability but also on a lateral integration of the implant. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cartilage welding by using albumin solder that was dye-enhanced to allow coagulation with 808-nm laser diode irradiation. Conventional histology of light microscopy was compared with a viability staining to precisely determine the extent of thermal damage after laser welding. Indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced albumin solder (25% albumin, 0.5% HA, 0.1% ICG) was used for articular cartilage welding. For coagulation, the solder was irradiated through the cartilage implant by 808-nm laser light and the tensile strength of the weld was measured. Viability staining revealed a thermal damage of typically 500 m in depth at an irradiance of approximately 10 W/cm(2) for 8 seconds, whereas conventional histologies showed only half of the extent found by the viability test. Heat-bath investigations revealed a threshold temperature of minimum 54 degrees C for thermal damage of chondrocytes. Efficient cartilage bonding was obtained by using bovine albumin solder as adhesive. Maximum tensile strength of more than 10 N/cm(2) was achieved. Viability tests revealed that the thermal damage is much greater (up to twice) than expected after light microscopic characterization. This study shows the feasibility to strongly laser weld cartilage on cartilage by use of a dye-enhanced albumin solder. Possibilities to reduce the range of damage are suggested. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to Ho:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauner, Kenneth B.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Patel, Dinesh K.

    1992-06-01

    A Ho:YAG laser system operating at a wavelength of 2.1 microns has recently been introduced for use in arthroscopic surgery. The acceptability of this new tool will be determined not only by its ability to resect tissue, but also by its long term effects on articular surfaces. In order to investigate these issues further, we performed two studies to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of the laser on cartilaginous tissue. We evaluated the acute, in vitro effects of 2.1 micron laser irradiation on articular and fibrocartilage. This included the measurement of ablation efficiency, ablation threshold and thermal damage in both meniscus and articular cartilage. To document the chronic effects on articular cartilage in vivo, we next performed a ten week healing study. Eight sheep weighing 30 - 40 kg underwent bilateral arthrotomy procedures. Multiple full thickness and partial thickness defects were created. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 10 weeks. The healing study demonstrated: (1) no healing of full or partial thickness defects at 10 weeks with hyaline cartilage; (2) fibrocartilaginous granulation tissue filling full thickness defects at two and four weeks, but no longer evident at ten weeks; (3) chondrocyte necrosis extending to greater than 900 microns distal to ablation craters at four weeks with no evidence of repair at later dates; and (4) chondrocyte hyperplasia at the borders of the damage zone at two weeks but no longer evident at later sacrifice dates.

  13. Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage

  14. Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-07-01

    Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net /sup 35/SO/sub 4/-labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage.

  15. Gremlin 1, Frizzled-related protein, and Dkk-1 are key regulators of human articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Emons, J.; Sticht, C.; van Gool, S.; Decker, E.; Uitterlinden, A.; Rappold, G.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Scherjon, S.; Wit, J.M.; van Meurs, J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Objective The development of osteoarthritis (OA) may be caused by activation of hypertrophic differentiation of articular chondrocytes. Healthy articular cartilage is highly resistant to hypertrophic differentiation, in contrast to other hyaline cartilage subtypes, such as growth plate cartilage.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Articular Cartilage, Synovial Membrane and Synovial Fluid for Cartilage Regeneration: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Xie, Hui-Qi; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Huang, Yong-Can

    2017-10-01

    Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial. The tissue origin of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells notably influences the biological properties and therapeutic potential. It is well known that mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability compared with those derived from non-joint tissues; thus, these cell populations are considered ideal sources for cartilage regeneration. In addition to the progress in research and promising preclinical results, many important research questions must be answered before widespread success in cartilage regeneration is achieved. This review outlines the biology of stem/progenitor cells derived from the articular cartilage, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid, including their tissue distribution, function and biological characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical trials focusing on their applications for cartilage regeneration are summarized, and future research perspectives are discussed.

  17. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sotoudeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  18. Repair of articular osteochondral defects of the knee joint using a composite lamellar scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y M; Yu, Q S

    2015-04-01

    The major problem with repair of an articular cartilage injury is the extensive difference in the structure and function of regenerated, compared with normal cartilage. Our work investigates the feasibility of repairing articular osteochondral defects in the canine knee joint using a composite lamellar scaffold of nano-ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP)/collagen (col) I and II with bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) and assesses its biological compatibility. The bone-cartilage scaffold was prepared as a laminated composite, using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAP)/collagen I/copolymer of polylactic acid-hydroxyacetic acid as the bony scaffold, and sodium hyaluronate/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) as the cartilaginous scaffold. Ten-to 12-month-old hybrid canines were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. BMSCs were obtained from the iliac crest of each animal, and only those of the third generation were used in experiments. An articular osteochondral defect was created in the right knee of dogs in both groups. Those in the experimental group were treated by implanting the composites consisting of the lamellar scaffold of ß-TCP/col I/col II/BMSCs. Those in the control group were left untreated. After 12 weeks of implantation, defects in the experimental group were filled with white semi-translucent tissue, protruding slightly over the peripheral cartilage surface. After 24 weeks, the defect space in the experimental group was filled with new cartilage tissues, finely integrated into surrounding normal cartilage. The lamellar scaffold of ß-TCP/col I/col II was gradually degraded and absorbed, while new cartilage tissue formed. In the control group, the defects were not repaired. This method can be used as a suitable scaffold material for the tissue-engineered repair of articular cartilage defects. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:56-64. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. A retrospective analysis of two independent prospective cartilage repair studies : autogenous perichondrial grafting versus subchondral drilling 10 years post-surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, PSJM; Homminga, GN; Bulstra, SK; Geesink, RGT; Kuijer, Roelof

    Background: Experimental data indicate that perichondrial grafting to restore articular cartilage defects will result in repair with hyaline-like cartilage, In contrast, debridement and drilling results in repair with fibro-cartilage. In this retrospective study the long-term clinical results of

  20. Chondroitin sulfate reduces the friction coefficient of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Ines M; Chahine, Nadeen O; Kaplun, Michael; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS)-C on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage. The main hypothesis is that CS decreases the friction coefficient of articular cartilage. Corollary hypotheses are that viscosity and osmotic pressure are not the mechanisms that mediate the reduction in the friction coefficient by CS. In Experiment 1, bovine articular cartilage samples (n=29) were tested in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or in PBS containing 100mg/ml of CS following 48h incubation in PBS or in PBS+100mg/ml CS (control specimens were not subjected to any incubation). In Experiment 2, samples (n=23) were tested in four different solutions: PBS, PBS+100mg/ml CS, and PBS+polyethylene glycol (PEG) (133 or 170mg/ml). In Experiment 3, samples (n=18) were tested in three solutions of CS (0, 10 and 100mg/ml). Frictional tests (cartilage-on-glass) were performed under constant stress (0.5MPa) for 3600s and the time-dependent friction coefficient was measured. Samples incubated or tested in a 100mg/ml CS solution exhibited a significantly lower equilibrium friction coefficient than the respective PBS control. PEG solutions delayed the rise in the friction coefficient relative to the PBS control, but did not reduce the equilibrium value. Testing in PBS+10mg/ml of CS did not cause any significant decrease in the friction coefficient. In conclusion, CS at a concentration of 100mg/ml significantly reduces the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage and this mechanism is neither mediated by viscosity nor osmolarity. These results suggest that direct injection of CS into the joint may provide beneficial tribological effects.

  1. Cellular and Acellular Approaches for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are several choices of cells to use for cartilage repair. Cells are used as internal or external sources and sometimes in combination. In this article, an analysis of the different cell choices and their use and potential is provided. Embryonic cartilage formation is of importance when finding more about how to be able to perfect cartilage repair. Some suggestions for near future research based on up-to-date knowledge on chondrogenic cells are given to hopefully stimulate more studies on the final goal of cartilage regeneration. PMID:27340516

  2. Molecular modulation of articular cartilage degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Ellie

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage homeostasis is maintained due to a balance between anabolic and catabolic processes, that are regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways. Disturbance of one or more of these pathways disrupts this balance, resulting in excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix and

  3. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration. Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected. Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

  4. The mechanobiology of articular cartilage development and degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dennis R; Beaupré, Gary S; Wong, Marcy; Smith, R Lane; Andriacchi, Tom P; Schurman, David J

    2004-10-01

    The development, maintenance, and destruction of cartilage are regulated by mechanical factors throughout life. Mechanical cues in the cartilage fetal endoskeleton influence the expression of genes that guide the processes of growth, vascular invasion, and ossification. Intermittent fluid pressure maintains the cartilage phenotype whereas mild tension (or shear) promotes growth and ossification. The articular cartilage thickness is determined by the position at which the subchondral growth front stabilizes. In mature joints, cartilage is thickest and healthiest where the contact pressure and cartilage fluid pressure are greatest. The depth-dependent histomorphology reflects the local fluid pressure, tensile strain, and fluid exudation. Osteoarthritis represents the final demise and loss of cartilage in the skeletal elements. The initiation and progression of osteoarthritis can follow many pathways and can be promoted by mechanical factors including: (1) reduced loading, which activates the subchondral growth front by reducing fluid pressure; (2) blunt impact, causing microdamage and activation of the subchondral growth front by local shear stress; (3) mechanical abnormalities that increase wear at the articulating surface; and (4) other mechanically related factors. Research should be directed at integrating our mechanical understanding of osteoarthritis pathogenesis and progression within the framework of cellular and molecular events throughout ontogeny.

  5. The Influence of Articular Cartilage Thickness Reduction on Meniscus Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczkiewicz, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Karol; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Witkowski, Wojciech; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the biomechanical interaction between meniscus and cartilage in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The finite element method was used to simulate knee joint contact mechanics. Three knee models were created on the basis of knee geometry from the Open Knee project. We reduced the thickness of medial cartilages in the intact knee model by approximately 50% to obtain a medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) model. Two variants of medial knee OA model with congruent and incongruent contact surfaces were analysed to investigate the influence of congruency. A nonlinear static analysis for one compressive load case was performed. The focus of the study was the influence of cartilage degeneration on meniscal extrusion and the values of the contact forces and contact areas. In the model with incongruent contact surfaces, we observed maximal compressive stress on the tibial plateau. In this model, the value of medial meniscus external shift was 95.3% greater, while the contact area between the tibial cartilage and medial meniscus was 50% lower than in the congruent contact surfaces model. After the non-uniform reduction of cartilage thickness, the medial meniscus carried only 48.4% of load in the medial compartment in comparison to 71.2% in the healthy knee model. We have shown that the change in articular cartilage geometry may significantly reduce the role of meniscus in load transmission and the contact area between the meniscus and cartilage. Additionally, medial knee OA may increase the risk of meniscal extrusion in the medial compartment of the knee joint.

  6. Effect of Transplanting Various Concentrations of a Composite of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel on Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Beom Park

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to have therapeutic potential for cartilage repair. However, the optimal concentration of MSCs for cartilage repair remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the feasibility of cartilage repair by human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs and to determine the optimal concentrations of the MSCs in a rabbit model.Osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of femur in 55 rabbits. Four experimental groups (11 rabbits/group were treated by transplanting the composite of hUCB-MSCs and HA with various MSCs concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 x 107 cells/ml. One control group was left untreated. At 4, 8, and 16 weeks post-transplantation, the degree of cartilage repair was evaluated grossly and histologically.Overall, transplanting hUCB-MSCs and HA hydrogel resulted in cartilage repair tissue with better quality than the control without transplantation (P = 0.015 in 0.1, P = 0.004 in 0.5, P = 0.004 in 1.0, P = 0.132 in 1.5 x 107 cells/ml. Interestingly, high cell concentration of hUCB-MSCs (1.5×107 cells/ml was inferior to low cell concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 x 107 cells/ml in cartilage repair (P = 0.394,P = 0.041, P = 0.699, respectively. The 0.5 x 107 cells/ml group showed the highest cartilage repair score at 4, 8 and 16 weeks post transplantation, and followed by 0.1x107 cells/ml group or 1.0 x 107 cell/ml group.The results of this study suggest that transplantation of the composite of hUCB-MSCs and HA is beneficial for cartilage repair. In addition, this study shows that optimal MSC concentration needs to be determined for better cartilage repair.

  7. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  8. The stimulation of mononuclear cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to degrade articular cartilage is not modulated by cartilage itself

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roon, J. A.; van Roy, J. L.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    To study the modulation of mononuclear cell (MNC) activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by constituents released from human articular cartilage, which may be present in vivo during early events of the disease, when articular cartilage is not only mildly damaged. In an attempt to

  9. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranenbarg Sander

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage (AC is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly parallel to the articular surface near the articular surface. Recent studies into collagen fibre orientation in stillborn and juvenile animals showed that this structure is absent at birth. Since the collagen structure is an important factor for AC mechanics, the absence of the adult Benninghoff structure has implications for perinatal AC mechanobiology. The current objective is to quantify the dynamics of collagen network development in a model animal from birth to maturity. We further aim to show the presence or absence of zonal differentiation at birth, and to assess differences in collagen network development between different anatomical sites of a single joint surface. We use quantitative polarised light microscopy to investigate properties of the collagen network and we use the sheep (Ovis aries as our model animal. Results Predominant collagen orientation is parallel to the articular surface throughout the tissue depth for perinatal cartilage. This remodels to the Benninghoff structure before the sheep reach sexual maturity. Remodelling of predominant collagen orientation starts at a depth just below the future transitional zone. Tissue retardance shows a minimum near the articular surface at all ages, which indicates the presence of zonal differentiation at all ages. The absolute position of this minimum does change between birth and maturity. Between different anatomical sites, we find differences in the dynamics of collagen remodelling, but no differences in adult collagen structure. Conclusions The collagen network in articular cartilage remodels between birth and sexual maturity from a network with predominant orientation parallel to the

  10. Cartilage repair in the degenerative ageing knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittberg, Mats; Gomoll, Andreas H; Canseco, José A; Far, Jack; Lind, Martin; Hui, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cartilage damage can develop due to trauma, resulting in focal chondral or osteochondral defects, or as more diffuse loss of cartilage in a generalized organ disease such as osteoarthritis. A loss of cartilage function and quality is also seen with increasing age. There is a spectrum of diseases ranging from focal cartilage defects with healthy surrounding cartilage to focal lesions in degenerative cartilage, to multiple and diffuse lesions in osteoarthritic cartilage. At the recent Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015, regenerative challenges in an ageing population were discussed by clinicians and basic scientists. A group of clinicians was given the task of discussing the role of tissue engineering in the treatment of degenerative cartilage lesions in ageing patients. We present the outcomes of our discussions on current treatment options for such lesions, with particular emphasis on different biological repair techniques and their supporting level of evidence. Results and interpretation Based on the studies on treatment of degenerative lesions and early OA, there is low-level evidence to suggest that cartilage repair is a possible treatment for such lesions, but there are conflicting results regarding the effect of advanced age on the outcome. We concluded that further improvements are needed for direct repair of focal, purely traumatic defects before we can routinely use such repair techniques for the more challenging degenerative lesions. Furthermore, we need to identify trigger mechanisms that start generalized loss of cartilage matrix, and induce subchondral bone changes and concomitant synovial pathology, to maximize our treatment methods for biological repair in degenerative ageing joints. PMID:27910738

  11. Multiscale Mechanics of Articular Cartilage: Potentials and Challenges of Coupling Musculoskeletal, Joint, and Microscale Computational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, J. P.; Sibole, S.; van Donkelaar, C. C.; van Turnhout, M. C.; Oomens, C. W. J.; Weiss, J. A.; Guilak, F.; Erdemir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage experiences significant mechanical loads during daily activities. Healthy cartilage provides the capacity for load bearing and regulates the mechanobiological processes for tissue development, maintenance, and repair. Experimental studies at multiple scales have provided a fundamental understanding of macroscopic mechanical function, evaluation of the micromechanical environment of chondrocytes, and the foundations for mechanobiological response. In addition, computational models of cartilage have offered a concise description of experimental data at many spatial levels under healthy and diseased conditions, and have served to generate hypotheses for the mechanical and biological function. Further, modeling and simulation provides a platform for predictive risk assessment, management of dysfunction, as well as a means to relate multiple spatial scales. Simulation-based investigation of cartilage comes with many challenges including both the computational burden and often insufficient availability of data for model development and validation. This review outlines recent modeling and simulation approaches to understand cartilage function from a mechanical systems perspective, and illustrates pathways to associate mechanics with biological function. Computational representations at single scales are provided from the body down to the microstructure, along with attempts to explore multiscale mechanisms of load sharing that dictate the mechanical environment of the cartilage and chondrocytes. PMID:22648577

  12. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallioniemi, A S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jurvelin, J S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nieminen, M T [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, POB 50, 90029 OYS, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Lammi, M J [Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, J [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2007-02-21

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T{sub 1,Gd} and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally

  13. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, A. S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammi, M. J.; Töyräs, J.

    2007-02-01

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n = 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r = -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally

  14. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallioniemi, A S; Jurvelin, J S; Nieminen, M T; Lammi, M J; Toeyraes, J

    2007-01-01

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T 1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded

  15. Zn deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in equine articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: D.A.Bradley@surrey.ac.uk; Moger, C.J.; Winlove, C.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    In articular cartilage metalloproteinases, a family of enzymes whose function relies on the presence of divalent cations such as Zn and Ca plays a central role in the normal processes of growth and remodelling and in the degenerative and inflammatory processes of arthritis. Another important enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, involved in cartilage mineralisation also relies on metallic cofactors. The local concentration of divalent cations is therefore of considerable interest in cartilage pathophysiology and several authors have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to map metal ion distributions in bone and cartilage. We report use of a bench-top XRF analytical microscope, providing spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and applicable to histological sections, facilitating correlation of the distribution with structural features. The study seeks to establish the elemental distribution in normal tissue as a precursor to investigation of changes in disease. For six samples prepared from equine metacarpophalangeal joint, we observed increased concentration of Zn and Sr ions around the tidemark between normal and mineralised cartilage. This is believed to be an active site of remodelling but its composition has hitherto lacked detailed characterization. We also report preliminary results on two of the samples using Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). This confirms our previous observations using synchrotron-based XRF of enhanced deposition of Sr and Zn at the surface of the subchondral bone and in articular cartilage.

  16. Cartilage T2 assessment: differentiation of normal hyaline cartilage and reparative tissue after arthroscopic cartilage repair in equine subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lawrence M; Sussman, Marshall S; Hurtig, Mark; Probyn, Linda; Tomlinson, George; Kandel, Rita

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess T2 mapping characteristics of normal articular cartilage and of cartilage at sites of arthroscopic repair, including comparison with histologic results and collagen organization assessed at polarized light microscopy (PLM). Study protocol was compliant with the Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and approved by the institutional animal care committee. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) and microfracture arthroplasty (MFx) were performed in knees of 10 equine subjects (seven female, three male; age range, 3-5 years). A site of arthroscopically normal cartilage was documented in each joint as a control site. Joints were harvested at 12 (n = 5) and 24 (n = 5) weeks postoperatively and were imaged at 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) with a 10-echo sagittal fast spin-echo acquisition. T2 maps of each site (21 OAT harvest, 10 MFx, 12 OAT plug, and 10 control sites) were calculated with linear least-squares curve fitting. Cartilage T2 maps were qualitatively graded as "organized" (normal transition of low-to-high T2 signal from deep to superficial cartilage zones) or "disorganized." Quantitative mean T2 values were calculated for deep, middle, and superficial cartilage at each location. Results were compared with histologic and PLM assessments by using kappa analysis. T2 maps were qualitatively graded as organized at 20 of 53 sites and as disorganized at 33 sites. Perfect agreement was seen between organized T2 and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage and between disorganized T2 and histologic findings of fibrous reparative tissue (kappa = 1.0). Strong agreement was seen between organized T2 and normal PLM findings and between disorganized T2 and abnormal PLM findings (kappa = .92). Quantitative assessment of the deep, middle, and superficial cartilage, respectively, showed mean T2 values of 53.3, 58.6, and 54.9 msec at reparative fibrous tissue sites and 40.7, 53.6, and 61.6 msec at hyaline cartilage sites. A

  17. Cartilage Repair in Football (Soccer) Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; de Windt, Th.S.; Brittberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of focal articular cartilage lesions among athletes is higher than in the general population. Treatment goals differ considerably between the professional and recreational athlete. High financial stakes and the short duration of a professional career influence the treatment selection for the professional athlete, while such parameters weigh differently in recreational sports. This article describes our investigation of the relation between sports and a high prevalence of focal cartilage lesions. In addition, we provide a critical review of the best available evidence for cartilage surgery and treatment selection, evaluate specific patient profiles for professional and recreational athletes, and propose a treatment algorithm for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in football (soccer) players. PMID:26069606

  18. Quantitative assessment of optical properties in healthy cartilage and repair tissue by optical coherence tomography and histology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M. A.; Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van der Pol, Edwin; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D.; Strackee, Simon D.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of the OCT signal is an important step toward clinical implementation of a diagnostic tool in cartilage imaging. Discrimination of structural cartilage differences in patients with osteoarthritis is critical, yet challenging. This study assesses the variation in the optical attenuation coefficient (μOCT) between healthy cartilage, repair tissue, bone and layers within repair tissue in a controlled setting. OCT and histology was used to assess goat talus articular surfaces in which central osteochondral defects were created. Exact matches of OCT and histology were selected for research. μOCT measurements were taken from healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Measured μOCT in healthy cartilage was higher compared to both repair tissue and bone tissue. Two possible mechanisms for the difference in attenuation were investigated. We studied morphological parameters in terms of nucleus count, nucleus size and inter-nucleus distance. Collagen content in healthy cartilage and repair tissue was assessed using polarization microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the nuclei did not demonstrate a difference in nucleus size and count between healthy cartilage and repair tissue. In healthy cartilage, cells were spaced farther apart and had a lower variation in local nuclear density compared to repair tissue. Polarization microscopy suggested higher collagen content in healthy cartilage compared to repair tissue. μOCT measurements can distinguish between healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Results suggest that cartilage OCT attenuation measurements could be of great impact in clinical diagnostics of osteoarthritis.

  19. Changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone after extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Wen-Yi; Hsu, Shan-Ling; Chen, Jen-Hung; Huang, Chien-Yiu

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the pathological changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone on different locations of the knee after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in early osteoarthritis (OA). Rat knees under OA model by anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM) to induce OA changes. Among ESWT groups, ESWT were applied to medial (M) femur (F) and tibia (T) condyles was better than medial tibia condyle, medial femur condyle as well as medial and lateral (L) tibia condyles in gross osteoarthritic areas (posteophyte formation and subchondral sclerotic bone (psubchondral bone repair in all ESWT groups compared to OA group (p T(M+L) > F(M) in OA rat knees.

  20. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W.; Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  1. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  2. Lineage plasticity and cell biology of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage: Its significance in cartilage repair and replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemont, Anthony J.; Hoyland, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Cartilage repair is a major goal of modern tissue engineering. To produce novel engineered implants requires a knowledge of the basic biology of the tissues that are to be replaced or reproduced. Hyaline articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage are two tissues that have excited attention because of the frequency with which they are damaged. A basic strategy is to re-engineer these tissues ex vivo by stimulating stem cells to differentiate into the cells of the mature tissue capable of producing an intact functional matrix. In this brief review, the sources of cells for tissue engineering cartilage and the culture conditions that have promoted differentiation are discussed within the context of natural cartilage repair. In particular, the role of cell density, cytokines, load, matrices and oxygen tension are discussed

  3. Lineage plasticity and cell biology of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage: Its significance in cartilage repair and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemont, Anthony J. [Regenerative Medicine Research Group, University of Manchester, England (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Tony.freemont@man.ac.uk; Hoyland, Judith [Regenerative Medicine Research Group, University of Manchester, England (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    Cartilage repair is a major goal of modern tissue engineering. To produce novel engineered implants requires a knowledge of the basic biology of the tissues that are to be replaced or reproduced. Hyaline articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage are two tissues that have excited attention because of the frequency with which they are damaged. A basic strategy is to re-engineer these tissues ex vivo by stimulating stem cells to differentiate into the cells of the mature tissue capable of producing an intact functional matrix. In this brief review, the sources of cells for tissue engineering cartilage and the culture conditions that have promoted differentiation are discussed within the context of natural cartilage repair. In particular, the role of cell density, cytokines, load, matrices and oxygen tension are discussed.

  4. Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere for cartilage repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Qiu; Cheng, Niangmei [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Tao, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410013, Hunan (China); Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Xiaomin [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials of Tianjin, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-04-01

    For cartilage repair, ideal scaffolds should mimic natural extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibiting excellent characteristics, such as biocompatibility, suitable porosity, and good cell affinity. This study aimed to prepare a collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microsphere that can be applied in repairing cartilage. To obtain optimum conditions for manufacturing a composite scaffold, a scaffold composed of different collagen-to-silk fibroin ratios was evaluated by determining porosity, water absorption, loss rate in hot water, and cell proliferation. Results suggested that the optimal ratio of collagen and silk fibroin composite scaffold was 7:3. The microstructure and morphological characteristics of the obtained scaffold were also examined through scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results of in vitro fluorescence staining of bone marrow stromal cells revealed that collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold enhanced cell proliferation without eliciting side effects. The prepared composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere was implanted in fully thick articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold with PLGA microspheres could enhance articular cartilage regeneration and integration between the repaired cartilage and the surrounding cartilage. Therefore, this composite will be a promising material for cartilage repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere proposed for cartilage repair was created. • In vivo, scaffold could enhance cartilage regeneration and integration between the repaired and surrounding cartilage. • In vitro, scaffold exhibits excellent characteristics, such as, improved porosity water absorption and good cell affinity.

  5. Evolution of Autologous Chondrocyte Repair and Comparison to Other Cartilage Repair Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin K. Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage defects have been addressed using microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, or osteochondral grafting, but these strategies do not generate tissue that adequately recapitulates native cartilage. During the past 25 years, promising new strategies using assorted scaffolds and cell sources to induce chondrocyte expansion have emerged. We reviewed the evolution of autologous chondrocyte implantation and compared it to other cartilage repair techniques. Methods. We searched PubMed from 1949 to 2014 for the keywords “autologous chondrocyte implantation” (ACI and “cartilage repair” in clinical trials, meta-analyses, and review articles. We analyzed these articles, their bibliographies, our experience, and cartilage regeneration textbooks. Results. Microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, osteochondral grafting, ACI, and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis are distinguishable by cell source (including chondrocytes and stem cells and associated scaffolds (natural or synthetic, hydrogels or membranes. ACI seems to be as good as, if not better than, microfracture for repairing large chondral defects in a young patient’s knee as evaluated by multiple clinical indices and the quality of regenerated tissue. Conclusion. Although there is not enough evidence to determine the best repair technique, ACI is the most established cell-based treatment for full-thickness chondral defects in young patients.

  6. Biological knee reconstruction for combined malalignment, meniscal deficiency, and articular cartilage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Hussey, Kristen; Wilson, Hillary; Pilz, Kyle; Gupta, Anil K; Gomoll, Andreas; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported outcomes in those undergoing the triad of simultaneous osteotomy, meniscal transplantation, and articular cartilage repair. Patients undergoing simultaneous meniscal transplantation, distal femoral or proximal tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage surgery by a single surgeon (B.J.C.) were analyzed. Meniscal transplantation was performed using bone-in-slot techniques. Distal femoral and high tibial osteotomies were performed for valgus and varus malalignment, respectively. Microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and osteochondral autograft or allograft were performed for articular cartilage disease. Validated patient-reported and surgeon-measured outcomes were collected. Preoperative and postoperative outcomes and medial versus lateral disease were compared using Student t tests. Eighteen participants (mean age, 34 ± 7.8 years; symptomatic patients, 7.4 ± 5.6 years; 2.4 ± 1.0 surgical procedures before study enrollment; mean follow-up, 6.5 ± 3.2 years) were analyzed. Two thirds of participants had medial compartment pathologic conditions and one third had lateral compartment pathologic processes. At final follow-up, there were statistically significant clinically meaningful improvements in International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective classification, Lysholm score, and 4 Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscores. Postoperative 12-item short form (SF-12) physical and mental component scores were not significantly different from preoperative scores. The Kellgren-Lawrence classification grade was 1.5 ± 1.1 at 2.5 ± 3.0 years after surgery. There was a significantly higher preoperative SF-12 physical composite score (PCS) in participants with lateral compartment pathologic conditions (v medial compartment conditions) (P = .011). Although there were 13 reoperations in 10 patients (55.5% reoperation rate), only one patient was converted to knee arthroplasty (5

  7. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Aviv, Talia [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: taliag@bgu.ac.il; DiCarlo, Bryan B. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: bdicarlo@rice.edu; French, Margaret M. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: mmfrench@rice.edu; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: athanasiou@rice.edu; Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: rvago@bgu.ac.il

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications.

  8. Evaluation of influence of proteoglycans on hydration of articular cartilage with the use of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-yi YANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To monitor the changes in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage induced by degradation of proteoglycans, and to explore the effect of proteoglycans on hydration behaviour of articular cartilage by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods Twelve porcine patellae with smooth cartilage surface were prepared and equally divided into two groups: normal group without any enzyme treatment, and trypsin group they were treated with 0.25% trypsin for 8h to digest proteoglycan in the cartilage. The hydration behaviour of the cartilage tissue was scanned by high-frequency ultrasound system with a central frequency of 25MHz. Parameters including cartilage hydration strain and cartilage thickness were measured. The histopathological changes in the articular cartilage were observed under a light microscope. Results It took approximately 20min to reach equilibrium during the hydration process in the normal cartilages, while proteoglycan-degraded cartilage took only about 5min to achieve equilibrium. The equilibrium strain of normal cartilage was 3.5%±0.5%. The degradation of proteoglycans induced a significant decrease in equilibrium strain (1.8%±0.2%, P0.05. Conclusion Proteoglycans play an important role in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage. The degradation of proteoglycans could induce degeneration of cartilage structure and decrease in hydration behaviour after dehydration. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.03

  9. Correlation of laminated MR apperance of articular cartilage with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joon; Suh, Jin Suck; Jeong, Eun Kee; Shin, Kyu Ho; Yang, Woo Ick

    1999-01-01

    To determine the correlation of laminae of different signal intensities (SI) of articular cartilage, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging with histologic layers, using artificially constructed landmarks. For a landmark that can exactly correlate the cartilage specimen with the MR image, five 'V'-shaped markings of different depths were made on the surface of bovine patella. Both T1-weighted (TR/TE : 300/14) and FSE T2-weighted images (TR/TE : 2000/53) were obtained on a 1.5T system with high gradient echo strength (25mT/m) and a voxel size of 78X78X2000μm. Images were obtained with 1) changed frequency-encoding directions on T1-weighted study, and 2) changed readout gradient strength ( X2, X1/2) on T2-weighted sequence. Raw image data were transferred to a workstation and signal intensity profile was generated for each image. 1 : 1 correlation of histologic specimens and MR images was performed. Line profile through the cartilage showed few peaks, suggesting changes in signal intensity profile in the cartilage. On the basis of artificial landmarks, the histologic zone was accurately identified. The histologic tangential and transitional zones correlated with superficial high SI on T1WI, as well as high and low SI on T2WI. On T1WI, the radial zone correlated with a lamina of intermediate SI, and on T2WI, with a lamina for which SI gradually decreased from high to low. Additional well-defined low and intermediate SI bands were noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radial zone. In both T1 and T2 studies, calcified cartilage layers were of low SI. On T1-weighted study, changes in the direction of frequency gradient did not lead to changes in the laminae. The alteration of readout gradient strengths did not result in an inversely proportional difference in the thickness of the laminae. These became more distinct thus ruling out chemical shift and susceptibility artifacts. The laminated appearance of articular cartilage, as seen on spin echo and fast spin-echo MR

  10. T2 Mapping of Articular Cartilage of Glenohumeral Joint with Routine MRI Correlation—Initial Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maizlin, Zeev V.; Clement, Jason J.; Patola, Wayne B.; Fenton, David M.; Gillies, Jean H.; Vos, Patrick M.; Jacobson, Jon A.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of articular cartilage currently relies primarily on the identification of morphological alterations of the articular cartilage. Unlike anatomic imaging, T2 mapping is sensitive to changes in the chemical composition and structure of the cartilage. Clinical evaluation of T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint in routine clinica...

  11. Joint homeostasis in tissue engineering for cartilage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saris, D.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    Traumatic joint damage, articular cartilage and the research into methods of restoring the articulation are not new topics of interest. For centuries, clinicians have recognized the importance of cartilage damage and sought ways of learning about the normal form and function of hyaline cartilage as

  12. Techniques and Applications of in vivo Diffusion Imaging of Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, José G.

    2014-01-01

    Early in the process of osteoarthritis (OA) the composition (water, proteoglycan [PG], and collagen) and structure of articular cartilage is altered leading to changes in its mechanical properties. A technique that can assess the composition and structure of the cartilage in vivo can provide insight in the mechanical integrity of articular cartilage and become a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of OA. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been proposed as a biomarker for cartilage composition and structure. DTI is sensitive to the PG content through the mean diffusivity (MD) and to the collagen architecture through the fractional anisotropy (FA). However, the acquisition of DTI of articular cartilage in vivo is challenging due to the short T2 of articular cartilage (~40 ms at 3 T) and the high resolution needed (0.5–0.7 mm in plane) to depict the cartilage anatomy. We describe the pulse sequences used for in vivo DTI of articular cartilage and discus general strategies for protocol optimization. We provide a comprehensive review of measurements of DTI of articular cartilage from ex vivo validation experiments to its recent clinical applications. PMID:25865215

  13. Tribology approach to the engineering and study of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Markus A; Grad, Sibylle; Kaup, Thomas; Hänni, Markus; Schneider, Erich; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Alini, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This study has been based on the assumption that articular motion is an important aspect of mechanotransduction in synovial joints. For this reason a new bioreactor concept, able to reproduce joint kinematics more closely, has been designed. The prototype consists of a rotating scaffold and/or cartilage pin, which is pressed onto an orthogonally rotating ball. By oscillating pin and ball in phase difference, elliptical displacement trajectories are generated that are similar to the motion paths occurring in vivo. Simultaneously, dynamic compression may be applied with a linear actuator, while two-step-motors generate the rotation of pin and ball. The whole apparatus is placed in an incubator. The control station is located outside. Preliminary investigations at the gene expression level demonstrated promising results. Compared with free-swelling control and/or simply compression-loaded samples, chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds as well as nasal cartilage explants exposed to interface motion both showed elevated levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNA. The final design of the bioreactor will include four individual stations in line, which will facilitate the investigation of motion-initiated effects at the contacting surfaces in more detail.

  14. Thermal energy effects on articular cartilage: a multidisciplinary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Ernsthausen, John; Ionescu, Dan S.; Studer, Rebecca K.; Bradley, James P.; Chu, Constance R.; Fu, Freddie H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2002-05-01

    Partial thickness articular cartilage lesions are commonly encountered in orthopedic surgery. These lesions do not have the ability to heal by themselves, due to lack of vascular supply. Several types of treatment have addressed this problem, including mechanical debridement and thermal chondroplasty. The goal of these treatments is to provide a smooth cartilage surface and prevent propagation of the lesions. Early thermal chondroplasty was performed using lasers, and yielded very mixed results, including severe damage to the cartilage, due to poor control of the induced thermal effects. This led to the development (including commercial) of probes using radiofrequency to generate the thermal effects desired for chondroplasty. Similar concerns over the quantitative aspects and control ability of the induced thermal effects in these treatments led us to test the whole range of complex issues and parameters involved. Our investigations are designed to simultaneously evaluate clinical conditions, instrument variables for existing radiofrequency probes (pressure, speed, distance, dose) as well as the associated basic science issues such as damage temperature and controllability (down to the subcellular level), damage geometry, and effects of surrounding conditions (medium, temperature, flow, pressure). The overall goals of this work are (1) to establish whether thermal chondroplasty can be used in a safe and efficacious manner, and (2) provide a prescription for multi-variable optimization of the way treatments are delivered, based on quantitative analysis. The methods used form an interdisciplinary set, to include precise mechanical actuation, high accuracy temperature and temperature gradient control and measurement, advanced imaging approaches and mathematical modeling.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage: ex vivo study on normal cartilage correlated with magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M.; Frezza, F.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Dalla-Palma, L.; Toffanin, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, M.; Mlynarik, V.; Vittur, F.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to compare the MR appearance of normal articular cartilage in ex vivo MR imaging (MRI) and MR microscopy (MRM) images of disarticulated human femoral heads, (b) to evaluate by MRM the topographic variations in articular cartilage of disarticulated human femoral heads, and subsequently, (c) to compare MRM images with histology. Ten disarticulated femoral heads were examined. Magnetic resonance images were obtained using spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) sequences. Microimages were acquired on cartilage-bone cylindrical plugs excised from four regions (superior, inferior, anterior, posterior) of one femoral head, using a modified SE sequence. Both MRI and MRM images were obtained before and after a 90 rotation of the specimen, around the axis perpendicular to the examined cartilage surface. Finally, MRM images were correlated with histology. A trilaminar appearance of articular cartilage was observed with MRI and with a greater detail with MRM. A good correlation between MRI and MRM features was demonstrated. Both MRI and MRM showed a loss of the trilaminar cartilage appearance after specimen rotation, with greater evidence on MRM images. Cartilage excised from the four regions of the femoral head showed a different thickness, being thickest in the samples excised from the superior site. The MRM technique confirms the trilaminar MRI appearance of human articular cartilage, showing good correlation with histology. The loss of the trilaminar appearance of articular cartilage induced by specimen rotation suggests that this feature is partially related to the collagen-fiber orientation within the different layers. The MRM technique also shows topographic variations in thickness of human articular cartilage. (orig.)

  16. High throughput proteomic analysis of the secretome in an explant model of articular cartilage inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, Abigail L.; Smith, Julia R.; Allaway, David; Harris, Pat; Liddell, Susan; Mobasheri, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a targeted high-throughput proteomic approach to identify the major proteins present in the secretome of articular cartilage. Explants from equine metacarpophalangeal joints were incubated alone or with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, 10 ng/ml), with or without carprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, for six days. After tryptic digestion of culture medium supernatants, resulting peptides were separated by HPLC and detected in a Bruker amaZon ion trap instrument. The five most abundant peptides in each MS scan were fragmented and the fragmentation patterns compared to mammalian entries in the Swiss-Prot database, using the Mascot search engine. Tryptic peptides originating from aggrecan core protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), fibronectin, fibromodulin, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), clusterin (CLU), cartilage intermediate layer protein-1 (CILP-1), chondroadherin (CHAD) and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-3 were detected. Quantitative western blotting confirmed the presence of CILP-1, CLU, MMP-1, MMP-3 and TSP-1. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-1, MMP-3 and TSP-1 and decreased the CLU precursor but did not affect CILP-1 and CLU levels. Many of the proteins identified have well-established extracellular matrix functions and are involved in early repair/stress responses in cartilage. This high throughput approach may be used to study the changes that occur in the early stages of osteoarthritis. PMID:21354348

  17. Deginerative changes of femoral articular cartilage in the knee : comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Youn; Hong, Sung Hwan; Sohn, Jin Hee; Wee, Young Hoon; Chang, Jun Dong; Park, Hong Seok; Lee, Eil Seoung; Kang Ik Won

    2001-01-01

    To determine the sonographic findings of degenerative change in femoral articular cartilage of the knee by comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology. We obtained 40 specimens of cartilage of the femur (20 medial and 20 lateral condylar) from 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who had undergone total knee replacement. The specimens were placed in a saline-filled container and sonography was performed using a 10-MHz linear transducer. Sonographic abnormalities were evaluated at the cartilage surface, within the cartilage, and at the bone-cartilage interface, and were compared with the corresponding pathologic findings. In addition, cartilage thickness was measured at a representative portion of each femoral cartilage specimen and was compared with the thickness determined by sonography. 'Dot' lesions, irregularity or loss of the hyperechoic line, were demonstrated by sonography at the saline-cartilage interface of 14 cartilages. Pathologic examination showed that these findings corresponded to cleft, detachment, erosion, and degeneration. Irregularities in the hyperechoic line at the bone-cartilage interface were revealed by sonography in eight cartilages and were related to irregularity or loss of tidemark, downward displacement of the cartilage, and subchondral callus formation. Dot lesions, corresponding to cleft and degeneration, were noted within one cartilage. Cartilage thickness measured on specimen and by sonography showed no significant difference (p=0.446). Specimen sonography suggested that articular cartilage underwent degenerative histopathological change. Cartilage thickness measured by sonography exactly reflected real thickness

  18. Similar hyaline-like cartilage repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits using isotropic and anisotropic collagen scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mulder, Eric L W; Hannink, Gerjon; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F; Buma, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    Lesions in knee joint articular cartilage (AC) have limited repair capacity. Many clinically available treatments induce a fibrous-like cartilage repair instead of hyaline cartilage. To induce hyaline cartilage repair, we hypothesized that type I collagen scaffolds with fibers aligned perpendicular to the AC surface would result in qualitatively better tissue repair due to a guided cellular influx from the subchondral bone. By specific freezing protocols, type I collagen scaffolds with isotropic and anisotropic fiber architectures were produced. Rabbits were operated on bilaterally and two full thickness defects were created in each knee joint. The defects were filled with (1) an isotropic scaffold, (2) an anisotropic scaffold with pores parallel to the cartilage surface, and (3) an anisotropic scaffold with pores perpendicular to the cartilage surface. Empty defects served as controls. After 4 (n=13) and 12 (n=13) weeks, regeneration was scored qualitatively and quantitatively using histological analysis and a modified O'Driscoll score. After 4 weeks, all defects were completely filled with partially differentiated hyaline cartilage tissue. No differences in O'Driscoll scores were measured between empty defects and scaffold types. After 12 weeks, all treatments led to hyaline cartilage repair visualized by increased glycosaminoglycan staining. Total scores were significantly increased for parallel anisotropic and empty defects over time (phyaline-like cartilage repair. Fiber architecture had no effect on cartilage repair.

  19. Cell compaction influences the regenerative potential of passaged bovine articular chondrocytes in an ex vivo cartilage defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, Michael; Aszodi, Attila

    2017-04-01

    The loss and degradation of articular cartilage tissue matrix play central roles in the process of osteoarthritis (OA). New models for evaluating cartilage repair/regeneration are thus of great value for transferring various culture systems into clinically relevant situations. The repair process can be better monitored in ex vivo systems than in in vitro cell cultures. I have therefore established an ex vivo defect model prepared from bovine femoral condyles for evaluating cartilage repair by the implantation of cells cultured in various ways, e.g., monolayer-cultured cells or suspension or pellet cultures of articular bovine chondrocytes representing different cell compactions with variable densities of chondrocytes. I report that the integrin subunit α10 was significantly upregulated in suspension-cultured bovine chondrocytes at passage P2 compared with monolayer-cultured cells at P1 (p = 0.0083) and P2 (p innovation of this system over in vitro differentiation (e.g., micromass, pellet) assays is the possibility of examining and evaluating cartilage regeneration in an environment in which implanted cells are embedded within native surrounding tissue at the defect site. Such ex vivo explants might serve as a better model system to mimic clinical situations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tribological evaluation of biomedical polycarbonate urethanes against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanca, Yusuf; Milner, Piers; Dini, Daniele; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-06-01

    This research investigated the in-vitro wear and friction performance of polycarbonate urethane (PCU) 80A as they interact with articular cartilage, using a customised multidirectional pin-on-plate tester. Condyles were articulated against PCU 80A discs (Bionate ® I and Bionate ® II) (configuration 1) and the results arising from these tests were compared to those recorded during the sliding of PCU pins against cartilage plates (configuration 2). Configuration 1 produced steadily increasing coefficient of friction (COF) (up to 0.64 ± 0.05) and had the same trend as the cartilage-on-stainless steel articulation (positive control). When synovial fluid rather than bovine calf serum was used as lubricant, average COF significantly decreased from 0.50 ± 0.02-0.38 ± 0.06 for condyle-on-Bionate ® I (80AI) and from 0.41 ± 0.02-0.24 ± 0.04 for condyle-on-Bionate ® II (80AII) test configurations (p  0.05). A good correlation (R 2 =0.84) was found between the levels of average COF and the volume of cartilage lost during testing; increasing wear was found at higher levels of COF. Configuration 2 showed low and constant COF values (0.04 ± 0.01), which were closer to the negative control (0.03 ± 0.01) and significantly lower than configuration 1 (p tribological performance, which suggests it is more favourable for use in hemiarthroplasty design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Malmonge

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blendas do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis.The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose acetate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

  2. * Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Favorable Source for Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños-López, Emma; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro-Santos, Javier; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Díaz-Prado, Silvia María

    2017-09-01

    Localized trauma-derived breakdown of the hyaline articular cartilage may progress toward osteoarthritis, a degenerative condition characterized by total loss of articular cartilage and joint function. Tissue engineering technologies encompass several promising approaches with high therapeutic potential for the treatment of these focal defects. However, most of the research in tissue engineering is focused on potential materials and structural cues, while little attention is directed to the most appropriate source of cells endowing these materials. In this study, using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as scaffold, we defined a novel static in vitro model for cartilage repair. In combination with HAM, four different cell types, human chondrocytes, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs), human amniotic epithelial cells, and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) were assessed determining their therapeutic potential. A chondral lesion was drilled in human cartilage biopsies simulating a focal defect. A pellet of different cell types was implanted inside the lesion and covered with HAM. The biopsies were maintained for 8 weeks in culture. Chondrogenic differentiation in the defect was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. HAM scaffold showed good integration and adhesion to the native cartilage in all groups. Although all cell types showed the capacity of filling the focal defect, hBMSCs and hAMSCs demonstrated higher levels of new matrix synthesis. However, only the hAMSCs-containing group presented a significant cytoplasmic content of type II collagen when compared with chondrocytes. More collagen type I was identified in the new synthesized tissue of hBMSCs. In accordance, hBMSCs and hAMSCs showed better International Cartilage Research Society scoring although without statistical significance. HAM is a useful material for articular cartilage repair in vitro when used as scaffold. In combination with hAMSCs, HAM showed better

  3. Contact mechanics of articular cartilage layers asymptotic models

    CERN Document Server

    Argatov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and unifying approach to articular contact mechanics with an emphasis on frictionless contact interaction of thin cartilage layers. The first part of the book (Chapters 1–4) reviews the results of asymptotic analysis of the deformational behavior of thin elastic and viscoelastic layers. A comprehensive review of the literature is combined with the authors’ original contributions. The compressible and incompressible cases are treated separately with a focus on exact solutions for asymptotic models of frictionless contact for thin transversely isotropic layers bonded to rigid substrates shaped like elliptic paraboloids. The second part (Chapters 5, 6, and 7) deals with the non-axisymmetric contact of thin transversely isotropic biphasic layers and presents the asymptotic modelling methodology for tibio-femoral contact. The third part of the book consists of Chapter 8, which covers contact problems for thin bonded inhomogeneous transversely isotropic elastic layers, and Cha...

  4. One-stage vs two-stage cartilage repair: a current review

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    Daniel Meyerkort

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Meyerkort, David Wood, Ming-Hao ZhengCenter for Orthopaedic Research, School of Surgery and Pathology, University of Western Australia, Perth, AustraliaIntroduction: Articular cartilage has a poor capacity for regeneration if damaged. Various methods have been used to restore the articular surface, improve pain, function, and slow progression to osteoarthritis.Method: A PubMed review was performed on 18 March, 2010. Search terms included “autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI” and “microfracture” or “mosaicplasty”. The aim of this review was to determine if 1-stage or 2-stage procedures for cartilage repair produced different functional outcomes.Results: The main procedures currently used are ACI and microfracture. Both first-generation ACI and microfracture result in clinical and functional improvement with no significant differences. A significant increase in functional outcome has been observed in second-generation procedures such as Hyalograft C, matrix-induced ACI, and ChondroCelect compared with microfracture. ACI results in a higher percentage of patients with clinical improvement than mosaicplasty; however, these results may take longer to achieve.Conclusion: Clinical and functional improvements have been demonstrated with ACI, microfracture, mosaicplasty, and synthetic cartilage constructs. Heterogeneous products and lack of good-quality randomized-control trials make product comparison difficult. Future developments involve scaffolds, gene therapy, growth factors, and stem cells to create a single-stage procedure that results in hyaline articular cartilage.Keywords: autologous chondrocyte implantation, microfracture, cartilage repair

  5. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

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    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  6. Adipose, Bone Marrow and Synovial Joint-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Christopher R.; Matta, Csaba; Zakany, Roza; Khan, Ilyas M.; Mobasheri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Current cell-based repair strategies have proven unsuccessful for treating cartilage defects and osteoarthritic lesions, consequently advances in innovative therapeutics are required and mesenchymal stem cell-based (MSC) therapies are an expanding area of investigation. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages and exerting paracrine effects. Due to their easy isolation, expansion, and low immunogenicity, MSCs are an attractive option for regenerative medicine for joint repair. Recent studies have identified several MSC tissue reservoirs including in adipose tissue, bone marrow, cartilage, periosteum, and muscle. MSCs isolated from these discrete tissue niches exhibit distinct biological activities, and have enhanced regenerative potentials for different tissue types. Each MSC type has advantages and disadvantages for cartilage repair and their use in a clinical setting is a balance between expediency and effectiveness. In this review we explore the challenges associated with cartilage repair and regeneration using MSC-based cell therapies and provide an overview of phenotype, biological activities, and functional properties for each MSC population. This paper also specifically explores the therapeutic potential of each type of MSC, particularly focusing on which cells are capable of producing stratified hyaline-like articular cartilage regeneration. Finally we highlight areas for future investigation. Given that patients present with a variety of problems it is unlikely that cartilage regeneration will be a simple “one size fits all,” but more likely an array of solutions that need to be applied systematically to achieve regeneration of a biomechanically competent repair tissue. PMID:28066501

  7. Adipose, Bone Marrow and Synovial Joint-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fellows

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current cell-based repair strategies have proven unsuccessful for treating cartilage defects and osteoarthritic lesions, consequently advances in innovative therapeutics are required and mesenchymal stem cell-based (MSC therapies are an expanding area of investigation. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages and exerting paracrine effects. Due to their easy isolation, expansion and low immunogenicity, MSCs are an attractive option for regenerative medicine for joint repair. Recent studies have identified several MSC tissue reservoirs including in adipose tissue, bone marrow, cartilage, periosteum and muscle. MSCs isolated from these discrete tissue niches exhibit distinct biological activities, and have enhanced regenerative potentials for different tissue types. Each MSC type has advantages and disadvantages for cartilage repair and their use in a clinical setting is a balance between expediency and effectiveness. In this review we explore the challenges associated with cartilage repair and regeneration using MSC-based cell therapies and provide an overview of phenotype, biological activities and functional properties for each MSC population. This paper also specifically explores the therapeutic potential of each type of MSC, particularly focusing on which cells are capable of producing stratified hyaline-like articular cartilage regeneration. Finally we highlight areas for future investigation. Given that patients present with a variety of problems it is unlikely that cartilage regeneration will be a simple ‘one size fits all’, but more likely an array of solutions that need to applied systematically to achieve regeneration of a biomechanically competent repair tissue.

  8. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and Its Potential in the Field of Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Vivian H. M.; Levato, Riccardo; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Grande, Daniel A.; Klein, Travis J.; Saris, Daniel B. F.; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques can be used for the fabrication of personalized, regenerative constructs for tissue repair. The current article provides insight into the potential and opportunities of 3D bioprinting for the fabrication of cartilage regenerative constructs. Although 3D printing is already used in the orthopedic clinic, the shift toward 3D bioprinting has not yet occurred. We believe that this shift will provide an important step forward in the field of cartilage regeneration. Three-dimensional bioprinting techniques allow incorporation of cells and biological cues during the manufacturing process, to generate biologically active implants. The outer shape of the construct can be personalized based on clinical images of the patient’s defect. Additionally, by printing with multiple bio-inks, osteochondral or zonally organized constructs can be generated. Relevant mechanical properties can be obtained by hybrid printing with thermoplastic polymers and hydrogels, as well as by the incorporation of electrospun meshes in hydrogels. Finally, bioprinting techniques contribute to the automation of the implant production process, reducing the infection risk. To prompt the shift from nonliving implants toward living 3D bioprinted cartilage constructs in the clinic, some challenges need to be addressed. The bio-inks and required cartilage construct architecture need to be further optimized. The bio-ink and printing process need to meet the sterility requirements for implantation. Finally, standards are essential to ensure a reproducible quality of the 3D printed constructs. Once these challenges are addressed, 3D bioprinted living articular cartilage implants may find their way into daily clinical practice. PMID:28934880

  9. Protective effect of exogenous chondroitin 4,6-sulfate in the acute degradation of articular cartilage in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, D; Thonar, E J; Zhang, J; Williams, J M

    1998-05-01

    The injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain into the adolescent rabbit knee causes severe loss of articular cartilage proteoglycans (PG). Although chondrocytes attempt to restore lost PG, failure to repair ensues. Pure chondroitin 4,6-sulfate (Condrosulf, IBSA Lugano, Switzerland) has been used in clinical studies of human osteoarthritis (OA) as a slow-acting drug for OA (SYSADOA). Using our model of articular cartilage injury, we examined the effects of oral and intramuscular administration of Condrosulf after chymopapain-induced cartilage injury. In this study, animals received an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain (Chymodiactin, Boots Pharmaceuticals) into the left knee and were sacrificed after 84 days. The contralateral right knee served as a noninjected control. Some animals received oral Condrosulf while others received intramuscular injections of Condrosulf. Serum keratan sulfate (KS) levels were monitored to ensure degradation of the cartilage PG. Those animals not exhibiting at least a 100% increase of serum KS following chymopapain injection were excluded from the study. At sacrifice, cartilage PG contents were markedly reduced in animals receiving an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain with no further treatment. In contrast, oral administration of Condrosulf beginning 11 days prior to chymopapain injury resulted in significantly higher (P = 0.0036) cartilage PG contents. Intramuscular administration of Condrosulf resulted in higher, but less significantly so (P = 0.0457), cartilage PG contents. These results suggest that daily Condrosulf treatment prior to and continuing after chymopapain injury may have a protective effect on the damaged cartilage, allowing it to continue to re-synthesize matrix PG after the treatment is discontinued.

  10. [3T magnetic resonance T2 mapping for evaluation of cartilage repair after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xu, Xian; Li, Xue; Chen, Min; Dong, Tian-Ming; Zuo, Pan-Li; An, Ning-Yu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping in quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair following matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Six patients (with 9 plug cartilages) following MACT underwent MRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR scan system at 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery. The full-thickness and zonal areas (deep and superficial layers) T2 values were calculated for the repaired cartilage and control cartilage. The mean T2 values of the repaired cartilage after MACT were significantly higher than that of the control cartilages at 3 and 6 months (PT2 values of the superficial layers were significantly higher than those of the deep layers in the repaired cartilages (PT2 values of the repaired cartilages decreased significantly over time at 6 and 12 months as compared to those at 3 months after the surgery (PT2 mapping can serve as an important modality for assessing the repair of the articular cartilage following MACT.

  11. Advances in the Surgical Management of Articular Cartilage Defects: Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Techniques in the Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Spencer; Strauss, Eric; Bosco, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to gain insight into the latest methods of articular cartilage implantation (ACI) and to detail where they are in the Food and Drug Administration approval and regulatory process. A PubMed search was performed using the phrase "Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation" alone and with the words second generation and third generation. Additionally, clinicaltrials.gov was searched for the names of the seven specific procedures and the parent company websites were referenced. Two-Stage Techniques: BioCart II uses a FGF2v1 culture and a fibrinogen, thrombin matrix, whereas Hyalograft-C uses a Hyaff 11 matrix. MACI uses a collagen I/III matrix. Cartipatch consists of an agarose-alginate hydrogel. Neocart uses a high-pressure bioreactor for culturing with a type I collagen matrix. ChondroCelect makes use of a gene expression analysis to predict chondrocyte proliferation and has demonstrated significant clinical improvement, but failed to show superiority to microfracture in a phase III trial. One Step Technique: CAIS is an ACI procedure where harvested cartilage is minced and implanted into a matrix for defect filling. As full thickness defects in articular cartilage continue to pose a challenge to treat, new methods of repair are being researched. Later generation ACI has been developed to address the prevalence of fibrocartilage with microfracture and the complications associated with the periosteal flap of first generation ACI such as periosteal hypertrophy. The procedures and products reviewed here represent advances in tissue engineering, scaffolds and autologous chondrocyte culturing that may hold promise in our quest to alter the natural history of symptomatic chondral disease.

  12. Spatial regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in postnatal articular and growth plate cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Presley; Yue, Shanna; Hanson, Jeffrey; Baron, Jeffrey; Lui, Julian C.

    2017-01-01

    Articular and growth plate cartilage both arise from condensations of mesenchymal cells, but ultimately develop important histological and functional differences. Each is composed of three layers—the superficial, mid and deep zones of articular cartilage and the resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones of growth plate cartilage. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system plays an important role in cartilage development. A gradient in expression of BMP-related genes has been observed across growth plate cartilage, likely playing a role in zonal differentiation. To investigate the presence of a similar expression gradient in articular cartilage, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to separate murine growth plate and articular cartilage from the proximal tibia into their six constituent zones, and used a solution hybridization assay with color-coded probes (nCounter) to quantify mRNAs for 30 different BMP-related genes in each zone. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were then used to confirm spatial expression patterns. Expression gradients for Bmp2 and 6 were observed across growth plate cartilage with highest expression in hypertrophic zone. However, intracellular BMP signaling, assessed by phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining, appeared to be higher in the proliferative zone and prehypertrophic area than in hypertrophic zone, possibly due to high expression of Smad7, an inhibitory Smad, in the hypertrophic zone. We also found BMP expression gradients across the articular cartilage with BMP agonists primarily expressed in the superficial zone and BMP functional antagonists primarily expressed in the deep zone. Phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining showed a similar gradient. In combination with previous evidence that BMPs regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, the current findings suggest that BMP signaling gradients exist across both growth plate and articular cartilage and that these gradients may

  13. Evaluation on Cartilage Morphology after Intra-Articular Injection of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Gao, Y.; Hou, Y.; Zhao, F.; Pu, F.; Liu, X.; Fan, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Nano scale wear particles would generate from orthopedic implants with nano scale surface topography because of residual stress. In this study, the effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles on articular cartilage was investigated by intra-articular injection in rats. Using contrast-enhanced high-resolution micro computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, the decreased thickness of articular cartilage in distal femur was determined at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after nanoparticle exposure. A strong linear correlation (r=0.928, P 2 nanoparticles, cartilage thickness showed time-dependent decrease, and cartilage volume was decreased too. Further, the histopathological examination showed the edema chondrocyte and shrinked nucleus in the radial and calcified zone of cartilage. The ultrastructure of articular cartilage implied that the chondrocytes was degenerated, expressing as the condensed chromatin, the dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and the rich mitochondria. Even, the fragments of ruptured endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes at postexposure day 30. Results indicate that potential damage of articular cartilage was induced by particles existed in knee joint and imply that the bio monitoring should be strengthened in patients with prostheses replacement.

  14. Translational Application of Microfluidics and Bioprinting for Stem Cell-Based Cartilage Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage defects can impair the most elementary daily activities and, if not properly treated, can lead to the complete loss of articular function. The limitations of standard treatments for cartilage repair have triggered the development of stem cell-based therapies. In this scenario, the development of efficient cell differentiation protocols and the design of proper biomaterial-based supports to deliver cells to the injury site need to be addressed through basic and applied research to fully exploit the potential of stem cells. Here, we discuss the use of microfluidics and bioprinting approaches for the translation of stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair in clinics. In particular, we will focus on the optimization of hydrogel-based materials to mimic the articular cartilage triggered by their use as bioinks in 3D bioprinting applications, on the screening of biochemical and biophysical factors through microfluidic devices to enhance stem cell chondrogenesis, and on the use of microfluidic technology to generate implantable constructs with a complex geometry. Finally, we will describe some new bioprinting applications that pave the way to the clinical use of stem cell-based therapies, such as scaffold-free bioprinting and the development of a 3D handheld device for the in situ repair of cartilage defects.

  15. Translational Application of Microfluidics and Bioprinting for Stem Cell-Based Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondadori, Carlotta; Mainardi, Valerio Luca; Talò, Giuseppe; Candrian, Christian; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Cartilage defects can impair the most elementary daily activities and, if not properly treated, can lead to the complete loss of articular function. The limitations of standard treatments for cartilage repair have triggered the development of stem cell-based therapies. In this scenario, the development of efficient cell differentiation protocols and the design of proper biomaterial-based supports to deliver cells to the injury site need to be addressed through basic and applied research to fully exploit the potential of stem cells. Here, we discuss the use of microfluidics and bioprinting approaches for the translation of stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair in clinics. In particular, we will focus on the optimization of hydrogel-based materials to mimic the articular cartilage triggered by their use as bioinks in 3D bioprinting applications, on the screening of biochemical and biophysical factors through microfluidic devices to enhance stem cell chondrogenesis, and on the use of microfluidic technology to generate implantable constructs with a complex geometry. Finally, we will describe some new bioprinting applications that pave the way to the clinical use of stem cell-based therapies, such as scaffold-free bioprinting and the development of a 3D handheld device for the in situ repair of cartilage defects. PMID:29535776

  16. Bonding of human meniscal and articular cartilage with photoactive 1,8-naphthalimide dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Nosir, Hany R.; Jackson, Robert W.; Matthews, James Lester; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1996-05-01

    This study focused on meniscal cartilage repair by using the laser-activated photoactive 1,8- naphthalimide dye N,N'-bis-{6-[2-(2-(2- aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxyethyl]amino-1H-benz (de)isoquinolin-1,3(2H)-dion-2- yl}-1,11-diamino-3,6,9-trioxaundecane. Harvested cadaveric human menisci were debrided and carved into strips 1 mm thick, 10 mm long, and 3 mm wide. Each strip was divided into two flaps, the surface painted with photoactive dye, the painted surfaces overlapped, the sample wrapped in Saran film, and the composite sandwiched between two glass slides at a pressure of approximately 3 kg/cm2. The sample then was transilluminated by argon ion laser light of 457.9-nm wavelength at a power density of 200 mW/cm2 with exposure times up to 5 h (3902 J/cm2 energy density). Essentially, the same procedures were performed for human femoral articular cartilage samples. Control experiments were conducted with laser irradiation alone and with dye alone. All the specimens were stored in isotonic saline solution for 2 h after irradiation to ensure hydration. The bond shear-strength was then tested and samples prepared for optical and electron transmission microscopy. Shear strength values of up to 1.8 kg/cm2 for meniscal tissues and 1.2 kg/cm2 for articular cartilaginous tissues were obtained for exposures of 3902 J/cm2. Shear strength values of approximately 0.9 kg/cm2 and 0.4 kg/cm2, respectively, for meniscus and cartilage were obtained with 459 J/cm2 exposure. Dye- and light-only controls exhibited 0 kg/cm2 shear strength values. Microscopy revealed close contact at the bonded surface in the laser-activated, dye-treated-specimens. This study shows that the laser-activated photoactive dyes have the capability of athermally bonding the meniscal and articular cartilage surfaces.

  17. On the genesis of articular cartilage. Embryonic joint development and gene expression - implications for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F

    2013-01-01

    Articular chondrocytes descend from a distinct cohort of progenitor cells located in the embryonic joint anlagen, termed interzones. Their unique lineage might explain some of the problems encountered using chondrocytes of different lineages for articular cartilage tissue engineering. While it is

  18. MR diffusion weighted imaging experimental study on early stages of articular cartilage degeneration of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jingru; Dai Shipeng; Pang Jun; Xu Xiaokun; Wang Yuexin; Zhang Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the appearance of MR diffusion weighted imaging in early stages of cartilage degeneration and to detect its values. Methods: In 20 goat left knees, intra- articular injection of 5 units of papain was performed causing a loss of cartilage proteoglycan. Twenty right knees were used as control group. MR diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 24 hours after intra-articular injection of papain. ADC of each part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. The proteoglycan content was measured biochemically and histochemically. Routine MRI and DWI were performed in 100 patients with osteoarthritis and 20 healthy people. The ADC of each interested part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. Results: In experimental control group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (14.2±2.3) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In early stages of cartilage degeneration group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (17.5±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav of the control group was lower than that of the early stages of cartilage degeneration group (t=2.709; P=0.016). The proteloglycan content of articular cartilage was 4.22 x 10 6 μg/kg in control group, and 0.82 x 10 6 μg/kg in experimental group at 24 hours after injection of papain. The difference between control group and experimental group was significant (t=2.705, P=0.018). In healthy people, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (7.6±2.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In osteoarthritis group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (10.3±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav in the healthy group was significantly lower than that in the osteoarthritis group (t=2.609,P=0.014). Conclusion: DWI is an useful method in detecting early stages of cartilage degeneration which can not be showed on routine sequences. (authors)

  19. A cell-free scaffold-based cartilage repair provides improved function hyaline-like repair at one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, Alberto; Mascaro, Gennaro; Gentili, Chiara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Boux, Eugenio

    2012-03-01

    Bone marrow stimulation techniques in cartilage repair such as drilling are limited by the formation of fibrous to hyaline-like repair tissue. It has been suggested such techniques can be enhanced by covering the defect with scaffolds. We present an innovative approach using a polyglycolic acid (PGA)-hyaluronan scaffold with platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) in drilling. We asked whether (1) PRP immersed in a cell-free PGA-hyaluronan scaffold improves patient-reported 1-year outcomes for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Score (KOOS), and (2) implantation of the scaffold in combination with bone marrow stimulation leads to the formation of hyaline-like cartilage repair tissue. We reviewed 52 patients who had arthroscopic implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan scaffold immersed with PRP in articular cartilage defects of the knee pretreated with Pridie drilling. Patients were assessed by KOOS. At 9 months followup, histologic staining was performed in specimens obtained from five patients to assess the repair tissue quality. The KOOS subscores improved for pain (55 to 91), symptoms (57 to 88), activities of daily living (69 to 86), sports and recreation (36 to 70), and quality of life (38 to 73). The histologic evaluation showed a homogeneous hyaline-like cartilage repair tissue. The cell-free PGA-hyaluronan scaffold combined with PRP leads to cartilage repair and improved patient-reported outcomes (KOOS) during 12 months of followup. Histologic sections showed morphologic features of hyaline-like repair tissue. Long-term followup is needed to determine if the cartilage repair tissue is durable. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Reconstruction of Hyaline Cartilage Deep Layer Properties in 3-Dimensional Cultures of Human Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Vibudha; Tattikota, Surendra Mohan; T, Avinash Raj; Sriramagiri, Vijaya Rama Rao; Kantipudi, Suma; Pande, Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) injuries and malformations are commonly noticed because of trauma or age-related degeneration. Many methods have been adopted for replacing or repairing the damaged tissue. Currently available AC repair methods, in several cases, fail to yield good-quality long-lasting results, perhaps because the reconstructed tissue lacks the cellular and matrix properties seen in hyaline cartilage (HC). To reconstruct HC tissue from 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of AC-derived human chondrocytes that would specifically exhibit the cellular and biochemical properties of the deep layer of HC. Descriptive laboratory study. Two-dimensional cultures of human AC-derived chondrocytes were established in classical medium (CM) and newly defined medium (NDM) and maintained for a period of 6 weeks. These cells were suspended in 2 mm-thick collagen I gels, placed in 24-well culture inserts, and further cultured up to 30 days. Properties of chondrocytes, grown in 2D cultures and the reconstructed 3D cartilage tissue, were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopic techniques, immunohistochemistry, and cartilage-specific gene expression profiling by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and were compared with those of the deep layer of native human AC. Two-dimensional chondrocyte cultures grown in NDM, in comparison with those grown in CM, showed more chondrocyte-specific gene activity and matrix properties. The NDM-grown chondrocytes in 3D cultures also showed better reproduction of deep layer properties of HC, as confirmed by microscopic and gene expression analysis. The method used in this study can yield cartilage tissue up to approximately 1.6 cm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness that satisfies the very low cell density and matrix composition properties present in the deep layer of normal HC. This study presents a novel and reproducible method for long-term culture of AC-derived chondrocytes and reconstruction of cartilage

  1. Light Absorptive Properties of Articular Cartilage, ECM Molecules, Synovial Fluid, and Photoinitiators as Potential Barriers to Light-Initiated Polymer Scaffolding Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Anthony J; Benson, Jamie M; Donnelly, Patrick E; Torzilli, Peter A

    2017-06-01

    Objective Many in vivo procedures to repair chondral defects use ultraviolet (UV)-photoinitiated in situ polymerization within the cartilage matrix. Chemical species that absorb UV light might reduce the effectiveness of these procedures by acting as light absorption barriers. This study evaluated whether any of the individual native biochemical components in cartilage and synovial fluid interfered with the absorption of light by common scaffolding photosensitizers. Materials UV-visible spectroscopy was performed on each major component of cartilage in solution, on bovine synovial fluid, and on four photosensitizers, riboflavin, Irgacure 2959, quinine, and riboflavin-5'-phosphate. Molar extinction and absorption coefficients were calculated at wavelengths of maximum absorbance and 365 nm. Intact articular cartilage was also examined. Results The individual major biochemical components of cartilage, Irgacure 2959, and quinine did not exhibit a significant absorption at 365 nm. Riboflavin and riboflavin-5'-phosphate were more effectual light absorbers at 365 nm, compared with the individual native species. Intact cartilage absorbed a significantly greater amount of UV light in comparison with the native species. Conclusion Our results indicate that none of the individual native species in cartilage will interfere with the absorption of UV light at 365 nm by these commonly used photoinitiators. Intact cartilage slices exhibited significant light absorption at 365 nm, while also having distinct absorbance peaks at wavelengths less than 300 nm. Determining the UV absorptive properties of the biomolecules native to articular cartilage and synovial fluid will aid in optimizing scaffolding procedures to ensure sufficient scaffold polymerization at a minimum UV intensity.

  2. Magnetization transfer analysis of cartilage repair tissue: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, F.; Keyzer, F. de; Maes, F.; Breuseghem, I. van

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) after two different cartilage repair procedures, and to compare these data with the MTR of normal cartilage. Twenty-seven patients with a proven cartilage defect were recruited: 13 were treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and 14 were treated with the microfracture technique (MFR). All patients underwent MRI examinations with MT-sequences before the surgical treatment, after 12 months (26 patients) and after 24 months (11 patients). Eleven patients received a complete follow-up study at all three time points (five of the ACI group and six of the MFR group). All images were transferred to a workstation to calculate MTR images. For every MT image set, different ROIs were delineated by two radiologists. Means were calculated per ROI type in the different time frames and in both groups of cartilage repair. The data were analyzed with unpaired t- and ANOVA tests, and by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient. No significant differences were found in the MTR of fatty bone marrow, muscle and normal cartilage in the different time frames. There was a significant but small difference between the MTR of normal cartilage and the cartilage repair area after 12 months for both procedures. After 24 months, the MTR of ACI repaired cartilage (0.31±0.07) was not significantly different from normal cartilage MTR (0.34±0.05). The MTR of MFR repaired cartilage (0.28±0.02), still showed a significant difference from normal cartilage. The differences between damaged and repaired cartilage MTR are too small to enable MT-imaging to be a useful tool for postoperative follow-up of cartilage repair procedures. There is, however, an evolution towards normal MTR-values in the cartilage repair tissue (especially after ACI repair). (orig.)

  3. Biocompatible nanocomposite of TiO2 incorporated bi-polymer for articular cartilage tissue regeneration: A facile material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiugen; Wang, Jiandong

    2018-01-01

    The development and design of polymeric hydrogels for articular cartilage tissue engineering have been a vital biomedical research for recent days. Organic/inorganic combined hydrogels with improved surface activity have shown potential for the repair and regeneration of hard tissues, but have not been broadly studied for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. In this work, bi-polymeric hydrogel composite was designed with the incorporation some quantities of stick-like TiO 2 nanostructures for favorable surface behavior and enhancement of osteoblast adhesions. The microscopic investigations clearly exhibited that the stick-like TiO 2 nanostructured materials are highly inserted into the PVA/PVP bi-polymeric matrix, due to the long-chain PVA molecules are promoted to physical crosslinking density in hydrogel network. The results of improved surface topography of hydrogel matrixes show that more flatted cell morphologies and enhanced osteoblast attachment on the synthesized nanocomposites. The crystalline bone and stick-like TiO 2 nanocomposites significantly improved the bioactivity via lamellipodia and filopodia extension of osteoblast cells, due to its excellent intercellular connection and regulated cell responses. Consequently, these hydrogel has been enhanced the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial pathogens. Hence it is concluded that these hydrogel nanocomposite with improved morphology, osteoblast behavior and bactericidal activity have highly potential candidates for articular cartilage tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Similar properties of chondrocytes from osteoarthritis joints and mesenchymal stem cells from healthy donors for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton M Fernandes

    Full Text Available Lesions of hyaline cartilage do not heal spontaneously, and represent a therapeutic challenge. In vitro engineering of articular cartilage using cells and biomaterials may prove to be the best solution. Patients with osteoarthritis (OA may require tissue engineered cartilage therapy. Chondrocytes obtained from OA joints are thought to be involved in the disease process, and thus to be of insufficient quality to be used for repair strategies. Bone marrow (BM derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from healthy donors may represent an alternative cell source. We have isolated chondrocytes from OA joints, performed cell culture expansion and tissue engineering of cartilage using a disc-shaped alginate scaffold and chondrogenic differentiation medium. We performed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to evaluate mRNA and protein expression for a range of molecules involved in chondrogenesis and OA pathogenesis. Results were compared with those obtained by using BM-MSCs in an identical tissue engineering strategy. Finally the two populations were compared using genome-wide mRNA arrays. At three weeks of chondrogenic differentiation we found high and similar levels of hyaline cartilage-specific type II collagen and fibrocartilage-specific type I collagen mRNA and protein in discs containing OA and BM-MSC derived chondrocytes. Aggrecan, the dominant proteoglycan in hyaline cartilage, was more abundantly distributed in the OA chondrocyte extracellular matrix. OA chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels also of other hyaline extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly BM-MSC derived chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels of OA markers such as COL10A1, SSP1 (osteopontin, ALPL, BMP2, VEGFA, PTGES, IHH, and WNT genes, but lower levels of MMP3 and S100A4. Based on the results presented here, OA chondrocytes may be suitable for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

  5. Traumatic humeral articular cartilage shear (THACS) lesion in a professional rugby player: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, I-H; Wallace, W A

    2004-08-01

    A 20 year old male professional rugby player was seen at the clinic for evaluation of shoulder pain after rugby play. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive subchondral bone bruising of the humeral head with defect of the articular cartilage. Arthroscopy showed that the inferior half of the humeral head had extensive articular cartilage loss with nearly 70% of the inferior head having lost its cartilage. Sports medicine doctors should be aware that the shoulder joint in young competitive athletes playing contact sports may be exposed to greater risk of this kind of injury.

  6. A new solution in cartilage repair surgery of joint lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrascu JM¹,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to provide a simple, cost-effective, reproducible technology that is able to regenerate durable hyaline cartilage. Traumas and sports along with different diseases such as obesity or gradual degeneration over time of the joint surface determine cartilage defects resulting in pain and dysfunctionality. MATERIALS AND METHODS Since 2011 a number of 183 pacients were treated using Agili-C, out of which 40 pacients were operated in the IInd Clinic of Orthopaedics of the Timișoara Emergency County Hospital. The implant is a biphasic, porous, resorbable tissue regeneration scaffold used in the treatment of osteochondral defects. The surgical procedure is performed through minimal arthrotomy, with a good exposure of the cartilage defect. The implant is inserted so that the articular surface of the implant is parallel with the surrounding healthy cartilage. When in place, it facilitates vascularization thus allowing tissue formation to commence from the periphery towards the center of the defect. RESULTS Until now, results are promising, showing obvious improvements in pain and function in both degenerative and post-traumatic joint lesions in the knee, ankle and first MP joint. CONCLUSIONS Agili-C is a cell free, single stage, off the shelf implant that will hopefully meet market demands and become a reliable procedure in joint repair surgery in the future. Figure 1: Intra-operative aspect after the implant is in place. REFERENCES 1. Mehdi Kazemzadeh-Narbat et al. Biomaterials.2010. p.31. 2. Scaglione et al. Tissue engineering: Part A. 2009;15:1. FOOTNOTE Agili-C is a product of CartiHeal Company

  7. Evaluation of articular cartilage degeneration with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Mikihiro

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration is important in the clinical diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration. Glycosaminoglycan provides a large number of fixed negative charges. When manganese ion (Mn 2+ ) is administered to the cartilage matrix, this cation diffuses into the matrix and accumulates in accordance with the distribution of fixed negative charges owing to the electrostatic interaction. The accumulation of Mn 2+ causes a shortening of the relaxation times, resulting in high signal intensity in the MR image, when a T 1 -weighted image is obtained. The present study applied this new method to the articular cartilage to evaluate the degree of the cartilage degeneration. Small pieces of articular cartilage were dissected from the knee joints of young chickens. Experimentally degenerated articular cartilage was obtained by treating the specimen with various concentrations of papain solution. Then specimens were soaked in manganese solution until they obtained equilibrium and served for MR microimaging. The fixed charge density (FCD), the concentration of Mn 2+ and Na + , T 1 and T 2 relaxation times were also measured. In degenerated cartilage, lower accumulation of Mn 2+ due to lower GAG density caused a lower than normal signal intensity. Thus, administration of Mn 2+ enhances the biochemical change in the cartilage matrix in terms of differences in the relaxation time. The actual signal intensity on MRI of each specimen corresponded to the theoretical signal intensity, which was calculated from the FCD. It was concluded that MR images taken with contrast enhancement by Mn 2+ give direct visual information about the GAG density in the articular cartilage. MRI with cationic contrast agent could develop into a new method for early non-invasive diagnosis of cartilage dysfunction and degeneration. (author)

  8. Comparison of friction and wear of articular cartilage on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sandra; Boettcher, Kathrin; Wiegleb, Lorenz; Urban, Joanna; Burgkart, Rainer; Lieleg, Oliver; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-09-18

    The exceptional tribological properties of articular cartilage are still far from being fully understood. Articular cartilage is able to withstand high loads and provide exceptionally low friction. Although the regeneration abilities of the tissue are very limited, it can last for many decades. These biomechanical properties are realized by an interplay of different lubrication and wear protection mechanisms. The deterioration of cartilage due to aging or injury leads to the development of osteoarthritis. A current treatment strategy focuses on supplementing the intra-articular fluid with a saline solution containing hyaluronic acid. In the work presented here, we investigated how changing the lubricating fluid affects friction and wear of articular cartilage, focusing on the boundary and mixed lubrication as well as interstitial fluid pressurization mechanisms. Different length and time scales were probed by atomic force microscopy, tribology and profilometry. We compared aqueous solutions with different NaCl concentrations to a viscosupplement containing hyaluronic acid (HA). In particular, we found that the presence of ions changes the frictional behavior and the wear resistance. In contrast, hyaluronic acid showed no significant impact on the friction coefficient, but considerably reduced wear. This study confirms the previous notion that friction and wear are not necessarily correlated in articular cartilage tribology and that the main role of HA might be to provide wear protection for the articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of existing cartilage repair technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNickle, Allison G; Provencher, Matthew T; Cole, Brian J

    2008-12-01

    Currently, autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral grafting bridge the gap between palliation of cartilage injury and resurfacing via arthroplasty. Emerging technologies seek to advance first generation techniques and accomplish several goals including predictable outcomes, cost-effective technology, single-stage procedures, and creation of durable repair tissue. The biologic pipeline represents a variety of technologies including synthetics, scaffolds, cell therapy, and cell-infused matrices. Synthetic constructs, an alternative to biologic repair, resurface a focal chondral defect rather than the entire joint surface. Scaffolds are cell-free constructs designed as a biologic "net" to augment marrow stimulation techniques. Minced cartilage technology uses stabilized autologous or allogeneic fragments in 1-stage transplantation. Second and third generation cell-based methods include alternative membranes, chondrocyte seeding, and culturing onto scaffolds. Despite the promising early results of these products, significant technical obstacles remain along with unknown long-term durability. The vast array of developing technologies has exceptional promise and the potential to revolutionize the cartilage treatment algorithm within the next decade.

  10. Indentation stiffness does not discriminate between normal and degraded articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cameron P; Crawford, Ross W; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2007-08-01

    Relative indentation characteristics are commonly used for distinguishing between normal healthy and degraded cartilage. The application of this parameter in surgical decision making and an appreciation of articular cartilage biomechanics has prompted us to hypothesise that it is difficult to define a reference stiffness to characterise normal articular cartilage. This hypothesis is tested for validity by carrying out biomechanical indentation of articular cartilage samples that are characterised as visually normal and degraded relative to proteoglycan depletion and collagen disruption. Compressive loading was applied at known strain rates to visually normal, artificially degraded and naturally osteoarthritic articular cartilage and observing the trends of their stress-strain and stiffness characteristics. While our results demonstrated a 25% depreciation in the stiffness of individual samples after proteoglycan depletion, they also showed that when compared to the stiffness of normal samples only 17% lie outside the range of the stress-strain behaviour of normal samples. We conclude that the extent of the variability in the properties of normal samples, and the degree of overlap (81%) of the biomechanical properties of normal and degraded matrices demonstrate that indentation data cannot form an accurate basis for distinguishing normal from abnormal articular cartilage samples with consequences for the application of this mechanical process in the clinical environment.

  11. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Shimao, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Ando, Masami

    2008-01-01

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis

  12. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisada, Toshiyuki [Department of Medical Materials for Musculoskeletal Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)], E-mail: toshi-kunisada@umin.ac.jp; Shimao, Daisuke [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki 300-2394 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroshi [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Ando, Masami [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis.

  13. Electromechanical Assessment of Human Knee Articular Cartilage with Compression-Induced Streaming Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Ricklefs, Marcel; Willbold, Elmar; Hurschler, Christof; Abedian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    To assess the electromechanical properties of human knee articular cartilage with compression-induced streaming potentials for reliability among users and correlation with macroscopic and histological evaluation tools and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Streaming potentials are induced in cartilage in response to loading when mobile positive ions in the interstitial fluid temporarily move away from negatively charged proteoglycans. Streaming potential integrals (SPIs) were measured with an indentation probe on femoral condyles of 10 human knee specimens according to a standardized location scheme. Interobserver reliability was measured using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The learning curves of 3 observers were evaluated by regression analysis. At each SPI measurement location the degradation level of the tissue was determined by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Mankin score, and sGAG content. The computed ICC was 0.77 (0.70-0.83) indicating good to excellent linear agreement of SPI values among the 3 users. A significant positive linear correlation of the learning index values was observed for 2 of the 3 users. Statistically significant negative correlations between SPI and both ICRS and Mankin scores were observed (r = 0.502, P < 0.001, and r = 0.255, P = 0.02, respectively). No correlation was observed between SPI and sGAG content (r = 0.004, P = 0.973). SPI values may be used as a quantitative means of cartilage evaluation with sufficient reliability among users. Due to the significant learning curve, adequate training should be absolved before routine use of the technique.

  14. Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regional polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage by using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Chen, Zhongping; Peavy, George M.

    2007-02-01

    In this study, PS-OCT is used to image fresh bovine joints to investigate the orientation of collagen fibrils in relation to optical phase retardation to better understand the distribution of normal matrix orientation and articular cartilage birefringence in different regions of a whole joint. Understanding and mapping variations in matrix organization and orientation within the normal joint is an important issue in potential applications of PS-OCT for evaluation and diagnosis of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The experimental results demonstrate that articular cartilage is not polarization sensitive on the edge of the medial, but polarization sensitive on the lateral edge of the tibial plateau. The collagen orientation on the edge of the joint is different from the central areas of the joint. Normal articular cartilage demonstrates regional polarization sensitivity within joints that is important to understand in order to accurately assess cartilage health by PS-OCT.

  16. Photoshop-based image analysis of canine articular cartilage after subchondral damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, A; Uhl, M; Lehr, H A; Ihling, C; Kreuz, P C; Haberstroh, J

    2004-09-01

    The validity of histopathological grading is a major problem in the assessment of articular cartilage. Calculating the cumulative strength of signal intensity of different stains gives information regarding the amount of proteoglycan, glycoproteins, etc. Using this system, we examined the medium-term effect of subchondral lesions on initially healthy articular cartilage. After cadaver studies, an animal model was created to produce pure subchondral damage without affecting the articular cartilage in 12 beagle dogs under MRI control. Quantification of the different stains was provided using a Photoshop-based image analysis (pixel analysis) with the histogram command 6 months after subchondral trauma. FLASH 3D sequences revealed intact cartilage after impact in all cases. The best detection of subchondral fractures was achieved with fat-suppressed TIRM sequences. Semiquantitative image analysis showed changes in proteoglycan and glycoprotein quantities in 9 of 12 samples that had not shown any evidence of damage during the initial examination. Correlation analysis showed a loss of the physiological distribution of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the different zones of articular cartilage. Currently available software programs can be applied for comparative analysis of histologic stains of hyaline cartilage. After subchondral fractures, significant changes in the cartilage itself occur after 6 months.

  17. Contrast Agent-Enhanced Computed Tomography of Articular Cartilage: Association with Tissue Composition and Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvast, T. S.; Jurvelin, J.S.; Aula, A.S.; Lammi, M.J.; Toeyraes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrast agent-enhanced computed tomography may enable the noninvasive quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of articular cartilage. It has been reported that penetration of the negatively charged contrast agent ioxaglate (Hexabrix) increases significantly after enzymatic degradation of GAGs. However, it is not known whether spontaneous degradation of articular cartilage can be quantitatively detected with this technique. Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic potential of contrast agent-enhanced cartilage tomography (CECT) in quantification of GAG concentration in normal and spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage by means of clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Material and Methods: In this in vitro study, normal and spontaneously degenerated adult bovine cartilage (n=32) was used. Bovine patellar cartilage samples were immersed in 21 mM contrast agent (Hexabrix) solution for 24 hours at room temperature. After immersion, the samples were scanned with a clinical pQCT instrument. From pQCT images, the contrast agent concentration in superficial as well as in full-thickness cartilage was calculated. Histological and functional integrity of the samples was quantified with histochemical and mechanical reference measurements extracted from our earlier study. Results: Full diffusion of contrast agent into the deep cartilage was found to take over 8 hours. As compared to normal cartilage, a significant increase (11%, P 0.5, P<0.01). Further, pQCT could be used to measure the thickness of patellar cartilage. Conclusion: The present results suggest that CECT can be used to diagnose proteoglycan depletion in spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage with a clinical pQCT scanner. Possibly, the in vivo use of clinical pQCT for CECT arthrography of human joints is feasible

  18. The protective effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage: a systematic review of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, J J; Hannink, G; van Tienen, T G; van Luijk, J; Hooijmans, C R

    2015-08-01

    Despite widespread reporting on clinical results, the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on the development of osteoarthritis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review all studies on the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage in animals. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles concerning the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage compared with both its positive (meniscectomy) and negative (either sham or non-operated) control in healthy animals. Outcome measures related to assessment of damage to articular cartilage were divided in five principal outcome categories. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated and pooled to obtain an overall SMD and 95% confidence interval. 17 articles were identified, representing 14 original animal cohorts with an average timing of data collection of 24 weeks [range 4 weeks; 30 months]. Compared to a negative control, meniscus allograft transplantation caused gross macroscopic (1.45 [0.95; 1.95]), histological (3.43 [2.25; 4.61]) damage to articular cartilage, and osteoarthritic changes on radiographs (3.12 [1.42; 4.82]). Moreover, results on histomorphometrics and cartilage biomechanics are supportive of this detrimental effect on cartilage. On the other hand, meniscus allograft transplantation caused significantly less gross macroscopic (-1.19 [-1.84; -0.54]) and histological (-1.70 [-2.67; -0.74]) damage to articular cartilage when compared to meniscectomy. However, there was no difference in osteoarthritic changes on plain radiographs (0.04 [-0.48; 0.57]), and results on histomorphometrics and biomechanics did neither show a difference in effect between meniscus allograft transplantation and meniscectomy. In conclusion, although meniscus allograft transplantation does not protect articular cartilage from damage, it reduces the extent of it when compared with meniscectomy. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis

  19. CARTILAGE CONSTRUCTS ENGINEERED FROM CHONDROCYTES OVEREXPRESSING IGF-I IMPROVE THE REPAIR OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS IN A RABBIT MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Kaul, Gunter; Zurakowski, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy is a promising approach for promoting articular cartilage repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that engineered cartilage with chondrocytes over expressing a human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene can enhance the repair of osteochondral defects, in a manner dependent on the duration of cultivation. Genetically modified chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds in dynamic flow rotating bioreactors for either 10 or 28 d. The resulting cartilaginous constructs were implanted into osteochondral defects in rabbit knee joints. After 28 weeks of in vivo implantation, immunoreactivity to ß-gal was detectable in the repair tissue of defects that received lacZ constructs. Engineered cartilaginous constructs based on IGF-I-over expressing chondrocytes markedly improved osteochondral repair compared with control (lacZ) constructs. Moreover, IGF-I constructs cultivated for 28 d in vitro significantly promoted osteochondral repair vis-à-vis similar constructs cultivated for 10 d, leading to significantly decreased osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects. Hence, the combination of spatially defined overexpression of human IGF-I within a tissue-engineered construct and prolonged bioreactor cultivation resulted in most enhanced articular cartilage repair and reduction of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defect. Such genetically enhanced tissue engineering provides a versatile tool to evaluate potential therapeutic genes in vivo and to improve our comprehension of the development of the repair tissue within articular cartilage defects. Insights gained with additional exploration using this model may lead to more effective treatment options for acute cartilage defects. PMID:23588785

  20. Cartilage constructs engineered from chondrocytes overexpressing IGF-I improve the repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Madry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy is a promising approach for promoting articular cartilage repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that engineered cartilage with chondrocytes overexpressing a human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene can enhance the repair of osteochondral defects, in a manner dependent on the duration of cultivation. Genetically modified chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds in dynamic flow rotating bioreactors for either 10 or 28 d. The resulting cartilaginous constructs were implanted into osteochondral defects in rabbit knee joints. After 28 weeks of in vivo implantation, immunoreactivity to ß-gal was detectable in the repair tissue of defects that received lacZ constructs. Engineered cartilaginous constructs based on IGF-I-overexpressing chondrocytes markedly improved osteochondral repair compared with control (lacZ constructs. Moreover, IGF-I constructs cultivated for 28 d in vitro significantly promoted osteochondral repair vis-à-vis similar constructs cultivated for 10 d, leading to significantly decreased osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects. Hence, the combination of spatially defined overexpression of human IGF-I within a tissue-engineered construct and prolonged bioreactor cultivation resulted in most enhanced articular cartilage repair and reduction of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defect. Such genetically enhanced tissue engineering provides a versatile tool to evaluate potential therapeutic genes in vivo and to improve our comprehension of the development of the repair tissue within articular cartilage defects. Insights gained with additional exploration using this model may lead to more effective treatment options for acute cartilage defects.

  1. Stem Cells and Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Berton, Alessandra; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cartilage defects represent a common problem in orthopaedic practice. Predisposing factors include traumas, inflammatory conditions, and biomechanics alterations. Conservative management of cartilage defects often fails, and patients with this lesions may need surgical intervention. Several treatment strategies have been proposed, although only surgery has been proved to be predictably effective. Usually, in focal cartilage defects without a stable fibrocartilaginous repair tissue formed, sur...

  2. Exploiting endogenous fibrocartilage stem cells to regenerate cartilage and repair joint injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Mildred C.; Chen, Mo; Pylawka, Serhiy; Kong, Danielle; Iwaoka, George M.; Kalajzic, Ivo; Yao, Hai; Shi, Chancheng; Sun, Dongming; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Koslovsky, David A.; Koch, Alia; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue regeneration using stem cell-based transplantation faces many hurdles. Alternatively, therapeutically exploiting endogenous stem cells to regenerate injured or diseased tissue may circumvent these challenges. Here we show resident fibrocartilage stem cells (FCSCs) can be used to regenerate and repair cartilage. We identify FCSCs residing within the superficial zone niche in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. A single FCSC spontaneously generates a cartilage anlage, remodels into bone and organizes a haematopoietic microenvironment. Wnt signals deplete the reservoir of FCSCs and cause cartilage degeneration. We also show that intra-articular treatment with the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin sustains the FCSC pool and regenerates cartilage in a TMJ injury model. We demonstrate the promise of exploiting resident FCSCs as a regenerative therapeutic strategy to substitute cell transplantation that could be beneficial for patients suffering from fibrocartilage injury and disease. These data prompt the examination of utilizing this strategy for other musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:27721375

  3. Development of a Novel Large Animal Model to Evaluate Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Articular Cartilage Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Shimomura, Kazunori; Asperti, Andre; Pinheiro, Carla Cristina Gomes; Caetano, Heloísa Vasconcellos Amaral; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G C M; Nakamura, Norimasa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Bueno, Daniela Franco

    2018-05-04

    Chondral lesion is a pathology with high prevalence, reaching as much as 63% of general population and 36% among athletes. The ability of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into chondroblasts in vitro suggests that this stem cell type may be useful for tissue bioengineering. However, we have yet to identify a study of large animal models in which DPSCs were used to repair articular cartilage. Therefore, this study aimed to describe a novel treatment for cartilage lesion with DPSCs on a large animal model. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were obtained from deciduous teeth and characterized by flow cytometry. DPSCs were cultured and added to a collagen type I/III biomaterial composite scaffold. Brazilian miniature pig (BR-1) was used. A 6-mm diameter, full-thickness chondral defect was created in each posterior medial condyle. The defects were covered with scaffold alone or scaffold + DPSCs on the contralateral side. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage defects were analyzed macroscopically and histology according to modified O'Driscoll scoring system. Flow cytometry confirmed characterization of DPSCs as MSCs. Macroscopic and histological findings suggested that this time period was reasonable for evaluating cartilage repair. To our knowledge, this study provides the first description of an animal model using DPSCs to study the differentiation of hyaline articular cartilage in vivo. The animals tolerated the procedure well and did not show clinical or histological rejection of the DPSCs, reinforcing the feasibility of this descriptive miniature pig model for pre-clinical studies.

  4. Recapitulation of physiological spatiotemporal signals promotes in vitro formation of phenotypically stable human articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiyong; Zhou, Bin; Bernhard, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel; Burapachaisri, Aonnicha; Guo, X. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Standard isotropic culture fails to recapitulate the spatiotemporal gradients present during native development. Cartilage grown from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is poorly organized and unstable in vivo. We report that human cartilage with physiologic organization and in vivo stability can be grown in vitro from self-assembling hMSCs by implementing spatiotemporal regulation during induction. Self-assembling hMSCs formed cartilage discs in Transwell inserts following isotropic chondrogenic induction with transforming growth factor β to set up a dual-compartment culture. Following a switch in the basal compartment to a hypertrophic regimen with thyroxine, the cartilage discs underwent progressive deep-zone hypertrophy and mineralization. Concurrent chondrogenic induction in the apical compartment enabled the maintenance of functional and hyaline cartilage. Cartilage homeostasis, chondrocyte maturation, and terminal differentiation markers were all up-regulated versus isotropic control groups. We assessed the in vivo stability of the cartilage formed under different induction regimens. Cartilage formed under spatiotemporal regulation in vitro resisted endochondral ossification, retained the expression of cartilage markers, and remained organized following s.c. implantation in immunocompromised mice. In contrast, the isotropic control groups underwent endochondral ossification. Cartilage formed from hMSCs remained stable and organized in vivo. Spatiotemporal regulation during induction in vitro recapitulated some aspects of native cartilage development, and potentiated the maturation of self-assembling hMSCs into stable and organized cartilage resembling the native articular cartilage. PMID:28228529

  5. Evaluation of cartilage repair tissue in the knee and ankle joint using sodium magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbyn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage of adults shows no or very limited intrinsic capacity for self-repair. Since untreated chondral defects often progress to osteoarthritis, symptomatic defects should be treated. Different cartilage repair procedures have been developed with the goal to restore joint function and prevent further cartilage degeneration by providing repair tissue of the same structure, composition, and biomechanical properties as native cartilage. Various cartilage repair procedures have been developed; including bone marrow stimulation (BMS) techniques such as microfracture (MFX), cell-based techniques such as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT), and others. Since biopsies of cartilage repair tissue are invasive and cannot be repeated, a noninvasive method is needed that could follow-up the quality of cartilage and repair tissue. Negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are very important for cartilage function as they attract positive ions such as sodium. The high concentration of ions in cartilage is responsible for osmotic pressure providing cartilage its resilience to compression. Since GAGs are counterbalanced by sodium ions, sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was validated as a sensitive method for the in vivo evaluation of GAG concentration in native cartilage but not for repair tissue. Thus, the main goal of this thesis was to optimize and validate sodium 7 Tesla MRI for the evaluation of cartilage repair tissue quality in patients after different cartilage repair surgeries in the knee and ankle joint. In our studies, sodium MRI was used for the first time for the clinical evaluation of cartilage repair tissue. A strong correlation found between sodium imaging and dGEMRIC (another GAG-sensitive technique) in patients after MACT on femoral cartilage proved sensitivity of sodium MRI to GAG changes in native cartilage and repair tissue in vivo. Comparison between BMS and MACT patients showed significantly lower sodium values

  6. The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volck, B; Ostergaard, K; Johansen, J S

    1999-01-01

    YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is a major secretory protein of human chondrocytes in cell culture. YKL-40 mRNA is expressed by cartilage from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but is not detectable in normal human cartilage. The aim was to investigate the distribution of YKL......-40 in osteoarthritic (n=9) and macroscopically normal (n=5) human articular cartilage, collected from 12 pre-selected areas of the femoral head, to discover a potential role for YKL-40 in cartilage remodelling in osteoarthritis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that YKL-40 staining was found...... in chondrocytes of osteoarthritic cartilage mainly in the superficial and middle zone of the cartilage rather than the deep zone. There was a tendency for high number of YKL-40 positive chondrocytes in areas of the femoral head with a considerable biomechanical load. The number of chondrocytes with a positive...

  7. The bio in the ink : cartilage regeneration with bioprintable hydrogels and articular cartilage-derived progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levato, Riccardo; Webb, William R; Otto, Iris A; Mensinga, Anneloes; Zhang, Yadan; van Rijen, Mattie; van Weeren, P. René; Khan, Ilyas M.; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels are the primary building blocks for bioprinting, and, also termed bioinks, are the foundations for creating structures that can potentially recapitulate the architecture of articular cartilage. To be functional, hydrogel constructs need to unlock the regenerative capacity of

  8. Comparison of MRI-based estimates of articular cartilage contact area in the tibiofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Christopher E; Higginson, Jill S; Barrance, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) detrimentally impacts the lives of millions of older Americans through pain and decreased functional ability. Unfortunately, the pathomechanics and associated deviations from joint homeostasis that OA patients experience are not well understood. Alterations in mechanical stress in the knee joint may play an essential role in OA; however, existing literature in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of an existing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based modeling method to estimate articular cartilage contact area in vivo. Imaging data of both knees were collected on a single subject with no history of knee pathology at three knee flexion angles. Intra-observer reliability and sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the role of operator-influenced elements of the data processing on the results. The method's articular cartilage contact area estimates were compared with existing contact area estimates in the literature. The method demonstrated an intra-observer reliability of 0.95 when assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and was found to be most sensitive to changes in the cartilage tracings on the peripheries of the compartment. The articular cartilage contact area estimates at full extension were similar to those reported in the literature. The relationships between tibiofemoral articular cartilage contact area and knee flexion were also qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported. The MRI-based knee modeling method was found to have high intra-observer reliability, sensitivity to peripheral articular cartilage tracings, and agreeability with previous investigations when using data from a single healthy adult. Future studies will implement this modeling method to investigate the role that mechanical stress may play in progression of knee OA through estimation of articular cartilage contact area.

  9. Medical ozone therapy as a potential treatment modality for regeneration of damaged articular cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sello Lebohang Manoto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common degenerative joint disease and a growing health problem affecting more than half of the population over the age of 65. It is characterized by inflammation in the cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive damage to the cartilage. Many pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated in OA, including reactive oxygen species (ROS such as nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Damaged articular cartilage remains a challenge to treat due to the limited self-healing capacity of the tissue and unsuccessful biological interventions. This highlights the need for better therapeutic strategies to heal damaged articular cartilage. Ozone (O3 therapy has been shown to have positive results in the treatment of OA; however the use of O3 therapy as a therapeutic agent is controversial. There is a perception that O3 is always toxic, whereas evidence indicates that when it is applied following a specified method, O3 can be effective in the treatment of degenerative diseases. The mechanism of action of O3 therapy in OA is not fully understood and this review summarizes the use of O3 therapy in the treatment of damaged articular cartilage in OA. Keywords: Osteoarthritis (OA, Articular cartilage, Ozone (O3 therapy, Reactive oxygen species (ROS

  10. Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Bautista

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal itself and thus focal defects often result in the development of osteoarthritis. Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies seek to regenerate injured tissue by creating scaffolds that aim to mimic the unique structure and composition of native articular cartilage. Decellularization is a novel strategy that aims to preserve the bioactive factors and 3D biophysical environment of the native extracellular matrix while removing potentially immunogenic factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure that can enable decellularization and recellularization of intact articular cartilage matrix. Full-thickness porcine articular cartilage plugs were decellularized with a series of freeze-thaw cycles and 0.1% (w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent cycles. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC was applied before the detergent cycles to digest glycosaminoglycans in order to enhance donor chondrocyte removal and seeded cell migration. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the decellularized cartilage scaffolds and cultured for up to 28 days. The optimized decellularization protocol removed 94% of native DNA per sample wet weight, while collagen content and alignment were preserved. Glycosaminoglycan depletion prior to the detergent cycles increased removal of nuclear material. Seeded cells infiltrated up to 100 μm into the cartilage deep zone after 28 days in culture. ChABC treatment enhances decellularization of the relatively dense, impermeable articular cartilage by reducing glycosaminoglycan content. ChABC treatment did not appear to affect cell migration during recellularization under static, in vitro culture, highlighting the need for more dynamic seeding methods.

  11. Holmium:YAG laser effects on articular cartilage metabolism: in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Lane; Montgomery, L.; Fanton, G.; Dillingham, M.; Schurman, D. J.

    1994-09-01

    We report effects of applying variable doses of Holmium:YAG laser energy to bovine articular cartilage in vitro. The response of the cartilage to the Holmium:YAG laser energy was determined by quantification of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan synthesis. This study demonstrates that articular cartilage cell metabolism was maintained at a normal level following treatment of cartilage at a dose of 0.6 joules/pulse. The laser energy was applied at 10 Hz for 10 seconds at 1 mm distance from the cartilage. Under these conditions and at a dose of 0.6 joules/pulse, the total energy density was calculated to be 240 joules/cm2, assuming minimal loss of energy due to water absorption. Energy levels grater than 0.8 joules/pulse corresponding to calculated energy densities greater than 320 joules/cm2 proved harmful to cartilage. Our data demonstrate that low levels of Holmium:YAG laser energy can be applied to articular cartilage under conditions that maintain and/or stimulate cell metabolism.

  12. Noninvasive assessment of articular cartilage surface damage using reflected polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Ruby N.; Nehmetallah, George; Raub, Christopher B.

    2017-06-01

    Articular surface damage occurs to cartilage during normal aging, osteoarthritis, and in trauma. A noninvasive assessment of cartilage microstructural alterations is useful for studies involving cartilage explants. This study evaluates polarized reflectance microscopy as a tool to assess surface damage to cartilage explants caused by mechanical scraping and enzymatic degradation. Adult bovine articular cartilage explants were scraped, incubated in collagenase, or underwent scrape and collagenase treatments. In an additional experiment, cartilage explants were subject to scrapes at graduated levels of severity. Polarized reflectance parameters were compared with India ink surface staining, features of histological sections, changes in explant wet weight and thickness, and chondrocyte viability. The polarized reflectance signal was sensitive to surface scrape damage and revealed individual scrape features consistent with India ink marks. Following surface treatments, the reflectance contrast parameter was elevated and correlated with image area fraction of India ink. After extensive scraping, polarized reflectance contrast and chondrocyte viability were lower than that from untreated explants. As part of this work, a mathematical model was developed and confirmed the trend in the reflectance signal due to changes in surface scattering and subsurface birefringence. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of polarized reflectance microscopy to sensitively assess surface microstructural alterations in articular cartilage explants.

  13. MR imaging of articular cartilage; Gelenkknorpel in der MR-Tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Brossmann, J. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2001-04-01

    MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T{sub 1} weighted gradient echo and T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. (orig.) [German] Die MR-Tomographie hat sich zur besten nichtinvasiven bildgebenden Methode fuer die Untersuchung von Gelenkknorpel entwickelt. Die MR-Tomographie liefert einen Beitrag zum Verstaendnis der Knorpelstruktur und der Physiologie sowie zur Diagnostik von Knorpelschaeden. Zahlreiche MR-Studien konnten eine hohe Genauigkeit und Zuverlaessigkeit bei der Detektion chondraler Laesionen sowie frueher Veraenderungen struktureller und biochemischer Natur zeigen. Neben einem hohen Kontrast/Rausch-Verhaeltnis ist fuer die Gelenkknorpelanalyse eine hohe raeumliche Aufloesung erforderlich. Im klinischen Routinebetrieb empfehlen sich fuer die Erkennung von Knorpellaesionen besonders fettunterdrueckte 3D-T{sub 1}-gewichtete Gradientenecho- und T{sub 2}-gewichtete Fastspinecho-Sequenzen mit oder ohne Fettunterdrueckung. Die vorliegende Arbeit geht auf die Anatomie und Pathologie des hyalinen Gelenkknorpels ein und diskutiert das komplexe MR-Signalverhalten. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

    2010-01-15

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  15. Autoradiographic evidence of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, M.T.; Freire-Garabal, M.; Giraldez, M.; Nunez, M.J.; Belmonte, A.; Couceiro, J.; Jorge, J. (Univ. of Santiago (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    After {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage.

  16. High fat diet accelerates cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wu; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs; Kops, Nicole; Bos, Pieter K; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zuurmond, Anne-Marie; Dell'Accio, Francesco; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for osteoarthritis, but it is unknown what it does on cartilage repair. Here we investigated whether a high fat diet (HFD) influences cartilage repair in a mouse model of cartilage repair. We fed DBA/1 mice control or HFD (60% energy from fat). After 2 weeks, a full thickness cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove. Mice were sacrificed, 1, 8, and 24 weeks after operation. Cartilage repair was evaluated on histology. Serum glucose, insulin and amyloid A were measured 24 h before operation and at endpoints. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on synovium and adipose tissue to evaluate macrophage infiltration and phenotype. One week after operation, mice on HFD had defect filling with fibroblast-like cells and more cartilage repair as indicated by a lower Pineda score. After 8 weeks, mice on a HFD still had a lower Pineda score. After 24 weeks, no mice had complete cartilage repair and we did not detect a significant difference in cartilage repair between diets. Bodyweight was increased by HFD, whereas serum glucose, amyloid A and insulin were not influenced. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype in adipose tissue and synovium were not influenced by HFD. In contrast to common wisdom, HFD accelerated intrinsic cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice on the short term. Resistance to HFD induced inflammatory and metabolic changes could be associated with accelerated cartilage repair. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1258-1264, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  18. Optical characterization of porcine articular cartilage using a polarimetry technique with differential Mueller matrix formulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Min; Lo, Yu-Lung; Tran, Nghia-Khanh; Chang, Yu-Jen

    2018-03-20

    A method is proposed for characterizing the optical properties of articular cartilage sliced from a pig's thighbone using a Stokes-Mueller polarimetry technique. The principal axis angle, phase retardance, optical rotation angle, circular diattenuation, diattenuation axis angle, linear diattenuation, and depolarization index properties of the cartilage sample are all decoupled in the proposed analytical model. Consequently, the accuracy and robustness of the extracted results are improved. The glucose concentration, collagen distribution, and scattering properties of samples from various depths of the articular cartilage are systematically explored via an inspection of the related parameters. The results show that the glucose concentration and scattering effect are both enhanced in the superficial region of the cartilage. By contrast, the collagen density increases with an increasing sample depth.

  19. Chicken collagen type II reduces articular cartilage destruction in a model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Shen, W

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of domestic chicken collagen type II (CCII) on rat osteoarthritis (OA) and analyze concomitant changes in the level of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-9, Cathepsin K and their mRNA as well as the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA in articular cartilage of osteoarthritic rats. Osteoarthritis models were surgically induced. Morphology of articular cartilage was done by haematoxylin and eosin staining and Mankin score was calculated, immunohistochemistry of MMP-13, MMP-9 and Cathepsin K was done by ABC method while the mRNA level for MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as TIMP-1 was evaluated by RT-PCR method. Oral administration of CCII reduced the morphological changes of osteoarthritic cartilage (shown by Mankin score), decreased levels of MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as their mRNA in articular cartilage from osteoarthritic rats while it exhibited no effect on TIMP-1 mRNA. Oral CCII reduced articular cartilage degradation of osteoarthritic rats and may probably be a potent drug candidate for OA treatment.

  20. Early Changes of Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in The DMM Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Hang; Huang, Lisi; Welch, Ian; Norley, Chris; Holdsworth, David W.; Beier, Frank; Cai, Daozhang

    2018-01-01

    To examine the early changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the DMM mouse model of osteoarthritis, mice were subjected to DMM or SHAM surgery and sacrificed at 2-, 5- and 10-week post-surgery. Catwalk gait analyses, Micro-Computed Tomography, Toluidine Blue, Picrosirius Red and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining were used to investigate gait patterns, joint morphology, subchondral bone, cartilage, collagen organization and osteoclasts activity, respectively. R...

  1. Coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Miyatake, Kazumasa; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Yamada, Jun; Matsukura, Yu; Abula, Kahaer; Sekiya, Ichiro; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease, little has been reported regarding the cooperative interaction among these factors on cartilage metabolism. Here we examined the synergistic effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and excessive mechanical stress (forced running) on articular cartilage homeostasis in a mouse model resembling a human postmenopausal condition. Methods Mice were randomly divided into four groups, I: Sham, II: OVX, III: Sham and forced running (60?km in 6?w...

  2. Evaluation of degenerative changes in articular cartilage of osteoarthritis by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Ishimaru, Yasumitsu; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Hino, Kazunori; Miura, Hiromasa

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a very common joint disease in the aging population. Main symptom of OA is accompanied by degenerative changes of articular cartilage. Cartilage contains mostly type II collagen and proteoglycans, so it is difficult to access the quality and morphology of cartilage tissue in situ by conventional diagnostic tools (X-ray, MRI and echography) directly or indirectly. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free technique which enables to analyze molecular composition in degenerative cartilage. In this proposal, we aim to develop Raman spectroscopic system for the quality assessment of articular cartilage during arthroscopic surgery. Toward this goal, we are focusing on the proteoglycan content and collagen fiber alignment in cartilage matrix which may be associated with degenerative changes in OA, and we designed an original Raman device for remote sensing during arthroscopic surgery. In this project, we define the grading system for cartilage defect based on Raman spectroscopy, and we complete the evaluation of the Raman probing system which makes it possible to detect early stage of degenerative cartilage as a novel tool for OA diagnosis using human subject.

  3. Pulsed CO2 laser for intra-articular cartilage vaporization and subchondral bone perforation in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Alan J.; Roth, Jerry E.; Krook, Lennart P.

    1991-05-01

    A pulsed carbon dioxide laser was used to vaporize articular cartilage in four horses, and perforate the cartilage and subchondral bone in four horses. Both intercarpal joints were examined arthroscopically and either a 1 cm cartilage crater or a series of holes was created in the third carpal bone of one joint. The contralateral carpus served as a control. The horses were evaluated clinically for 8 weeks, euthanatized and the joints examined radiographically, grossly, and histologically. Pulsed carbon dioxide laser vaporized cartilage readily but penetrated bone poorly. Cartilage vaporization resulted in no greater swelling, heat, pain on flexion, lameness, or synovial fluid reaction than the sham procedure. Laser drilling resulted in a shallow, charred hole with a tenacious carbon residue, and in combination with the thermal damage to deeper bone, resulted in increased swelling, mild lameness and a low-grade, but persistent synovitis. Cartilage removal by laser vaporization resulted in rapid regrowth with fibrous and fibrovascular tissue and occasional regions of fibrocartilage at week 8. The subchondral bone, synovial membrane, and draining lymph nodes appeared essentially unaffected by the laser cartilage vaporization procedure. Conversely, carbon dioxide laser drilling of subchondral bone resulted in poor penetration, extensive areas of thermal necrosis of bone, and significant secondary damage to the apposing articular surface of the radial carpal bone. The carbon dioxide laser is a useful intraarticular instrument for removal of cartilage and has potential application in inaccessible regions of diarthrodial joints. It does not penetrate bone sufficiently to have application in subchondral drilling.

  4. The study of selective water excitation in the MR imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Fei; Zhang Xuezhe

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of selective water excitation technique for the assessment of articular cartilage. Methods: MR sagittal scanning of knee joints was performed in the fifteen healthy volunteers. MR scan sequences were 3D-FFE-SPIR and 3D-FFE-WATS. The signal noise ratio (SNR) of the cartilage, the contrast noise ratio (CNR) between cartilage and adjacent tissue and their efficiency were calculated and analyzed statistically. Tweenty-nine patients who were suspected having cartilage injury were performed MR examination and the image characteristics and the detecting ability of each sequence on cartilage lesions were analyzed. Results: In the healthy volunteers, the cartilage SNR was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 197.93±18.58, 3D-FFE-WATS: 187.32±21.50 (P=0.159). CNR (cartilage/bone) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 185.50±18.34, 3D-FFE-WATS: 169.55±24.57 (P=0.054). CNR ( cartilage/muscle ) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 61.40±19.04, 3D-FFE-WATS: 47.27±21.05 (P=0.064). The cartilage SNR and CNR between cartilage and bone, muscle of 3D-FFE-SPIR weren't significantly higher than that of 3D-FFE- WATS. CNR(cartilage/liquid) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 91.53±14.46, 3D-FFE-WATS: 149.28±32.30 (P0.000). CNR (cartilage/marrow) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 159.26±18.83, 3D-FFE-WATS: 176.87± 22.50 (P=0.028). CNR (cartilage/fat) was 3 D-FFE-SPIR: 134.56±15.80,3 D-FFE-WATS: 154. 01 + 22.42 (P=0.010). The CNR between cartilage and liquid, marrow, fat were higher in 3 D-FFE-WATS and significantly different than that of 3 D-FFE-SPIR. Thirty detected cartilage injuries of patients were 3D-FFE- WATS: 39, 3D-FFE-SPIR: 45 and there was no statistical difference between them (P=0.37). Conclusion: 3D-FFE-WATS can show the articular cartilage clearly. It has high scan speed and suppress the fat signal evenly. Its ability for finding cartilage damage is equal to that of 3D-FFE-SPIR. So WATS can be used in the routine clinical cartilage examination. (authors)

  5. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in the cartilage and subchondral bone repair of dogs - Histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Eleotério

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate nutraceuticals are commonly used in the management of degenerative articular disease in veterinary routine. However, there are controversies on the contribution of these substances to articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate-based veterinary nutraceutical on the repair of an induced osteochondral defect in a dog femoral condyle, by macroscopic, histological and histomorphometric analyses. The nutraceutical was orally administered the day following injury induction, every 24 hours (treated group, TG, n=24, compared with animals that did not receive the product (control group, CG, n=24. Six animals per group were anaesthetized for sample collection at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after surgery. At 15 days, defects were macroscopically filled with red-pinkish tissue. After 30 days, whitish color tissue was observed, both in TG and CG animals, with firmer consistency to touch at 60 and 90 postoperative days. Histological analysis demonstrated that, in both groups, there was initial blood clot formation, which was subsequently substituted by a fibrin net, with capillary proliferation from the adjacent bone marrow and infiltration of mesenchymal cells in clot periphery. As cellular differentiation developed, repair tissue presented a fibrocartilage aspect most of the time, and new subchondral bone formation occurred in the deepest area corresponding to the defect. Histomorphometry suggested that the nutraceutical did not favor the articular cartilage repair process. It was concluded that nutraceutical did not significantly influence chondrocytes proliferation or hyaline architecture restoration.

  6. Experimental study on the role of intra-articular injection of MSCs on cartilage regeneration in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbod, R; Torkaman, G; Mophid, M; Mohammadali, F

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy is a field in progress in cartilage repair strategies. We tried to investigate the functional properties of the joint and cartilage in experimental haemarthrosis (EH) after MSCs intra-articular (IA) injection. One millilitre of fresh autologous blood was injected twice a week for three consecutive weeks in three groups including control haemophilia 10 days (n = 8), control haemophilia 38 days (n = 8) and MSCs (n = 8) group. In later, 10 days after the end of IA blood injections, MSCs IA injection was performed. Eight animals received no treatment as the normal control group. Thirty-eight days after the end of IA blood injections, animals were sacrificed. Joint friction and stress-relaxation tests were done, inflammatory cytokines of synovial membrane and scanning electron microscopy of the cartilage assessed. Joint friction decreased in MSCs in comparison to other groups and was significant with normal control group, (P = 0.011). The mechanical properties of cartilage showed no significant differences between groups. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta decreased and IL-4 very slightly increased in MSCs in comparison to the time-matched control group. Scanning electron microscopy enabled acquisition of good structural properties of the surface and layers of the cartilage after MSCs injection. The hole induced in the medial plateau of the tibia bones, after inducing haemarthrosis, were covered with cartilage-like structure. The results showed that MSCs IA injection has some beneficial effects on cartilage structure and function in haemarthrosis model and is promising in patients with haemophilia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Tribological changes in the articular cartilage of a human femoral head with avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Min; Shrestha, Suman K; Duong, Cong-Truyen; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Kim, Tae-Woo; Vijayachandra, Ayyappan; Thompson, Mark S; Cho, Myung Guk; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Kwanghoon; Park, Seonghun; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2015-06-29

    The present study evaluated the tribological properties of the articular cartilage surface of the human femoral head with postcollapse stage avascular necrosis (AVN) using atomic force microscopy. The cartilage surface in the postcollapse stage AVN of the femoral head was reported to resemble those of disuse conditions, which suggests that the damage could be reversible and offers the possibilities of success of head-sparing surgeries. By comparing the tribological properties of articular cartilage in AVN with that of osteoarthritis, the authors intended to understand the cartilage degeneration mechanism and reversibility of AVN. Human femoral heads with AVN were explanted from the hip replacement surgery of four patients (60-83 years old). Nine cylindrical cartilage samples (diameter, 5 mm and height, 0.5 mm) were sectioned from the weight-bearing areas of the femoral head with AVN, and the cartilage surface was classified according to the Outerbridge Classification System (AVN0, normal; AVN1, softening and swelling; and AVN2, partial thickness defect and fissuring). Tribological properties including surface roughness and frictional coefficients and histochemistry including Safranin O and lubricin staining were compared among the three groups. The mean surface roughness Rq values of AVN cartilage increased significantly with increasing Outerbridge stages: Rq = 137 ± 26 nm in AVN0, Rq = 274 ± 49 nm in AVN1, and Rq = 452 ± 77 nm in AVN2. Significant differences in Rq were observed among different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN0, μ = 0.143 ± 0.025 in AVN1, and μ = 0.171 ± 0.039 in AVN2. Similarly to the statistical analysis of surface roughness, significant statistical differences were detected between different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN. The underlying mechanism of these results can be related to proteoglycan loss within the articular cartilage that is also observed in osteoarthritis. With regard to the tribological properties, the

  8. Ageing is associated with reduction of mechanically-induced activation of Smad2/3P signaling in articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madej, W.M.; Caam, A.P.M. van; Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Hannink, G.J.; Buma, P.; Kraan, P.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mechanical signals control key cellular processes in articular cartilage. Previously we have shown that mechanical compression is an important ALK5/Smad2/3P activator in cartilage explants. However, age-related changes in the cartilage are known to affect tissue mechanosensitivity and

  9. MR imaging of articular cartilage in the knee. Evaluation of cadaver knee by 3D FLASH sequence with fat saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hachiya, Junichi; Matsumura, Joji [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    MR imaging of the articular cartilage of the 24 cadever knees was performed using 3D FLASH sequence with fat saturation. Good correlation was noted between MR findings and either macroscopic or microscopic appearances of the hyaline cartilage. Low signal intensity area without significant thinning of the cartilage was considered to represent the degenerative changes due to relatively early process of osteoarthritis. (author)

  10. 1. 5 MRT of the hyaline articular cartilage of the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, G.; Bohndorf, K.; Krasny, R.; Guenther, R.W.; Prescher, A.

    1988-06-01

    MRI is a new method for imaging the knee joint. There is still some uncertainty regarding the extent and the signal from hyaline articular cartilage. MRI images were therefore compared with anatomical and histological preparations of the knee joint and the difference between MRI and the anatomical sections have been determined. It was shown that demonstration of hyaline cartilage was obscured by an artifact. Further investigations are required to determine the cause of this artifact and to achieve accurate imaging of hyaline cartilage by MRI.

  11. Tenascin-C Prevents Articular Cartilage Degeneration in Murine Osteoarthritis Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yuriyo; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Iino, Takahiro; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Sudo, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-articular injections of tenascin-C (TNC) could prevent cartilage damage in murine models of osteoarthritis (OA). Design Fluorescently labeled TNC was injected into knee joints and its distribution was examined at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks postinjection. To investigate the effects of TNC on cartilage degeneration after surgery to knee joints, articular spaces were filled with 100 μg/mL (group I), 10 μg/mL (group II) of TNC solution, or control (group III). TNC solution of 10 μg/mL was additionally injected twice after 3 weeks (group IV) or weekly after 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks (group V). Joint tissues were histologically assessed using the Mankin score and the modified Chambers system at 2 to 8 weeks after surgery. Results Exogenous TNC was maintained in the cartilage and synovium for 1 week after administration. Histological scores in groups I and II were better than scores in group III at 4 and 6 weeks, but progressive cartilage damage was seen in all groups 8 weeks postoperatively. Sequential TNC injections (groups IV and V) showed significantly better Mankin score than single injection (group II) at 8 weeks. Conclusion TNC administered exogenously remained in the cartilage of knee joints for 1 week, and could decelerate articular cartilage degeneration in murine models of OA. We also showed that sequential administration of TNC was more effective than a single injection. TNC could be an important molecule for prevention of articular cartilage damage.

  12. Serum Metabonomics of Articular Cartilage Destruction Induced by T-2 Toxin in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Zhi Jun; Ren, Xiao Bin; Li, Qiang; Ding, Hua; Sun, Zhou; Kao, Qing Jun; Wang, Li Hua

    2018-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of T-2 toxin-induced cartilage destruction has not been fully unraveled yet. The aim of this study was to detect changes in serum metabolites in a rat anomaly model with articular cartilage destruction. Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing T-2 toxin (300 ng/kg chow) for 3 months. Histopathological changes in femorotibial cartilage were characterized in terms of chondrocyte degeneration/necrosis and superficial cartilage defect, and the endogenous metabolite profile of serum was determined by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Treated rats showed extensive areas of chondrocyte necrosis and superficial cartilage defect in the articular cartilage. In addition, 8 metabolites were found to change significantly in these rats compared to the control group, including lysoPE (18:0/0:0), lysoPC(14:0), lysoPC[18:4 (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)], lysoPC[(16:1(9Z)], lysoPC(16:0), L-valine, hippuric acid, and asparaginyl-glycine. These 8 metabolites associated with cartilage injury are mainly involved in phospholipid and amino acid metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Joint Function Using Photochemical Hydrogels for Articular Surface Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    cartilage surface. Not only does this repair require multiple surgeries to complete, but there is little data supporting the benefits of ACI versus...Is it possible to reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with hiking poles? Scand J Med Sci Sports 2011;21:e195–e200. 1338

  14. A Comparison of Outcomes of Particulated Juvenile Articular Cartilage and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Nathan S; Carroll, John J; Cooper, Minton T; Perumal, Venkat; Park, Joseph S

    2017-08-01

    Articular cartilage lesions of the talus remain a challenging clinical problem because of the lack of natural regeneration and limited treatment options. Microfracture is often the first-line therapy, however lesions larger than 1.5 cm 2 have been shown to not do as well with this treatment method. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate concentrate/collagen scaffold (ICBMA) and particulated juvenile articular cartilage (PJAC) for larger articular cartilage lesions of the talus. Fifteen patients undergoing ICBMA or PJAC for articular cartilage lesions of the talus from 2010 to 2013 were reviewed. Twelve patients, 6 from each treatment option, were included in the study. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgeons (AOFAS), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and Short Form-12 (SF-12) outcome scores were collected for each patient. The mean age was 34.7 ± 14.8 years for ICBMA and 31.5 ± 7.4 years for PJAC. Lesion size was 2.0 ± 1.1 cm 2 for ICBMA and 1.9 ± 0.9 cm 2 for PJAC. At a mean follow-up of 25.7 months (range, 12-42 months), the mean AOFAS score was 71.33 for ICBMA and 95.83 for PJAC (  P = .019). The FAAM activities of daily living subscale mean was 77.77 for ICBMA and 97.02 for PJAC (   P = .027). The mean FAAM sports subscale was 45.14 for ICBMA and 86.31 for PJAC (  P = .054). The SF-12 physical health mean was 47.58 for ICBMA and 53.98 for PJAC (  P = .315). The SF-12 mental health mean was 53.25 for ICBMA and 57.8 for PJAC (  P = .315). One patient in treated initially with ICBMA underwent revision fixation for nonunion of their medial malleolar osteotomy, which ultimately resulted in removal of hardware and tibiotalar arthrodesis at 2 years from the index procedure. In the present analysis, PJAC yields better clinical outcomes at 2 years when compared with ICBMA for articular cartilage lesions of the talus that were on average greater than 1.5cm 2 . Therapeutic, Level

  15. An Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Derived Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Applied with Bone Marrow Stimulation for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Jin, Chengzhe; Du, Xiaotao; Yan, Chao; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that implanting a bioactive scaffold into a cartilage defect site can enhance cartilage repair after bone marrow stimulation (BMS). However, most of the current scaffolds are derived from xenogenous tissue and/or artificial polymers. The implantation of these scaffolds adds risks of pathogen transmission, undesirable inflammation, and other immunological reactions, as well as ethical issues in clinical practice. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of implanting autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell–derived extracellular matrix (aBMSC-dECM) scaffolds after BMS for cartilage repair. Methods: Full osteochondral defects were performed on the trochlear groove of both knees in 24 rabbits. One group underwent BMS only in the right knee (the BMS group), and the other group was treated by implantation of the aBMSC-dECM scaffold after BMS in the left knee (the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group). Results: Better repair of cartilage defects was observed in the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group than in the BMS group according to gross observation, histological assessments, immunohistochemistry, and chemical assay. The glycosaminoglycan and DNA content, the distribution of proteoglycan, and the distribution and arrangement of type II and I collagen fibers in the repaired tissue in the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group at 12 weeks after surgery were similar to that surrounding normal hyaline cartilage. Conclusions: Implanting aBMSC-dECM scaffolds can enhance the therapeutic effect of BMS on articular cartilage repair, and this combination treatment is a potential method for successful articular cartilage repair. PMID:24666429

  16. T2* measurement of the knee articular cartilage in osteoarthritis at 3T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbould, Rexford D.; Miller, Sam R.; Toms, Laurence D.; Swann, Peter; Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Gold, Garry E.; Strachan, Robin K.; Taylor, Peter C.; Matthews, Paul M.; Brown, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls. MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy

  17. Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Degroot, J.; Oldehinkel, E.; Bank, R. A.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Bayliss, M. T.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Lafeber, F. P.; TeKoppele, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Non-enzymic modification of tissue proteins by reducing sugars, the so-called Maillard reaction, is a prominent feature of aging. In articular cartilage, relatively high levels of the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine accumulate with age. Higher pentosidine levels have been associated

  18. Multi-scale physico-chemical phenomena in articular cartilage and subchondral bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouran, Behdad

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage and its connecting subchondral bone plate are main compartments that play an important role in proper mechanical functioning of diarthrodial joints. However, in ageing and osteoarthritis structural changes propagate in these tissues, which impairs them for proper functioning. One

  19. Postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Lagen, van B.; Zuilhof, H.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Adult AC is characterised by a depth-dependent composition and structure of the extracellular matrix that results in depth-dependent mechanical properties, important for the

  20. Postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Lagen, van B.; Zuilhof, H.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Adult AC is characterised by a depth-dependent composition and structure of the extracellular matrix that results in depth-dependent mechanical properties, important for

  1. Cycloolefin-Copolymer/Polyethylene (COC/PE) Blend Assists with the Creation of New Articular Cartilage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Hulejová, H.; Polanská, M.; Lísal, J.; Danešová, J.; Černý, P.

    294-I, - (2010), s. 120-132 ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : articular cartilage * biomaterials * cycloolefin-copolymer blend Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  3. Mechanical properties of the collagen network in human articular cartilage as measured by osmotic stress technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basser, P.J.; Schneiderman, R.; Bank, R.A.; Wachtel, E.; Maroudas, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have used an isotropic osmotic stress technique to assess the swelling pressures of human articular cartilage over a wide range of hydrations in order to determine from these measurements, for the first time, the tensile stress in the collagen network, P(c), as a function of hydration. Osmotic

  4. Basic science and surgical treatment options for articular cartilage injuries of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Elizabeth S; Bajaj, Sarvottam; Ghodadra, Neil S

    2012-03-01

    The complex structure of articular cartilage allows for diverse knee function throughout range of motion and weight bearing. However, disruption to the structural integrity of the articular surface can cause significant morbidity. Due to an inherently poor regenerative capacity, articular cartilage defects present a treatment challenge for physicians and therapists. For many patients, a trial of nonsurgical treatment options is paramount prior to surgical intervention. In instances of failed conservative treatment, patients can undergo an array of palliative, restorative, or reparative surgical procedures to treat these lesions. Palliative methods include debridement and lavage, while restorative techniques include marrow stimulation. For larger lesions involving subchondral bone, reparative procedures such as osteochondral grafting or autologous chondrocyte implantation are considered. Clinical success not only depends on the surgical techniques but also requires strict adherence to rehabilitation guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review the basic science of articular cartilage and to provide an overview of the procedures currently performed at our institution for patients presenting with symptomatic cartilage lesions.

  5. Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts reduces chondrocyte-mediated extracellular matrix turnover in human articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degroot, J.; Verzijl, N.; Jacobs, K. M.; Budde, M.; Bank, R. A.; Bijlsma, J. W.; TeKoppele, J. M.; Lafeber, F. P.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OAs) increases with age and coincides with the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in articular cartilage, suggesting that accumulation of glycation products may be involved in the development of OA. This study was designed to examine the effects

  6. Articular Cartilage Thickness Measured with US is Not as Easy as It Appears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Bartels, E. M.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2011-01-01

    insonation. If US measurements are compared to measurements with other techniques, they should be corrected for the higher sound speed in cartilage. Purpose: To study whether investigators correctly identify the articular cartilage, whether they insonate orthogonally, and whether they correct for sound speed....... Materials and Methods: A literature search limited to the last 10 years of studies applying US to measure cartilage thickness. Results: 15 studies were identified and they referred to another 8 studies describing methods of thickness measurement. 11 of the 15 studies identified the superficial cartilage...... border incorrectly, and 6 applied oblique insonation. 2 of the 15 studies corrected for sound speed. Of the further 8 studies, one might correctly identify the superficial cartilage border, 4 applied oblique insonation, and none corrected for sound speed. Conclusion: We found that the majority of studies...

  7. Low-field one-dimensional and direction-dependent relaxation imaging of bovine articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Erik; Mattea, Carlos; Mollova, Ayret; Stapf, Siegfried

    2011-12-01

    The structure of articular cartilage is separated into three layers of differently oriented collagen fibers, which is accompanied by a gradient of increasing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and decreasing water concentration from the top layer towards the bone interface. The combined effect of these structural variations results in a change of the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times as a function of the distance from the cartilage surface. In this paper, this dependence is investigated at a magnetic field strength of 0.27 T with a one-dimensional depth resolution of 50 μm on bovine hip and stifle joint articular cartilage. By employing this method, advantage is taken of the increasing contrast of the longitudinal relaxation rate found at lower magnetic field strengths. Furthermore, evidence for an orientational dependence of relaxation times with respect to an axis normal to the surface plane is given, an observation that has recently been reported using high-field MRI and that was explained by preferential orientations of collagen bundles in each of the three cartilage zones. In order to quantify the extent of a further contrast mechanism and to estimate spatially dependent glycosaminoglycan concentrations, the data are supplemented by proton relaxation times that were acquired in bovine articular cartilage that was soaked in a 0.8 mM aqueous Gd ++ solution.

  8. In situ measurements of human articular cartilage stiffness by means of a scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imer, Raphael; Akiyama, Terunobu; Rooij, Nico F de; Stolz, Martin; Aebi, Ueli; Kilger, Robert; Friederich, Niklaus F; Wirz, Dieter; Daniels, A U; Staufer, Urs

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a painful and disabling progressive joint disease, characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In order to study this disease at early stages, we have miniaturized and integrated a complete scanning force microscope into a standard arthroscopic device fitting through a standard orthopedic canula. This instrument will allow orthopedic surgeons to measure the mechanical properties of articular cartilage at the nanometer and micrometer scale in-vivo during a standard arthroscopy. An orthopedic surgeon assessed the handling of the instrument. First measurements of the elasticity-modulus of human cartilage were recorded in a cadaver knee non minimal invasive. Second, minimally invasive experiments were performed using arthroscopic instruments. Load-displacement curves were successfully recorded

  9. Quantifying NMR relaxation correlation and exchange in articular cartilage with time domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhiot, Sarah E.; Zong, Fangrong; Maneval, James E.; June, Ronald K.; Galvosas, Petrik; Seymour, Joseph D.

    2018-02-01

    Measured nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation data in articular cartilage has been shown to be multi-exponential and correlated to the health of the tissue. The observed relaxation rates are dependent on experimental parameters such as solvent, data acquisition methods, data analysis methods, and alignment to the magnetic field. In this study, we show that diffusive exchange occurs in porcine articular cartilage and impacts the observed relaxation rates in T1-T2 correlation experiments. By using time domain analysis of T2-T2 exchange spectroscopy, the diffusive exchange time can be quantified by measurements that use a single mixing time. Measured characteristic times for exchange are commensurate with T1 in this material and so impacts the observed T1 behavior. The approach used here allows for reliable quantification of NMR relaxation behavior in cartilage in the presence of diffusive fluid exchange between two environments.

  10. A new pressure chamber to study the biosynthetic response of articular cartilage to mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmeyer, J; Torzilli, P A; Burton-Wurster, N; Lust, G

    1993-01-01

    A prototype chamber was used to apply a precise cyclic or static load on articular cartilage explants under sterile conditions. A variable pressure, pneumatic controller was constructed to power the chamber's air cylinder, capable of applying, with a porous load platen, loads of up to 10 MPa at cycles ranging from 0 to 10 Hz. Pig articular cartilage explants were maintained successfully in this chamber for 2 days under cyclic mechanical loading of 0.5 Hz, 0.5 MPa. Explants remained sterile, viable and metabolically active. Cartilage responded to this load with a decreased synthesis of fibronectin and a small but statistically significant elevation in proteoglycan content. Similar but less extensive effects on fibronectin synthesis were observed with the small static load (0.016 MPa) inherent in the design of the chamber.

  11. In situ measurements of human articular cartilage stiffness by means of a scanning force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imer, Raphael [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Akiyama, Terunobu [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Rooij, Nico F de [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Stolz, Martin [Maurice E. Mueller Institute, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Aebi, Ueli [Maurice E. Mueller Institute, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Kilger, Robert [Clinics for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Kantonsspital, 4101 Bruderholz (Switzerland); Friederich, Niklaus F [Clinics for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Kantonsspital, 4101 Bruderholz (Switzerland); Wirz, Dieter [Lab. for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 50-70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Daniels, A U [Lab. for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 50-70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Staufer, Urs [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    Osteoarthritis is a painful and disabling progressive joint disease, characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In order to study this disease at early stages, we have miniaturized and integrated a complete scanning force microscope into a standard arthroscopic device fitting through a standard orthopedic canula. This instrument will allow orthopedic surgeons to measure the mechanical properties of articular cartilage at the nanometer and micrometer scale in-vivo during a standard arthroscopy. An orthopedic surgeon assessed the handling of the instrument. First measurements of the elasticity-modulus of human cartilage were recorded in a cadaver knee non minimal invasive. Second, minimally invasive experiments were performed using arthroscopic instruments. Load-displacement curves were successfully recorded.

  12. The promotion of cartilage defect repair using adenovirus mediated Sox9 gene transfer of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Yang, Fei; Liu, Guangwang; Yu, Degang; Li, Huiwu; Fan, Qiming; Gan, Yaokai; Tang, Tingting; Dai, Kerong

    2011-06-01

    Although Sox9 is essential for chondrogenic differentiation and matrix production, its application in cartilage tissue engineering has been rarely reported. In this study, the chondrogenic effect of Sox9 on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro and its application in articular cartilage repair in vivo were evaluated. Rabbit BMSCs were transduced with adenoviral vector containing Sox9. Toluidine blue, safranin O staining and real-time PCR were performed to check chondrogenic differentiation. The results showed that Sox9 could induce chondrogenesis of BMSCs both in monolayer and on PGA scaffold effectively. The rabbit model with full-thickness cartilage defects was established and then repaired by PGA scaffold and rabbit BMSCs with or without Sox9 transduction. HE, safranin O staining and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the repair of defects by the complex. Better repair, including more newly-formed cartilage tissue and hyaline cartilage-specific extracellular matrix and greater expression of several chondrogenesis marker genes were observed in PGA scaffold and BMSCs with Sox9 transduction, compared to that without transduction. Our findings defined the important role of Sox9 in the repair of cartilage defects in vivo and provided evidence that Sox9 had the potential and advantage in the application of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-culture systems-based strategies for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Guo, Weimin; Wang, Mingjie; Hao, Chunxiang; Lu, Liang; Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Xu; Chen, Mingxue; Li, Penghao; Jiang, Peng; Lu, Shibi; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2018-03-01

    Cartilage engineering facilitates repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage using engineered tissue that restores the functional properties of the impaired joint. The seed cells used most frequently in tissue engineering, are chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Seed cells activity plays a key role in the regeneration of functional cartilage tissue. However, seed cells undergo undesirable changes after in vitro processing procedures, such as degeneration of cartilage cells and induced hypertrophy of mesenchymal stem cells, which hinder cartilage tissue engineering. Compared to monoculture, which does not mimic the in vivo cellular environment, co-culture technology provides a more realistic microenvironment in terms of various physical, chemical, and biological factors. Co-culture technology is used in cartilage tissue engineering to overcome obstacles related to the degeneration of seed cells, and shows promise for cartilage regeneration and repair. In this review, we focus first on existing co-culture systems for cartilage tissue engineering and related fields, and discuss the conditions and mechanisms thereof. This is followed by methods for optimizing seed cell co-culture conditions to generate functional neo-cartilage tissue, which will lead to a new era in cartilage tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tissue-Derived Extracellular Matrix Bioscaffolds: Emerging Applications in Cartilage and Meniscus Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monibi, Farrah A; Cook, James L

    2017-08-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common problem in orthopedic practice. Given the long-term consequences of unaddressed cartilage and meniscal pathology, a number of treatments have been attempted to stimulate repair or to replace the injured tissue. Despite advances in orthopedic surgery, effective treatments for cartilage and meniscus injuries remain a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering is a developing field that aims to regenerate injured tissues with a combination of cells, scaffolds, and signals. Many natural and synthetic scaffold materials have been developed and tested for the repair and restoration of a number of musculoskeletal tissues. Among these, biological scaffolds derived from cell and tissue-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) have shown great promise in tissue engineering given the critical role of the ECM for maintaining the biological and biomechanical properties, structure, and function of native tissues. This review article presents emerging applications for tissue-derived ECM scaffolds in cartilage and meniscus repair. We examine normal ECM composition and the current and future methods for potential treatment of articular cartilage and meniscal defects with decellularized scaffolds.

  15. Coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Kazumasa; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Yamada, Jun; Matsukura, Yu; Abula, Kahaer; Sekiya, Ichiro; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-05-31

    Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease, little has been reported regarding the cooperative interaction among these factors on cartilage metabolism. Here we examined the synergistic effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and excessive mechanical stress (forced running) on articular cartilage homeostasis in a mouse model resembling a human postmenopausal condition. Mice were randomly divided into four groups, I: Sham, II: OVX, III: Sham and forced running (60 km in 6 weeks), and IV: OVX and forced running. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the degeneration of articular cartilage and synovitis in the knee joint. Morphological changes of subchondral bone were analyzed by micro-CT. Micro-CT analyses showed significant loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) after OVX as described previously. Forced running increased the trabecular BV/TV in all mice. In the epiphyseal region, no visible alteration in bone morphology or osteophyte formation was observed in any of the four groups. Histological analysis revealed that OVX or forced running respectively had subtle effects on cartilage degeneration. However, the combination of OVX and forced running synergistically enhanced synovitis and articular cartilage degeneration. Although morphological changes in chondrocytes were observed during OA initiation, no signs of bone marrow edema were observed in any of the four experimental groups. We report the coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration. Since no surgical procedure was performed on the knee joint directly in this model, this model is useful in addressing the molecular pathogenesis of naturally occurring OA.

  16. Altered osmotic swelling behavior of proteoglycan-depleted bovine articular cartilage using high frequency ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Zheng, Y P; Leung, G; Mak, A F T; Lam, W L; Guo, X; Lu, H B; Qin, L

    2008-01-01

    Swelling behavior is an electrochemical mechanical property of articular cartilage. It plays an important role in weight bearing and joint lubrication. In this study, the altered transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage was observed and quantified in situ using ultrasound. Three groups of bovine patellar articular cartilage samples (n = 10 x 3) were obtained and digested by trypsin for 10, 20 and 30 min respectively to mimic different levels of degeneration. The osmotic-free shrinkage and swelling behavior induced by changing the concentration of the bathing saline solution from 0.15 M to 2 M and then back to 0.15 M were characterized using high-frequency ultrasound (central frequency = 35 MHz) before and after digestion. It was found that the degenerated cartilage specimens showed a weaker shrinkage-swelling behavior compared with the normal cartilage samples. However, no significant differences in the peak shrinkage or swelling strains were observed between different groups. The absolute values of the peak shrinkage strain significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 45.4%, 42.1% and 50.6% respectively after the trypsin digestion for 10, 20 and 30 min, but such significance was not demonstrated for the peak swelling strains. Due to the potential alterations in the collagen-PG matrix during trypsin digestion, the correlation between the swelling strain and the shrinkage strain of the degenerated samples changed slightly in comparison with the normal samples. The proposed ultrasound method has been successfully used to measure the transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage and has the potential for the characterization of osteoarthritis

  17. PLGA-based microcarriers induce mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis and stimulate cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morille, Marie; Toupet, Karine; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we aimed at evaluating the ability of novel PLGA-P188-PLGA-based microspheres to induce the differentiation of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) into chondrocytes. To this aim, we tested microspheres releasing TGFβ3 (PAM-T) in vitro and in situ, in a pathological osteoarthritic (OA) environment. We first evaluated the chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs seeded onto PAM-T in vitro and confirmed the up-regulation of chondrogenic markers while the secretome of the cells was not changed by the 3D environment. We then injected human MSC seeded onto PAM-T in the knee joints of mice with collagenase-induced OA. After 6 weeks, histological analysis revealed that formation of a cartilage-like tissue occurred at the vicinity of PAM-T that was not observed when MSCs were seeded onto PAM. We also noticed that the endogenous articular cartilage was less degraded. The extent of cartilage protection was further analysed by confocal laser microscopy. When MSCs seeded onto PAM-T were injected early after OA induction, protection of cartilage against degradation was evidenced and this effect was associated to a higher survival of MSCs in presence of TGFβ3. This study points to the interest of using MSCs seeded onto PAM for cartilage repair and stimulation of endogenous cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S; Manjunath, S; Senthilkumar, R; Rajendiran, S; Yoshioka, H; Mori, Y; Abraham, S

    2011-01-01

    The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury. Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain) and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining). The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any adverse reactions and upon confirmation of safety following completion of the

  19. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  20. Induction of spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration using a double-network gel: efficacy of a novel therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori; Ogawa, Munehiro; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Kai, Shuken; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-06-01

    A double-network (DN) gel, which was composed of poly-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N,N'-dimetyl acrylamide) (PAMPS/PDMAAm), has the potential to induce chondrogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. To establish the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect using a DN gel. Controlled laboratory study. A 4.3-mm-diameter osteochondral defect was created in rabbit trochlea. A DN gel plug was implanted into the defect of the right knee so that a defect 2 mm in depth remained after surgery. An untreated defect of the left knee provided control data. The osteochondral defects created were examined by histological and immunohistochemical evaluations, surface assessment using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis at 4 and 12 weeks. Samples were quantitatively evaluated with 2 scoring systems reported by Wayne et al and O'Driscoll et al. The DN gel-implanted defect was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type 2 collagen. Quantitative evaluation using the grading scales revealed a significantly higher score in the DN gel-implanted defects compared with the untreated control at each period (P cartilage at 12 weeks (P = .0106), while there was no statistical difference between the DN gel-implanted and normal knees. This study using the mature rabbit femoral trochlea osteochondral defect model demonstrated that DN gel implantation is an effective treatment to induce cartilage regeneration in vivo without any cultured cells or mammalian-derived scaffolds. This study has prompted us to develop a potential innovative strategy to repair cartilage lesions in the field of joint surgery.

  1. Synergy between Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels confers high-strain mechanosensitivity to articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whasil; Leddy, Holly A.; Chen, Yong; Lee, Suk Hee; Zelenski, Nicole A.; McNulty, Amy L.; Wu, Jason; Beicker, Kellie N.; Coles, Jeffrey; Zauscher, Stefan; Grandl, Jörg; Sachs, Frederick; Liedtke, Wolfgang B.

    2014-01-01

    Diarthrodial joints are essential for load bearing and locomotion. Physiologically, articular cartilage sustains millions of cycles of mechanical loading. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, regulate their metabolic activities in response to mechanical loading. Pathological mechanical stress can lead to maladaptive cellular responses and subsequent cartilage degeneration. We sought to deconstruct chondrocyte mechanotransduction by identifying mechanosensitive ion channels functioning at injurious levels of strain. We detected robust expression of the recently identified mechanosensitive channels, PIEZO1 and PIEZO2. Combined directed expression of Piezo1 and -2 sustained potentiated mechanically induced Ca2+ signals and electrical currents compared with single-Piezo expression. In primary articular chondrocytes, mechanically evoked Ca2+ transients produced by atomic force microscopy were inhibited by GsMTx4, a PIEZO-blocking peptide, and by Piezo1- or Piezo2-specific siRNA. We complemented the cellular approach with an explant-cartilage injury model. GsMTx4 reduced chondrocyte death after mechanical injury, suggesting a possible therapy for reducing cartilage injury and posttraumatic osteoarthritis by attenuating Piezo-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction of injurious strains. PMID:25385580

  2. Application of multiphysics models to efficient design of experiments of solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-11-01

    Transport of solutes helps to regulate normal physiology and proper function of cartilage in diarthrodial joints. Multiple studies have shown the effects of characteristic parameters such as concentration of proteoglycans and collagens and the orientation of collagen fibrils on the diffusion process. However, not much quantitative information and accurate models are available to help understand how the characteristics of the fluid surrounding articular cartilage influence the diffusion process. In this study, we used a combination of micro-computed tomography experiments and biphasic-solute finite element models to study the effects of three parameters of the overlying bath on the diffusion of neutral solutes across cartilage zones. Those parameters include bath size, degree of stirring of the bath, and the size and concentration of the stagnant layer that forms at the interface of cartilage and bath. Parametric studies determined the minimum of the finite bath size for which the diffusion behavior reduces to that of an infinite bath. Stirring of the bath proved to remarkably influence neutral solute transport across cartilage zones. The well-stirred condition was achieved only when the ratio of the diffusivity of bath to that of cartilage was greater than ≈1000. While the thickness of the stagnant layer at the cartilage-bath interface did not significantly influence the diffusion behavior, increase in its concentration substantially elevated solute concentration in cartilage. Sufficient stirring attenuated the effects of the stagnant layer. Our findings could be used for efficient design of experimental protocols aimed at understanding the transport of molecules across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro of quantitative MR imaging of early degenerative changes in human articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Wha; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Sung Suk; Hwa, Ryu Ji

    2004-01-01

    To assess the applicability of quantitative MR microscopy for the detection of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) depletion as an early sign of degeneration in the articular cartilage of humans treated by trypsin. Four cartilage-bone blocks were obtained from the patient who had suffered from osteoarthritis of the knee and underwent a total knee replacement arthroscopy. Each articular cartilage segment was resected as to a round disk shape (8 mm in diameter) with a remnant of subchondral bone 1 mm in thickness. Four different culture solutions were prepared, and these solutions were 0.2 mg/ml of trypsin solution (group 1), 1 mM of Gd (DTPA) 2-mixed trypsin solution (group 2), phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (group 3), and 1 mM of Gd (DTPA) 2-mixed PBS (group 4). The cartilages were cultured and then MR imagings were performed every hour for 5 hrs, and we continued the additional cultures of 24 hrs, 36 hrs and 48 hrs. Three imaging sequences were used: T1-weighted spin echo (TR/TE, 450/22), proton density turbo spin echo with fat suppression (TR/TE, 3000/25), and CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) (TR/TE/TI, 760/21-168, 360). MR imaging data were analyzed with pixel-by-pixel comparisons in all groups. The GAG loss in the articular cartilage was increased proportionately to the culture duration. Mean changes of T1 relaxation time were 1.2% for group 1, -1.9% for group 3, -54.7% for group 2 and -64.2% for group 4 (p< 0.05). When comparing by linear profile on the T1-weighted images, SNR increased and T1 relaxation time decreased for group 2 and 4, as the culture duration increased (p< 0.05). On the correlation analysis, there is significant correlation between GAG loss and Gd (DTPA) 2-enhancement for group 2 (p=0.0431), but there was no significant difference for group 4 (p=0.0918). More enhancement with Gd (DTPA) 2-was noted for group 2 than for group 4. Group 2 showed a diffuse enhancement in all the layers of cartilage, but for group 4, prominent enhancement was noted only in

  4. Shortwave-infrared Raman spectroscopic classification of water fractions in articular cartilage ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2018-01-01

    Water loss is an early onset indicator of osteoarthritis. Although Raman spectroscopy (RS) holds the potential for measurement of cartilage hydration, the knowledge of Raman OH-stretch bands of biological tissue is very limited. We assesed here the sensitivity of RS to identify and classify water types in the cartilage. Raman spectrum measurements over the high wavenumber range were employed to identify different water fractions in articular cartilage. Raman spectra were collected from wet and sequentially dehydrated cartilage along with pure collagen type II and chondroitin sulfate standards. OH-stretch band of cartilage is dominated by mobile water, up to 95% of total intensities. We identified six peaks in cartilage spectrum using second-derivative analysis: peaks at 3200 and 3650 cm-1 are associated with organic matrix (both collagen and proteglycan) and matrix-bound water molecules. Peaks at 3250, 3453, and 3630 cm-1 are associated with collagen and collagen-related water molecules, whereas the peak at 3520 cm-1 is associated with proteoglycan (PG) and PG-related water molecules. The current work is the first thorough analysis of the Raman OH-stretch band of the cartilage and with the knowledge generated by this study, it may now be possible to study on cartilage hydration by RS.

  5. Programmed Application of Transforming Growth Factor β3 and Rac1 Inhibitor NSC23766 Committed Hyaline Cartilage Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Osteochondral Defect Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shouan; Chen, Pengfei; Wu, Yan; Xiong, Si; Sun, Heng; Xia, Qingqing; Shi, Libing; Liu, Huanhuan; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2014-10-01

    Hyaline cartilage differentiation is always the challenge with application of stem cells for joint repair. Transforming growth factors (TGFs) and bone morphogenetic proteins can initiate cartilage differentiation but often lead to hypertrophy and calcification, related to abnormal Rac1 activity. In this study, we developed a strategy of programmed application of TGFβ3 and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 to commit the hyaline cartilage differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for joint cartilage repair. ADSCs were isolated and cultured in a micromass and pellet culture model to evaluate chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation. The function of Rac1 was investigated with constitutively active Rac1 mutant and dominant negative Rac1 mutant. The efficacy of ADSCs with programmed application of TGFβ3 and Rac1 inhibitor for cartilage repair was studied in a rat model of osteochondral defects. The results showed that TGFβ3 promoted ADSCs chondro-lineage differentiation and that NSC23766 prevented ADSC-derived chondrocytes from hypertrophy in vitro. The combination of ADSCs, TGFβ3, and NSC23766 promoted quality osteochondral defect repair in rats with much less chondrocytes hypertrophy and significantly higher International Cartilage Repair Society macroscopic and microscopic scores. The findings have illustrated that programmed application of TGFβ3 and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 can commit ADSCs to chondro-lineage differentiation and improve the efficacy of ADSCs for cartilage defect repair. These findings suggest a promising stem cell-based strategy for articular cartilage repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. Intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen in rat knee joint: histopathologic assessment of cartilage & synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Aycan Guner; Akyol, Onat; Ekici, Murat; Sitilci, Tolga; Topacoglu, Hakan; Ozyuvaci, Emine

    2014-08-01

    Effective pain control following outpatient surgical procedures is an important aspect of patient discharge. This study was carried out with an aim to investigate the histopathological effects of intra-articular dexketoprofen trometamol injection in knee joint on synovium and cartilage in an experimental rat model. In each of 40 rats, the right knee was designated as the study group and the left knee as the control group (NS group). Under aseptic conditions, 35 rats received an injection of 0.25 ml (6.25 mg) dexketoprofen trometamol into the right knee joint and an injection of 0.25 ml 0.9 per cent normal saline solution into the left knee joint. On the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days after intra-articular injection, rats in specified groups were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg sodium thiopental. Knee joints were separated and sectioned for histopathological examination. Inflammatory changes in the joints were recorded according to a grade scale. No significant difference in terms of pathological changes both in synovium and cartilage was observed between the NS group and the study group on days 1, 2, 7, 14 and 21 after intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen or saline in the knee joint. The findings showed no evidence of significant histopathological damage to the cartilage and synovia for a period up to 21 days following intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol in the knee joints of rats.

  7. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron

    2014-01-01

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  8. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  9. Susceptibility tensor imaging and tractography of collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongjiang; Gibbs, Eric; Zhao, Peida; Wang, Nian; Cofer, Gary P; Zhang, Yuyao; Johnson, G Allan; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the B 0 orientation-dependent magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage and to determine whether susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) can detect the 3D collagen network within cartilage. Multiecho gradient echo datasets (100-μm isotropic resolution) were acquired from fixed porcine articular cartilage specimens at 9.4 T. The susceptibility tensor was calculated using phase images acquired at 12 or 15 different orientations relative to B 0 . The susceptibility anisotropy of the collagen fibril was quantified and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was compared against STI. 3D tractography was performed to visualize and track the collagen fibrils with DTI and STI. STI experiments showed the distinct and significant anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage. STI can be used to measure and quantify susceptibility anisotropy maps. Furthermore, STI provides orientation information of the underlying collagen network via 3D tractography. The findings of this study demonstrate that STI can characterize the orientation variation of collagen fibrils where diffusion anisotropy fails. We believe that STI could serve as a sensitive and noninvasive marker to study the collagen fibrils microstructure. Magn Reson Med 78:1683-1690, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Relative contribution of matrix metalloprotease and cysteine protease activities to cytokine-stimulated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Henriksen, K; Wulf, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and cathepsin K (CK) activity have been implicated in cartilage turnover. We investigated the relative contribution of MMP activity and CK activity in cartilage degradation using ex vivo and in vivo models. METHODS: Bovine articular cartilage...... explants were stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM) 10 ng/ml and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 20 ng/ml in the presence or absence of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 and the cysteine protease inhibitor, E64. Cartilage degradation was evaluated in the conditioned medium by glycosaminoglycans...... was measured from CK-deficient mice. RESULTS: OSM and TNF-alpha combined induced significant (Pcartilage degradation products measured by hydroxyproline and CTX-II compared to vehicle control. The cytokines potently induced MMP expression, assessed by zymography, and CK expression...

  11. MRI evaluation of the patellar articular cartilage in patients with subluxation of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Harada, Koushi; Murakami, Takamichi; Kim, Shougen; Fujita, Norihiko; Sakurai, Kousuke; Kozuka, Takahiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    In patients with subluxation of the patella, injury of the patellar articular cartilage is frequently observed and correct evaluation is important to manage these patients. We examined 11 patients with subluxation of the patella and five normal volunteers. In 12 patellofemoral joints of seven patients with subluxation of the patella, the abnormalities observed on MRI were compared with those on arthroscopy and/or at operation. MRI was performed with a Magnetom 1.5 T (Siemens) using the round surface coil. Pulse sequences were SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms), FLASH(TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg and 40deg), and SE (TR 2000 ms/TE 26, 70 ms). We analysed MR findings of the 12 abnormal joints and 10 normal joints according to the following classification of abnormalities observed on arthroscopy; normal appearance (n=3 joints), softening and fibrillation (n=6), fragmentation (n=3), and erosion to bone (n=0). In only one of the six cases with softening and fibrillation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thickening of patellar articular cartilage, but in all three cases with fragmentation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thin inhomogeneous cartilage with irregular surface. The combination of SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms) and FLASH (TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg) are extremely effective pulse sequence to detect the abnormalities of patellar articular cartilage. We conclude that MRI is a useful noninvasive method of detecting advanced changes in patellar articular cartilage. (author).

  12. MRI evaluation of the patellar articular cartilage in patients with subluxation of the patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Harada, Koushi; Murakami, Takamichi; Kim, Shougen; Fujita, Norihiko; Sakurai, Kousuke; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-01-01

    In patients with subluxation of the patella, injury of the patellar articular cartilage is frequently observed and correct evaluation is important to manage these patients. We examined 11 patients with subluxation of the patella and five normal volunteers. In 12 patellofemoral joints of seven patients with subluxation of the patella, the abnormalities observed on MRI were compared with those on arthroscopy and/or at operation. MRI was performed with a Magnetom 1.5 T (Siemens) using the round surface coil. Pulse sequences were SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms), FLASH(TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg and 40deg), and SE (TR 2000 ms/TE 26, 70 ms). We analysed MR findings of the 12 abnormal joints and 10 normal joints according to the following classification of abnormalities observed on arthroscopy; normal appearance (n=3 joints), softening and fibrillation (n=6), fragmentation (n=3), and erosion to bone (n=0). In only one of the six cases with softening and fibrillation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thickening of patellar articular cartilage, but in all three cases with fragmentation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thin inhomogeneous cartilage with irregular surface. The combination of SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms) and FLASH (TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg) are extremely effective pulse sequence to detect the abnormalities of patellar articular cartilage. We conclude that MRI is a useful noninvasive method of detecting advanced changes in patellar articular cartilage. (author)

  13. Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muldrew Ken

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a relatively non-regenerative tissue, articular cartilage has been targeted for cryopreservation as a method of mitigating a lack of donor tissue availability for transplant surgeries. In addition, subzero storage of articular cartilage has long been used in biomedical studies using various storage temperatures. The current investigation studies the potential for freeze-thaw to affect the mechanical properties of articular cartilage through direct comparison of various subzero storage temperatures. Methods Both subzero storage temperature as well as freezing rate were compared using control samples (4°C and samples stored at either -20°C or -80°C as well as samples first snap frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C prior to storage at -80°C. All samples were thawed at 37.5°C to testing temperature (22°C. Complex stiffness and hysteresis characterized load resistance and damping properties using a non-destructive, low force magnitude, dynamic indentation protocol spanning a broad loading rate range to identify the dynamic viscoelastic properties of cartilage. Results Stiffness levels remained unchanged with exposure to the various subzero temperatures. Hysteresis increased in samples snap frozen at -196°C and stored at -80°C, though remained unchanged with exposure to the other storage temperatures. Conclusions Mechanical changes shown are likely due to ice lens creation, where frost heave effects may have caused collagen damage. That storage to -20°C and -80°C did not alter the mechanical properties of articular cartilage shows that when combined with a rapid thawing protocol to 37.5°C, the tissue may successfully be stored at subzero temperatures.

  14. MR imaging of cartilage and its repair in the knee - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trattnig, S.; Welsch, G.W.; Domayer, S.; Mosher, T.; Eckstein, F.

    2009-01-01

    Chondral injuries are common lesions of the knee joint, and many patients could benefit from cartilage repair. Widespread cartilage repair techniques require sophisticated noninvasive follow-up using MRI. In addition to the precise morphological assessment of this area of cartilage repair, the cartilage's biochemical constitution can be determined using biochemical MRI techniques. The combination of the clinical outcome after cartilage repair together with the morphological and biochemical description of the cartilage repair tissue as well as the surrounding cartilage can lead to an optimal follow-up evaluation. The present article on MR imaging techniques of cartilage repair focuses on morphological description and scoring using techniques from conventional 2D through advanced isotropic 3D MRI sequences. Furthermore the ultrastructure of the repair tissue and the surrounding cartilage is evaluated in-vivo by biochemical T1-delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 relaxation, and diffusion-weighted imaging techniques. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation using MRI T2 mapping of the articular cartilage after anterior cruciate ligament injury in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Kohei; Ohdera, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Shusaku

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage coexisting in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in young athletes is not rare. We evaluated the conditions of the articular cartilage using MRI T2 mapping method and compared the vesults with the findings of arthroscopy. From June to August in 2010, we performed ACL reconstruction in 31 patients. We selected 17 cases (eleven men and six women, mean age 19.1 years old), all of whom were athletes and the under 29 years old. Articular cartilage damage was observed in six out of 10 cases, and their T2 values were high on MRI T2 mapping. On the other hand, damage was observed only in one out of seven cases, and T2 values were in the normal level of the mapping. Using MRI T2 mapping, we can evaluate the articular cartilage at an early phase noninvasively. MRI T2 mapping is useful and effective for athletes. (author)

  16. Treatment of a Focal Articular Cartilage Defect of the Talus with Polymer-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation: A 12-Year Follow-Up Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Kalkreuth, Richard Horst; Niemeyer, Philipp; Uhl, Markus; Erggelet, Christoph

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a first-line treatment option for large articular cartilage defects. Although well-established for cartilage defects in the knee, studies of the long-term outcomes of matrix-assisted ACI to treat cartilage defects in the ankle are rare. In the present report, we describe for the first time the long-term clinical and radiologic results 12 years after polymer-based matrix-assisted ACI treat a full-thickness talar cartilage defect in a 25-year-old male patient. The clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analog scale and Freiburg ankle score, magnetic resonance imaging evaluation using the Henderson-Kreuz scoring system and T2 mapping. Clinical assessment revealed improved visual analog scale and Freiburg ankle scores. The radiologic analysis and T2 relaxation time values indicated the formation of hyaline-like repair tissue. Polymer-based autologous chondrocytes has been shown to be a safe and clinically effective long-term treatment of articular cartilage defects in the talus. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of articular cartilage in painful knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digish Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the role of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with atraumatic knee pain. Background and Objectives: Knee pain is one of the most common problems faced by people from time immemorial. There is a wide range of disease ranging from traumatic to degenerative causing knee pain in which articular cartilage is involved. Over the past 15 years, MRI has become the premier, first-line imaging study that should be performed in the evaluation of the painful knee in particular in tears of menisci, cruciate and collateral ligaments, osteochondral abnormalities (chondromalacia, osteoarthritis and osteochondral defects, synovial cysts and bone bruises. MRI, by virtue of its superior soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation and multiplanar capabilities, is superior to more conventional techniques for the evaluation of articular cartilage. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 150 patients in the Department of Radio-diagnosis, Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune over a period of 2 years from June 2011 to May 2013. Patients having fracture or dislocations of the knee joint were also excluded from the study. Detailed clinical history, physical and systemic examination findings of all patients were noted in addition to the laboratory investigations. All patients were subjected to radiograph of knee anterior-posterior and lateral view. MRI was performed with Siemens 1.5 Tesla MAGNETOM Avanto machine. Results: In our study of 150 patients with knee pain, articular cartilage defect was found in 90 patients (60%. Out of 90 patients with articular cartilage defect, 30 patients (20% had full thickness cartilage defects. Subchondral marrow edema was seen beneath 30 patients (20% with articular cartilage defects. 32 patients (21.1% had a complex or macerated meniscal tear. Complete anterior cruciate ligament tear was found in seven

  18. Wear and damage of articular cartilage with friction against orthopedic implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R; Durney, Krista M; Jones, Brian K; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-07-16

    The objective of this study was to measure the wear response of immature bovine articular cartilage tested against glass or alloys used in hemiarthroplasties. Two cobalt chromium alloys and a stainless steel alloy were selected for these investigations. The surface roughness of one of the cobalt chromium alloys was also varied within the range considered acceptable by regulatory agencies. Cartilage disks were tested in a configuration that promoted loss of interstitial fluid pressurization to accelerate conditions believed to occur in hemiarthroplasties. Results showed that considerably more damage occurred in cartilage samples tested against stainless steel (10 nm roughness) and low carbon cobalt chromium alloy (27 nm roughness) compared to glass (10 nm) and smoother low or high carbon cobalt chromium (10 nm). The two materials producing the greatest damage also exhibited higher equilibrium friction coefficients. Cartilage damage occurred primarily in the form of delamination at the interface between the superficial tangential zone and the transitional middle zone, with much less evidence of abrasive wear at the articular surface. These results suggest that cartilage damage from frictional loading occurs as a result of subsurface fatigue failure leading to the delamination. Surface chemistry and surface roughness of implant materials can have a significant influence on tissue damage, even when using materials and roughness values that satisfy regulatory requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wear and Damage of Articular Cartilage with Friction Against Orthopaedic Implant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R.; Durney, Krista M.; Jones, Brian K.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the wear response of immature bovine articular cartilage tested against glass or alloys used in hemiarthroplasties. Two cobalt chromium alloys and a stainless steel alloy were selected for these investigations. The surface roughness of one of the cobalt chromium alloys was also varied within the range considered acceptable by regulatory agencies. Cartilage disks were tested in a configuration that promoted loss of interstitial fluid pressurization to accelerate conditions believed to occur in hemiarthroplasties. Results showed that considerably more damage occurred in cartilage samples tested against stainless steel (10 nm roughness) and low carbon cobalt chromium alloy (27 nm roughness) compared to glass (10 nm) and smoother low or high carbon cobalt chromium (10 nm). The two materials producing the greatest damage also exhibited higher equilibrium friction coefficients. Cartilage damage occurred primarily in the form of delamination at the interface between the superficial tangential zone and the transitional middle zone, with much less evidence of abrasive wear at the articular surface. These results suggest that cartilage damage from frictional loading occurs as a result of subsurface fatigue failure leading to the delamination. Surface chemistry and surface roughness of implant materials can have a significant influence on tissue damage, even when using materials and roughness values that satisfy regulatory requirements. PMID:25912663

  20. Quantification of the optical surface reflection and surface roughness of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Wang Shuzhe; Huang Yanping; Zheng Yongping [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: simo.saarakkala@uku.fi, E-mail: ypzheng@ieee.org

    2009-11-21

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new technique for characterizing the structural changes of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The calculation of quantitative parameters from the OCT signal is an important step to develop OCT as an effective diagnostic technique. In this study, two novel parameters for the quantification of optical surface reflection and surface roughness from OCT measurements are introduced: optical surface reflection coefficient (ORC), describing the amount of a ratio of the optical reflection from cartilage surface with respect to that from a reference material, and OCT roughness index (ORI) indicating the smoothness of the cartilage surface. The sensitivity of ORC and ORI to detect changes in bovine articular cartilage samples after enzymatic degradations of collagen and proteoglycans using collagenase and trypsin enzymes, respectively, was tested in vitro. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in ORC as well as a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ORI was observed after collagenase digestion. After trypsin digestion, no significant changes in ORC or ORI were observed. To conclude, the new parameters introduced were demonstrated to be feasible and sensitive to detect typical OA-like degenerative changes in the collagen network. From the clinical point of view, the quantification of OCT measurements is of great interest since OCT probes have been already miniaturized and applied in patient studies during arthroscopy or open knee surgery in vivo. Further studies are still necessary to demonstrate the clinical capability of the introduced parameters for naturally occurring early OA changes in the cartilage.

  1. Boundary mode lubrication of articular cartilage by recombinant human lubricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Jones, Aled R C; Flannery, Carl R; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2009-06-01

    Lubrication of cartilage involves a variety of physical and chemical factors, including lubricin, a synovial glycoprotein that has been shown to be a boundary lubricant. It is unclear how lubricin boundary lubricates a wide range of bearings from tissue to artificial surfaces, and if the mechanism is the same for both soluble and bound lubricin. In the current study, experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that recombinant human lubricin (rh-lubricin) lubricates cartilage in a dose-dependent manner and that soluble and bound fractions of rh-lubricin both contribute to the lubrication process. An rh-lubricin dose response was observed with maximal lubrication achieved at concentrations of rh-lubricin greater than 50 microg/mL. A concentration-response variable-slope model was fit to the data, and indicated that rh-lubricin binding to cartilage was not first order. The pattern of decrease in equilibrium friction coefficient indicated that aggregation of rh-lubricin or steric arrangement may regulate boundary lubrication. rh-lubricin localized at the cartilage surface was found to lubricate a cartilage-glass interface in boundary mode, as did soluble rh-lubricin at high concentrations (150 microg/mL); however, the most effective lubrication occurred when both soluble and bound rh-lubricin were present at the interface. These findings point to two distinct mechanisms by which rh-lubricin lubricates, one mechanism involving lubricin bound to the tissue surface and the other involving lubricin in solution. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  2. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  3. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    OpenAIRE

    M Doube; EC Firth; A Boyde; AJ Bushby

    2010-01-01

    Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site tha...

  4. Effect of homologous synovial membrane on adult human articular cartilage in organ culture, and failure to influence it with D-penicillamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, R K

    1980-01-01

    Adult human articular cartilage has been maintained in organ culture for 8 days, and the culture medium, which was changed on alternate days, was pooled. Normal and rheumatoid cartilage was obtained from patients and 4 types of culture were prepared: (1) cartilage alone; (2) cartilage + D-penicillamine; (3) cartilage + homologous synovium; (4) cartilage, synovium, and D-penicillamine. The hexosamines and hexuronic acid were measured in the cartilage explants and in the medium. The quantity re...

  5. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components

  6. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-07

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components.

  7. A biomechanical triphasic approach to the transport of nondilute solutions in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, Alireza; Elliott, Janet A W; Law, Garson K; McGann, Locksley E; Jomha, Nadr M

    2009-12-16

    Biomechanical models for biological tissues such as articular cartilage generally contain an ideal, dilute solution assumption. In this article, a biomechanical triphasic model of cartilage is described that includes nondilute treatment of concentrated solutions such as those applied in vitrification of biological tissues. The chemical potential equations of the triphasic model are modified and the transport equations are adjusted for the volume fraction and frictional coefficients of the solutes that are not negligible in such solutions. Four transport parameters, i.e., water permeability, solute permeability, diffusion coefficient of solute in solvent within the cartilage, and the cartilage stiffness modulus, are defined as four degrees of freedom for the model. Water and solute transport in cartilage were simulated using the model and predictions of average concentration increase and cartilage weight were fit to experimental data to obtain the values of the four transport parameters. As far as we know, this is the first study to formulate the solvent and solute transport equations of nondilute solutions in the cartilage matrix. It is shown that the values obtained for the transport parameters are within the ranges reported in the available literature, which confirms the proposed model approach.

  8. T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment: principles, current applications, and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias; Bittersohl, Daniela; Krauspe, Ruediger; Zilkens, Christoph [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bittersohl, Bernd [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heinrich-Heine University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    With advances in joint preservation surgery that are intended to alter the course of osteoarthritis by early intervention, accurate and reliable assessment of the cartilage status is critical. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques can add robust biomarkers for disease onset and progression, and therefore, could be meaningful assessment tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of cartilage abnormalities. T2* mapping could be a good alternative because it would combine the benefits of biochemical cartilage evaluation with remarkable features including short imaging time and the ability of high-resolution three-dimensional cartilage evaluation - without the need for contrast media administration or special hardware. Several in vitro and in vivo studies, which have elaborated on the potential of cartilage T2* assessment in various cartilage disease patterns and grades of degeneration, have been reported. However, much remains to be understood and certain unresolved questions have become apparent with these studies that are crucial to the further application of this technique. This review summarizes the principles of the technique and current applications of T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment. Limitations of recent studies are discussed and the potential implications for patient care are presented. (orig.)

  9. Bipolar and monopolar radiofrequency treatment of osteoarthritic knee articular cartilage: acute and temporal effects on cartilage compressive stiffness, permeability, cell synthesis, and extracellular matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Kuroki, Keiichi; Kenter, Keith; Marberry, Kevin; Brawner, Travis; Geiger, Timothy; Jayabalan, Prakash; Bal, B Sonny

    2004-04-01

    The cellular, biochemical, biomechanical, and histologic effects of radiofrequency-generated heat on osteoarthritic cartilage were assessed. Articular cartilage explants (n=240) from 26 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were divided based on Outerbridge grade (I or II/III) and randomly assigned to receive no treatment (controls) or monopolar or bipolar radiofrequency at 15 or 30 W. Both potentially beneficial and harmful effects of radiofrequency treatment of articular cartilage were noted. It will be vital to correlate data from in vitro and in vivo study of radiofrequency thermal chondroplasty to determine the clinical usefulness of this technique.

  10. Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I and Basal culture media (group II. The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT

  11. Human articular cartilage: in vitro correlation of MRI and histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Allmann, K.H.; Laubenberger, J.; Langer, M.; Ihling, C.; Tauer, U.; Adler, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    zone correlated weakly to the accumulation of proteoglycans in the radial zone. The trilaminar MRI appearance of the cartilage was only visible when the cartilage was thicker than 2 mm. In cartilage degeneration, we found either a diffuse thinning of all layers or circumscribed lesions (''cartilage ulcer'') of these cartilage layers in the MR images. Early cartilage degeneration was indicated by a signal loss in the superficial zone, correlating to the histologically proven damage of proteoglycans in the transitional and radial zone along with destruction of the superficial zone. We found a strong effect of cartilage rotation in the main magnetic field, too. A rotation of the cartilage structures caused considerable variation in the signal intensity of the second lamina. Cartilage segments in a 55 angle to the magnetic main field had a homogeneous appearance, not a trilaminar appearance. The signal behavior of hyaline articular cartilage does not reflect the laminar histologic structure. Osteoarthrosis and cartilage degeneration are visible on MR images as intracartilaginous signal changes, superficial erosions, diffuse cartilage thinning, and cartilage ulceration. (orig.)

  12. Human articular cartilage: in vitro correlation of MRI and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, M.; Allmann, K.H.; Laubenberger, J.; Langer, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Ihling, C.; Tauer, U.; Adler, C.P. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    zone correlated weakly to the accumulation of proteoglycans in the radial zone. The trilaminar MRI appearance of the cartilage was only visible when the cartilage was thicker than 2 mm. In cartilage degeneration, we found either a diffuse thinning of all layers or circumscribed lesions (``cartilage ulcer``) of these cartilage layers in the MR images. Early cartilage degeneration was indicated by a signal loss in the superficial zone, correlating to the histologically proven damage of proteoglycans in the transitional and radial zone along with destruction of the superficial zone. We found a strong effect of cartilage rotation in the main magnetic field, too. A rotation of the cartilage structures caused considerable variation in the signal intensity of the second lamina. Cartilage segments in a 55 angle to the magnetic main field had a homogeneous appearance, not a trilaminar appearance. The signal behavior of hyaline articular cartilage does not reflect the laminar histologic structure. Osteoarthrosis and cartilage degeneration are visible on MR images as intracartilaginous signal changes, superficial erosions, diffuse cartilage thinning, and cartilage ulceration. (orig.) With 6 figs., 19 refs.

  13. When is cartilage repair successful?; Wann ist eine Knorpelreparatur erfolgreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudner, M.; Roehrich, S.; Zalaudek, M.; Trattnig, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Exzellenzzentrum Hochfeld-MR, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Schreiner, M.M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    2017-11-15

    Focal cartilage lesions are a cause of long-term disability and morbidity. After cartilage repair, it is crucial to evaluate long-term progression or failure in a reproducible, standardized manner. This article provides an overview of the different cartilage repair procedures and important characteristics to look for in cartilage repair imaging. Specifics and pitfalls are pointed out alongside general aspects. After successful cartilage repair, a complete, but not hypertrophic filling of the defect is the primary criterion of treatment success. The repair tissue should also be completely integrated to the surrounding native cartilage. After some months, the transplants signal should be isointense compared to native cartilage. Complications like osteophytes, subchondral defects, cysts, adhesion and chronic bone marrow edema or joint effusion are common and have to be observed via follow-up. Radiological evaluation and interpretation of postoperative changes should always take the repair method into account. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie fokaler Knorpelschaeden ist weiterhin eine klinische Herausforderung. Nach erfolgter Sanierung gilt es daher besonders, Erfolg und Misserfolg zu evaluieren und den Verlauf standardisiert und somit reproduzierbar zu beurteilen. Dieser Artikel bietet einen Ueberblick ueber gaengige Reparaturverfahren und deren Charakteristika in der Magnetresonanztomographie. Nach einer erfolgreichen Knorpelreparatur ist eine vollstaendige, aber nicht hypertrophe Fuellung des Knorpeldefekts das primaere Kriterium. Zum umgebenden Nativknorpel ist ausserdem eine durchgehende Integration des Transplantats vordergruendig. Im weiteren postoperativen Verlauf sollte das Transplantat ausserdem ein im Vergleich zu nativem Knorpel isointenses Signalverhalten zeigen. Haeufig beobachtete Komplikationen sind zentrale Osteophyten, subchondrale Defekte, Zysten, chronifizierte Knochenmarksoedeme, Gelenkserguesse oder Adhaesionen. Die radiologische Beurteilung dieser

  14. Autologous, allogeneic, induced pluripotent stem cell or a combination stem cell therapy? Where are we headed in cartilage repair and why: a concise review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, L.A.; de Windt, T.S.; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke C.M.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of articular cartilage repair procedures has resulted in a variety of cell-based therapies that use both autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). As these cells are increasingly available and show promising results both in vitro and in vivo, cell-based strategies,

  15. Fractional calculus model of articular cartilage based on experimental stress-relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P. A.; Green, I.

    2015-05-01

    Articular cartilage is a unique substance that protects joints from damage and wear. Many decades of research have led to detailed biphasic and triphasic models for the intricate structure and behavior of cartilage. However, the models contain many assumptions on boundary conditions, permeability, viscosity, model size, loading, etc., that complicate the description of cartilage. For impact studies or biomimetic applications, cartilage can be studied phenomenologically to reduce modeling complexity. This work reports experimental results on the stress-relaxation of equine articular cartilage in unconfined loading. The response is described by a fractional calculus viscoelastic model, which gives storage and loss moduli as functions of frequency, rendering multiple advantages: (1) the fractional calculus model is robust, meaning that fewer constants are needed to accurately capture a wide spectrum of viscoelastic behavior compared to other viscoelastic models (e.g., Prony series), (2) in the special case where the fractional derivative is 1/2, it is shown that there is a straightforward time-domain representation, (3) the eigenvalue problem is simplified in subsequent dynamic studies, and (4) cartilage stress-relaxation can be described with as few as three constants, giving an advantage for large-scale dynamic studies that account for joint motion or impact. Moreover, the resulting storage and loss moduli can quantify healthy, damaged, or cultured cartilage, as well as artificial joints. The proposed characterization is suited for high-level analysis of multiphase materials, where the separate contribution of each phase is not desired. Potential uses of this analysis include biomimetic dampers and bearings, or artificial joints where the effective stiffness and damping are fundamental parameters.

  16. Deletion of IFT80 Impairs Epiphyseal and Articular Cartilage Formation Due to Disruption of Chondrocyte Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFT) play important roles in cilia formation and organ development. Partial loss of IFT80 function leads Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) or short-rib polydactyly (SRP) syndrome type III, displaying narrow thoracic cavity and multiple cartilage anomalies. However, it is unknown how IFT80 regulates cartilage formation. To define the role and mechanism of IFT80 in chondrocyte function and cartilage formation, we generated a Col2α1; IFT80f/f mouse model by crossing IFT80f/f mice with inducible Col2α1-CreER mice, and deleted IFT80 in chondrocyte lineage by injection of tamoxifen into the mice in embryonic or postnatal stage. Loss of IFT80 in the embryonic stage resulted in short limbs at birth. Histological studies showed that IFT80-deficient mice have shortened cartilage with marked changes in cellular morphology and organization in the resting, proliferative, pre-hypertrophic, and hypertrophic zones. Moreover, deletion of IFT80 in the postnatal stage led to mouse stunted growth with shortened growth plate but thickened articular cartilage. Defects of ciliogenesis were found in the cartilage of IFT80-deficient mice and primary IFT80-deficient chondrocytes. Further study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was significantly inhibited in IFT80-deficient mice due to reduced hedgehog (Hh) signaling and increased Wnt signaling activities. These findings demonstrate that loss of IFT80 blocks chondrocyte differentiation by disruption of ciliogenesis and alteration of Hh and Wnt signaling transduction, which in turn alters epiphyseal and articular cartilage formation. PMID:26098911

  17. Compressive and swelling behavior of cuttlebone derived hydroxyapatite loaded PVA hydrogel implants for articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Y. Santosh; Kumar, G. C. Mohan; Isloor, Arun M.

    2018-04-01

    Developing a novel antibacterial, nontoxic and biocompatible hydrogel with superior physio mechanical properties is still becoming a challenge. Herein, we synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA) powder from cuttlefish bone and prepare a series of stiff, tough, high strength, biocompatible hydrogel reinforced with HA by integrating glutaraldehyde into PVA/HA. Powder was characterized by SEM and XRD. Compressive strength and swelling properties are studied and compare the results with the properties of healthy natural articular cartilage.

  18. MR diagnosis of articular cartilage injury in the knee: compared with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Li Shiling; Guo Zhiping; Zhang Wei; Ma Xiaohui; Cai Pengli; Wei Peijian; Peng Zhigang; Sun Yingcai; Zhang Zekun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of FS-3D-FISP, FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T 1 WI sequences in the detection of articular cartilage injury of the knee. Methods: 34 consecutive patients with persistent symptoms of knee pain who were scheduled for arthroscopy underwent MR examination of the knee on a 1.5 TMR unit prior to arthroscopy. The 2D MR images were transferred to a workstation and processed tow-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Compared with the arthroscopy, the sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa were 91.4%, 97%, and 0.818, respectively with FS-3D-F ISP sequence, 77.1%, 98%, and 0.531, respectively with FS-2D-FLASH sequence, 70%, 99%, and 0.518, respectively with SE-T 1 WI sequence. In the cases that had no acute trauma, 77.6% lesions were shown lower SI on T 1 -WI in the region of the subchondral bone and marrow near the lesions, and higher SI on FS-3D-FISP and FS-2D-FLASH sequences. Conclusion: Comparing with arthroscopy, the diagnosis accuracy of FS-3D-FISP sequence is obviously better than that of FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T 1 WI sequences. Correlation between FS-3D-FISP sequence and arthroscopy in detecting articular cartilage injury is remarkeble. Abnormal signal in the subchondral bone and marrow is an important indirect sign of articular cartilage injury. Three-dimensional reconstruction of articular cartilage is helpful for localization of the lesions after injury. (authors)

  19. Cartilage Repair With Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Mera, Hisashi; Itokazu, Maki; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

    2014-10-01

    Clinical trials of various procedures, including bone marrow stimulation, mosaicplasty, and autologous chondrocyte implantation, have been explored to treat articular cartilage defects. However, all of them have some demerits. We focused on autologous culture-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), which can proliferate without losing their capacity for differentiation. First, we transplanted BMSC into the defective articular cartilage of rabbit and succeeded in regenerating osteochondral tissue. We then applied this transplantation in humans. Our previous reports showed that treatment with BMSC relieves the clinical symptoms of chondral defects in the knee and elbow joint. We investigated the efficacy of BMSC for osteoarthritic knee treated with high tibial osteotomy, by comparing 12 BMSC-transplanted patients with 12 cell-free patients. At 16-month follow-up, although the difference in clinical improvement between both groups was not significant, the arthroscopic and histological grading score was better in the cell-transplanted group. At the over 10-year follow-up, Hospital for Special Surgery knee scores improved to 76 and 73 in the BMSC-transplanted and cell-free groups, respectively, which were better than preoperative scores. Additionally, neither tumors nor infections were observed in all patients, and in the clinical study, we have never observed hypertrophy of repaired tissue, thereby guaranteeing the clinical safety of this therapy. Although we have never observed calcification above the tidemark in rabbit model and human histologically, the repair cartilage was not completely hyaline cartilage. To elucidate the optimum conditions for cell therapy, other stem cells, culture conditions, growth factors, and gene transfection methods should be explored.

  20. Articular cartilage explant culture; an appropriate in vitro system to compare osteoarthritic and normal human cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; Vander Kraan, P. M.; van Roy, J. L.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycan metabolism of normal and histologically mild to moderate osteoarthritic cartilage explants were studied. Explants were obtained from the human knee of donors aged over 40 years. Proteoglycan content, synthesis and release were very similar in normal cartilage obtained from donors with

  1. Optimization and translation of MSC-based hyaluronic acid hydrogels for cartilage repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Isaac E.

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic injury and disease disrupt the ability of cartilage to carry joint stresses and, without an innate regenerative response, often lead to degenerative changes towards the premature development of osteoarthritis. Surgical interventions have yet to restore long-term mechanical function. Towards this end, tissue engineering has been explored for the de novo formation of engineered cartilage as a biologic approach to cartilage repair. Research utilizing autologous chondrocytes has been promising, but clinical limitations in their yield have motivated research into the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source. MSCs are multipotent cells that can differentiate towards a chondrocyte phenotype in a number of biomaterials, but no combination has successfully recapitulated the native mechanical function of healthy articular cartilage. The broad objective of this thesis was to establish an MSC-based tissue engineering approach worthy of clinical translation. Hydrogels are a common class of biomaterial used for cartilage tissue engineering and our initial work demonstrated the potential of a photo-polymerizable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel to promote MSC chondrogenesis and improved construct maturation by optimizing macromer and MSC seeding density. The beneficial effects of dynamic compressive loading, high MSC density, and continuous mixing (orbital shaker) resulted in equilibrium modulus values over 1 MPa, well in range of native tissue. While compressive properties are crucial, clinical translation also demands that constructs stably integrate within a defect. We utilized a push-out testing modality to assess the in vitro integration of HA constructs within artificial cartilage defects. We established the necessity for in vitro pre-maturation of constructs before repair to achieve greater integration strength and compressive properties in situ. Combining high MSC density and gentle mixing resulted in integration strength over 500 k

  2. Combination therapy with intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells and articulated joint distraction for repair of a chronic osteochondral defect in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yohei; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Mahmoud, Elhussein Elbadry; Kamei, Goki; Adachi, Nobuo; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated intra-articular injection of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with articulated joint distraction as treatment for osteochondral defects. Large osteochondral defects were created in the weight-bearing area of the medial femoral condyle in rabbit knees. Four weeks after defect creation, rabbits were divided into six groups: control group, MSC group, distraction group, distraction + MSC group, temporary distraction group, and temporary distraction + MSC group. Groups with MSC received intra-articular injection of MSCs. Groups with distraction underwent articulated distraction arthroplasty. Groups with temporary distraction discontinued the distraction after 4 weeks. The rabbits were euthanized at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment except temporary distraction groups which were euthanized at only 12 weeks. Histological scores in the distraction + MSC group were significantly better than in the control, MSC group or distraction group at 4 and 8 weeks, but showed no further improvement. At 12 weeks, the temporary distraction + MSC group showed the best results, demonstrating hyaline cartilage repair with regeneration of the osteochondral junction. In conclusion, joint distraction with intra-articular injection of MSCs promotes early cartilage repair, and compressive loading of the repair tissue after temporary distraction stimulates articular cartilage regeneration. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Galectin-3 Binds to Lubricin and Reinforces the Lubricating Boundary Layer of Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Heidi L; Bonnevie, Edward D; Liu, Sherry; Shurer, Carolyn R; Hollander, Michael J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Nixon, Alan J

    2016-05-09

    Lubricin is a mucinous, synovial fluid glycoprotein that enables near frictionless joint motion via adsorption to the surface of articular cartilage and its lubricating properties in solution. Extensive O-linked glycosylation within lubricin's mucin-rich domain is critical for its boundary lubricating function; however, it is unknown exactly how glycosylation facilitates cartilage lubrication. Here, we find that the lubricin glycome is enriched with terminal β-galactosides, known binding partners for a family of multivalent lectins called galectins. Of the galectin family members present in synovial fluid, we find that galectin-3 is a specific, high-affinity binding partner for lubricin. Considering the known ability of galectin-3 to crosslink glycoproteins, we hypothesized that galectins could augment lubrication via biomechanical stabilization of the lubricin boundary layer. We find that competitive inhibition of galectin binding results in lubricin loss from the cartilage surface, and addition of multimeric galectin-3 enhances cartilage lubrication. We also find that galectin-3 has low affinity for the surface layer of osteoarthritic cartilage and has reduced affinity for sialylated O-glycans, a glycophenotype associated with inflammatory conditions. Together, our results suggest that galectin-3 reinforces the lubricin boundary layer; which, in turn, enhances cartilage lubrication and may delay the onset and progression of arthritis.

  4. Role of Cartilage Forming Cells in Regenerative Medicine for Cartilage Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lin; Reagan, Michaela R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Lin Sun1, Michaela R Reagan2, David L Kaplan1,21Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USAAbstract: Currently, cartilage repair remains a major challenge for researchers and physicians due to its limited healing capacity. Cartilage regeneration requires suitable cells; these must be easily obtained and expanded, able to produce hyaline matrix with proper mechanical properties, and demonstrate sustained integrati...

  5. The effect og aging and mechanical loading on the metabolism og articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Adam El Mongy; Kjær, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The morphology of articular cartilage (AC) enables painless movement. Aging and mechanical loading are believed to influence development of osteoarthritis (OA), yet the connection remains unclear. Methods. This narrative review describes the current knowledge regarding this area......, with the literature search made on PubMed using appropriate keywords regarding AC, age, and mechanical loading. Results. Following skeletal maturation, chondrocyte numbers decline while increasing senescence occurs. Lower cartilage turnover causes diminished maintenance capacity, which produces accumulation...... collagen network damage and proteoglycan loss, leading to irreversible cartilage destruction because of lack of regenerative capacity. Catabolic pathways involve inflammation and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Thus, age seems to be a predisposing factor for OA, with mechanical overload being...

  6. The Effect of Aging and Mechanical Loading on the Metabolism of Articular Cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Adam El Mongy; Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The morphology of articular cartilage (AC) enables painless movement. Aging and mechanical loading are believed to influence development of osteoarthritis (OA), yet the connection remains unclear. Methods. This narrative review describes the current knowledge regarding this area......, with the literature search made on PubMed using appropriate keywords regarding AC, age, and mechanical loading. Results. Following skeletal maturation, chondrocyte numbers decline while increasing senescence occurs. Lower cartilage turnover causes diminished maintenance capacity, which produces accumulation...... collagen network damage and proteoglycan loss, leading to irreversible cartilage destruction because of lack of regenerative capacity. Catabolic pathways involve inflammation and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Thus, age seems to be a predisposing factor for OA, with mechanical overload being...

  7. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; De Smet, Arthur; Fine, Jason

    2006-01-01

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation. (orig.)

  8. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; De Smet, Arthur [University of Wisconsin Hospital Clinical Science Center-E3/311, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Fine, Jason [University of Wisconsin Clinical Science Center-K6/4675, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation. (orig.)

  9. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; Fine, Jason; De Smet, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation.

  10. Contribution of proteoglycan osmotic swelling pressure to the compressive properties of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, EunHee; Chen, Silvia S; Klisch, Stephen M; Sah, Robert L

    2011-08-17

    The negatively charged proteoglycans (PG) provide compressive resistance to articular cartilage by means of their fixed charge density (FCD) and high osmotic pressure (π(PG)), and the collagen network (CN) provides the restraining forces to counterbalance π(PG). Our objectives in this work were to: 1), account for collagen intrafibrillar water when transforming biochemical measurements into a FCD-π(PG) relationship; 2), compute π(PG) and CN contributions to the compressive behavior of full-thickness cartilage during bovine growth (fetal, calf, and adult) and human adult aging (young and old); and 3), predict the effect of depth from the articular surface on π(PG) in human aging. Extrafibrillar FCD (FCD(EF)) and π(PG) increased with bovine growth due to an increase in CN concentration, whereas PG concentration was steady. This maturation-related increase was amplified by compression. With normal human aging, FCD(EF) and π(PG) decreased. The π(PG)-values were close to equilibrium stress (σ(EQ)) in all bovine and young human cartilage, but were only approximately half of σ(EQ) in old human cartilage. Depth-related variations in the strain, FCD(EF), π(PG), and CN stress profiles in human cartilage suggested a functional deterioration of the superficial layer with aging. These results suggest the utility of the FCD-π(PG) relationship for elucidating the contribution of matrix macromolecules to the biomechanical properties of cartilage. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Spring-Loaded Impact Device to Deliver Injurious Mechanical Impacts to the Articular Cartilage Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter G.; Song, Yingjie; Taboas, Juan M.; Chen, Faye H.; Melvin, Gary M.; Manner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic impacts on the articular joint surface in vitro are known to lead to degeneration of the cartilage. The main objective of this study was to develop a spring-loaded impact device that can be used to deliver traumatic impacts of consistent magnitude and rate and to find whether impacts cause catabolic activities in articular cartilage consistent with other previously reported impact models and correlated with the development of osteoarthritic lesions. In developing the spring-loaded impactor, the operating hypothesis is that a single supraphysiologic impact to articular cartilage in vitro can affect cartilage integrity, cell viability, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and inflammatory mediator release in a dose-dependent manner. Design: Impacts of increasing force are delivered to adult bovine articular cartilage explants in confined compression. Impact parameters are correlated with tissue damage, cell viability, matrix and inflammatory mediator release, and gene expression 24 hours postimpact. Results: Nitric oxide release is first detected after 7.7 MPa impacts, whereas cell death, glycosaminoglycan release, and prostaglandin E2 release are first detected at 17 MPa. Catabolic markers increase linearly to maximal levels after ≥36 MPa impacts. Conclusions: A single supraphysiologic impact negatively affects cartilage integrity, cell viability, and GAG release in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings showed that 7 to 17 MPa impacts can induce cell death and catabolism without compromising the articular surface, whereas a 17 MPa impact is sufficient to induce increases in most common catabolic markers of osteoarthritic degeneration. PMID:26069650

  12. Intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen in rat knee joint : Histopathologic assessment of cartilage & synovium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aycan Guner Ekici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Effective pain control following outpatient surgical procedures is an important aspect of patient discharge. This study was carried out with an aim to investigate the histopathological effects of intra-articular dexketoprofen trometamol injection in knee joint on synovium and cartilage in an experimental rat model. Methods: In each of 40 rats, the right knee was designated as the study group and the left knee as the control group (NS group. Under aseptic conditions, 35 rats received an injection of 0.25 ml (6.25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol into the right knee joint and an injection of 0.25 ml 0.9 per cent normal saline solution into the left knee joint. On the 1 st , 2 nd , 7 th , 14 th , and 21 st days after intra-articular injection, rats in specified groups were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg sodium thiopental. Knee joints were separated and sectioned for histopathological examination. Inflammatory changes in the joints were recorded according to a grade scale. Results: No significant difference in terms of pathological changes both in synovium and cartilage was observed between the NS group and the study group on days 1, 2, 7, 14 and 21 after intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen or saline in the knee joint. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed no evidence of significant histopathological damage to the cartilage and synovia for a period up to 21 days following intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol in the knee joints of rats.

  13. Decellularized Bovine Articular Cartilage Matrix Reinforced by Carboxylated-SWCNT for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Majidi Mohammadie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nanotubes with their unique properties have diversified mechanical and biological applications. Due to similarity of dimensions with extracellular matrix (ECM elements, these materials are used in designing scaffolds. In this research, Carboxylated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in optimization of decellularized scaffold of bovine articular cartilage was used. At first, the articular cartilage was decellularized. Then the scaffolds were analyzed in: (i decellularized scaffolds, and (ii scaffolds plunged into homogenous suspension of nanotubes in distilled water, were smeared with Carboxylated-SWCNT. The tissue rings derived from the rabbit's ear were assembled with reinforced scaffolds and they were placed in a culture media for 15 days. The scaffolds in two groups and the assembled scaffolds underwent histologic and electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the structure of ECM of articular cartilage has been maintained well after decellularization. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that the contents of ECM have not been changed under treatment process. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed the difference in surface topography and roughness of group (ii scaffolds in comparison with group (i. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed the Carboxylated-SWCNT bond with the surface of decellularized scaffold and no penetration of these compounds into the scaffold. The porosity percentage with median rate of 91.04 in group (i scaffolds did not have significant difference with group (ii scaffolds. The electron microscopy observations confirmed migration and penetration of the blastema cells into the group (ii assembled scaffolds. This research presents a technique for provision of nanocomposite scaffolds for cartilage engineering applications.

  14. Benefits of Ilizarov automated bone distraction for nerves and articular cartilage in experimental leg lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchudlo, Nathalia; Varsegova, Tatyana; Stupina, Tatyana; Shchudlo, Michael; Saifutdinov, Marat; Yemanov, Andrey

    2017-09-18

    To determine peculiarities of tissue responses to manual and automated Ilizarov bone distraction in nerves and articular cartilage. Twenty-nine dogs were divided in two experimental groups: Group M - leg lengthening with manual distraction (1 mm/d in 4 steps), Group A - automated distraction (1 mm/d in 60 steps) and intact group. Animals were euthanized at the end of distraction, at 30 th day of fixation in apparatus and 30 d after the fixator removal. M-responses in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were recorded, numerical histology of peroneal and tibialis nerves and knee cartilage semi-thin sections, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis were performed. Better restoration of M-response amplitudes in leg muscles was noted in A-group. Fibrosis of epineurium with adipocytes loss in peroneal nerve, subperineurial edema and fibrosis of endoneurium in some fascicles of both nerves were noted only in M-group, shares of nerve fibers with atrophic and degenerative changes were bigger in M-group than in A-group. At the end of experiment morphometric parameters of nerve fibers in peroneal nerve were comparable with intact nerve only in A-group. Quantitative parameters of articular cartilage (thickness, volumetric densities of chondrocytes, percentages of isogenic clusters and empty cellular lacunas, contents of sulfur and calcium) were badly changed in M-group and less changed in A-group. Automated Ilizarov distraction is more safe method of orthopedic leg lengthening than manual distraction in points of nervous fibers survival and articular cartilage arthrotic changes.

  15. Evaluation of articular cartilage following rotational acetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia using T2 mapping MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Takuma; Izumi, Soutaro; Sawa, Mikiya; Akiyama, Yuji; Yasunaga, Yuji; Adachi, Nobuo

    2018-04-27

    Rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) is one of the surgical treatments for acetabular dysplasia, and satisfactory results have been reported. We evaluated the postoperative changes of articular cartilage and whether the pre-operative condition of the articular cartilage influences the clinical results using T2 mapping MRI. We reviewed 31 hips with early stage osteoarthritis in 31 patients (mean age, 39.6 years), including three men and 28 women who underwent RAO for hip dysplasia. Clinical evaluations including Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Japanese Orthopedic Association Hip Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ), and radiographical evaluations on X-ray were performed. Longitudinal qualitative assessment of articular cartilage was also performed using 3.0-T MRI with T2 mapping technique preoperatively, 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. There was no case with progression of osteoarthritis. The mean JOA score improved from 70.1 to 93.4 points, the mean postoperative JHEQ score was 68.8 points, and radiographical data also improved postoperatively. We found that the T2 values of the cartilage at both femoral head and acetabulum increased at 6 months on coronal and sagittal views. However, they significantly decreased 1 and 2 years postoperatively. The T2 values of the center to anterolateral region of acetabulum negatively correlated with postoperative JHEQ score, particularly in pain score. This study suggests that biomechanical and anatomical changes could apparently cause decreased T2 values 1-2 years postoperatively compared with those preoperatively. Furthermore, preoperative T2 values of the acetabulum can be prognostic factors for the clinical results of RAO.

  16. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on Hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Campos Ciccone Carla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Methods Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Results Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. Conclusion We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  17. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Ciccone, Carla; Zuzzi, Denise Cristina; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; Mendonça, Josué Sampaio; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto

    2013-01-19

    In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  18. Effect of glutaraldehyde fixation on the frictional response of immature bovine articular cartilage explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R; Hehir, Kristin E; Zhu, Kaicen; Willis, Callen E; Marinescu, Anca G; Merali, Natasha; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2014-02-07

    This study examined functional properties and biocompatibility of glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine articular cartilage over several weeks of incubation at body temperature to investigate its potential use as a resurfacing material in joint arthroplasty. In the first experiment, treated cartilage disks were fixed using 0.02, 0.20 and 0.60% glutaraldehyde for 24h then incubated, along with an untreated control group, in saline for up to 28d at 37°C. Both the equilibrium compressive and tensile moduli increased nearly twofold in treated samples compared to day 0 control, and remained at that level from day 1 to 28; the equilibrium friction coefficient against glass rose nearly twofold immediately after fixation (day 1) but returned to control values after day 7. Live explants co-cultured with fixed explants showed no quantitative difference in cell viability over 28d. In general, no significant differences were observed between 0.20 and 0.60% groups, so 0.20% was deemed sufficient for complete fixation. In the second experiment, cartilage-on-cartilage frictional measurements were performed under a migrating contact configuration. In the treated group, one explant was fixed using 0.20% glutaraldehyde while the apposing explant was left untreated; in the control group both explants were left untreated. From day 1 to 28, the treated group exhibited either no significant difference or slightly lower friction coefficient than the untreated group. These results suggest that a properly titrated glutaraldehyde treatment can reproduce the desired functional properties of native articular cartilage and maintain these properties for at least 28d at body temperature. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Of mice, men and elephants: the relation between articular cartilage thickness and body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Malda

    Full Text Available Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue's thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse to 4000 kg (African elephant. Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications.

  20. Of Mice, Men and Elephants: The Relation between Articular Cartilage Thickness and Body Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Jos; de Grauw, Janny C.; Benders, Kim E. M.; Kik, Marja J. L.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Creemers, Laura B.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; van Weeren, P. René

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue’s thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse) to 4000 kg (African elephant). Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content) and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content) decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications. PMID:23437402

  1. Topographical variation of the elastic properties of articular cartilage in the canine knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurvelin, J S; Arokoski, J P; Hunziker, E B; Helminen, H J

    2000-06-01

    Equilibrium response of articular cartilage to indentation loading is controlled by the thickness (h) and elastic properties (shear modulus, mu, and Poisson's ratio, nu) of the tissue. In this study, we characterized topographical variation of Poisson's ratio of the articular cartilage in the canine knee joint (N=6). Poisson's ratio was measured using a microscopic technique. In this technique, the shape change of the cartilage disk was visualized while the cartilage was immersed in physiological solution and compressed in unconfined geometry. After a constant 5% axial strain, the lateral strain was measured during stress relaxation. At equilibrium, the lateral-to-axial strain ratio indicates the Poisson's ratio of the tissue. Indentation (equilibrium) data from our prior study (Arokoski et al., 1994. International Journal of Sports Medicine 15, 254-260) was re-analyzed using the Poisson's ratio results at the test site to derive values for shear and aggregate moduli. The lowest Poisson's ratio (0.070+/-0.016) located at the patellar surface of femur (FPI) and the highest (0.236+/-0.026) at the medial tibial plateau (TMI). The stiffest cartilage was found at the patellar groove of femur (micro=0.964+/-0.189MPa, H(a)=2.084+/-0. 409MPa) and the softest at the tibial plateaus (micro=0.385+/-0. 062MPa, H(a)=1.113+/-0.141MPa). Comparison of the mechanical results and the biochemical composition of the tissue (Jurvelin et al., 1988. Engineering in Medicine 17, 157-162) at the matched sites of the canine knee joint indicated a negative correlation between the Poisson's ratio and collagen-to-PG content ratio. This is in harmony with our previous findings which suggested that, in unconfined compression, the degree of lateral expansion in different tissue zones is related to collagen-to-PG ratio of the zone.

  2. Stem cells catalyze cartilage formation by neonatal articular chondrocytes in 3D biomimetic hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Janice H; Kajiyama, Glen; Smith, Robert Lane; Maloney, William; Yang, Fan

    2013-12-19

    Cartilage loss is a leading cause of disability among adults and effective therapy remains elusive. Neonatal chondrocytes (NChons) are an attractive allogeneic cell source for cartilage repair, but their clinical translation has been hindered by scarce donor availability. Here we examine the potential for catalyzing cartilage tissue formation using a minimal number of NChons by co-culturing them with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in 3D hydrogels. Using three different co-culture models, we demonstrated that the effects of co-culture on cartilage tissue formation are dependent on the intercellular distance and cell distribution in 3D. Unexpectedly, increasing ADSC ratio in mixed co-culture led to increased synergy between NChons and ADSCs, and resulted in the formation of large neocartilage nodules. This work raises the potential of utilizing stem cells to catalyze tissue formation by neonatal chondrocytes via paracrine signaling, and highlights the importance of controlling cell distribution in 3D matrices to achieve optimal synergy.

  3. Gender differences in knee joint cartilage thickness, volume and articular surface areas: assessment with quantitative three-dimensional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, S.C.; Reiser, M.; Englmeier, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cartilage thickness, volume, and articular surface areas of the knee joint between young healthy, non-athletic female and male individuals. Subjects and design. MR imaging was performed in 18 healthy subjects without local or systemic joints disease (9 female, age 22.3±2.4 years, and 9 male, age 22.2.±1.9 years), using a fat-suppressed FLASH 3D pulse sequence (TR=41 ms, TE=11 ms, FA=30 ) with sagittal orientation and a spatial resolution of 2x0.31x0.31 mm 3 . After three-dimensional reconstruction and triangulation of the knee joint cartilage plates, the cartilage thickness (mean and maximal), volume, and size of the articular surface area were quantified, independent of the original section orientation. Results and conclusions: Women displayed smaller cartilage volumes than men, the percentage difference ranging from 19.9% in the patella, to 46.6% in the medial tibia. The gender differences of the cartilage thickness were smaller, ranging from 2.0% in the femoral trochlea to 13.3% in the medial tibia for the mean thickness, and from 4.3% in the medial femoral condyle to 18.3% in the medial tibia for the maximal cartilage thickness. The differences between the cartilage surface areas were similar to those of the volumes, with values ranging from 21.0% in the femur to 33.4% in the lateral tibia. Gender differences could be reduced for cartilage volume and surface area when normalized to body weight and body weight x body height. The study demonstrates significant gender differences in cartilage volume and surface area of men and women, which need to be taken into account when retrospectively estimating articular cartilage loss in patients with symptoms of degenerative joint disease. Differences in cartilage volume are primarily due to differences in joint surface areas (epiphyseal bone size), not to differences in cartilage thickness. (orig.)

  4. Treatment of articular cartilage lesions of the knee by microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussedik, Sam; Tsitskaris, Konstantinos; Parker, David

    2015-04-01

    We performed a systematic review of the treatment of articular cartilage lesions of the knee by microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation to determine the differences in patient outcomes after these procedures. We searched PubMed/Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library databases in the period from January 10 through January 20, 2013, and included 34 articles in our qualitative analysis. All studies showed improvement in outcome scores in comparison with baseline values, regardless of the treatment modality. The heterogeneity of the results presented in the studies precluded a meta-analysis. Microfracture appears to be effective in smaller lesions and is usually associated with a greater proportion of fibrocartilage production, which may have an effect on durability and eventual failure. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is an effective treatment that may result in a greater proportion of hyaline-like tissue at the repair site, which may in turn have a beneficial effect on durability and failure; it appears to be effective in larger lesions. Autologous chondrocyte implantation with periosteum has been shown to be associated with symptomatic cartilage hypertrophy more frequently than autologous chondrocyte implantation with collagen membrane. Matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation is technically less challenging than the other techniques available, and in lesions greater than 4 cm(2), it has been shown to be more effective than microfracture. Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in ovine articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranenbarg Sander

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage (AC is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Adult AC is characterised by a depth-dependent composition and structure of the extracellular matrix that results in depth-dependent mechanical properties, important for the functions of adult AC. Collagen is the most abundant solid component and it affects the mechanical behaviour of AC. The current objective is to quantify the postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in sheep (Ovis aries AC between birth and maturity. We use Fourier transform infra-red micro-spectroscopy to investigate collagen density in 48 sheep divided over ten sample points between birth (stillborn and maturity (72 weeks. In each animal, we investigate six anatomical sites (caudal, distal and rostral locations at the medial and lateral side of the joint in the distal metacarpus of a fore leg and a hind leg. Results Collagen density increases from birth to maturity up to our last sample point (72 weeks. Collagen density increases at the articular surface from 0.23 g/ml ± 0.06 g/ml (mean ± s.d., n = 48 at 0 weeks to 0.51 g/ml ± 0.10 g/ml (n = 46 at 72 weeks. Maximum collagen density in the deeper cartilage increases from 0.39 g/ml ± 0.08 g/ml (n = 48 at 0 weeks to 0.91 g/ml ± 0.13 g/ml (n = 46 at 72 weeks. Most collagen density profiles at 0 weeks (85% show a valley, indicating a minimum, in collagen density near the articular surface. At 72 weeks, only 17% of the collagen density profiles show a valley in collagen density near the articular surface. The fraction of profiles with this valley stabilises at 36 weeks. Conclusions Collagen density in articular cartilage increases in postnatal life with depth-dependent variation, and does not stabilize up to 72 weeks, the last sample point in our study. We find strong evidence for a valley in collagen densities near the articular surface that is present in the youngest

  6. A multi-directional in vitro investigation into friction, damage and wear of innovative chondroplasty materials against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Ewen; Fisher, John

    2007-08-01

    The wear of the biomaterial/cartilage interface is vital for the development of innovative chondroplasty therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate potential chondroplasty biomaterials when sliding against natural articular cartilage under uniaxial reciprocating and multi-directional rotation/reciprocating motions. Three biphasic hydrogels were compared to articular cartilage (negative control) and stainless steel (positive control). Friction was measured by means of a simple geometry friction and wear simulator. All tests were completed in 25% bovine serum at 20 degrees C. Mechanical alterations to the surface structure were quantified using surface topography. Articular cartilage produced a constant friction value of 0.05 (confidence interval=0.015) with and without rotation. Stainless steel against articular cartilage produced an increase in friction over time resulting in a peak value of 0.7 (confidence interval=0.02) without rotation, increasing to 0.88 (confidence interval=0.03) with rotation. All biphasic hydrogels produced peak friction values lower than the positive control and demonstrated no difference between uni- and multi-directional motion. Degradation of the opposing cartilage surface showed a significant difference between the positive and negative controls, with the greater cartilage damage when sliding against stainless steel under uni-directional motion. The lower friction and reduction of opposing cartilage surface degradation with the potential chondroplasty biomaterials can be attributed to their biphasic properties. This study illustrated the importance of biphasic properties within the tribology of cartilage substitution materials and future work will focus on the optimisation of biphasic properties such that materials more closely mimic natural cartilage.

  7. Chondrocyte secreted CRTAC1: a glycosylated extracellular matrix molecule of human articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Eric; Bräun, Jessica; Pelttari, Karoliina; Kadel, Stephanie; Kalbacher, Hubert; Richter, Wiltrud

    2007-01-01

    Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1), a novel human marker which allowed discrimination of human chondrocytes from osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in culture was so far studied only on the RNA-level. We here describe its genomic organisation and detect a new brain expressed (CRTAC1-B) isoform resulting from alternate last exon usage which is highly conserved in vertebrates. In humans, we identify an exon sharing process with the neighbouring tail-to-tail orientated gene leading to CRTAC1-A. This isoform is produced by cultured human chondrocytes, localized in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and its secretion can be stimulated by BMP4. Of five putative O-glycosylation motifs in the last exon of CRTAC1-A, the most C-terminal one is modified according to exposure of serial C-terminal deletion mutants to the O-glycosylation inhibitor Benzyl-alpha-GalNAc. Both isoforms contain four FG-GAP repeat domains and an RGD integrin binding motif, suggesting cell-cell or cell-matrix interaction potential. In summary, CRTAC1 acquired an alternate last exon from the tail-to-tail oriented neighbouring gene in humans resulting in the glycosylated isoform CRTAC1-A which represents a new extracellular matrix molecule of articular cartilage.

  8. Spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone proceed to articular cartilage degeneration in rats subjected to knee immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Zhe; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Yue-Zhu; Deng, Song-Yun; He, Yong-Bin; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone and its overlying articular cartilage in rats following knee immobilization. A total of 36 male Wistar rats (11-13 months old) were assigned randomly and evenly into 3 groups. For each group, knee joints in 6 rats were immobilized unilaterally for 1, 4, or 8 weeks, respectively, while the remaining rats were allowed free activity and served as external control groups. For each animal, femurs at both sides were dissected after sacrificed. The distal part of femur was examined by micro-CT. Subsequently, femoral condyles were collected for further histological observation and analysis. For articular cartilage, significant changes were observed only at 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization. The thickness of articular cartilage and chondrocytes numbers decreased with time. However, significant changes in subchondral bone were defined by micro-CT following immobilization in a time-dependent manner. Immobilization led to a thinner and more porous subchondral bone plate, as well as a reduction in trabecular thickness and separation with a more rod-like architecture. Changes in subchondral bone occurred earlier than in articular cartilage. More importantly, immobilization-induced changes in subchondral bone may contribute, at least partially, to changes in its overlying articular cartilage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and Its Potential in the Field of Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Levato, Riccardo; Bonassar, Lawrence J; D'Lima, Darryl D; Grande, Daniel A; Klein, Travis J; Saris, Daniel B F; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques can be used for the fabrication of personalized, regenerative constructs for tissue repair. The current article provides insight into the potential and opportunities of 3D bioprinting for the fabrication of cartilage regenerative constructs. Although 3D

  10. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  11. Cell factory-derived bioactive molecules with polymeric cryogel scaffold enhance the repair of subchondral cartilage defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bhat, Sumrita; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Gupta, Kailash C; Tägil, Magnus; Zheng, Ming Hao; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars

    2017-06-01

    We have explored the potential of cell factory-derived bioactive molecules, isolated from conditioned media of primary goat chondrocytes, for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirms the presence of transforming growth factor-β1 in an isolated protein fraction (12.56 ± 1.15 ng/mg protein fraction). These bioactive molecules were used alone or with chitosan-agarose-gelatin cryogel scaffolds, with and without chondrocytes, to check whether combined approaches further enhance cartilage repair. To evaluate this, an in vivo study was conducted on New Zealand rabbits in which a subchondral defect (4.5 mm wide × 4.5 mm deep) was surgically created. Starting after the operation, bioactive molecules were injected at the defect site at regular intervals of 14 days. Histopathological analysis showed that rabbits treated with bioactive molecules alone had cartilage regeneration after 4 weeks. However, rabbits treated with bioactive molecules along with scaffolds, with or without cells, showed cartilage formation after 3 weeks; 6 weeks after surgery, the cartilage regenerated in rabbits treated with either bioactive molecules alone or in combinations showed morphological similarities to native cartilage. No systemic cytotoxicity or inflammatory response was induced by any of the treatments. Further, ELISA was done to determine systemic toxicity, which showed no difference in concentration of tumour necrosis factor-α in blood serum, before or after surgery. In conclusion, intra-articular injection with bioactive molecules alone may be used for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects, and bioactive molecules along with chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds further enhance the repair. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A study of repair cartilage from osteochondrotic humeral condyles of swine: preliminary report.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, T; Aherne, F X

    1992-01-01

    A total of 16 animals, including 12 lame and four normal boars, were used. All lame boars had severe osteochondrotic humeral condyles in which repair cartilage tissues originating from subchondral bone were observed. Quantitative chemical studies of repair cartilage and normal cartilage were carried out using humeral condyles from four selected animals (two lame and two normal boars, respectively). The repair cartilage contained a higher concentration of collagen and lower concentration of pr...

  13. Enhanced regulatory gene expressions in the blood and articular cartilage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasilyevna Chetina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the expression ratio of the non-tissue specific regulatory genes mTOR, р21, ATG1, caspase 3, tumor necrosis factor-а (TNF-а, and interleukin-6 (IL-6, as well as matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13 and X type collagen (COL10A1, cartilage resorption-associated MMP13 and COL10A1 in the blood and knee articular cartilage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Subjects and methods. Twenty-five specimens of the distal femoral articular cartilage condyles were studied in 15 RA patients (mean age 52.4+9.1 years after endoprosthetic knee joint replacement and in 10 healthy individuals (mean age 36.0+9.1 years included into the control group. Twenty-eight blood samples taken from 28 RA patients (aged 52+7.6 years prior to endoprosthetic knee joint replacement and 27 blood samples from healthy individuals (mean age 53.6+8.3 years; a control group were also analyzed. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to estimate the expression of the mTOR, p21, ATG1, caspase 3, TNF-а, IL- 6, COL0A1, and MMP-13 genes. The levels of a protein equivalent in the p70-S6K(activated by mTOR, p21, and caspase 3 genes concerned was measured in the isolated lymphocyte lysates, by applying the commercially available ELISA kits. Total protein in the cell extracts was determined using the Bradford assay procedure. Results. The cartilage samples from patients with end-stage RA exhibited a significantly higher mTOR, ATG1, p21, TNFа, MMP-13, and COL10A1 gene expressions than did those from the healthy individuals. At the same time, IL6 gene expression was much lower than that in the control group. The expressions of the mTOR, ATG1, p21, TNFа, and IL 6 genes in the blood of RA patients were much greater than those in the donors. Caspase 3 expression did not differ essentially in the bloods of the patients with RA and healthy individuals. The bloods failed to show MMP-13 and COL10A1 expressions. High mTOR and p21 gene expressions were

  14. THE FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF A CELL-ENGINEERED CONSTRUCT FOR THE REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sevastianov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is an analysis of the functional effectiveness of a biomedical cell product consisting of a biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADMSCs, and chondrogenic induction medium in the regeneration of articular cartilage. Materials and methods. The test model of the adjuvant arthritis was used (female Soviet Chinchilla rabbits with the further development into osteoarthrosis (OA combined with the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histochemical trials. Results. On Day 92 of the OA model it has been found that the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH with hADMSCs into the left knee joint (n = 3 30 days after the OA modeling, as opposed to the right joint (negative control, n = 3, stimulates the regenerative processes of the cartilaginous tissue structure characterized by the formation of chondrocyte «columns», the emergence of isogenic groups in the intracellular matrix and the regeneration of its structure. Upon the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH (n = 3 such effects are markedly less pronounced. Conclusions. A significant regenerative potential of a cell-engineered construct of human articular tissue (CEC ATh has been proven. It is possible to presume that biostimulating properties of CEC ATh are due to the activating effect of a biomedical cell product on the stem cell migration processes from the surrounding tissue into the injured area with their subsequent differentiation. 

  15. Using Costal Chondrocytes to Engineer Articular Cartilage with Applications of Passive Axial Compression and Bioactive Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Le W; Sullan, Gurdeep K; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2018-03-01

    Generating neocartilage with suitable mechanical integrity from a cell source that can circumvent chondrocyte scarcity is indispensable for articular cartilage regeneration strategies. Costal chondrocytes of the rib eliminate donor site morbidity in the articular joint, but it remains unclear how neocartilage formed from these cells responds to mechanical loading, especially if the intent is to use it in a load-bearing joint. In a series of three experiments, this study sought to determine efficacious parameters of passive axial compressive stimulation that would enable costal chondrocytes to synthesize mechanically robust cartilage. Experiment 1 determined a suitable time window for stimulation by its application during either the matrix synthesis phase, the maturation phase, or during both phases of the self-assembling process. The results showed that compressive stimulation at either time was effective in increasing instantaneous moduli by 92% and 87% in the synthesis and maturation phases, respectively. Compressive stimulation during both phases did not further improve properties beyond a one-time stimulation. The magnitude of passive axial compression was examined in Experiment 2 by applying 0, 3.3, 5.0, or 6.7 kPa stresses to the neocartilage. Unlike 6.7 kPa, both 3.3 and 5.0 kPa significantly increased neocartilage compressive properties by 42% and 48% over untreated controls, respectively. Experiment 3 examined how the passive axial compression regimen developed from the previous phases interacted with a bioactive regimen (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1, chondroitinase ABC, and lysyl oxidase-like 2). Passive axial compression significantly improved the relaxation modulus compared with bioactive treatment alone. Furthermore, a combined treatment of compressive and bioactive stimulation improved the tensile properties of neocartilage 2.6-fold compared with untreated control. The ability to create robust articular cartilage from passaged costal

  16. Mechanical Stimulation Protocols of Human Derived Cells in Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozoee, Baktash; Mafi, Pouya; Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim S

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is a key factor in articular cartilage generation and maintenance. Bioreactor systems have been designed and built in order to deliver specific types of mechanical stimulation. The focus has been twofold, applying a type of preconditioning in order to stimulate cell differentiation, and to simulate in vivo conditions in order to gain further insight into how cells respond to different stimulatory patterns. Due to the complex forces at work within joints, it is difficult to simulate mechanical conditions using a bioreactor. The aim of this review is to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of mechanical stimulation protocols by comparing those employed in bioreactors in the context of tissue engineering for articular cartilage, and to consider their effects on cultured cells. Allied and Complementary Medicine 1985 to 2016, Ovid MEDLINE[R] 1946 to 2016, and Embase 1974 to 2016 were searched using key terms. Results were subject to inclusion and exclusion criteria, key findings summarised into a table and subsequently discussed. Based on this review it is overwhelmingly clear that mechanical stimulation leads to increased chondrogenic properties in the context of bioreactor articular cartilage tissue engineering using human cells. However, given the variability and lack of controlled factors between research articles, results are difficult to compare, and a standardised method of evaluating stimulation protocols proved challenging. With improved standardisation in mechanical stimulation protocol reporting, bioreactor design and building processes, along with a better understanding of joint behaviours, we hope to perform a meta-analysis on stimulation protocols and methods. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. An Experimental and Finite Element Protocol to Investigate the Transport of Neutral and Charged Solutes across Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2017-04-23

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that is associated with degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Degeneration of articular cartilage impairs its load-bearing function substantially as it experiences tremendous chemical degradation, i.e. proteoglycan loss and collagen fibril disruption. One promising way to investigate chemical damage mechanisms during OA is to expose the cartilage specimens to an external solute and monitor the diffusion of the molecules. The degree of cartilage damage (i.e. concentration and configuration of essential macromolecules) is associated with collisional energy loss of external solutes while moving across articular cartilage creates different diffusion characteristics compared to healthy cartilage. In this study, we introduce a protocol, which consists of several steps and is based on previously developed experimental micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) and finite element modeling. The transport of charged and uncharged iodinated molecules is first recorded using micro-CT, which is followed by applying biphasic-solute and multiphasic finite element models to obtain diffusion coefficients and fixed charge densities across cartilage zones.

  18. Elastoviscous Transitions of Articular Cartilage Reveal a Mechanism of Synergy between Lubricin and Hyaluronic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D Bonnevie

    Full Text Available When lubricated by synovial fluid, articular cartilage provides some of the lowest friction coefficients found in nature. While it is known that macromolecular constituents of synovial fluid provide it with its lubricating ability, it is not fully understood how two of the main molecules, lubricin and hyaluronic acid, lubricate and interact with one another. Here, we develop a novel framework for cartilage lubrication based on the elastoviscous transition to show that lubricin and hyaluronic acid lubricate by distinct mechanisms. Such analysis revealed nonspecific interactions between these molecules in which lubricin acts to concentrate hyaluronic acid near the tissue surface and promotes a transition to a low friction regime consistent with the theory of viscous boundary lubrication. Understanding the mechanics of synovial fluid not only provides insight into the progression of diseases such as arthritis, but also may be applicable to the development of new biomimetic lubricants.

  19. Effect of Enrofloxacin on Histochemistry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Changes in Lamb Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaeel, Kaveh; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Hashemi Tabar, Mahmood; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Morovvati, Hassan; Ghadrdan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Enrofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent from the class of the fluoroquinolones that is widely used to treat bacterial infections. It is metabolized to ciprofloxacin in the body as active metabolite. Fluoroquinolones change in the articular cartilage, especially with high doses and more than two weeks use. So, due to relatively excessive use of enrofloxacin in mammals and similarity of lambs to human subjects with respect to skeletal activity cycles, this study was done to investigate the effects of enrofloxacin on some cellular and molecular changes in growing lamb articular cartilage to evaluate some possible mechanisms involved these changes. Twelve, 2-month-old male lambs divided into three groups: control group received only normal saline; therapeutic group received 5mg/kg enrofloxacin subcutaneously, daily, for 15 days and toxic group received 35 mg/kg enrofloxacin in the same manner as therapeutic group. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were sacrificed, and their stifle joints were dissected. Sampling from distal femoral and proximal tibial extremities was done quickly for further histological and molecular studies. Collagen-п content was studied with avidin-biotin immunohistochemistry method in different groups. Expression of Sox9 and caspase-3 was evaluated by Real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical changes were included decreases of matrix proteoglycans, carbohydrates, and Collagen-п in the toxic group. Some of these changes were observed in the therapeutic group with less intensity in comparison to the toxic group. Enrofloxacin were significantly decreased (P≤0.05). Sox9 expression in therapeutic and toxic groups compared to control group. But caspase -3 expressions in the toxic group significantly increased (P≤0.0001) with a comparison to other groups, while, between control and therapeutic groups, there were no significant differences. So, it can be concluded that enrofloxacin increases apoptosis in chondrocytes and

  20. Benefits of Ilizarov automated bone distraction for nerves and articular cartilage in experimental leg lengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Shchudlo, Nathalia; Varsegova, Tatyana; Stupina, Tatyana; Shchudlo, Michael; Saifutdinov, Marat; Yemanov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine peculiarities of tissue responses to manual and automated Ilizarov bone distraction in nerves and articular cartilage. METHODS Twenty-nine dogs were divided in two experimental groups: Group M - leg lengthening with manual distraction (1 mm/d in 4 steps), Group A - automated distraction (1 mm/d in 60 steps) and intact group. Animals were euthanized at the end of distraction, at 30th day of fixation in apparatus and 30 d after the fixator removal. M-responses in gastrocnemius ...

  1. HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE KNEE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE AND SYNOVIUM FOR METADIAPHYSEAL LEG LENGTHENING (EXPERIMENTAL-AND-MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Stupina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knee articular cartilage and synovial membrane have been studied for metadiaphyseal leg lengthening using the methods of light miscroscopy, computer morpho- and stereometry. The manner of bone integrity breaking, the rate and rhythm of distraction conformed to the lengthening technique most often used in the clinic. The results of the histomorphometric analysis have demonstrated that when osteotomy at the level of metadiaphysis and manual distraction by 1 mm a day for 4 times is performed, synovitis of mild and moderate degree develops through subsynovial layer hypervascularization, as well as reactive-destructive changes in nerve fibers with the tendency to regeneration. The structural-functional changes of reactive and/or destructive-reparative character have been revealed in the articular cartilage, and the manifestation degree of these changes correlates with synovial membrane changes. The intensity of the destructive-reparative processes in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane depends on fixation stability.

  2. Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence on Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, and Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, Joseph A.

    This work focused on characterizing the mechanical behavior of biological material in physiologically relevant conditions and at sub millimeter length scales. Elucidating the time, length scale, and directionally dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage and other biological materials is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory cues for cells, create computational models that mimic native tissue behavior, and assess disease progression. This work focused on three broad aspects of characterizing the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. First, we sought to reveal the causes of time-dependent deformation and variation of mechanical properties with distance from the articular surface. Second, we investigated size dependence of mechanical properties. Finally, we examined material anisotropy of both the calcified and uncalcified tissues of the osteochondral interface. This research provides insight into how articular cartilage serves to support physiologic loads and simultaneously sustain chondrocyte viability.

  3. Chronic Changes in the Articular Cartilage and Meniscus Following Traumatic Impact to the Lapine Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Button, Keith D.; Coatney, Garrett A.; Fajardo, Ryan S.; Leikert, Kevin M.; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to induce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal damage, via a single tibiofemoral compressive impact, in order to document articular cartilage and meniscal changes post impact. Tibiofemoral joints of Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single blunt impact that ruptured the ACL and produced acute meniscal damage. Animals were allowed unrestricted cage activity for 12 weeks before euthanasia. India ink analysis of the articular cartilage revealed higher degrees of surface damage on the impacted tibias (p=0.018) and femurs (p<0.0001) compared to controls. Chronic meniscal damage was most prevalent in the medial central and medial posterior regions. Mechanical tests revealed an overall 19.4% increase in tibial plateau cartilage thickness (p=0.026), 34.8% increase in tibial plateau permeability (p=0.054), 40.8% increase in femoral condyle permeability (p=0.029), and 20.1% decrease in femoral condyle matrix modulus (p=0.012) in impacted joints compared to controls. Both the instantaneous and equilibrium moduli of the lateral and medial menisci were decreased compared to control (p<0.02). Histological analyses revealed significantly increased presence of fissures in the medial femur (p = 0.036). In both the meniscus and cartilage there was a significant decrease in GAG coverage for the impacted limbs. Based on these results it is clear that an unattended combined meniscal and ACL injury results in significant changes to the soft tissues in this experimental joint 12 weeks post injury. Such changes are consistent with a clinical description of mid to late stage PTOA of the knee. PMID:25523754

  4. FK506 protects against articular cartilage collagenous extra-cellular matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, M; van der Windt, A E; Groen, H C; Sandker, M; Waarsing, J H; Müller, C; de Jong, M; Jahr, H; Weinans, H

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extra-cellular matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, activation of synovial macrophages and osteophyte growth. Inhibition of calcineurin (Cn) activity through tacrolimus (FK506) in in vitro monolayer chondrocytes exerts positive effects on ECM marker expression. This study therefore investigated the effects of FK506 on anabolic and catabolic markers of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in 2D and 3D in vitro cultures, and its therapeutic effects in an in vivo rat model of OA. Effects of high and low doses of FK506 on anabolic (QPCR/histochemistry) and catabolic (QPCR) markers were evaluated in vitro on isolated (2D) and ECM-embedded chondrocytes (explants, 3D pellets). Severe cartilage damage was induced unilaterally in rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with FK506 orally and compared to twenty untreated controls. Subchondral cortical and trabecular bone changes (longitudinal microCT) and macrophage activation (SPECT/CT) were measured. Articular cartilage was analyzed ex vivo using contrast enhanced microCT and histology. FK506 treatment of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro induced anabolic (mainly collagens) and reduced catabolic ECM marker expression. In line with this, FK506 treatment clearly protected ECM integrity in vivo by markedly decreasing subchondral sclerosis, less development of subchondral pores, depletion of synovial macrophage activation and lower osteophyte growth. FK506 protected cartilage matrix integrity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, FK506 treatment in vivo reduced OA-like responses in different articular joint tissues and thereby makes Cn an interesting target for therapeutic intervention of OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling the development of tissue engineered cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    The limited healing capacity of articular cartilage forms a major clinical problem. In general, current treatments of cartilage damage temporarily reliefs symptoms, but fail in the long term. Tissue engineering (TE) has been proposed as a more permanent repair strategy. Cartilage TE aims at

  6. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  7. Cartilage repair by mesenchymal stem cells: Clinical trial update and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Yuk-wai Lee

    2017-04-01

    The translational potential of this article: This review summarises recent MSC-related clinical research that focuses on cartilage repair. We also propose a novel possible translational direction for hyaline cartilage formation and a new paradigm making use of extra-cellular signalling and epigenetic regulation in the application of MSCs for cartilage repair.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of articular cartilage of the knee using ultrashort echo time (uTE) sequences with spiral acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hajimu; Fujii, Masahiko; Iwama, Yuki; Aoyama, Nobukazu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrashort echo time (uTE) sequence for visualisation of calcified deep layers of articular cartilage. MRI with a uTE sequence was performed on five healthy volunteers. Signals from the calcified deep layers of the articular knee cartilage were evaluated on uTE subtraction images and computed tomography images. The calcified deep layers of the articular cartilage changed from having a low to a high signal when imaged with a uTE sequence. The reported uTE sequence was effective in imaging the deep layers of the knee cartilage.

  9. Metal deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.uk; Daar, E.; Gundogdu, O.; Jenneson, P.M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Webb, M.; Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    There is a growing interest being shown in the changes occurring in elemental distribution at the bone-cartilage interface, the changes either being a result of mechanical damage or disease. In particular, such investigations have tended to concern the elemental alterations associated with the osteoarthritic wear and tear damage occurring to the cartilage and subchondral bone of synovial joints or that associated with disease processes such as rheumatic arthritis. Present studies examine sections of femoral head obtained from total hip replacement surgery, use being made of micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) and the Rutherford back scattering (RBS) techniques. Enhancements of Zn, Ca and P have been observed at the bone-cartilage interface. Further, the concentration of Zn in spongy bone underlying the subchondral surface of a section of the femoral head has been measured, obtaining 136 {mu}g g{sup -1} bone, the presence of Ca and P at the same position being 0.235 and 0.0451 g g{sup -1} bone, respectively. These values are slightly different to figures recently published by other authors using similar techniques.

  10. MR microscopy of articular cartilage at 1.5 T: orientation and site dependence of laminar structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Anno, Izumi; Echigo, Junko; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575 (Japan); Haishi, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Kose, Katsumi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Lang, Philipp [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate MR microscopic images of normal-appearing porcine hyaline cartilage (n=15) in vitro obtained with an MR microscope using an independent console system (MRMICS) at 1.5 T.Design and results. The MRMICS is a portable imaging system consisting of a radiofrequency system, gradient power supplies and a personal computer. The images from the MRMICS showed a laminar structure of porcine cartilage similar to the structure demonstrated with other MR imaging techniques. The laminar structures of the articular cartilage, were, however heterogeneous in respect of signal intensity and thickness, which varied according to the site resected. The MR laminar appearance was most comparable to the staining with Masson's trichrome for collagen.Conclusion. MRMICS is a useful add-on system for obtaining microscopic MR images of articular cartilage in vitro. (orig.)

  11. MR microscopy of articular cartilage at 1.5 T: orientation and site dependence of laminar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Anno, Izumi; Echigo, Junko; Itai, Yuji; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Kose, Katsumi; Lang, Philipp

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate MR microscopic images of normal-appearing porcine hyaline cartilage (n=15) in vitro obtained with an MR microscope using an independent console system (MRMICS) at 1.5 T.Design and results. The MRMICS is a portable imaging system consisting of a radiofrequency system, gradient power supplies and a personal computer. The images from the MRMICS showed a laminar structure of porcine cartilage similar to the structure demonstrated with other MR imaging techniques. The laminar structures of the articular cartilage, were, however heterogeneous in respect of signal intensity and thickness, which varied according to the site resected. The MR laminar appearance was most comparable to the staining with Masson's trichrome for collagen.Conclusion. MRMICS is a useful add-on system for obtaining microscopic MR images of articular cartilage in vitro. (orig.)

  12. Role of electrostatic interactions on the transport of druglike molecules in hydrogel-based articular cartilage mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Fengbin; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.; Hvidt, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In the field of drug delivery to the articular cartilage, it is advantageous to apply artificial tissue models as surrogates of cartilage for investigating drug transport and release properties. In this study, artificial cartilage models consisting of 0.5% (w/v) agarose gel containing 0.5% (w...... to the pure agarose gel. The decrease in apparent diffusivity of the cationic compounds was not caused by a change in the gel structure since a similar reduction in apparent diffusivity was not observed for the net negatively charged protein α-lactalbumin. The apparent diffusivity of the cationic compounds...... the electrostatic nature of their interactions. The results obtained from the UV imaging diffusion studies are important for understanding the effect of drug physicochemical properties on the transport in articular cartilage. The extracted information may be useful in the development of hydrogels for in vitro...

  13. An observational study on MR images of the effect of the discoid meniscus on articular cartilage thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, David Babajide; Jeyapalan, K; Oni, Olusola O A

    2011-06-01

    The discoid meniscus is known to affect the morphology and mechanics of the knee compartment in which it is housed. To determine whether it also is determinative of the articular cartilage thickness, measurements were made on MR images. There was no statistically significant difference in femoral or tibial articular cartilage thickness between compartments with normal meniscus and compartments with discoid meniscus. These findings suggest that mechanical disturbances wrought by the discoid shape do not have a 'Wolff law' effect. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. [On the preparation and mechanical properties of PVA hydrogel bionic cartilage/bone composite artificial articular implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haoye; Zheng, Yudong; Huang, Xiaoshan; Yue, Bingqing; Xu, Hong; Wang, Yingjun; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2010-10-01

    In view of the problems that conventional artificial cartilages have no bioactivity and are prone to peel off in repeated uses as a result of insufficient strength to bond with subchondral bone, we have designed and prepared a novel kind of PVA-BG composite hydrogel as bionic artificial articular cartilage/bone composite implants. The effects of processes and conditions of preparation on the mechanical properties of implant were explored. In addition, the relationships between compression strain rate, BG content, PVA hydrogels thickness and compressive tangent modulus were also explicated. We also analyzed the effects of cancellous bone aperture, BG and PVA content on the shear strength of bonding interface of artificial articular cartilage with cancellous bone. Meanwhile, the bonding interface of artificial articular cartilage and cancellous bone was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was revealed that the compressive modulus of composite implants was correspondingly increased with the adding of BG content and the augments of PVA hydrogel thickness. The compressive modulus and bonding interface were both related to the apertures of cancellous bone. The compressive modulus of composite implants was 1.6-2.23 MPa and the shear strength of bonding interface was 0.63-1.21 MPa. These results demonstrated that the connection between artificial articular cartilage and cancellous bone was adequately firm.

  15. The use of mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage repair and regeneration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Andy; Mitchell, Katrina; Soans, Julian; Kim, Louise; Zaidi, Razi

    2017-03-09

    The management of articular cartilage defects presents many clinical challenges due to its avascular, aneural and alymphatic nature. Bone marrow stimulation techniques, such as microfracture, are the most frequently used method in clinical practice however the resulting mixed fibrocartilage tissue which is inferior to native hyaline cartilage. Other methods have shown promise but are far from perfect. There is an unmet need and growing interest in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to improve the outcome for patients requiring cartilage repair. Many published reviews on cartilage repair only list human clinical trials, underestimating the wealth of basic sciences and animal studies that are precursors to future research. We therefore set out to perform a systematic review of the literature to assess the translation of stem cell therapy to explore what research had been carried out at each of the stages of translation from bench-top (in vitro), animal (pre-clinical) and human studies (clinical) and assemble an evidence-based cascade for the responsible introduction of stem cell therapy for cartilage defects. This review was conducted in accordance to PRISMA guidelines using CINHAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases from 1st January 1900 to 30th June 2015. In total, there were 2880 studies identified of which 252 studies were included for analysis (100 articles for in vitro studies, 111 studies for animal studies; and 31 studies for human studies). There was a huge variance in cell source in pre-clinical studies both of terms of animal used, location of harvest (fat, marrow, blood or synovium) and allogeneicity. The use of scaffolds, growth factors, number of cell passages and number of cells used was hugely heterogeneous. This review offers a comprehensive assessment of the evidence behind the translation of basic science to the clinical practice of cartilage repair. It has revealed a lack of connectivity between the in vitro, pre

  16. High Throughput and Mechano-Active Platforms to Promote Cartilage Regeneration and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Bhavana

    Traumatic joint injuries initiate acute degenerative changes in articular cartilage that can lead to progressive loss of load-bearing function. As a result, patients often develop post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), a condition for which there currently exists no biologic interventions. To address this need, tissue engineering aims to mimic the structure and function of healthy, native counterparts. These constructs can be used to not only replace degenerated tissue, but also build in vitro, pre-clinical models of disease. Towards this latter goal, this thesis focuses on the design of a high throughput system to screen new therapeutics in a micro-engineered model of PTOA, and the development of a mechanically-responsive drug delivery system to augment tissue-engineered approaches for cartilage repair. High throughput screening is a powerful tool for drug discovery that can be adapted to include 3D tissue constructs. To facilitate this process for cartilage repair, we built a high throughput mechanical injury platform to create an engineered cartilage model of PTOA. Compressive injury of functionally mature constructs increased cell death and proteoglycan loss, two hallmarks of injury observed in vivo. Comparison of this response to that of native cartilage explants, and evaluation of putative therapeutics, validated this model for subsequent use in small molecule screens. A primary screen of 118 compounds identified a number of 'hits' and relevant pathways that may modulate pathologic signaling post-injury. To complement this process of therapeutic discovery, a stimuli-responsive delivery system was designed that used mechanical inputs as the 'trigger' mechanism for controlled release. The failure thresholds of these mechanically-activated microcapsules (MAMCs) were influenced by physical properties and composition, as well as matrix mechanical properties in 3D environments. TGF-beta released from the system upon mechano-activation stimulated stem cell

  17. Mechano growth factor (MGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 functionalized silk scaffolds enhance articular hyaline cartilage regeneration in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ziwei; Jiang, Li; Xu, Yan; Li, Haibin; Xu, Wei; Wu, Shuangchi; Wang, Yuanliang; Tang, Zhenyu; Lv, Yonggang; Yang, Li

    2015-06-01

    Damaged cartilage has poor self-healing ability and usually progresses to scar or fibrocartilaginous tissue, and finally degenerates to osteoarthritis (OA). Here we demonstrated that one of alternative isoforms of IGF-1, mechano growth factor (MGF) acted synergistically with transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) embedded in silk fibroin scaffolds to induce chemotactic homing and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Combination of MGF and TGF-β3 significantly increased cell recruitment up to 1.8 times and 2 times higher than TGF-β3 did in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, MGF increased Collagen II and aggrecan secretion of TGF-β3 induced hMSCs chondrogenesis, but decreased Collagen I in vitro. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds have been widely used for tissue engineering, and we showed that methanol treated pured SF scaffolds were porous, similar to compressive module of native cartilage, slow degradation rate and excellent drug released curves. At 7 days after subcutaneous implantation, TGF-β3 and MGF functionalized silk fibroin scaffolds (STM) recruited more CD29+/CD44+cells (Pcartilage-like extracellular matrix and less fibrillar collagen were detected in STM scaffolds than that in TGF-β3 modified scaffolds (ST) at 2 months after subcutaneous implantation. When implanted into articular joints in a rabbit osteochondral defect model, STM scaffolds showed the best integration into host tissues, similar architecture and collagen organization to native hyaline cartilage, as evidenced by immunostaining of aggrecan, collagen II and collagen I, as well as Safranin O and Masson's trichrome staining, and histological evalution based on the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring system (Pcartilage regeneration. This study demonstrated that TGF-β3 and MGF functionalized silk fibroin scaffolds enhanced endogenous stem cell recruitment and facilitated in situ articular cartilage regeneration, thus providing a novel strategy for cartilage repair

  18. Cartilage Regeneration in Full-Thickness Patellar Chondral Defects Treated with Particulated Juvenile Articular Allograft Cartilage: An MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian; Burge, Alissa; Nguyen, Joseph; Strickland, Sabrina; Warren, Russell; Rodeo, Scott; Shubin Stein, Beth

    2017-10-01

    moderate fill of the graft. At 24 months, patient age demonstrated negative correlation with average T2 relaxation times of the deep and superficial graft ( P = 0.005; P = 0.0029) and positive correlation with the superficial zone of the adjacent cartilage ( P = 0.001). Donor age showed negative correlation with grayscale score ( P = 0.004) and T2 relaxation times at deep integration zone ( P = 0.018). T2 relaxation times of deep and superficial graft and integration zone improved over time ( P cartilage lesions of the patella, offering satisfactory tissue defect fill at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Imaging of the repaired cartilage demonstrates progressive graft maturation over time.

  19. MR cartilage imaging in assessment of the regenerative power of autologous peripheral blood stem cell injection in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Limited good level of evidence showed that repeated intra-articular injections of autologous PBSC resulted in an improvement of the quality of articular cartilage repair and physical function as observed by MRI and clinical assessment.

  20. Bovine lactoferricin is anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic in human articular cartilage and synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Guozhi; van Wijnen, Andre J; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-02-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human articular cartilage remained unknown. Here, our findings demonstrate that LfcinB restored the proteoglycan loss promoted by catabolic factors (interleukin-1β) IL-1β and FGF-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Mechanistically, LfcinB attenuated the effects of IL-1β and FGF-2 on the expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), destructive cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and inflammatory mediators (iNOS and TLR2). LfcinB induced protective cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10), and downregulated aggrecanase basal expression. LfcinB specifically activated ERK MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also revealed that LfcinB exerted similar protective effects on human synovial fibroblasts challenged by IL-1β, with minimal cytotoxicity. Collectively, our results suggest that LfcinB possesses potent anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities in human articular tissues, and may be utilized for the prevention and/or treatment of OA in the future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mechanics and crack formation in the extracellular matrix with articular cartilage as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Silverberg, Jesse; Bonassar, Lawrence; Cohen, Itai; Das, Moumita

    We investigate the mechanical structure-function relations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with focus on crack formation and failure. As a model system, our study focuses on the ECM in articular cartilage (AC), the tissue that covers the ends of bones, and distributes load in joints including in the knees, shoulders, and hips. The strength, toughness, and crack resistance of native articular cartilage is unparalleled in materials made by humankind. This mechanical response is mainly due to its ECM. The ECM in AC has two major mechanobiological components: a network of the biopolymer collagen and a flexible aggrecan gel. We model this system as a biopolymer network embedded in a swelling gel, and investigate the conditions for the formation and propagation of cracks using a combination of rigidity percolation theory and energy minimization approaches. Our results may provide useful insights into the design principles of the ECM as well as of biomimetic hydrogels that are mechanically robust and can, at the same time, easily adapt to cues in their surroundings. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  2. Effect of retinoic acid on proteoglycan turnover in bovine articular cartilage cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.A.; Handley, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes proteoglycan catabolism by adult bovine articular cartilage treated with retinoic acid as a means of stimulating the loss of this macromolecule from the extracellular matrix of cartilage. Addition of retinoic acid (10(-12)-10(-6) M) to adult bovine articular cartilage which had been labeled with [ 35 S]sulfate for 6 h after 5 days in culture, resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the rate of loss of 35 S-labeled proteoglycans from the matrix of the tissue. Concomitant with this loss was a decrease in the proteoglycan content of the tissue. Incubation of cultures treated with 1 microM retinoic acid, at 4 degrees C, or with 0.5 mM cycloheximide, resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of retinoic acid-induced loss of proteoglycans and demonstrated cellular involvement in this process. Analysis of the 35 S-labeled proteoglycans remaining in the matrix showed that the percentage of radioactivity associated with the small proteoglycan species extracted from the matrix of articular cartilage explants labeled with [ 35 S]sulfate after 5 days in culture was 15% and this increased to 22% in tissue maintained in medium alone. In tissue treated with 1 microM retinoic acid for 6 days, the percentage of radioactivity associated with the small proteoglycan was 58%. Approximately 93% of the 35 S-labeled proteoglycans released into the medium of control and retinoic acid-treated cultures was recovered in high density fractions after CsCl gradient centrifugation and eluted on Sepharose CL-2B as a broad peak with a Kav of 0.30-0.37. Less than 17% of these proteoglycans was capable of aggregating with hyaluronate. These results indicate that in both control and retinoic acid-treated cultures the larger proteoglycan species is lost to the medium at a greater rate than the small proteoglycan species. The effect of retinoic acid on proteoglycan turnover was shown to be reversible

  3. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†,

  4. Regulation of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRaine, Grayson; Neu, Corey P; Chan, Stephanie M T; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; June, Ronald K; Reddi, A Hari

    2009-02-01

    Articular cartilage functions to provide a low-friction surface for joint movement for many decades of life. Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a glycoprotein secreted by chondrocytes in the superficial layer of articular cartilage that contributes to effective boundary lubrication. In both cell and explant cultures, TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta have been demonstrated to, respectively, upregulate and downregulate SZP protein levels. It was hypothesized that the friction coefficient of articular cartilage could also be modulated by these cytokines through SZP regulation. The friction coefficient between cartilage explants (both untreated and treated with TGF-beta1 or IL-1beta) and a smooth glass surface due to sliding in the boundary lubrication regime was measured with a pin-on-disk tribometer. SZP was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and localized by immunohistochemistry. Both TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatments resulted in the decrease of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage in a location- and time-dependent manner. Changes in the friction coefficient due to the TGF-beta1 treatment corresponded to increased depth of SZP staining within the superficial zone, while friction coefficient changes due to the IL-1beta treatment were independent of SZP depth of staining. However, the changes induced by the IL-1beta treatment corresponded to changes in surface roughness, determined from the analysis of surface images obtained with an atomic force microscope. These findings demonstrate that the low friction of articular cartilage can be modified by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatment and that the friction coefficient depends on multiple factors, including SZP localization and surface roughness.

  5. Evaluation of the internal structure of articular cartilage in terms of 1H-NMR relaxation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    The structural characteristics of articular cartilage were analyzed using 1 H-longitudinal (T 1 ) and transverse (T 2 ) relaxation times as measured by fast-inversion-recovery and multi-spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pairs of cartilage-bone plugs from weight bearing and non-weight bearing regions were dissected from 15 medial femoral condyles and were subjected to NMR measurements with and without static loads (0.15-1.0 MPa). The T 1 of the cartilage with no load showed a maximum value just beneath the articular surface and this value decreased gradually towards the deeper zones. The T 2 of the same cartilage showed a maximum value at, or just beneath, the articular surface, decreased rapidly towards the intermediate zone yet increased again in the deepest zone. The increase of T 2 in the deepest zone was more greatly pronounced in the weight bearing region than in the non-weight bearing region. These layer-dependent differences in the T 1 and T 2 could account for the laminar appearance of the articular cartilage in the MR images. Under static loads, the decrease of T 1 in the transitional zone (from just beneath the articular surface to the intermediate zone) was significant. Because T 1 has a positive correlation with the water content, this decrease in T 1 may signify that the largest water loss occurs in the transitional zone. These findings suggest that the transitional zone might attenuate mechanical stress in the joint, and the expressed water from the cartilage could substantially contribute to the lubrication of the joint. (author)

  6. Micromechanical properties of canine femoral articular cartilage following multiple freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Abby E; Comerford, Eithne J; Macaulay, Sophie; Bates, Karl T; Akhtar, Riaz

    2017-07-01

    Tissue material properties are crucial to understanding their mechanical function, both in healthy and diseased states. However, in certain circumstances logistical limitations can prevent testing on fresh samples necessitating one or more freeze-thaw cycles. To date, the nature and extent to which the material properties of articular cartilage are altered by repetitive freezing have not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to quantify how articular cartilage mechanical properties, measured by nanoindentation, are affected by multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Canine cartilage plugs (n = 11) from medial and lateral femoral condyles were submerged in phosphate buffered saline, stored at 3-5°C and tested using nanoindentation within 12h. Samples were then frozen at -20°C and later thawed at 3-5°C for 3h before material properties were re-tested and samples re-frozen under the same conditions. This process was repeated for all 11 samples over three freeze-thaw cycles. Overall mean and standard deviation of shear storage modulus decreased from 1.76 ± 0.78 to 1.21 ± 0.77MPa (p = 0.91), shear loss modulus from 0.42 ± 0.19 to 0.39 ± 0.17MPa (p=0.70) and elastic modulus from 5.13 ± 2.28 to 3.52 ± 2.24MPa (p = 0.20) between fresh and three freeze-thaw cycles respectively. The loss factor increased from 0.31 ± 0.38 to 0.71 ± 1.40 (p = 0.18) between fresh and three freeze-thaw cycles. Inter-sample variability spanned as much as 10.47MPa across freezing cycles and this high-level of biological variability across samples likely explains why overall mean "whole-joint" trends do not reach statistical significance across the storage conditions tested. As a result multiple freeze-thaw cycles cannot be explicitly or statistically linked to mechanical changes within the cartilage. However, the changes in material properties observed herein may be sufficient in magnitude to impact on a variety of clinical and scientific studies of cartilage, and should be considered

  7. Chondrogenic potential of canine articular cartilage derived cells (cACCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the potential of canine articular cartilage-derived cells (cACCs for chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated. The effectiveness of cACCs’ lineage commitment was analyzed after 14 days of culture in chondorgenic and non-chondrogenic conditions. Formation of proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix was assessed using histochemical staining – Alcian Blue and Safranin-O, while elemental composition was determined by means of SEM-EDX. Additionally, ultrastructure of cACCs was evaluated using TEM. The expression of genes involved in chondrogenesis was monitored with quantitative Real Time PCR. Results obtained indicate that the potential of cACCs for cartilagous extracellular matrix formation may be maintained only in chondrogenic cultures. The formation of specific chondro-nodules was not observed in a non-chondrogenic culture environment. The analysis of cACCs’ ultrastructure, both in non-chondrogenic and chondrogenic cultures, revealed well-developed rough endoplasmatic reticulum and presence of mitochondria. The cACCs in chondrogenic medium shed an increased number of microvesicles. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracellular matrix of cACCs in chondrogenic cultures is rich in potassium and molybdenum. Additionally, it was determined that gene expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX-9 was significantly increased during chondrogenic differentiation of cACCs. Results obtained indicate that the culture environment may significantly influence the cartilage phenotype of cACCs during long term culture.

  8. Fourier-transform infrared anisotropy in cross and parallel sections of tendon and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidthanapally Aruna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging (FTIRI is used to investigate the amide anisotropies at different surfaces of a three-dimensional cartilage or tendon block. With the change in the polarization state of the incident infrared light, the resulting anisotropic behavior of the tissue structure is described here. Methods Thin sections (6 μm thick were obtained from three different surfaces of the canine tissue blocks and imaged at 6.25 μm pixel resolution. For each section, infrared imaging experiments were repeated thirteen times with the identical parameters except a 15° increment of the analyzer's angle in the 0° – 180° angular space. The anisotropies of amide I and amide II components were studied in order to probe the orientation of the collagen fibrils at different tissue surfaces. Results For tendon, the anisotropy of amide I and amide II components in parallel sections is comparable to that of regular sections; and tendon's cross sections show distinct, but weak anisotropic behavior for both the amide components. For articular cartilage, parallel sections in the superficial zone have the expected infrared anisotropy that is consistent with that of regular sections. The parallel sections in the radial zone, however, have a nearly isotropic amide II absorption and a distinct amide I anisotropy. Conclusion From the inconsistency in amide anisotropy between superficial to radial zone in parallel section results, a schematic model is used to explain the origins of these amide anisotropies in cartilage and tendon.

  9. The influence of collagen network integrity on the accumulation of gadolinium-based MR contrast agents in articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Edzard; Schmidt, C.; Diederichs, G. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Settles, M. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Weirich, G. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie

    2011-03-15

    Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cartilage is used to quantify the proteoglycan loss in early osteoarthritis. It is assumed that T 1 after Gd-DTPA administration in the near equilibrium state reflects selective proteoglycan loss from cartilage. To investigate the influence of the collagen network integrity on contrast accumulation, the relaxation rates {delta}R1 and {delta}R2 were compared after Gd-DTPA administration in a well established model of osteoarthritis. Collagen or proteoglycan depletion was induced by the proteolytic enzymes papain and collagenase in healthy bovine patellar cartilage. Using a dedicated MRI sequence, T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} maps were simultaneously acquired before and 11 h after Gd-DTPA administration. Depth-dependent profiles of {delta}R1 and {delta}R2 were calculated in healthy, proteoglycan and collagen-depleted articular cartilage and the mean values of different cartilage layers were compared using the Mann-Whitney-U test. In superficial layers (1 mm) there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in either {delta}R1 or {delta}R2 between proteoglycan-depleted (16.6 {+-} 1.2 s{sup -1}, 15.9 {+-} 1.0 s{sup -1}) and collagen-depleted articular cartilage (15.3 {+-} 0.9 s{sup -1}, 15.5 {+-} 0.9 s{sup -1}). In deep layers (3 mm) both parameters were significantly higher (p = 0.005, 0.03) in proteoglycan-depleted articular cartilage (12.3 {+-} 1.1 s{sup -1}, 9.8 {+-} 0.8 s{sup -1}) than in collagen-depleted articular cartilage (9.1 {+-} 1.1 s{sup -1}, 8.7 {+-} 0.7 s{sup -1}). Both proteoglycan loss and alterations in the collagen network influence the accumulation of Gd-DTPA in articular cartilage with significant differences between superficial and deep cartilage layers. (orig.)

  10. Articular Cartilage Repair Through Muscle Cell-Based Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    in the packaging cell line. MDSCs were isolated from GFP transgenic rats and cultured in regular proliferation medium with 50% cell fluency . A...Biotechnology, London, Ontario, Canada) and were applied to the target area on the slide, covered with a coverslip, and sealed with rubber cement . After...the cement had dried (10 minutes at room temperature), the slides and probe were codenatured by placing on a heating block (Fisher, Kalamazoo, MI) set

  11. The relationship between ultra-short telomeres, aging of articular cartilage and the development of human hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M; Delaisse, J M; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short telomeres caused by stress-induced telomere shortening are suggested to induce chondrocyte senescence in human osteoarthritic knees. Here we have further investigated the role of ultra-short telomeres in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and in aging of articular cartilage in human...

  12. Efficacy of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging for articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint in patients with instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Meredith L.; Collins, Mark S.; Wenger, Doris E.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Dahm, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. A secondary purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. A cohort of 87 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic MRI and shoulder arthroscopy for instability from 1997 to 2006 were identified. Fifty-five patients (63.2%) underwent MRI with intra-articular contrast medium and 32 patients (36.8%) underwent MRI without contrast medium. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted by consensus for the presence of articular cartilage lesions (including Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions), which were then confirmed by reviewing the operative report and images recorded at arthroscopy. Mean patient age was 27.0 ± 10.2 years with a mean clinical and radiographic follow-up of 29 (range 3-72) months. Cartilage injuries were detected arthroscopically in 55 patients (63%). Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions were identified arthroscopically in 66 patients (75.9%) and 55 patients (63.2%) respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions by MRI were 87.2% and 80.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Bankart lesions was 98.4% (95% CI 91.9, 99.7) and 95.2% (95% CI 77.3, 99.2) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Hill-Sachs lesions was 96.3% (95% CI 87.6, 98.9%) and 90.6% (95% CI 75.7, 96.9) respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between MRI examinations with and without intra-articular gadolinium (p = 0.89). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. MRI with or without intra-articular contrast medium in this study were equally reliable as a non

  13. Efficacy of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging for articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint in patients with instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Meredith L.; Collins, Mark S.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Morgan, Joseph A.; Dahm, Diane L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was primarily to assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. A secondary purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. A cohort of 87 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic MRI and shoulder arthroscopy for instability from 1997 to 2006 were identified. Fifty-five patients (63.2%) underwent MRI with intra-articular contrast medium and 32 patients (36.8%) underwent MRI without contrast medium. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted by consensus for the presence of articular cartilage lesions (including Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions), which were then confirmed by reviewing the operative report and images recorded at arthroscopy. Mean patient age was 27.0 {+-} 10.2 years with a mean clinical and radiographic follow-up of 29 (range 3-72) months. Cartilage injuries were detected arthroscopically in 55 patients (63%). Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions were identified arthroscopically in 66 patients (75.9%) and 55 patients (63.2%) respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions by MRI were 87.2% and 80.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Bankart lesions was 98.4% (95% CI 91.9, 99.7) and 95.2% (95% CI 77.3, 99.2) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Hill-Sachs lesions was 96.3% (95% CI 87.6, 98.9%) and 90.6% (95% CI 75.7, 96.9) respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between MRI examinations with and without intra-articular gadolinium (p = 0.89). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. MRI with or without intra-articular contrast medium in this study were equally reliable as a non

  14. Characterization of Articular Cartilage Recovery and Its Correlation with Optical Response in the Near-Infrared Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Isaac Oluwaseun; Singh, Sanjleena; Moody, Hayley; Zhang, Lihai; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading. The recovery parameter, elastic rebound ( E R ), is based on the strain energy released as the samples underwent instantaneous elastic recovery. Our results reveal positive relationship between the rebound parameter and cartilage proteoglycan content (normal samples: 2.20 ± 0.10 N mm; proteoglycan-depleted samples: 0.50 ± 0.04 N mm for 1 hour of enzymatic treatment and 0.13 ± 0.02 N mm for 4 hours of enzymatic treatment). In addition, multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression was employed to investigate the relationship between E R and NIR spectral data. The results reveal significantly high correlation ( R 2 cal = 98.35% and R 2 val = 79.87%; P cartilage in the combined NIR regions 5,450 to 6,100 cm -1 and 7,500 to 12,500 cm -1 . We conclude that E R can indicate the mechanical condition and state of health of articular cartilage. The correlation of E R with cartilage optical response in the NIR range could facilitate real-time evaluation of the tissue's integrity during arthroscopic surgery and could also provide an important tool for cartilage assessment in tissue engineering and regeneration research.

  15. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo, but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo. hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  16. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Manuel; Milian, Lara; Oliver, Maria; Zurriaga, Javier; Sancho-Tello, Maria; de Llano, Jose Javier Martin; Carda, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo , but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo . hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  17. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Brian; Mann, Sumeer A.; King, Chris; Forster, Bruce B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  18. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Brian [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Mann, Sumeer A. [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta, Walter Mackenzie Health Sciences Center, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2B7 (Canada); King, Chris [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Forster, Bruce B., E-mail: bruce.forster@vch.ca [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  19. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenberg, S.T.; Myers, S.L.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis

  20. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugenberg, S.T.; Myers, S.L.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-04-01

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis.

  1. Science and animal models of marrow stimulation for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Lisa A; Cole, Brian J; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2012-03-01

    Microfracture of subchondral bone to enhance cartilage repair is a popular surgical technique used in human and animal patients. Clinical results with resolution or improvement in pain are promising and last on average for 2 to 3 years. Animal studies aimed at understanding microfracture indicate that the repair tissue continues to remodel toward chondrogenesis for at least a year, but longer term results are not available to gain insight into the mechanism of microfracture function or failure over time. Subchondral bone sclerosis and central lesional osteophyte formation following subchondral bone microfracture have been observed in animal models of microfracture, but studies do not provide any insight into the etiology of these pathologies. The continued maturation of microfracture repair tissue over time supports further investigation of microfracture or microfracture-augmented cartilage repair procedures with caution for the investigator and clinician to be observant for conditions that lead to subchondral bone sclerosis or central osteophyte formation, and what affect these boney reactions have on clinical outcome.

  2. Extension of knee immobilization delays recovery of histological damages in the anterior cruciate ligament insertion and articular cartilage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromi; Sakane, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the influence of knee immobilization period on recovery of histological damages in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion and articular cartilage in rabbits. This knowledge is important for determining the appropriate rehabilitation approach for patients with ligament injuries, fracture, disuse atrophy, and degenerative joint disease. [Materials and Methods] Forty-eight male Japanese white rabbits were divided equally into the remobilization and control groups. The remobilization group had the right knee surgically immobilized, and was divided equally into four subgroups according to the duration of immobilization (1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks). After the immobilization was removed, the rabbits moved freely for 8 weeks. The control group underwent sham operation and followed the same time course as the remobilization group. The chondrocyte apoptosis rate and chondrocyte proliferation rate in the ACL insertion and articular cartilage were analyzed after remobilization. [Results] In the ACL insertion, the remobilization group had a higher chondrocyte apoptosis rate than the control group after 8 weeks of immobilization, and a lower chondrocyte proliferation rate than the control group after 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization. In the articular cartilage, the remobilization group had a lower chondrocyte proliferation rate than the control group after 8 weeks of immobilization. After 8 weeks of remobilization, the ACL insertion and articular cartilage are not completely recovered after 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization, respectively. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that 8 weeks of remobilization will result in recovery of the ACL insertion after 2 weeks of knee immobilization, and recovery of the articular cartilage after 4 weeks of knee immobilization. If 8 weeks of immobilization occurs, a remobilization duration of more than 8 weeks may be necessary.

  3. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Recommended Guidelines for Histological Endpoints for Cartilage Repair Studies in Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577

  4. Effects of mechanical loading on human mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Ru; Yong, Kar Wey; Choi, Jean Yu

    2018-03-01

    Today, articular cartilage damage is a major health problem, affecting people of all ages. The existing conventional articular cartilage repair techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), microfracture, and mosaicplasty, have many shortcomings which negatively affect their clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop an alternative and efficient articular repair technique that can address those shortcomings. Cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to create a tissue-engineered cartilage derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), shows great promise for improving articular cartilage defect therapy. However, the use of tissue-engineered cartilage for the clinical therapy of articular cartilage defect still remains challenging. Despite the importance of mechanical loading to create a functional cartilage has been well demonstrated, the specific type of mechanical loading and its optimal loading regime is still under investigation. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the effects of mechanical loading on human MSCs. First, the existing conventional articular repair techniques and their shortcomings are highlighted. The important parameters for the evaluation of the tissue-engineered cartilage, including chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation of human MSCs are briefly discussed. The influence of mechanical loading on human MSCs is subsequently reviewed and the possible mechanotransduction signaling is highlighted. The development of non-hypertrophic chondrogenesis in response to the changing mechanical microenvironment will aid in the establishment of a tissue-engineered cartilage for efficient articular cartilage repair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nonlinear mechanical response of the extracellular matrix: learning from articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Das, Moumita

    2015-03-01

    We study the mechanical structure-function relations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with focus on nonlinear shear and compression response. As a model system, our study focuses on the ECM in articular cartilage tissue which has two major mechanobiological components: a network of the biopolymer collagen that acts as a stiff, reinforcing matrix, and a flexible aggrecan network that facilitates deformability. We model this system as a double network hydrogel made of interpenetrating networks of stiff and flexible biopolymers respectively. We study the linear and nonlinear mechanical response of the model ECM to shear and compression forces using a combination of rigidity percolation theory and energy minimization approaches. Our results may provide useful insights into the design principles of the ECM as well as biomimetic hydrogels that are mechanically robust and can, at the same time, easily adapt to cues in their surroundings.

  6. Protocols for the in vitro design of animal articular cartilage based on tissue engineering methods

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    Diego Correa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The articular cartilage is the structure that covers the joint ends. It has some specific tasks crucial to the correct joint physiology. It may experience a large amount of injuries that could generate considerable disabilities. Unfortunately its selfrepair capacity is too limited; therefore, many treatments have been developed with partial success, given the suboptimal biomechanical behavior of the resultant tissue. Given that, Tissue Engineering offers an alternative, based on the design of a new tissue with biological and biomechanical features which resembles the native tissue. In this work, the authors describe the methodologies followed to accomplish that goal, studying the chondrocytes harvesting, the cellular cultures, the scaffold seeding processes, the mechanical stimulation and the structural and biomechanical evaluation. Finally, exposed some of the preliminary results, as a experimental validation of the methods proposed are.

  7. Articular Cartilage of the Human Knee Joint: In Vivo Multicomponent T2 Analysis at 3.0 T

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    Choi, Kwang Won; Samsonov, Alexey; Spencer, Richard G.; Wilson, John J.; Block, Walter F.; Kijowski, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare multicomponent T2 parameters of the articular cartilage of the knee joint measured by using multicomponent driven equilibrium single-shot observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed with institutional review board approval and with written informed consent from all subjects. The mcDESPOT sequence was performed in the knee joint of 13 asymptomatic volunteers and 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Single-component T2 (T2Single), T2 of the fast-relaxing water component (T2F) and of the slow-relaxing water component (T2S), and the fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) of cartilage were measured. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and multivariate linear regression models were used to compare mcDESPOT parameters between volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess diagnostic performance with mcDESPOT parameters for distinguishing morphologically normal cartilage from morphologically degenerative cartilage identified at magnetic resonance imaging in eight cartilage subsections of the knee joint. Results Higher cartilage T2Single (P cartilage FF (P cartilage T2F (P = .079) and T2S (P = .124) values were seen in patients with osteoarthritis compared with those in asymptomatic volunteers. Differences in T2Single and FF remained significant (P cartilage (P cartilage T2Single and significantly lower cartilage FF than did asymptomatic volunteers, and receiver operating characteristic analysis results suggested that FF may allow greater diagnostic performance than that with T2Single for distinguishing between normal and degenerative cartilage. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26024307

  8. Characterization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone changes in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

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    Hayami, Tadashi; Pickarski, Maureen; Zhuo, Ya; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Rodan, Gideon A; Duong, Le T

    2006-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Subchondral bone stiffness has been proposed to initiate and/or contribute to cartilage deterioration in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize subchondral bone remodeling, cartilage damage, and osteophytosis during the disease progression in two models of surgically induced OA. Rat knee joints were subjected either to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) alone or in combination with resection of medial menisci (ACLT + MMx). Histopathological changes in the surgical joints were compared with sham at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks post-surgery. Using a modified Mankin scoring system, we demonstrate that articular cartilage damage occurs within 2 weeks post-surgery in both surgical models. Detectable cartilage surface damage and proteoglycan loss were observed as early as 1 week post-surgery. These were followed by the increases in vascular invasion into cartilage, in loss of chondrocyte number and in cell clustering. Histomorphometric analysis revealed subchondral bone loss in both models within 2 weeks post-surgery followed by significant increases in subchondral bone volume relative to sham up to 10 weeks post-surgery. Incidence of osteophyte formation was optimally observed in ACLT joints at 10 weeks and in ACLT + MMx joints at 6 weeks post-surgery. In summary, the two surgically induced rat OA models share many characteristics seen in human and other animal models of OA, including progressive articular cartilage degradation, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Moreover, increased subchondral bone resorption is associated with early development of cartilage lesions, which precedes significant cartilage thinning and subchondral bone sclerosis. Together, these findings support a role for bone remodeling in OA pathogenesis and suggest that these rat models are suitable for evaluating bone

  9. Understanding Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Knee Cartilage Repair: A Focus on Clinical Relevance.

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    Hayashi, Daichi; Li, Xinning; Murakami, Akira M; Roemer, Frank W; Trattnig, Siegfried; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this review article are (a) to describe the principles of morphologic and compositional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques relevant for the imaging of knee cartilage repair surgery and their application to longitudinal studies and (b) to illustrate the clinical relevance of pre- and postsurgical MRI with correlation to intraoperative images. First, MRI sequences that can be applied for imaging of cartilage repair tissue in the knee are described, focusing on comparison of 2D and 3D fast spin echo and gradient recalled echo sequences. Imaging features of cartilage repair tissue are then discussed, including conventional (morphologic) MRI and compositional MRI techniques. More specifically, imaging techniques for specific cartilage repair surgery techniques as described above, as well as MRI-based semiquantitative scoring systems for the knee cartilage repair tissue-MR Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue and Cartilage Repair OA Knee Score-are explained. Then, currently available surgical techniques are reviewed, including marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft, osteochondral allograft, particulate cartilage allograft, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and others. Finally, ongoing research efforts and future direction of cartilage repair tissue imaging are discussed.

  10. Vitamin D prevents articular cartilage erosion by regulating collagen II turnover through TGF-β1 in ovariectomized rats.

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    Li, S; Niu, G; Wu, Y; Du, G; Huang, C; Yin, X; Liu, Z; Song, C; Leng, H

    2016-02-01

    To explore the effect of vitamin D on turnover of articular cartilage with ovariectomy (OVX) induced OA, and to investigate transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) as a possible underlying mechanism mediated by 1α,25(OH)2D3. Sixty-six rats were randomly allocated into seven groups: sham plus control diet (SHAM+CTL), OVX+CTL diet, sham plus vitamin D-deficient (VDD) diet, OVX+VDD diet, and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with different doses of 1α,25(OH)2D3. The cartilage erosion and the levels of serum 17β-estradiol, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) were measured. TGF-β1, type II Collagen (CII), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9,-13 in articular cartilage were assessed by immunohistochemistry. TGF-β1 and CTX-II expression were measured in articular cartilage chondrocytes treated with/without tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), 1α,25(OH)2D3, and TGF-β receptor inhibitor (SB505124) in vitro. Cartilage erosion due to OVX was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation, and exacerbated by VDD. The expressions of TGF-β1 and CII in articular cartilage were suppressed by OVX and VDD, and rescued by 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation. The expression of MMP-9,-13 in articular cartilage increased with OVX and VDD, and decreased with 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation. In vitro experiments showed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased the TGF-β1 expression of TNF-α stimulated chondrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. 1α,25(OH)2D3 significantly counteracted the increased CTX-II release due to TNF-α stimulation, and this effect was significantly suppressed by SB505124. VDD aggravated cartilage erosion, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation showed protective effects in OVX-induced OA partly through the TGF-β1 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage

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    Shohei Ichimaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA, but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α. These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses.

  12. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, Shohei; Nakagawa, Shuji; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Shimomura, Seiji; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-06-25

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA), but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α). These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses.

  13. Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis.

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    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Eiki; Komori, Toshihisa; Takeshita, Nobuo; Williams, Julie A; Nakamura, Takashi; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2007-05-01

    Articular cartilage and synovial joints are critical for skeletal function, but the mechanisms regulating their development are largely unknown. In previous studies we found that the ets transcription factor ERG and its alternatively-spliced variant C-1-1 have roles in joint formation in chick. Here, we extended our studies to mouse. We found that ERG is also expressed in developing mouse limb joints. To test regulation of ERG expression, beads coated with the joint master regulator protein GDF-5 were implanted close to incipient joints in mouse limb explants; this led to rapid and strong ectopic ERG expression. We cloned and characterized several mammalian ERG variants and expressed a human C-1-1 counterpart (hERG3Delta81) throughout the cartilaginous skeleton of transgenic mice, using Col2a1 gene promoter/enhancer sequences. The skeletal phenotype was severe and neonatal lethal, and the transgenic mice were smaller than wild type littermates and their skeletons were largely cartilaginous. Limb long bone anlagen were entirely composed of chondrocytes actively expressing collagen IX and aggrecan as well as articular markers such as tenascin-C. Typical growth plates were absent and there was very low expression of maturation and hypertrophy markers, including Indian hedgehog, collagen X and MMP-13. The results suggest that ERG is part of molecular mechanisms leading chondrocytes into a permanent developmental path and become joint forming cells, and may do so by acting downstream of GDF-5.

  14. Cartilage tissue engineering: Role of mesenchymal stem cells along with growth factors & scaffolds

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    M B Gugjoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage injury poses a major challenge for both the patient and orthopaedician. Articular cartilage defects once formed do not regenerate spontaneously, rather replaced by fibrocartilage which is weaker in mechanical competence than the normal hyaline cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs along with different growth factors and scaffolds are currently incorporated in tissue engineering to overcome the deficiencies associated with currently available surgical methods and to facilitate cartilage healing. MSCs, being readily available with a potential to differentiate into chondrocytes which are enhanced by the application of different growth factors, are considered for effective repair of articular cartilage after injury. However, therapeutic application of MSCs and growth factors for cartilage repair remains in its infancy, with no comparative clinical study to that of the other surgical techniques. The present review covers the role of MSCs, growth factors and scaffolds for the repair of articular cartilage injury.

  15. Early Changes of Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in The DMM Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis.

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    Fang, Hang; Huang, Lisi; Welch, Ian; Norley, Chris; Holdsworth, David W; Beier, Frank; Cai, Daozhang

    2018-02-12

    To examine the early changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the DMM mouse model of osteoarthritis, mice were subjected to DMM or SHAM surgery and sacrificed at 2-, 5- and 10-week post-surgery. Catwalk gait analyses, Micro-Computed Tomography, Toluidine Blue, Picrosirius Red and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining were used to investigate gait patterns, joint morphology, subchondral bone, cartilage, collagen organization and osteoclasts activity, respectively. Results showed OA progressed over 10-week time-course. Gait disparity occurred only at 10-week post-surgery. Osteophyte formed at 2-week post-surgery. BMDs of DMM showed no statistical differences comparing to SHAM at 2 weeks, but BV/TV is much higher in DMM mice. Increased BMD was clearly found at 5- and 10-week post-surgery in DMM mice. TRAP staining showed increased osteoclast activity at the site of osteophyte formation of DMM joints at 5- and 10-week time points. These results showed that subchondral bone turnover might occurred earlier than 2 weeks in this mouse DMM model. Gait disparity only occurred at later stage of OA in DMM mice. Notably, patella dislocation could occur in some of the DMM mice and cause a different pattern of OA in affected knee.

  16. A novel surface modification on calcium polyphosphate scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering

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    Lien, S.-M.; Liu, C.-K.; Huang, T.-J.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of porous three-dimensional (3D) calcium polyphosphate (CPP) scaffold was modified by treatment of quenching-after-sintering in the fabrication process. Scanning electron microscopic examination and degradation tests confirmed a new type of surface modification. A rotary-shaking culture was compared to that of a stationary culture and the results showed that rotary shaking led to enhanced extracellular matrices (ECM) secretion of both proteoglycans and collagen. Rotary-shaking cultured results showed that the quenching-treated CPP scaffold produced a better cartilage tissue, with both proteoglycans and collagen secretions enhanced, than the air-cooled-after-sintering scaffolds. Moreover, β-CPP scaffolds were better for the ECM secretion of both proteoglycans and collagen than the β-CPP + γ-CPP multiphase scaffold. However, the multiphase scaffold led to higher growth rate than that of β-CPP scaffold; the quenching-after-sintering treatment reversed this. In addition, the ECM secretions of both proteoglycans and collagen in the quenching-treated β-CPP scaffold were higher than those in the air-cooled one. Thus, the novel treatment of quenching-after-sintering has shown merits to the porous 3D CPP scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering

  17. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

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    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  18. MR evaluation of the articular cartilage of the femoral head during traction. Correlation with resected femoral head

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    Nakanishi, K. [Osaka Seamens Insurance Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Tanaka, H.; Narumi, Y.; Nakamura, H. [Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Nishii, T.; Masuhara, K. [Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the articular cartilage of the hip joint with MR during traction and compare the findings with the resected specimen or arthroscopic findings. Material and Methods: Eight healthy volunteers, 5 patients with osteonecrosis, 5 with acetabular dysplasia, and 5 with advanced osteoarthrosis underwent MR imaging to evaluate the articular cartilage of the hip joint. Coronal fat-suppressed 3D spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) images were obtained during traction. Identical imaging was performed of all the resected femoral heads of the osteonecrosis and advanced osteoarthrosis patients, and was correlated with the macroscopic pathological findings. Results: The traction was effective and the femoral articular cartilage was clearly identified in all 8 control subjects, and in all cases of osteonecrosis and acetabular dysplasia. In 4 cases of osteonecrosis, chondral fracture was identified in the boundary between the necrosis and the normal area. In all cases of advanced osteoarthrosis, cartilage was identified only at the medial side. The MR images of osteonecrosis and advanced osteoarthrosis corresponded well with the MR images of the resected femoral heads and the macroscopic findings. (orig.)

  19. Autologous osteochondral mosaicplasty or TruFit plugs for cartilage repair.

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    Hindle, Paul; Hendry, Jane L; Keating, John F; Biant, Leela C

    2014-06-01

    Autologous osteochondral mosaicplasty and TruFit Bone graft substitute plugs are methods used to repair symptomatic articular cartilage defects in the adult knee. There have been no comparative studies of the two techniques. This retrospective study assessed functional outcome of patients using the EQ-5D, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Modified Cincinnati scores at follow-up of 1-5 years. There were 66 patients in the study (35 TruFit and 31 Mosaicplasty): 44 males and 22 females with a mean age of 37.3 years (SD 12.6). The mean BMI was 26.8. Thirty-six articular cartilage lesions were due to trauma, twenty-six due to osteochondritis dissecans and three due to non-specific degenerative change or unknown. There was no difference between the two groups age (n.s.), sex (n.s.), BMI (n.s.), defect location (n.s.) or aetiology (n.s.). The median follow-up was 22 months for the TruFit cohort and 30 months for the mosaicplasty group. There was no significant difference in the requirement for re-operation (n.s). Patients undergoing autologous mosaicplasty had a higher rate of returning to sport (p = 0.006), lower EQ-5D pain scores (p = 0.048) and higher KOOS activities of daily living (p = 0.029) scores. Sub-group analysis showed no difference related to the number of cases the surgeon performed. Patients requiring re-operation had lower outcome scores regardless of their initial procedure. This study demonstrated significantly better outcomes using two validated outcome scores (KOOS, EQ-5D), and an ability to return to sport in those undergoing autologous mosaicplasty compared to those receiving TruFit plugs. IV.

  20. Postnatal changes to the mechanical properties of articular cartilage are driven by the evolution of its collagen network

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    AR Gannon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is well established that the composition and organisation of articular cartilage dramatically change during skeletal maturation, relatively little is known about how this impacts the mechanical properties of the tissue. In this study, digital image correlation was first used to quantify spatial deformation within mechanically compressed skeletally immature (4 and 8 week old and mature (1 and 3 year old porcine articular cartilage. The compressive modulus of the immature tissue was relatively homogeneous, while the stiffness of mature articular cartilage dramatically increased with depth from the articular surface. Other, well documented, biomechanical characteristics of the tissue also emerged with skeletal maturity, such as strain-softening and a depth-dependent Poisson’s ratio. The most significant changes that occurred with age were in the deep zone of the tissue, where an order of magnitude increase in compressive modulus (from 0.97 MPa to 9.4 MPa for low applied strains was observed from 4 weeks postnatal to skeletal maturity. These temporal increases in compressive stiffness occurred despite a decrease in tissue sulphated glycosaminoglycan content, but were accompanied by increases in tissue collagen content. Furthermore, helium ion microscopy revealed dramatic changes in collagen fibril alignment through the depth of the tissue with skeletal maturity, as well as a fivefold increase in fibril diameter with age. Finally, computational modelling was used to demonstrate how both collagen network reorganisation and collagen stiffening play a key role in determining the final compressive mechanical properties of the tissue. Together these findings provide a unique insight into evolving structure-function relations in articular cartilage.

  1. 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Articular Cartilage Damage following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection in Male Rats.

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    Barbara D Boyan

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3H]-25(OHD3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OA-like environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β with and without 24R,25(OH2D3 or 1α,25(OH2D3. 24R,25(OH2D3 but not 1α,25(OH2D3 blocked the effects of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was partially mediated through the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. In vivo, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transections were performed in immunocompetent rats followed by intra-articular injections of 24R,25(OH2D3 or vehicle (t = 0, 7, 14, 21 days. Tissues were harvested on day 28. Joints treated with vehicle had changes typical of OA whereas joints treated with 24R,25(OH2D3 had less articular cartilage damage and levels of inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that 24R,25(OH2D3 protects against OA, and suggest that it may be a therapeutic approach for preventing trauma-induced osteoarthritis.

  2. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Articular Cartilage: A Systematic Review on Preclinical and Clinical Evidence

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    Francesco Perdisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the current therapeutic approaches for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage, none has yet proven to offer results comparable to those of native hyaline cartilage. Recently, it has been claimed that the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs provides greater regenerative potential than differentiated cells, such as chondrocytes. Among the different kinds of MSCs available, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs are emerging due to their abundancy and easiness to harvest. However, their mechanism of action and potential for cartilage regeneration are still under investigation, and many other aspects still need to be clarified. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of in vivo studies dealing with ADSCs, by summarizing the main evidence for the treatment of cartilage disease of the knee.

  3. Characterization of cells from pannus-like tissue over articular cartilage of advanced osteoarthritis.

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    Yuan, G-H; Tanaka, M; Masuko-Hongo, K; Shibakawa, A; Kato, T; Nishioka, K; Nakamura, H

    2004-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of cells isolated from pannus-like soft tissue on osteoarthritic cartilage (OA pannus cells), and to evaluate the role of this tissue in osteoarthritis (OA). OA pannus cells were isolated from pannus-like tissues in five joints obtained during arthroplasty. The phenotypic features of the isolated cells were characterized by safranin-O staining and immunohistochemical studies. Expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 was also assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry. Foci and plaque formation of pannus-like tissue over cartilage surface were found in 15 of 21 (71.4%) OA joints macroscopically, and among them, only five samples had enough tissue to be isolated. OA pannus cells were positive for type I collagen and vimentin, besides they also expressed type II collagen and aggrecan mRNA. Spontaneous expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 was detected in OA pannus cells. Similar or higher levels of MMPs were detected in the supernatant of cultured OA pannus cells compared to OA chondrocytes, and among these MMP-3 levels were relatively higher in OA pannus cells. Immunohistochemically, MMP-3 positive cells located preferentially in pannus-like tissue on the border of original hyaline cartilage. Our results showed that OA pannus cells shared the property of mesenchymal cells and chondrocytes; however, their origin seemed different from chondrocytes or synoviocytes. The spontaneous expression of MMPs suggests that they are involved in the articular degradation in OA.

  4. The structure and function of the pericellular matrix of articular cartilage.

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    Wilusz, Rebecca E; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-10-01

    Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are surrounded by a narrow pericellular matrix (PCM) that is both biochemically and biomechanically distinct from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tissue. While the PCM was first observed nearly a century ago, its role is still under investigation. In support of early hypotheses regarding its function, increasing evidence indicates that the PCM serves as a transducer of biochemical and biomechanical signals to the chondrocyte. Work over the past two decades has established that the PCM in adult tissue is defined biochemically by several molecular components, including type VI collagen and perlecan. On the other hand, the biomechanical properties of this structure have only recently been measured. Techniques such as micropipette aspiration, in situ imaging, computational modeling, and atomic force microscopy have determined that the PCM exhibits distinct mechanical properties as compared to the ECM, and that these properties are influenced by specific PCM components as well as disease state. Importantly, the unique relationships among the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte, PCM, and ECM in different zones of cartilage suggest that this region significantly influences the stress-strain environment of the chondrocyte. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the measurement of PCM mechanical properties and structure that further increase our understanding of PCM function. Taken together, these studies suggest that the PCM plays a critical role in controlling the mechanical environment and mechanobiology of cells in cartilage and other cartilaginous tissues, such as the meniscus or intervertebral disc. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Injectable perlecan domain 1-hyaluronan microgels potentiate the cartilage repair effect of BMP2 in a murine model of early osteoarthritis

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    Srinivasan, Padma P; McCoy, Sarah Y; Yang Weidong; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B; Jha, Amit K; Jia Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use bioengineered injectable microgels to enhance the action of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and stimulate cartilage matrix repair in a reversible animal model of osteoarthritis (OA). A module of perlecan (PlnD1) bearing heparan sulfate (HS) chains was covalently immobilized to hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels for the controlled release of BMP2 in vivo. Articular cartilage damage was induced in mice using a reversible model of experimental OA and was treated by intra-articular injection of PlnD1-HA particles with BMP2 bound to HS. Control injections consisted of BMP2-free PlnD1-HA particles, HA particles, free BMP2 or saline. Knees dissected following these injections were analyzed using histological, immunostaining and gene expression approaches. Our results show that knees treated with PlnD1-HA/BMP2 had lesser OA-like damage compared to control knees. In addition, the PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees had higher mRNA levels encoding for type II collagen, proteoglycans and xylosyltransferase 1, a rate-limiting anabolic enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains, relative to control knees (PlnD1-HA). This finding was paralleled by enhanced levels of aggrecan in the articular cartilage of PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees. Additionally, decreases in the mRNA levels encoding for cartilage-degrading enzymes and type X collagen were seen relative to controls. In conclusion, PlnD1-HA microgels constitute a formulation improvement compared to HA for efficient in vivo delivery and stimulation of proteoglycan and cartilage matrix synthesis in mouse articular cartilage. Ultimately, PlnD1-HA/BMP2 may serve as an injectable therapeutic agent for slowing or inhibiting the onset of OA after knee injury.

  6. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K. E.; Qvistgaard, E.; Danneskiold-Samsoe, B.; Thomsen, C.; Oestergaard, M.; Bliddal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. Material and Methods: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58 years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol/l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. Results: Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images ( P <0.002). I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA ( P <0.01). Furthermore, a better delineation of the cartilage in the synovial/cartilage zone and of the chondral/subchondral border was observed. Conclusion: The dGEMRIC MRI method markedly improved delineation of hip joint cartilage compared to non-enhanced MRI. The i.a. Gd-DTPA provided the best cartilage delineation. dGEMRIC is a clinically applicable MRI method that may improve identification of early subtle cartilage damage and the accuracy of volume measurements of hip joint cartilage

  7. Stem Cells for Cartilage Repair: Preclinical Studies and Insights in Translational Animal Models and Outcome Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Monaco, Melissa; Merckx, Greet; Ratajczak, Jessica; Gervois, Pascal; Hilkens, Petra; Clegg, Peter; Bronckaers, Annelies; Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Due to the restricted intrinsic capacity of resident chondrocytes to regenerate the lost cartilage postinjury, stem cell-based therapies have been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for cartilage repair. Moreover, stem cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used successfully in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these promising reports, the exact mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated cartilage repair remain...

  8. STRUCTURAL ADAPTABILITY AND THE REPARATIVE POSSIBILITIES OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE DEPENDING ON THE ADJACENT EXTREMITY SEGMENT LENGTHENING CONDITIONS (AN EXPERIMENTAL-AND-MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Stupina; M. M. Schoudlo

    2011-01-01

    The changes of reactive and/or destructive-and-reparative character, the degree of which depends on distraction parameters, have been revealed in articular cartilage during leg lengthening by the methods of scanning electron microscopy and histomorphometry analysis. The analysis of quantitative data has demonstrated, that autodistraction by 3 mm per day for 180 times (increment и 17 μm) appears to be less traumatic for the articular cartilage than manual distraction by 1 mm per day for 4 time...

  9. Autologous Cartilage Chip Transplantation Improves Repair Tissue Composition Compared With Marrow Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Olesen, Morten Lykke; Lind, Martin; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-06-01

    Repair of chondral injuries by use of cartilage chips has recently demonstrated clinical feasibility. To investigate in vivo cartilage repair outcome of autologous cartilage chips compared with marrow stimulation in full-thickness cartilage defects in a minipig model. Controlled laboratory study. Six Göttingen minipigs received two 6-mm chondral defects in the medial and lateral trochlea of each knee. The two treatment groups were (1) autologous cartilage chips embedded in fibrin glue (ACC) (n = 12) and (2) marrow stimulation (MST) (n = 12). The animals were euthanized after 6 months, and the composition of repair tissue was quantitatively determined using histomorphometry. Semiquantitative evaluation was performed by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) II score. Collagen type II staining was used to further evaluate the repair tissue composition. Significantly more hyaline cartilage was found in the ACC (17.1%) compared with MST (2.9%) group ( P cartilage repair tissue compared with MST at 6 months postoperatively. Further studies are needed to investigate ACC as a possible alternative first-line treatment for focal cartilage injuries in the knee.

  10. Chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implants improve hyaline cartilage repair in ovine microfracture defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Hurtig, Mark; Rossomacha, Evgeny; Sun, Jun; Chevrier, Anik; Shive, Matthew S; Buschmann, Michael D

    2005-12-01

    Microfracture is a surgical procedure that is used to treat focal articular cartilage defects. Although joint function improves following microfracture, the procedure elicits incomplete repair. As blood clot formation in the microfracture defect is an essential initiating event in microfracture therapy, we hypothesized that the repair would be improved if the microfracture defect were filled with a blood clot that was stabilized by the incorporation of a thrombogenic and adhesive polymer, specifically, chitosan. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate (1) blood clot adhesion in fresh microfracture defects and (2) the quality of the repair, at six months postoperatively, of microfracture defects that had been treated with or without chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood clot implants, using a sheep model. In eighteen sheep, two 1-cm2 full-thickness chondral defects were created in the distal part of the femur and treated with microfracture; one defect was made in the medial femoral condyle, and the other defect was made in the trochlea. In four sheep, microfracture defects were created bilaterally; the microfracture defects in one knee received no further treatment, and the microfracture defects in the contralateral knee were filled with chitosan-glycerol phosphate/autologous whole blood and the implants were allowed to solidify. Fresh defects in these four sheep were collected at one hour postoperatively to compare the retention of the chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood clot with that of the normal clot and to define the histologic characteristics of these fresh defects. In the other fourteen sheep, microfracture defects were made in only one knee and either were left untreated (control group; six sheep) or were treated with chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implant (treatment group; eight sheep), and the quality of repair was assessed histologically, histomorphometrically, and biochemically at six months postoperatively. In the defects that were examined

  11. Three-year clinical outcome after chondrocyte transplantation using a hyaluronan matrix for cartilage repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrer, S. [Department of Orthopedics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.nehrer@meduniwien.ac.at; Domayer, S. [Department of Orthopedics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Dorotka, R. [Department of Orthopedics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schatz, K. [Department of Orthopedics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bindreiter, U. [Department of Orthopedics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kotz, R. [Department of Orthopedics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Repair of articular cartilage represents a significant clinical problem and although various new techniques - including the use of autologous chondrocytes - have been developed within the last century the clinical efficacy of these procedures is still discussed controversially. Although autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) has been widely used with success, it has several inherent limitations, including its invasive nature and problems related to the use of the periosteal flap. To overcome these problems autologous chondrocytes transplantation combined with the use of biodegradable scaffolds has received wide attention. Among these, a hyaluronan-based scaffold has been found useful for inducing hyaline cartilage regeneration. In the present study, we have investigated the mid-term efficacy and safety of Hyalograft[reg] C grafts in a group of 36 patients undergoing surgery for chronic cartilage lesions of the knee. Clinical Outcome was assessed prospectively before and at 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery. No major adverse events have been reported during the 3-year follow-up. Significant improvements of the evaluated scores were observed (P < 0.02) at 1 year and a continued increase of clinical performance was evident at 2 and 3 years follow-up. Patients under 30 years of age with single lesions showed statistically significant improvements at all follow-up visits compared to those over 30 with multiple defects (P < 0.01). Hyalograft[reg] C compares favorably with classic ACT and is particularly indicated in younger patients with single lesions. The graft can be implanted through a miniarthrotomy and needs no additional fixation with sutures except optional fibrin gluing at the defect borders. These results suggest that Hyalograft[reg] C is a valid alternative to ACT.

  12. T2 mapping of articular cartilage of the glenohumeral joint at 3.0 T in healthy volunteers: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yusuhn [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Ah [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the T2 values of the glenohumeral joint cartilage in healthy asymptomatic individuals at 3.0 T and to analyze the T2 profile of the humeral cartilage. This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Thirteen subjects (mean age, 28.6 years; age range, 24-33 years) were included and underwent multiecho spin-echo T2-weighted MR imaging and T2 mapping was acquired. Regions of interest were placed on the humeral cartilage and glenoid cartilage on oblique coronal images. T2 profiles of humeral cartilage were measured from the bone-cartilage interface to the articular surface. Intra-observer agreement was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). All 13 joints showed normal appearance on conventional T2-weighted images. The mean T2 values of humeral and glenoid cartilage were 50.5 ± 12.1 and 49.0 ± 9.9 ms, respectively. Intra-observer agreement was good, as determined by ICC (0.736). Longer T2 values were observed at the articular surface with a tendency to decrease toward the bone-cartilage interface. The mean cartilage T2 value was 69.03 ± 21.2 ms at the articular surface and 46.99 ± 19.6 ms at the bone-cartilage interface. T2 values of the glenohumeral joint cartilage were similar to reported values of cartilage in the knee. The T2 profile of normal humeral cartilage showed a spatial variation with an increase in T2 values from the subchondral bone to the articular surface. (orig.)

  13. Melanocortin 1 receptor-signaling deficiency results in an articular cartilage phenotype and accelerates pathogenesis of surgically induced murine osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Julia; Seebach, Elisabeth; Hackmayer, Gerit; Greth, Carina; Bauer, Richard J; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Bettenworth, Dominik; Böhm, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Grässel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides exert pleiotropic effects via binding to melanocortin receptors (MCR). MCR-subtypes have been detected in cartilage and bone and mediate an increasing number of effects in diathrodial joints. This study aims to determine the role of MC1-receptors (MC1) in joint physiology and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) using MC1-signaling deficient mice (Mc1re/e). OA was surgically induced in Mc1re/e and wild-type (WT) mice by transection of the medial meniscotibial ligament. Histomorphometry of Safranin O stained articular cartilage was performed with non-operated controls (11 weeks and 6 months) and 4/8 weeks past surgery. µCT-analysis for assessing epiphyseal bone architecture was performed as a longitudinal study at 4/8 weeks after OA-induction. Collagen II, ICAM-1 and MC1 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Mc1re/e mice display less Safranin O and collagen II stained articular cartilage area compared to WT prior to OA-induction without signs of spontaneous cartilage surface erosion. This MC1-signaling deficiency related cartilage phenotype persisted in 6 month animals. At 4/8 weeks after OA-induction cartilage erosions were increased in Mc1re/e knees paralleled by weaker collagen II staining. Prior to OA-induction, Mc1re/e mice do not differ from WT with respect to bone parameters. During OA, Mc1re/e mice developed more osteophytes and had higher epiphyseal bone density and mass. Trabecular thickness was increased while concomitantly trabecular separation was decreased in Mc1re/e mice. Numbers of ICAM-positive chondrocytes were equal in non-operated 11 weeks Mc1re/e and WT whereas number of positive chondrocytes decreased during OA-progression. Unchallenged Mc1re/e mice display smaller articular cartilage covered area without OA-related surface erosions indicating that MC1-signaling is critical for proper cartilage matrix integrity and formation. When challenged with OA, Mc1re/e mice develop a more severe OA

  14. The inhibitory effect of salmon calcitonin on tri-iodothyronine induction of early hypertrophy in articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Chen-An

    Full Text Available Salmon calcitonin has chondroprotective effect both in vitro and in vivo, and is therefore being tested as a candidate drug for cartilage degenerative diseases. Recent studies have indicated that different chondrocyte phenotypes may express the calcitonin receptor (CTR differentially. We tested for the presence of the CTR in chondrocytes from tri-iodothyronin (T3-induced bovine articular cartilage explants. Moreover, investigated the effects of human and salmon calcitonin on the explants.Early chondrocyte hypertrophy was induced in bovine articular cartilage explants by stimulation over four days with 20 ng/mL T3. The degree of hypertrophy was investigated by molecular markers of hypertrophy (ALP, IHH, COLX and MMP13, by biochemical markers of cartilage turnover (C2M, P2NP and AGNxII and histology. The expression of the CTR was detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. T3-induced explants were treated with salmon or human calcitonin. Calcitonin down-stream signaling was measured by levels of cAMP, and by the molecular markers.Compared with untreated control explants, T3 induction increased expression of the hypertrophic markers (p<0.05, of cartilage turnover (p<0.05, and of CTR (p<0.01. Salmon, but not human, calcitonin induced cAMP release (p<0.001. Salmon calcitonin also inhibited expression of markers of hypertrophy and cartilage turnover (p<0.05.T3 induced early hypertrophy of chondrocytes, which showed an elevated expression of the CTR and was thus a target for salmon calcitonin. Molecular marker levels indicated salmon, but not human, calcitonin protected the cartilage from hypertrophy. These results confirm that salmon calcitonin is able to modulate the CTR and thus have chondroprotective effects.

  15. Articular cartilage lesions increase early cartilage degeneration in knees treated by anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: T1ρ mapping evaluation and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Oniki, Yasunari; Nakamura, Eiichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Usuku, Koichiro; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Articular cartilage degeneration can develop after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Although radiological studies have identified risk factors for the progression of degenerative cartilage changes in the long term, risk factors in the early postoperative period remain to be documented. Cartilage lesions that are present at surgery progress to cartilage degeneration in the early phase after ACLR. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. T1ρ is the spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame magnetic resonance imaging. Sagittal T1ρ maps of the femorotibial joint were obtained before and 1 year after ACLR in 23 patients with ACL injuries. Four regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on images of the cartilage in the medial and lateral femoral condyle (MFC, LFC) and the medial and lateral tibia plateau (MTP, LTP). Changes in the T1ρ value (milliseconds) of each ROI were recorded, and differences between patients with and without cartilage lesions were evaluated. The relationship between changes in the T1ρ value and meniscal tears was also studied. Arthroscopy at ACLR detected cartilage lesions in 15 MFCs, 7 LFCs, and 2 LTPs. The baseline T1ρ value of the MFC and LFC was significantly higher in patients with cartilage lesions (MFC, 40.7 ms; LFC, 42.2 ms) than in patients without cartilage lesions (MFC, 38.0 ms, P = .025; LFC, 39.4 ms, P = .010). At 1-year follow-up, the T1ρ value of the MFC and LFC was also significantly higher in patients with lesions (MFC, 43.1 ms; LFC, 42.7 ms) than in patients without such lesions (MFC, 39.1 ms, P = .002; LFC, 40.4 ms, P = .023, respectively). In patients with cartilage injury, the T1ρ value of the MFC increased during the year after treatment (P = .002). There was no significant difference in the baseline and follow-up T1ρ value in patients with or without meniscal tears on each side although the T1ρ value of the MFC, MTP, and LFC increased during the first year after surgery regardless of the presence or