Sample records for rent alluvial deposits

  1. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  2. Alluvial deposits and plant distribution in an Amazonian lowland megafan

    Zani, H.; Rossetti, D.; Cremon; Cohen, M.; Pessenda, L. C.


    A large volume of sandy alluvial deposits (> 1000 km2) characterizes a flat wetland in northern Amazonia. These have been recently described as the sedimentary record of a megafan system, which have a distinct triangular shape produced by highly migratory distributary rivers. The vegetation map suggests that this megafan is dominated by open vegetation in sharp contact with the surround rainforest. Understanding the relationship between geomorphological processes and vegetation distribution is crucial to decipher and conserve the biodiversity in this Amazonian ecosystem. In this study we interpret plant dynamics over time, and investigate its potential control by sedimentary processes during landscape evolution. The study area is located in the Viruá National Park. Two field campaigns were undertaken in the dry seasons of 2010 and 2011 and the sampling sites were selected by combining accessibility and representativeness. Vegetation contrasts were recorded along a transect in the medial section of the Viruá megafan. Due to the absence of outcrops, samples were extracted using a core device, which allowed sampling up to a depth of 7.5 m. All cores were opened and described in the field, with 5 cm3 samples collected at 20 cm intervals. The δ13C of organic matter was used as a proxy to distinguish between C3 and C4 plant communities. The chronology was established based on radiocarbon dating. The results suggest that the cores from forested areas show the most depleted values of δ13C, ranging from -32.16 to -27.28‰. The δ13C curve in these areas displays typical C3 land plant values for the entire record, which covers most of the Holocene. This finding indicates that either the vegetation remained stable over time or the sites were dominated by aquatic environments with freshwater plants before forest establishment. The cores from the open vegetation areas show a progressive upward enrichment in δ13C values, which range from -28.50 to -19.59‰. This trend is

  3. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada.

    Donald S. Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II


    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  4. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill-Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.


    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill-hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin such as alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  5. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.


    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  6. Miocene alluvial fan-alkaline playa lignite-trona bearing deposits from an inverted basin in Anatolia: sedimentology and tectonic controls on deposition

    İnci, Uǧur


    During the Middle through Late Miocene, over 1200 m of clastics, carbonates and evaporites accumulated in the depositional basin situated in northwestern Ankara province of Central Anatolia. Detailed stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses of the exposed sequence exhibits three major facies: (1) lower alluvial, (2) upper alluvial, and (3) lacustrine. The lower alluvial facies consists primarily of volcaniclastic debris-flow, boulder and channel conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and two lignite horizons. These rock assemblages were deposited in alluvial fans and a braided-river system. The lower and upper lignite seams were laid down in swamps and lake-margin mud-flat environments associated with this river system. The upper alluvial facies is characterized by red conglomerate, fine-grained and cross-bedded sandstone, mudstone and calcareous mudstone units. The dominant depositional environments are interpreted to be alluvial fan, braided-river, and mud-flat. The base of the lacustrine deposits interfingers with the lower alluvial facies and consists of dolomitic claystone, bituminous shale, trona and intraformational conglomerate lithofacies. The sedimentary features of the dolomitic claystone and trona lithofacies suggest deposition in a playa-lake type environment. The bituminous shale is a transgressive deposit laid down in a shallow, but expanded lake environment. Sedimentological and structural characteristics of the intraformational conglomerate lithofacies indicate synsedimentary tectonism, intrabasinal erosion, redeposition and sediment selection toward the deposition centre of the lake environment. The green claystone lithofacies has three units: (a) the claystone-bedded chert-analcitized tuff alternation and siliceous carbonate lithofacies of the lacustrine system, deposited in a perennial lake environment; (b) montmorillonitic olive-green claystone containing mud-cracks, ripple mark and desiccation cracks filled by gypsum, deposited in a

  7. Development and lithogenesis of the palustrine and calcrete deposits of the Dibdibba Alluvial Fan, Kuwait

    AlShuaibi, Arafat A.; Khalaf, Fikry I.


    A model is proposed for the development of the Quaternary palustrine carbonate-calcrete association, which occurs as hard crust capping low hills at a distal flood plain of Al Dibdibba alluvial fan located at southwestern Kuwait. Field occurrence, detailed petrographic investigation and geochemical analysis revealed that a single cycle of groundwater calcrete with vertical gradational maturity pattern was developed. This represents a continuous sedimentological cycle during which flood sheet conditions prevailed with intermittent periods of humid and arid conditions. Subsequently, calcitic micrite was continuously precipitated from small, shallow, local, isolated and short lived ponds fringed by freshwater marshes with abundant charophyte meadows. The latter were developed as a result of flooding scattered depressions by groundwater supersaturated with respect to calcite due to rise of groundwater table. The deposition of two facies of carbonate muds, namely; biomicrite and pelintraclasts skeletal micrites was followed by a drought phase which witnessed desiccation of the fresh water ponds and significant drop in groundwater level. A sequence of pedogenic and diagenetic processes acted on the deposited carbonate muds are manifested by: (a) desiccation cracks, (b) micrite neomorphism, (c) infilling of root burrows and some cracks by aeolian siliciclastics, (d) karstification, (e) marmorization, (f) calcretization of root burrow infill and development of pseudo-rhizocrete, (g) calcite cementation and mineral authigenesis, and (h) silcretization. These processes are responsible for the development of hard palustrine carbonate crust. At the advent of aridity, the whole system of Al Dibdibba alluvial fan was subjected to deflation. This resulted in reversing the paleotopography of the hard crusted palustrine depressions into carbonate capped domal hills.




    Full Text Available The Permian to Triassic transition in Jordan is characterised by a sequence boundary underlain by red-bed, alluvial lithofacies deposited in a humid-tropical climate by low-sinuosity rivers, and overlain by shallow marine siliciclastics with thin carbonates. The low-gradient alluvial floodplain was repeatedly subjected to the development of ferralitic and pisolitic paleosols on the interfluves. In contrast, dysaerobic environments in the fluvial channels and abandoned lakes resulted in the preservation of a prolific flora of macro-plants and palynomorphs that indicate a probable range from Mid- to Late Permian age, though the abundant presence of the distinctive pollen Pretricolpipollenites bharadwajii  indicates the youngest part of that range.  Above the sequence boundary, reddened shallow-marine beds characterised by ripple cross-laminated, siltstones/sandstone with desiccation cracks and sparse surface burrows mark the initial Triassic marine transgression in the region (Arabian Plate Tr 10. These are followed by two thin limestone (packstone beds with shallow scours and bivalve shell lags, that have yielded a low diversity assemblage of conodonts (e.g. Hadrodontina aequabilis and foraminifera (“Cornuspira” mahajeri that are interpreted as euryhaline  taxa characterising the early Induan (Early Triassic. Thus the absence of body fossils and vertical infaunal burrows in the lowest marine beds may reflect low-diversity ecosystems following the Permian-Triassic extinction event, or be a result of stressed shallow marine environments. A gradational upward increase in grey, green and yellow siltstones beds accompanied by a concomitant increase in bioturbation (and infaunal vertical burrows and thin-shelled bivalves about 15 m above the boundary indicates colonisation of the substrate under more normal shallow marine conditions perhaps indicating recovery phase following the extinction event.

  9. Supercritical sheetflood deposits on the volcaniclastic alluvial fan: the Cretaceous upper Daeri Member, Wido Island, Korea

    Gul Hwang, In; Gihm, Yong Sik; Kim, Min Cheol


    The upper Daeri Member is composed of subaerial primary and resedimented pyroclastic deposits. The upper Daeri Member accumulated under influence of tectonic subsidence, and the basin was divided into four blocks (Block 1 to 4) by intrabasinal normal faults (Fault A to C). Vertical separation of Fault B is estimated about 250 m and provided sufficient accommodation space on Block 3 with intrabasinal physiographic relief, resulting in conformable stacking of the upper Daeri Member on a volcaniclastic alluvial fan. The welded pumiceous lapilli tuff (primary one) was deposited by a pyroclastic density current during an explosive volcanic eruption. After the eruption, the resedimented pyroclastic deposits were deposited by episodic sediment gravity flows and are intercalated with the reddish, homogeneous mudstones. In Block 3 the resedimented pyroclastic deposits show an abrupt decrease in ten largest lithic clasts from within 3 km away from Fault B, reflecting rapid waning of parental sediment gravity flows. A wavy bedded lapilli tuff is one of the lithofacies of the resedimented pyroclastic deposits. The wavy bedded lapilli tuff is composed of symmetrical or nearly-symmetrical, wavy stratifications, forming undulatory bed geometry. The wavy stratifications are recognized by distinctive alternations of few cm to 10 cm thick, lapilli-rich and ash-rich layers. Beds of the wavy bedded lapilli tuff are 0.1 to 2 m thick (estimated in crests) and range in wavelength 1.3 m to 12 m (ave. 8 m). Both amplitude and wavelength gradually decrease away from Fault B. The wavy bedded lapilli tuff can laterally be traced over 90 m. Based on undulatory bed geometry and wavy stratifications, the wavy bedded lapilli tuff is interpreted as antidune bedforms, formed by supercritical sheetfloods. The symmetrical or nearly symmetrical wavy stratifications are due to maintenance of stationary state of standing waves of the sheetfloods. A down current decrease in both wavelength and thickness

  10. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  11. Free Oxide Distribution in Poorly and Well Drained Soils Developed on Calcareous Alluvial Deposits



    A study on the distribution of free iron and manganese oxides was conducted in soils developed on calcareous alluvial deposits under subhumid climatic conditions, in Western Greece. Soil samples from two well drained soils and from two poorly drained soils, classified as Alfisols, were collected and used in this study. After certification of soil homogeneity the acid ammonium oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate methods were used to extract free iron and manganese oxides from the samples. Iron oxides extracted by the dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate method (Fed) were significantly higher than the iron oxides extracted by the ammonium oxalate method (Feo), indicating that a considerable fraction is present in crystalline forms,independent of drainage status. A confirmation of free iron oxides and fine clay was detected. The ratios Feo/Fed and (Fed-Feo)/total Fe (Fet) could not be used to distinguish the well drained soils from the poorly drained soils. Manganese movement in a soluble form is independent of the fine clay.

  12. Numerical modelling of shaking effects due to strong motions on the tiber alluvial deposits in Rome (Italy)

    Bonilla, Fabian; Gelis, Céline; Giacomi, Anna Chiara; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; d'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François


    A multidisciplinary approach is proposed for evaluating the effects of shaking due to strong motions on the Tiber river alluvial deposits in Rome's historical centre. At this aim, a detailed 3D geological model of the Tiber river alluvial deposit has been constructed and a numerical analysis of site response was performed along two geological sections across the historical centre of Rome. The numerical models were performed in both 1D and 2D configurations assuming linear and nonlinear conditions, by applying a three component seismic input. The results show that the maximum shear strains are strongly conditioned by the layer geometries (i.e. 2D or 1D conditions) and by the soil heterogeneity. Moreover, the reliability of the maximum strains obtained by numerical modeling is discussed comparing these values respect to both the volumetric and the degradation dynamic thresholds of the considered soils.

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge rate for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in...

  14. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to...

  15. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in...

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake...

  17. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River in northwestern Oklahoma during...

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake...

  19. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma....

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from...

  1. Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower Narmada basin, western India

    Rachna Raj


    This communication reports the occurrence of an ash layer intercalated within the late Quaternary alluvial succession of the Madhumati River, a tributary of the lower Narmada River. Petrographic, morphological and chemical details of glass shards and pumice fragments have formed the basis of this study. The ash has been correlated with the Youngest Toba Tuff. The finding of ash layer interbedded in Quaternary alluvial sequences of western Indian continental margin is significant, as ash being datable material, a near precise time-controlled stratigraphy can be interpreted for the Quaternary sediments of western India. The distant volcanic source of this ash requires a fresh re-assessment of ash volume and palaeoclimatic interpretations.

  2. Investigations on alluvial deposits through borehole stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and passive seismic technique (Carnic Alps, NE Italy)

    Viero, Alessia; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Fontana, Alessandro; Mozzi, Paolo; Venturini, Corrado


    Alluvial sediment investigations provide fundamental tools to infer the processes that control geomorphological evolution of mountain environments. By analyzing sediment stratigraphy in depth, it is possible to retrieve the source, the geology, the time of deposition, the relative distance travelled by material as well as to distinguish among different type of transport (i.e., gravitational, fluvial or glacial). In this work, we present a combination of log stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and geophysical surveys carried out on the valley floor of the But River (Carnic Alps, North East Italy). The But River basin drains an area of 326 km2 with a range in elevation from 2769 to 323 m a.s.l.; the bedrock mainly consists of carbonates and quartz arenites with minor inclusions of effusive rocks. After Pleistocene the gravitational deposits from mountain slopes have impounded the But River several times. In particular, we analyzed a sector of the upper portion of the But valley close to the confluence of the Moscardo Torrent, frequently affected by debris flows. A borehole was drilled in the But River floodplain, at the intersection with the Moscardo Torrent alluvial fan, down to a depth of 80 m. The analysis of the core samples allowed discerning three sedimentary levels rich in clay and organic materials, which testify the presence of small dam lakes, originated from the Moscardo debris-flow deposits. Three samples of wood and plant debris were collected from 13, 14 and 23 m of depth, respectively. They were analyzed through radiocarbon dating in order to determine the age of the lakes and, thus, to infer the activity of the debris flows building the Moscardo cone. The calibrated ages of the 3 samples are close to the younger limit of the radiocarbon method indicating a fast aggradation of the valley floor, starting from a period ranging between 1450 - 1632 AD. Historical maps and documents confirm the presence of the lakes until 19th century and they permit to assess

  3. Diamonds from the Machado River alluvial deposit, Rondônia, Brazil, derived from both lithospheric and sublithospheric mantle

    Burnham, A. D.; Bulanova, G. P.; Smith, C. B.; Whitehead, S. C.; Kohn, S. C.; Gobbo, L.; Walter, M. J.


    Diamonds from the Machado River alluvial deposit have been characterised on the basis of external morphology, internal textures, carbon isotopic composition, nitrogen concentration and aggregation state and mineral inclusion chemistry. Variations in morphology and features of abrasion suggest some diamonds have been derived directly from local kimberlites, whereas others have been through extensive sedimentary recycling. On the basis of mineral inclusion compositions, both lithospheric and sublithospheric diamonds are present at the deposit. The lithospheric diamonds have clear layer-by-layer octahedral and/or cuboid internal growth zonation, contain measurable nitrogen and indicate a heterogeneous lithospheric mantle beneath the region. The sublithospheric diamonds show a lack of regular sharp zonation, do not contain detectable nitrogen, are isotopically heavy (δ13CPDB predominantly - 0.7 to - 5.5) and contain inclusions of ferropericlase, former bridgmanite, majoritic garnet and former CaSiO3-perovskite. This suggests source lithologies that are Mg- and Ca-rich, probably including carbonates and serpentinites, subducted to lower mantle depths. The studied suite of sublithospheric diamonds has many similarities to the alluvial diamonds from Kankan, Guinea, but has more extreme variations in mineral inclusion chemistry. Of all superdeep diamond suites yet discovered, Machado River represents an end-member in terms of either the compositional range of materials being subducted to Transition Zone and lower mantle or the process by which materials are transferred from the subducted slab to the diamond-forming region.

  4. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan


    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  5. Characteristics of ejecta and alluvial deposits at Meteor Crater, Arizona and Odessa Craters, Texas: Results from ground penetrating radar

    Grant, J. A.; Schultz, P. H.


    Previous ground penetrating radar (GRP) studies around 50,000 year old Meteor Crater revealed the potential for rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive sub-surface investigations for deep reflectors (generally greater than 10 m). New GRP results are summarized focusing the shallow sub-surfaces (1-2 m) around Meteor Crater and the main crater at Odessa. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the thickness, distribution, and nature of the contact between surrounding alluvial deposits and distal ejecta; and (2) stratigraphic relationships between both the ejecta and alluvium derived from both pre and post crater drainages. These results support previous conclusions indicating limited vertical lowering (less than 1 m) of the distal ejecta at Meteor Crater and allow initial assessment of the gradational state if the Odessa craters.

  6. Comparison of high-resolution P- and SH-wave reflection seismic data in alluvial and pyroclastic deposits in Indonesia

    Wiyono, Wiyono; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    Seismic reflection is one of the stable methods to investigate subsurface conditions. However, there are still many unresolved issues, especially for areas with specific and complex geological environments. Here, each location has an own characteristic due to material compounds and the geological structure. We acquired high-resolution, P-and SH-wave seismic reflection profiles at two different locations in Indonesia. The first location was in Semarang (Central Java) and the second one was in Tiris (East Java). The first region is located on an alluvial plain with thick alluvial deposits of more than 100 m estimated thickness, and the second location was located on pyroclastic deposit material. The seismic measurements for both locations were carried out using a 48-channel recording system (14-Hz P-wave, 10-Hz SH-wave geophones) with geophone intervals of 5 m (P-waves) and 1 m (SH-waves), respectively. The seismic source for the P-wave was a ca. 4 kg sledge hammer which generated a seismic signal by by hitting on an aluminum plate of 30x30 cm, whereas the SH-wave source was a mini-vibrator ELVIS (Electrodynamic Vibrator System), version 3. Thirteen seismic profiles at Semarang and eighth profiles at Tiris were acquired. The results of seismic data in Semarang show fair to good seismic records for both P-and SH-waves. The raw data contain high signal-to-noise-ratio. Many clear reflectors can be detected. The P-wave data shows reflectors down to 250 ms two-way time while the SH-wave records show seismic events up to 600 ms two-way time. This result is in strong contrast to the seismic data result from the Tiris region. The P-wave data show very low signal to noise ratio, there is no reflection signal visible, only the surface waves and the ambient noise from the surrounding area are visible. The SH-waves give a fair to good result which enables reflector detection down to 300 ms two-way time. The results from the two seismic campaigns show that SH-wave reflection

  7. Tectonic significance of Upper Cretaceous alluvial-fan deposits in the Peninsular Ranges forearc basin complex, Baja California (Mexico)

    Fulford, M.; Busby-Spera, C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))


    Recent evidence suggests that forearc basins, previously depicted as broad downwarps, may experience syndepositional faulting and/or folding. The upper Campanian El Gallo Formation, which was deposited along the northern margin of the Rosario embayment of the peninsula Ranges forearc basin complex, records tilting of the underlying arc massif basement contemporaneous with dissection of the arc source terrane. The La Escarpa member at the base of the El Gallo Formation consists of a 100-180-m thick upward-fining sequence, interpreted as a retrogradational proximal to distal alluvial-fan deposit. Overlying the La Escarpa member is the 1,000-m thick El Disecado member, which lies at the top of the El Gallo Formation and consists of sandy fluvial deposits. Conglomerate clast counts from the La Escarpa member and point-count data from sandstones throughout the El Gallo Formation show an upsection increase in granitic and metasedimentary rock fragments relative to volcanic/metavolcanic rock fragments, reflecting unroofing and progressive headward erosion of the source terranes in the Peninsular Ranges. Paleocurrent data from the La Escarpa and El Disecado members suggest a rotation of approximately 110{degree} with time, from west-northwesterly to southerly, reflecting tilting of the basin floor. This may have been accomplished by downdropping along an east-west-trending fault that divided the Rosario embayment into separate subbasins during the Cretaceous.

  8. Remote sensing analysis of depositional landforms in alluvial settings: Method development and application to the Taquari megafan, Pantanal (Brazil)

    Zani, Hiran; Assine, Mario Luis; McGlue, Michael Matthew


    Traditional Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topographic datasets hold limited value in the geomorphic analysis of low-relief terrains. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a series of techniques designed to enhance digital elevation models (DEMs) of environments dominated by low-amplitude landforms, such as a fluvial megafan system. These techniques were validated through the study of a wide depositional tract composed of several megafans located within the Brazilian Pantanal. The Taquari megafan is the most remarkable of these features, covering an area of approximately 49,000 km2. To enhance the SRTM-DEM, the megafan global topography was calculated and found to be accurately represented by a second order polynomial. Simple subtraction of the global topography from altitude produced a new DEM product, which greatly enhanced low amplitude landforms within the Taquari megafan. A field campaign and optical satellite images were used to ground-truth features on the enhanced DEM, which consisted of both depositional (constructional) and erosional features. The results demonstrate that depositional lobes are the dominant landforms on the megafan. A model linking baselevel change, avulsion, clastic sedimentation, and erosion is proposed to explain the microtopographic features on the Taquari megafan surface. The study confirms the potential promise of enhanced DEMs for geomorphological research in alluvial settings.

  9. Alluvial Aquifer

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This coverage shows the extents of the alluvial aquifers in Kansas. The alluvial aquifers consist of unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and contiguous terrace...

  10. Geotechnical mapping for alluvial fan deposits controlled by active faults: a case study in the Erzurum, NE Turkey

    Yarbasi, Necmi; Kalkan, Ekrem


    Erzurum, the biggest city of Eastern Anatolia Region in the Turkey, is located in Karasu Plain. Karasu Plain, located on the central segment of the Erzurum Fault Zone, is an intermountain sedimentary basin with a Miocene-Quaternary volcanic basement, andesitic-basaltic lava flows and fissure eruptions of basaltic lava. It was filled in the early Quaternary by lacustrine fan-delta deposits. The basin is characterized by NNE-SSW trending sinistral wrench faults on its eastern margin and ENE-WSW trending reverse faults on its southern margin. Both systems of active faults intersect very near to Erzurum, which is considered to be the most likely site for the epicenter of a probable future large earthquake. Historical records of destructive earthquakes, morphotectonic features formed by paleo-seismic events and instrument seismic data of region indicate to a very high regional seismicity. The residential areas of Erzurum are located on thick alluvial fan deposits forming under the control of faults on the central segment of the Erzurum Fault Zone, which is one of the most active fault belts of the East Anatolian Region. Over time, the housing estates of city such as Yenisehir and Yildizkent have been expanded toward to the west and southwest part of Erzurum as a consequence of rapid and massive construction during the last 30 years. Geotechnical investigation has therefore been undertaken the residential areas of city in order to characterize geotechnical properties over the varied lithologies examine the potential for geotechnical mapping and assess the foundation conditions of the present and future settlement areas. The geological field observations and operations have been performed to make the soil sampling and characterize the lateral and vertical changes in thickness of the alluvial deposits in trenches, excavations and deep holes with 6-12 m sections. The soil samples have been subjected to a series of tests under laboratory conditions to obtain physical and

  11. Climatic response of Quaternary alluvial deposits in the upper Kali Gandaki valley (West Nepal)

    Monecke, Katrin; Winsemann, Jutta; Hanisch, Jörg


    The terraces at the confluence of Kali Gandaki and Miristi Khola (West Nepal) consist of coarse-grained deposits which are considered to be Late Pleistocene to Holocene in age. The stacking pattern of lithofacies is characterised by an alternation of fluvial and debris flow deposits. These periodic changes in sedimentation processes are attributed to climatic variations. Deposits of extended, highly mobile, braided rivers most probably developed under glacial conditions and reflect high sediment supply and high water discharge rates. Deposits of small, only moderately braided river systems evolved during a warmer climate with comparatively low sediment supply and water discharge rates. The mobilisation and redeposition of morainic material by enormous debris flows predominately occurred at the beginning of a warm period and was triggered by earthquakes, glacier lake outburst floods or strong monsoonal rain.

  12. Rock magnetic properties of a soil developed on an alluvial deposit at Buttermilk Creek, Texas, USA

    Anna K. Lindquist; Joshua M. Feinberg; Michael R. Waters


      The evolution of magnetization within a floodplain soil begins with initial deposition of magnetic particles during sedimentation and continues via subsequent alteration and growth of iron-bearing...

  13. HOME Rent Limits

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  14. Bank accretion and the development of vegetated depositional surfaces along modified alluvial channels

    Hupp, C.R.; Simon, A.


    This paper describes the recovery of stable bank form and development of vegetated depositional surfaces along the banks of channelized West Tennessee streams. Most perennial streams in West Tennessee were straightened and dredged since the turn of the century. Patterns of fluvial ecological responses to channelization have previously been described by a six-stage model. Dendrogeomorphic (tree-ring) techniques allowed the determination of location, timing, amount, and rate of bank-sediment deposition. Channel cross sections and ecological analyses made at 101 locations along 12 streams, encompassing bends and straight reaches, show that channel and bank processes initially react vertically to channelization through downcutting. A depositional surface forms on banks once bed-degradation and heightened bank mass wasting processes have eased or slowed. The formation of this depositional surface marks the beginning of bank recovery from channelization. Dominating lateral processes, characteristic of stable or natural channels, return during the formation and expansion of the depositional surface, suggesting a relation with thalweg deflection, point-bar development, and meanderloop extension. Characteristic woody riparian vegetation begins to grow as this depositional surface develops and becomes part of the process and form of restabilizing banks. The depositional surface initially forms low on the bank and tends to maintain a slope of about 24??. Mean accretion rates ranges from 5.9 cm/yr on inside bends to 0 cm/yr on most outside bends; straight reaches have a mean-accretion rate of 4.2 cm/yr. The relatively stable, convex upward, depositional surface expands and ultimately attaches to the flood plain. The time required for the recovery process to reach equilibrium averaged about 50 years. Indicative pioneer speccies of woody riparian vegetation include black willow, river birch, silver maple, and boxelder. Stem densities generally decrease with time after and

  15. 24 CFR 982.507 - Rent to owner: Reasonable rent.


    ... whether the rent to owner is a reasonable rent in comparison to rent for other comparable unassisted units... rent to owner is not more than rent charged by the owner for comparable unassisted units in...

  16. Geological characteristics of the Pulai alluvial gold deposit, South Kelantan, Malaysia

    Batchelor, D. A.-F.

    The Pulai fluviatile gold placer deposit stretches along 17 km of the upper reaches of S. Galas. Malaysia Mining Corporation had proved-up sizeable reserves following drilling and bulk testing during 1979-1983. The valley alluvium ranges up to 1200 m wide and averages 6.2 m in thickness. The basal gold-bearing Kaksa comprises bimodal channel lag pebble-gravels with the gold especially concentrated immediately above bedrock and in potholes. The detrital gold is medium to very coarse sand size, moderately sorted, and occurs as fine grains, scaly flakes and platy nuggets. Concentration of gold was especially favoured in two depositional environments. In the slope interruption zones at the confluence of the Galas and Tuang streams, coarse platy gold was deposited while the finer gold was able to be entrapped further downstream above irregular limestone bedrock surfaces. The gold is of relatively high fineness (950-982), and is probably related genetically to acid intrusions. Important primary sources lie near the Kelantan-Pahang border, 3-5 km SE of Pulai village, while small granite stocks occurring 3 km west of Pulai are an additional likely source.

  17. A methodological toolkit for field assessments of artisanally mined alluvial diamond deposits

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.


    This toolkit provides a standardized checklist of critical issues relevant to artisanal mining-related field research. An integrated sociophysical geographic approach to collecting data at artisanal mine sites is outlined. The implementation and results of a multistakeholder approach to data collection, carried out in the assessment of Guinea’s artisanally mined diamond deposits, also are summarized. This toolkit, based on recent and successful field campaigns in West Africa, has been developed as a reference document to assist other government agencies or organizations in collecting the data necessary for artisanal diamond mining or similar natural resource assessments.

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in...

  19. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the...

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula...

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital hydraulic conductivity values for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to...

  2. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to...

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from...

  4. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in...

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the...

  6. Reconstruction of the Palaeo-environment of the Alluvial Deposits in the Eastern Free State, South Africa

    Evans, M. Y.


    Small alluvial fan systems have formed off the hillslopes of the remnant Karoo koppies at Heelbo in the Eastern Free State, South Africa. The landform geometry is a result of complex relationships between climate, lithology, structure and vegetation. This research area, which includes a large mammal mass death site, potentially contains a wealth of palaeo-environmental and specifically palaeoclimatic information. Palaeo-environmental information and proxy records on past climates in southern Africa has traditionally been obtained from a variety of techniques including stable isotope analysis of speleothems, pollen , faunal analyses at archeological sites, animal remains and crater-lake sediments (see references below). However, little information exists in the scientific literature on the use of palaeosols for defining the depositional palaeoenvironments in southern Africa. The aim of this research is to attempt to address the lack of palaeo-environmental information by extracting palaeoclimatic information from the sedimentary processes and the palaeosols at the Heelbo farm that have been extensively exposed through gullying. The sedimentary fans in the area have experienced climatically controlled histories of erosion, sedimentation and pedogenesis. Extreme sedimentation is assumed to have occurred during relatively arid climatic intervals, when decreased vegetation cover provided little surface protection. In contrast pedogenesis occurs during humid intervals when vegetation cover is restored, the land stabilizes and the uppermost gravely sands weather to form soils. A combined approach of both radiocarbon- and luminescence -dating may provide a detailed chronology of these successive hillslope events in order to relate hillslope instability to climatic forcing factors. Preliminary results indicate that at least 3 depositional events are recorded within the large mammal mass death site, which have been confirmed by the radiocarbon dates of 3,610 ±110 in the top

  7. The organic and mineral matter contents in deposits infilling floodplain basins: Holocene alluviation record from the Kłodnica and Osobłoga river valleys, southern Poland

    Wójcicki, K. J.; Marynowski, L.


    The work examines the timing and environmental conditions of floodplain sedimentation in the valleys of the upland Kłodnica and piedmont Osobłoga rivers in the Upper Odra River basin. A distribution of 52 14C-ages shows relatively high floodplain sedimentation at the Late Glacial-Holocene transition, more stable floodplain environments since the Early (in the Kłodnica Valley) and Middle Holocene (in the Osobłoga Valley) and a gradual increase in floodplain deposition in the Late Holocene (since hydrological events) as well as factors affecting the local record of sedimentation (i.e. valley morphology, hydrologic conditions and episodes of local erosion). A clear relationship is shown between an increase in alluviation and climate- or human-induced extension of unforested areas. The deposition of mineral-rich sediments increases rapidly during periods characterized by non-arboreal pollen values exceeding approximately 8% in pollen diagrams. On the other hand, the results obtained do not confirm significant interactions between Holocene changes in forest composition and alluviation. Despite the settlement of agrarian groups, the sedimentary record of human activity in the Osobłoga catchment is very poor during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age. A large-scale alluviation of the Osobłoga and Kłodnica valleys was initiated during the settlement of people of the Lusatian culture from the middle Bronze Age and escalated in the early Middle Ages and Modern Times. The deposition of products of soil erosion was limited to between ca. 1.9-1.2 kyr BP, probably due to demographic regression during the Migration Period. Comparison of OM/MM fluctuations with phases of increased fluvial activity does not show a relationship between Holocene wetter phases and catchment sediment yield. Sedimentary episodes in the Upper Odra basin also show a low degree of correlation with the probability density curve of the 14C-ages. The results obtained in the Kłodnica and Osob

  8. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  9. Contrasting alluvial architecture of Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits along a 120-km transect from the central Po Plain (northern Italy)

    Campo, Bruno; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bruno, Luigi


    High-resolution investigation of a ~ 120-km-long transect along the course of the modern Po River, northern Italy, revealed marked changes in alluvial architecture across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. Along the whole transect, a 20- to 30-m thick sheet-like succession of Late Pleistocene fluvial sands is invariably overlain by silt and clay deposits, with isolated fluvial bodies of Holocene age (architecture: well-drained floodplain deposits are transitional at distal locations to increasingly organic, poorly drained floodplain to swamp facies associations. Thick paludal facies extend continuously up to 60 km landward of the Holocene maximum marine ingression, about 90 km from the modern shoreline. Based on 28 radiocarbon dates, the abrupt change in lithofacies and channel stacking pattern occurred at the transition from the last glacial period to the present interglacial, under conditions of rapid sea-level rise. The architectural change from amalgamated, Late Pleistocene sand bodies to overlying, mud-dominated Holocene units represent an example of chronologically well-constrained fluvial response to combined climate and relative sea-level change. The overall aggradational stacking pattern of individual channel-belt sand bodies indicates that high subsidence rates continuously created accommodation in the Po Basin, even during phases of falling sea level and lowstand.

  10. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  11. Auctions with rent seeking

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert


    We present a model which combines elements of an auction and a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also have to submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. First, we analyze the model if the returns-to-scale parameters of both b

  12. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Fredette, Michelle


    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  13. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Fredette, Michelle


    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  14. Design of forest rent accounting

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  15. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael


    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...... control benefits, unemployed individuals are more likely to accept job offers in the local labour market. Based on a rich Danish data set, we find that the probability of finding a local job increases with the rent control intensity of the housing unit, whereas the probability of finding ajob outside...

  16. Rents in a welfare state

    Paldam, Martin


    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  17. Provenance of alluvial fan deposits to constrain the mid-term offsets along a strike-slip active fault: the Elsinore fault in the Coyote Mountains, Imperial Valley, California.

    Masana, Eulalia; Stepancikova, Petra; Rockwell, Thomas


    The lateral variation in rates along a fault and its constancy along time is a matter of discussion. To give light to this discussion, short, mid and long term offset distribution along a fault is needed. Many studies analyze the short-term offset distribution along a strike-slip fault that can be obtained by the analysis of offset features imprinted in the morphology of the near-fault area. We present an example on how to obtain the mid- to long-term offset values based on the composition of alluvial fans that are offset by the fault. The study area is on the southern tip of the Elsinore fault, which controls the mountain front of the Coyote Mountains (California). The Elsinore-Laguna Salada fault is part of the San Andreas fault (SAF) system, extending 250 km from the Los Angeles Basin southeastward into the Gulf of California, in Mexico. The slip-rate on the southern Elsinore fault is believed to be moderate based on recent InSAR observations, although a recent study near Fossil Canyon (southern Coyote Mountains) suggests a rate in the range of 1-2 mm/yr. For this study we processed the airborne LiDAR dataset (EarthScope Southern & Eastern California, SoCal) to map short to mid-term alluvial offsets. We reprocessed the point clouds to produce DEMs with 0.5m and 0.25m grids and we varied the insolation angles to illuminate the various fault strands and the offset features. We identified numerous offset features, such as rills, channel bars, channel walls, alluvial fans, beheaded channels and small erosional basins that varied in displacement from 1 to 350 m. For the mid- to long-term offsets of the alluvial fans we benefited from the diverse petrological composition of their sources. Moreover, we recognized that older alluvium, which is offset by greater amounts, is in some cases buried beneath younger alluvial fan deposits and separated by buried soils. To determine the source canyon of various alluvial elements, we quantified the clast assemblage of each source

  18. Evaluating the reliability of Late Quaternary landform ages: Integrating 10Be cosmogenic surface exposure dating with U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate on alluvial and fluvial deposits, Sonoran desert, California

    Blisniuk, K.; Sharp, W. D.


    To assess the reliability of Quaternary age determinations of alluvial and fluvial deposits across the Sonoran Desert (Coachella Valley and Anza Borrego) in southern California, we applied both 10Be exposure age dating of surface clasts and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate from subsurface clast-coatings to the same deposits. We consider agreement between dates from the two techniques to indicate reliable age estimates because each technique is subject to distinct assumptions and therefore their systematic uncertainties are largely independent. 10Be exposure dates should yield maximum ages when no correction is made for inheritance and post-depositional erosion is negligible. U-series dating, in contrast, provides minimum dates because pedogenic carbonate forms after deposition. Our results show that: (1) For deposits ca. 70 ka or younger, 10Be and U-series dates were generally concordant. We note, however, that in most cases U-series soil dates exceed 10Be exposure dates that are corrected for inheritance when using 10Be in modern alluvium. This suggests that 10Be concentrations of modern alluvium may exceed the 10Be acquired by late Pleistocene deposits during fluvial transport and hillslope residence (i.e., Pleistocene inherited 10Be). (2) For deposits older than ~70 ka, U-series dates are significantly younger than the 10Be dates. This implies that U-series dates in this region may significantly underestimate the depositional age of older alluvium, probably because of delayed onset of deposition, slow accumulation, or poor preservation of secondary carbonate in response to climatic controls. Thus, whenever possible, multiple dating methods should be applied to obtain reliable ages for late Quaternary deposits.

  19. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  20. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.


    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...


    C. Harrington; R. Kelly; K.T. Ebert


    Variations in erosion and deposition for the last fifty years (based on estimates from 137Cs profiles) on surfaces (Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene in age) making up the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan south of Yucca Mountain, is a function of surface age and of desert pavement development or absence. For purposes of comparing erosion and deposition, the surfaces can be examined as three groups: (1) Late Pleistocene surfaces possess areas of desert pavement development with thin Av or sandy A horizons, formed by the trapping capabilities of the pavements. These zones of deposition are complemented by coppice dune formation on similar parts of the surface. Areas on the surface where no pavement development has occurred are erosional in nature with 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm to 1.5 +/- 0.5 cm of erosion occurring primarily by winds blowing across the surface. Overall these surfaces may show either a small net depositional gain or small erosional loss. (2) Early Holocene surfaces have no well-developed desert pavements, but may have residual gravel deposits in small areas on the surfaces. These surfaces show the most consistent erosional surface areas on which it ranges from 1.0 +/-.01 cm to 2.0+/- .01 cm. Fewer depositional forms are found on this age of surface so there is probably a net loss of 1.5 cm across these surfaces. (3) The Late Holocene surfaces show the greatest variability in erosion and deposition. Overbank deposition during floods cover many edges of these surfaces and coppice dune formation also creates depositional features. Erosion rates are highly variable and range from 0.0 +/- 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0+/-.01. Erosion occurs because of the lack of protection of the surface. However, the common areas of deposition probably result in the surface having a small net depositional gain across these surfaces. Thus, the interchannel surfaces of the Fortymile Wash fan show a variety of erosional styles as well as areas of deposition. The fan, therefore, is a dynamic

  2. Provenance of the heavy mineral-enriched alluvial deposits at the west coast of the Red Sea. Implications for evolution of Arabian-Nubian crust

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Ibrahim, Tarek M. M.; Goodell, Philip C.


    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet, etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of (1) 824-733 Ma, (2) 730-705 Ma, (3) 646-608 Ma, (4) 516-500 Ma, and (5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ∼500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (εHf (t)) of both fans varies

  3. Provenance of the Heavy Mineral-enriched Alluvial Deposits at the West Coast of Red Sea. Implications to the Evolution of Arabian-Nubian Crust

    Mahar, M. A.; Ibrahim, T.; Goodell, P.


    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of 1) 824-733 Ma, 2) 730-705 Ma, 3) 646-608 Ma, 4) 516-500 Ma, and 5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ~500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (ɛHf (t)) of both fans varies from +3

  4. Sedimentary facies and sequential architecture of tide-influenced alluvial deposits : an example from the middle Eocene Capella formation, South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Cuevas Gozalo, M.C


    The sediments investigated consist of a thick sequence of clastic deposits of middle Eocene age, the Capella Formation. At the time of deposition the sedimentary basin was tectonically active. Tectonic influence in the sedimentary sequence is recognized from angular unconformities, synsedimentary fa

  5. Rent seeking and the economics of corruption

    Aidt, T.S.


    The paper studies the influence of Gordon Tullock (1967) and the rent-seeking literature more generally on the study of corruption. The theoretical corruption literature with its emphasis on principal-agent relationships within government and rent creation by corruption politicians has largely, but not entirely, overlooked that contestable rents encourage unproductive use of real resources in seeking these rents. As a consequence, the literature underestimates the value of corruption control ...

  6. Depositional conditions on an alluvial fan at the turn of the Weichselian to the Holocene – a case study in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland

    Zieliński Paweł


    Full Text Available Presented are the results of research into the fluvio-aeolian sedimentary succession at the site of Postolin in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland. Based on lithofacies analysis, textural analysis, Thermoluminescence and Infrared-Optical Stimulated Luminescence dating and GIS analysis, three lithofacies units were recognised and their stratigraphic succession identified: 1 the lower unit was deposited during the Pleni-Weichselian within a sand-bed braided river functioning under permafrost conditions within the central part of the alluvial fan; 2 the middle unit is the result of aeolian deposition and fluvial redeposition on the surface of the fan during long-term permafrost and progressive decrease of humidity of the climate at the turn of the Pleni- to the Late Weichselian; 3 the upper unit accumulated following the development of longitudinal dunes at the turn of the Late Weichselian to the Holocene; the development of dunes was interrupted twice by the form being stabilised by vegetation and soil development.

  7. 24 CFR 850.153 - Rent control.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent control. 850.153 Section 850... PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.153 Rent control. A project constructed or substantially rehabilitated with a housing development grant is not subject to State or local rent...

  8. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.


    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  9. Alluvial architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands) and the Lower Mississippi Valley (U.S.A.)

    Gouw, M.J.P.


    Alluvial architecture describes the geometry, proportion, and spatial distribution of different types of fluvial deposits in an alluvial succession. Alluvial architecture is frequently subject of study, because natural resources commonly occur in ancient fluvial sequences. The ability of models to s

  10. Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Moorhead, D.J.; Hodges, J.D.; Nasser, J.R.; Smith, L.M.; Pederson, R.L.; Kaminski, R.M.


    Available data are summarized according to the following major topics: (1) characteristics of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) waterfowl populations associated with the MAV; (3) habitat requirements of migrating and wintering waterfowl in the MAV; (4) current habitat management practices in the MAV, including croplands, moist-soil impoundments, and forested wetlands; (5) status and classification of winter habitat in the MAV; and (6) research and management information needs.

  11. Immigration and housing rents in American cities

    Saiz, Albert


    Is there a local economic impact of immigration? Immigration pushes up rents and housing values in destination cities. The positive association of rent growth and immigrant inflows is pervasive in time series for all metropolitan areas. The author uses instrumental variables based on a "shift-share" of national levels of immigration into metropolitan areas. Conditioning on other variables, an immigration inflow equal to 1 percent of the city population is associated with increases in rents an...

  12. Deglacial Flood Origin of the Charleston Alluvial Fan, Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Porter, Donna A.; Guccione, Margaret J.


    Large-magnitude flooding of the Mississippi River from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Superior most likely occurred between 11,300 and 10,900 and 9900 and 9500 yr B.P. The Charleston alluvial fan, a depositional remnant of one of these floods, is located at the head of a wide alluvial plain near Charleston, Missouri. The fan is an elongate, convex-up sand body (16 × 24 km) composed of medium- and fine-grained sand at least 8 m thick. This sand contrasts with the older coarse-grained sand of the braided stream surface to the west and south and younger silty clay of the meandering stream level to the north and east. A weakly developed soil separates the underlying braided steam deposits from the alluvial fan. A bulk-soil radiocarbon date of 10,590 ± 200 yr B.P. from the contact between the fan and clays of the meandering stream system indicates that the Charleston fan was deposited near the end of the early interval of flooding from Lake Agassiz about 10,900 yr B.P. If the Charleston fan is the last remnant of deglacial flooding in the lower Mississippi Valley, then deposition of significant quantities of sediment from largemagnitude floods between 10,000 and 9500 yr B.P. did not extend into the lower Mississippi Valley through Thebes Gap.

  13. 24 CFR 884.109 - Rent adjustments.


    ... assisted and comparable unassisted units, as determined by HUD: Provided, however, That this limitation shall not be construed to prohibit differences in rents between assisted and comparable unassisted...

  14. The Capitalism, Rent and Democracy

    Victor S. Martyanov


    Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.

  15. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  16. 78 FR 42524 - Leasing versus Renting


    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Leasing versus Renting... assist in determining if there is a distinction between leasing and renting that is useful for the... address real property or its leasing. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to...

  17. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.

  18. Autogenic dynamics of alluvial fans in endorheic basins: Outcrop examples and stratigraphic significance

    Ventra, D.; Nichols, G.J.


    Alluvial fans are relatively simple depositional systems, due to the direct coupling of sediment sources and adjacent accumulation areas. Nonetheless, general models of alluvial-fan evolution and stratigraphy remain elusive, due to the great sensitivity of such systems to allogenic controls and

  19. Autogenic dynamics of alluvial fans in endorheic basins: Outcrop examples and stratigraphic significance

    Ventra, D.; Nichols, G.J.


    Alluvial fans are relatively simple depositional systems, due to the direct coupling of sediment sources and adjacent accumulation areas. Nonetheless, general models of alluvial-fan evolution and stratigraphy remain elusive, due to the great sensitivity of such systems to allogenic controls and thei

  20. Case studies of groundwater- surface water interactions and scale relationships in small alluvial aquifers

    Love, Dave; de Hamer, Wouter; Owen, Richard J.S.; Booij, Martijn J.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Zaag, Pieter


    An alluvial aquifer can be described as a groundwater system, generally unconfined, that is hosted in laterally discontinuous layers of gravel, sand, silt and clay, deposited by a river in a river channel, banks or flood plain. In semi-arid regions, streams that are associated with alluvial aquifers

  1. Generalized sorting profile of alluvial fans

    Miller, Kimberly Litwin; Reitz, Meredith D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.


    Alluvial rivers often exhibit self-similar gravel size distributions and abrupt gravel-sand transitions. Experiments suggest that these sorting patterns are established rapidly, but how—and how fast—this convergence occurs in the field is unknown. We examine the establishment of downstream sorting patterns in a kilometer-scale alluvial fan. The sharp transition from canyon to unconfined, channelized fan provides a well-defined boundary condition. The channel changes from deep and entrenched at the fan apex to shallow and depositional over a short distance, exhibiting nonequilibrium behavior. The resulting gravel-fining profile is not self-similar; the particle size distribution narrows until approximate equal mobility is achieved. Downfan, the gravel-sand transition appears to exhibit a self-similar form; field and laboratory data collapse when downstream distance is normalized by the location of the transition. Results suggest a generalized sorting profile for alluvial fans as a consequence of the threshold of motion and nonequilibrium channels.

  2. Rent-to-Own: A Consumer Purchasing Alternative.

    Stein, Pat; Brown, Judy


    Examines rent-to-own, an alternative purchasing method that allows the consumer to rent an item and gain ownership after a specified number of payments. Addresses industry trends, the rent-to-own consumer, pricing structure, and legalities. (JOW)

  3. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))


    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  4. Timing and nature of alluvial fan development along the Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile

    Cesta, Jason M.; Ward, Dylan J.


    Alluvial systems in the Atacama Desert provide a unique opportunity to elucidate the sedimentary response to climate variability, particularly changes in precipitation, in hyperarid environments. Alluvial fans along the eastern margin of the Salar de Atacama, adjacent to the Chajnantor Plateau in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, provide an archive of climate-modulated sediment transfer and erosion at an extreme of Earth's climate. Three regional alluvial fan surfaces (Qf1 [oldest] to Qf3 [youngest]) were mapped along the western flank of the Chajnantor Plateau. The alluvial fans were examined with geomorphic and terrestrial cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating methods to define the timing of alluvial fan formation and to determine the role of climatic processes on fan development in a hyperarid environment. Alluvial fans in the study area are comprised of hyperconcentrated flow and boulder-rich debris flow deposits that reflect deposition transitioning between cohesive and noncohesive regimes. Alluvial fan surfaces yield exposure ages that range from 49.6 ± 4.4 to 194 ± 12 ka, while debris flow boulders yield exposure ages ranging from 12.4 ± 2.1 to 229 ± 53 ka. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages indicate that abandonment of alluvial fan surfaces Qf1, Qf2, and Qf3 date to 175 ± 22.6 ka (MIS 6), 134.5 ± 9.18 ka (MIS 6), and 20.07 ± 6.26 ka (MIS 2), respectively. A 36Cl concentration-depth profile through alluvial fan Qf1 suggests a simple depositional history with minimal nuclide inheritance implying relatively rapid aggradation (6 m in ca. 25 kyr) followed by surface abandonment ca. 180-200 ka. Our data support a strong climatic control on alluvial fan evolution in the region, and we propose that the alluvial fans along the margins of the Salar de Atacama form according to the humid model of fan formation.

  5. Stochastic Control Model on Rent Seeking


    A continuous-time stochastic model is constructed to analyze how to control rent seeking behaviors. Using the stochastic optimization methods based on the modern risky theory, a unique positive solution to the dynamic model is derived. The effects of preference-related parameters on the optimal control level of rent seeking are discussed, and some policy measures are given. The results show that there exists a unique solution to the stochastic dynamic model under some macroeconomic assumptions, and that raising public expenditure may have reverse effects on rent seeking in an underdeveloped or developed economic environment.

  6. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  7. The Alluvial Fan Complex in Holden Crater: Implications for the Environment of Early Mars

    Irwin, R. P.; Grant, J. A.; Howard, A. D.


    The alluvial fan complex in Holden crater is the largest deposit of this type on Mars and preserves topographic and sedimentary indicators of its formative environment around the Noachian/Hesperian transition.

  8. Modeling 3-D permeability distribution in alluvial fans using facies architecture and geophysical acquisitions

    Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Dai, Zhenxue; Guo, Gaoxuan; Teatini, Pietro


      Alluvial fans are highly heterogeneous in hydraulic properties due to complex depositional processes, which make it difficult to characterize the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity (K...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...


    P. Goodell; J. Walton; P.J. Rodriguez


    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration.

  11. 24 CFR 983.303 - Reasonable rent.


    ... other comparable unassisted units. (2) In determining the reasonable rent, the PHA must consider factors... units in the private unassisted market, which may include comparable unassisted units in the premises or... determined, including major differences between the contract units and comparable unassisted units. (3)...

  12. 24 CFR 886.312 - Rent adjustments.


    ... levels of such expenses in comparable assisted and unassisted housing in the area to ensure that... assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract rents may be adjusted upward or downward as may be...) Comparability between assisted and unassisted units. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this...

  13. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.


    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  14. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    T.S. Osadcha


    Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74). – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects...

  15. Morphodynamic equilibrium of alluvial estuaries

    Tambroni, Nicoletta; Bolla Pittaluga, Michele; Canestrelli, Alberto; Lanzoni, Stefano; Seminara, Giovanni


    The evolution of the longitudinal bed profile of an estuary, with given plan-form configuration, subject to given tidal forcing at the mouth and prescribed values of water and sediment supply from the river is investigated numerically. Our main goal is to ascertain whether, starting from some initial condition, the bed evolution tends to reach a unique equilibrium configuration asymptotically in time. Also, we investigate the morphological response of an alluvial estuary to changes in the tidal range and hydrologic forcing (flow and sediment supply). Finally, the solution helps characterizing the transition between the fluvially dominated region and the tidally dominated region of the estuary. All these issues play an important role also in interpreting how the facies changes along the estuary, thus helping to make correct paleo-environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretations of sedimentary successions (Dalrymple and Choi, 2007). Results show that the model is able to describe a wide class of settings ranging from tidally dominated estuaries to fluvially dominated estuaries. In the latter case, the solution is found to compare satisfactory with the analytical asymptotic solution recently derived by Seminara et al. (2012), under the hypothesis of fairly 'small' tidal oscillations. Simulations indicate that the system always moves toward an equilibrium configuration in which the net sediment flux in a tidal cycle is constant throughout the estuary and equal to the constant sediment flux discharged from the river. For constant width, the bed equilibrium profile of the estuarine channel is characterized by two distinct regions: a steeper reach seaward, dominated by the tide, and a less steep upstream reach, dominated by the river and characterized by the undisturbed bed slope. Although the latter reach, at equilibrium, is not directly affected by the tidal wave, however starting from an initial uniform stream with the constant 'fluvial' slope, the final

  16. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail...

  17. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display...

  18. Comparing markets rents from a user cost and reaction model

    Francke, M.K.


    The current policy in the Netherlands is that rents in the social housing sector are regulated and do not reflect market conditions. Housing associations are studying the possibility to partly adjust rents to the market rent, or at least they want to have insight in the size of the implicit subsidy

  19. 75 FR 6685 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal...


    ... Expenditure Survey (CEX) and American Community Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\ Survey Data Used to Produce Contract Rent AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and... AAFs. The utility- to-rent ratio used to produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2007 ACS median rent and...

  20. Seismic responses of a hemispherical alluvial valley to SV Waves: a three-dimensional analytical approximation

    Chenggang Zhao; Jun Dong; Fuping Gao; D.-S.Jeng


    An analytical solution to the three-dimensional scattering and diffraction of plane SV-waves by a saturated hemispherical alluvial valley in elastic halfspace is obtained by using Fourier-Bessel series expansion technique.The hemispherical alluvial valley with saturated soil deposits is simulated with Biot's dynamic theory for saturated porous media.The following conclusions based on numerical results can be drawn:(1) there are a significant differences in the seismic response simulation between the previous single-phase models and the present two-phase model;(2)the normalized displacements on the free surface of the alluvial valley depend mainly on the incident wave angles,the dimensionless frequency of the incident SV waves and the porosity of sediments;(3)with the increase of the incident angle,the displacement distributions become more complicated,and the displacements on the free surface of the alluvial valley increase as the porosity of sediments increases.

  1. Floodplain morphology, sedimentology, and development processes of a partially alluvial channel

    Thayer, James B.; Ashmore, Peter


    The floodplain morphology, sediment deposits, and development mechanisms of a partially alluvial, low-moderate energy channel flowing over a mixed gravel/cobble-till bed are investigated and compared to existing ideas of floodplain development. The findings partially support the idea of a floodplain developed through lateral accretion capped with vertically accreted sediments as predicted by the energy-based classification scheme of Nanson and Croke (1992), though oblique accretion and partial channel avulsion are also important. Channel migration consists of limited cross-valley migration and downstream meander translation. Because of low channel sinuosity, well-formed neck cutoffs are rare, and instead the channel cuts headward along the insides of confined or underdeveloped meander bends forming a localized anabranching pattern. The floodplain architecture can be divided into gravel bar and bed deposits (GB), lateral accretion deposits (LA), overbank deposits (FF), and abandoned channel deposits (FF(CH)), which are described with four alluvial facies. Owing to the limited supply of coarse and fine sediment, none of the architectural elements are particularly thick, with total floodplain thickness being < 3 m. Floodplain development for partially alluvial channels is compared within a new floodplain discrimination framework. Comparisons with common facies models of single-thread, coarse-grained channels show important differences that suggest that the floodplain deposits and formative processes described herein represent a subset of single-thread systems that may be common in partially alluvial channels, particularly in slightly sinuous, coarse-grained channels of low-moderate energy with partly confined floodplains.

  2. Analiza panoge rent a car v Sloveniji

    Lukić, Davorin


    Panoga rent-a-car v segmentu kratkoročnih najemov sodi v turistično panogo in je kot taka odvisna od dogajanj v tej panogi. Drug segment predstavljajo poslovni najemi, ki ima v Sloveniji še potencial za rast, saj podjetja še ne poznajo vseh prednosti, ki jih prinese upravljanje voznega parka zunanjega izvajalca. Spremembe, katerim smo trenutno priča v svetu, so posledica digitalizacije, spremenjenih vrednot po gospodarski krizi ter prihoda generacije Y na trg delovne sile in na drugi strani k...

  3. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...... "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until...

  4. Report from working group on alluvial pedogenesis

    Autin, W.J.; Aslan, A.; Bettis, E.A.; Walthall, P.M.


    These uses illustrate the complexity of alluvial pedogenesis as it relates to the analysis and interpretation of paleosols. Difficulties with interpretations of alluvial paleosols are probably greatest when applied to the preserved sedimentary record, where direct evidence of paleolandscape variability is scanty or lacking.

  5. Rent-Seeking or Wealth-Creating: What to Choose?

    Gillund, Nils Ove


    This thesis presents a quite extensive literature review on literature concerning entrepreneurship, allocation of talent and rent-seeking. There is also a presentation of two models, one model concerning the allocation of talent and rent seeking. The second, demonstrates how rent-seeking affects investments in an economy. In the empirical part of the thesis there is a re-estimation of the results found in Murphy, Shleifer and Vishny, The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth (1991...

  6. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.


    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  7. Hydrological connectivity of alluvial Andean valleys: a groundwater/surface-water interaction case study in Ecuador

    Guzmán, Pablo; Anibas, Christian; Batelaan, Okke; Huysmans, Marijke; Wyseure, Guido


    The Andean region is characterized by important intramontane alluvial and glacial valleys; a typical example is the Tarqui alluvial plain, Ecuador. Such valley plains are densely populated and/or very attractive for urban and infrastructural development. Their aquifers offer opportunities for the required water resources. Groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction generally entails recharge to or discharge from the aquifer, dependent on the hydraulic connection between surface water and groundwater. Since GW-SW interaction in Andean catchments has hardly been addressed, the objectives of this study are to investigate GW-SW interaction in the Tarqui alluvial plain and to understand the role of the morphology of the alluvial valley in the hydrological response and in the hydrological connection between hillslopes and the aquifers in the valley floor. This study is based on extensive field measurements, groundwater-flow modelling and the application of temperature as a groundwater tracer. Results show that the morphological conditions of a valley influence GW-SW interaction. Gaining and losing river sections are observed in narrow and wide alluvial valley sections, respectively. Modelling shows a strong hydrological connectivity between the hillslopes and the alluvial valley; up to 92 % of recharge of the alluvial deposits originates from lateral flow from the hillslopes. The alluvial plain forms a buffer or transition zone for the river as it sustains a gradual flow from the hills to the river. Future land-use planning and development should include concepts discussed in this study, such as hydrological connectivity, in order to better evaluate impact assessments on water resources and aquatic ecosystems.

  8. The provenance of Borneo's enigmatic alluvial diamonds

    White, Lloyd; Graham, Ian; Tanner, Dominique; Hall, Robert; Armstrong, Richard; Yaxley, Greg; Barron, Larry; Spencer, Lee; van Leeuwen, Theo


    Gem-quality diamonds occur in several alluvial deposits across central and southern Borneo. Borneo has been a known source of diamonds for centuries, but the location of their primary igneous source remains enigmatic. Numerous geological models have been proposed to explain the distribution of Borneo's diamonds. To assess these models, we used a variety of techniques to examine heavy minerals from Kalimantan's Cempaka paleoalluvial diamond deposit. This involved collecting U-Pb isotopic data, fission track and trace element geochemistry of zircon as well as major element geochemical data of spinels and morphological descriptions of zircon and diamond. Our results indicate that the Cempaka diamonds were likely derived from at least two sources, one which was relatively local and/or involved little reworking, and the other more distal recording several periods of reworking. The distal diamond source is interpreted to be diamond-bearing pipes that intruded the basement of a block that: (1) rifted from northwest Australia (East Java or SW Borneo) and the diamonds were recycled into its sedimentary cover, or: (2) were emplaced elsewhere (e.g. NW Australia) and transported to a block (e.g. East Java or SW Borneo). Both of these scenarios require the diamonds to be transported with the block when it rifted from NW Australia in the Late Jurassic. The 'local' diamonds could be associated with ophiolitic rocks that are exposed in the nearby Meratus Mountains, or could be diamondiferous diatremes associated with eroded Miocene high-K alkaline intrusions north of the Barito Basin. If this were the case, these intrusions would indicate that the lithosphere beneath SW Borneo is thick (~150 km or greater).

  9. Exogenic forces action mechanism in the development process of erosion landform on alluvial plains composed of fluvial-lacustrine deposits in the Taklimakan Desert%塔克拉玛干沙漠河湖相沉积平原风蚀地貌发育的外营力作用机制

    李生宇; 谷峰; 王海峰; 庞营军; 穆桂金; 雷加强; 刘小路; 张忠良; 闫健


    河湖相沉积是一种非固结沉积物,是风蚀地貌发育的一种重要地质基础.在塔克拉玛干沙漠中发育在这种沉积物上的风蚀地貌分布非常普遍,但相关研究较少,尚缺乏风蚀地貌发育过程方面的研究.基于野外调查信息和理论分析,结合相关文献,分析了塔克拉玛干沙漠河湖相平原风蚀地貌发育的外营力作用机制.研究结果表明:(1)风蚀地貌发育的外营力作用主要有:风化作用、流水作用、风蚀作用以及重力作用;(2)风蚀作用是风蚀地貌发育的主要外营力,但是风化作用、流水作用和重力作用也发挥着重要的作用,它们的关键作用是形成风蚀突破口,而重力作用和风化作用是促进风蚀地貌后期快速发展的重要作用;(3)各种外营力协同作用和互为条件,它们在风蚀地貌发育的各阶段的重要性不同;(4)沉积层特殊沉积构造和外营力作用共同造成了风蚀地貌形态特征.%Fluvial - lacustrine deposit is a kind of consolidation sediments that is one important geological basis for erosion landform. The erosion landform developed on alluvial plains composed of fluvial - lacustrine deposits is widely distributed. But its relevant studies, especially about the development process of erosion landform are very less. Based on the field survey information, theoretical analysis and some relevant articles, this paper comprehensively analyzed the exogenic forces action mechanism in the development process of erosion landform on alluvial plains composed of fluvial - lacustrine deposits in the Taklimakan Desert. The results show as the following; ( 1) These main exogenic forces including weathering, tunning water, aeolian erosion and gravity drive the erosion land-form development on alluvial plains composed of fluvial - lacustrine deposits in the Taklimakan Desert. (2) Because aeolian activities in the Taklimkan Desert occur very frequent, so aeolian erosion plays a leading

  10. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  11. Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial stratigraphy of southern Baja California, Mexico

    Antinao, José Luis; McDonald, Eric; Rhodes, Edward J.; Brown, Nathan; Barrera, Wendy; Gosse, John C.; Zimmermann, Susan


    A late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial stratigraphy has been established for the basins of La Paz and San José del Cabo, in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Six discrete alluvial units (Qt1 through Qt6) were differentiated across the region using a combination of geomorphologic mapping, sedimentological analysis, and soil development. These criteria were supported using radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and cosmogenic depth-profile geochronology. Major aggradation started shortly after ∼70 ka (Qt2), and buildup of the main depositional units ended at ∼10 ka (Qt4). After deposition of Qt4, increasing regional incision of older units and the progressive development of a channelized alluvial landscape coincide with deposition of Qt5 and Qt6 units in a second, incisional phase. All units consist of multiple 1-3 m thick alluvial packages deposited as upper-flow stage beds that represent individual storms. Main aggradational units (Qt2-Qt4) occurred across broad (>2 km) channels in the form of sheetflood deposition while incisional stage deposits are confined to channels of ∼0.5-2 km width. Continuous deposition inside the thicker (>10 m) pre-Qt5 units is demonstrated by closely spaced dates in vertical profiles. In a few places, disconformities between these major units are nevertheless evident and indicated by partly eroded buried soils. The described units feature sedimentological traits similar to historical deposits formed by large tropical cyclone events, but also include characteristics of upper-regime flow sedimentation not shown by historical sediments, like long (>10 m) wavelength antidunes and transverse ribs. We interpret the whole sequence as indicating discrete periods during the late Pleistocene and Holocene when climatic conditions allowed larger and more frequent tropical cyclone events than those observed historically. These discrete periods are associated with times when insolation at the tropics was



    One of the most important problems in river engineering is to determine a stable cross section geomenry and slope for an alluvial channel. This has been the subject of considerable research for about a century and continues to be of great practical interest. Lgnoring plan geometry, an alluvi-al channel can adjust its slope, depth and width, to develop a dynamic stable condition in which it can transport a certain a-mount of water and sediment. The brief history of regime the-ory and its new development are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement

    Schoonbeek, L.; Kooreman, P.


    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  14. Election cycles in natural resource rents : Empirical evidence

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob


    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource re

  15. Election cycles in natural resource rents: Empirical evidence

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob


    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  16. 24 CFR 582.305 - Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing quality standards; rent... Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness. (a) Housing quality standards. Housing assisted under this part must meet the applicable housing quality standards (HQS) under § 982.401 of this title—except...

  17. Contesting Resources - Rent Seeking, Conflict and the Natural Resource

    Wick, A.K.; Bulte, E.H.


    A growing empirical literature links natural resource abundance and "pointiness" to impeded economic growth and civil strife. We develop rent seeking and conflict models that capture the most salient features of contests for resource rents, and show how both resource abundance and geographical

  18. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Lombardo, Umberto


    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  19. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...


    ... with reasonable time for public comment and shall become effective upon the date of publication in... 2005-2009 5- year ACS based ZIP code median gross rent data with 2006-2010 5-year ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) median gross rent data. The use of the more current ACS data is consistent with the update...

  20. Architecture of a Coarse-Grained Upper Middle Cambrian Alluvial Delta Dominated by Braidplain and Gilbert-Style Delta Components

    Pound, K. S.


    The ~500-m thick upper Middle Cambrian Lockett Conglomerate was deposited as part of an alluvial delta that includes Gilbert-type mega-crossbeds as well as braidplain conglomerates, and was constructed across an accretionary prism. Internal Lockett Conglomerate architecture indicates at least three phases of progradation are recorded by Gilbert-type, delta-front deposits that are separated by delta-top distributaries and/or braidplain deposits, all of which form discontinuous sheets and lenses, and record aggradation. Evaluation of sedimentary features (particle size and organization, bedding features) allows identification of eight facies within the Lockett Conglomerate; sedimentary features were used to infer transportational and depositional mechanisms. Conglomerate facies HL-1 - HL-8 were assigned to one or more of the following depositional associations: Beachface/shoreface, Deltafront, Alluvial fan, Braidplain (fluvial, unchannelized), Delta-top distributaries, and Mouth-bars. A series of Depositional Packages was identified, and mapped; integration with measured sections allowed development of a facies model for an alluvial delta in which the subaerial component is dominated by the braidplain association, and the subaqueous component by the (Gilbert-type) deltafront association as well as the delta-top distributary and mouthbar associations. Locally, the beachface association marks the transition between the subaqueous and subaerial components of the alluvial delta. Alluvial fan deposits are absent, but the rounded pebbles, cobbles and boulders with a new and distinctive provenance signature indicate derivation from a newly exposed igneous and metamorphic basement, and abrasion during transport through the fluvial (braidplain) system prior to deposition as part of the alluvial delta.

  1. Dispersion in alluvial convergent estuaries

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.


    The Van der Burgh's equation for longitudinal effective dispersion is a purely empirical method with practical implications. Its application to the effective tidal average dispersion under equilibrium conditions appears to have excellent performance in a wide range of alluvial estuaries. In this research, we try to find out the physical meaning of Van der Burgh's coefficient. Researchers like MacCready, Fischer, Kuijper, Hansen and Rattray have tried to split up dispersion into its constituents which did not do much to explain overall behaviour. In addition, traditional literature on dispersion is mostly related to flumes with constant cross-section. This research is about understanding the Van der Burgh's coefficient facing the fact that natural estuaries have exponentially varying cross-section. The objective is to derive a simple 1-D model considering both longitudinal and lateral mixing processes based on field observations (theoretical derivation). To that effect, we connect dispersion with salinity using the salt balance equation. Then we calculate the salinity along the longitudinal direction and compare it to the observed salinity. Calibrated dispersion coefficients in a range of estuaries are then compared with new expressions for the Van der Burgh's coefficient K and it is analysed if K varies from estuary to estuary. The set of reliable data used will be from estuaries: Kurau, Perak, Bernam, Selangor, Muar, Endau, Maputo, Thames, Corantijn, Sinnamary, Mae Klong, Lalang, Limpopo, Tha Chin, Chao Phraya, Edisto and Elbe.

  2. Neural Networks Modelling of Municipal Real Estate Market Rent Rates

    Muczyński Andrzej


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the application of neural networks modelling of municipal real estate market rent rates. The test procedure was based on selected networks trained on the local real estate market data and transformation of the detected dependencies – through established models – to estimate the potential market rent rates of municipal premises. On this basis, the assessment of the adequacy of the actual market rent rates of municipal properties was made. Empirical research was conducted on the local real estate market of the city of Olsztyn in Poland. In order to describe the phenomenon of market rent rates formation an unidirectional three-layer network and a network of radial base was selected. Analyses showed a relatively low degree of convergence of the actual municipal rent rents with potential market rent rates. This degree was strongly varied depending on the type of business ran on the property and its’ social and economic impact. The applied research methodology and the obtained results can be used in order to rationalize municipal property management, including the activation of rental policy.

  3. Rents in property rights creation and implementation

    Žarković Jelena


    Full Text Available The institution of property rights is increasingly being recognized as an essential building block of an economically prosperous society. The question that remains unanswered however, is how do we develop effective property rights institutions? The literature dealing with the development of property rights tends to be, in general, overly optimistic since there is a tendency to view the design of property rights institutions as optimizing decisions to economize on transaction costs and to facilitate new economic activities. On the other hand, since property rights define the distribution of wealth and political power in a society changes in property rights structures are likely to be influenced by more than pure efficiency considerations. Therefore, in order to achieve a balanced analysis of the evolution of property rights institutions our article introduces the state in the whole process. Following the propositions of the interest group theory of government we show an important relationship between rent seeking and state involvement in property rights creation. The state with a coercive power to establish and enforce property rights can also use that power, through the process of economic regulation, to redistribute property rights to politically influential interest groups. Herein lies the state failure in property rights creation.

  4. Clogging of water supply wells in alluvial aquifers by mineral incrustations, central Serbia

    Majkić-Dursun Brankica


    Full Text Available The formation of incrustations on public water supply well screens reduces their performance considerably. The incrustations increase hydraulic losses, reduce the capacity of the well and screen, affect the quality of the pumped water and increase maintenance costs. In alluvial environments, the most common deposits are iron and manganese hydroxides. However, the rates of formation, compositions and levels of crystallization vary, depending on the geochemical characteristics of the alluvial environment, the microbiological characteristics of the groundwater and the abstraction method. Samples of 15 incrustations were collected from wells that tap shallow alluvial aquifers and were found to be dominated by iron. XRD analyses detected low-crystalline ferrihydrite and manganese hydroxide in the samples collected from the water supply source at Trnovče (Velika Morava alluvial. The incrustations from the Belgrade Groundwater Source revealed the presence of ferrihydrite and a substantial amount of goethite α-FeOOH. Apart from goethite, greigite (Fe3S4 was detected in three samples, while one sample additionally contained bernalite Fe(OH3 and monoclinic sulfur S8. Among carbonates, only siderite was detected. Iron oxidizing bacteria generally catalyze deposition processes in wells, while sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB play a role in the biogenic formation of greigite. Determining the nature of the deposited material allows better selection of rehabilitation chemicals and procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37014

  5. Discussion on Ubeid, K.A., 2016. Quaternary alluvial deposits of Wadi Gaza in the middle of the Gaza Strip (Palestine): Facies, granulometric characteristics, and their paleoflow direction. JAES 118: 274-283

    Roskin, Joel


    The location of the Gaza Strip at the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea along a transition zone between Mediterranean and arid climate zones at the meeting point between fluvial, coastal, and aeolian sediments makes the Strip an important region for Quaternary, hydrogeologic, geomorphic, and palaeoclimatic studies (Aish, 2004). Wadi Gaza, the only water course that fully crosses the Gaza Strip into the southeastern Mediterranean Sea is an important water source for the proliferating and dense population of the Gaza Strip (Zaineldeen and Aish, 2012), is an indispensable part of natural life in Gaza and has an interesting history and rich vegetation (Abd Rabou et al., 2016). As such, the hydrogeologic conditions of Wadi Gaza need to be fully resolved. This includes the study of the wadi's palaeohydrology and the current anthropogenic impact upon flow and deposition along the watercourse.

  6. Experimental alluvial fans: Advances in understanding of fan dynamics and processes

    Clarke, Lucy E.


    Alluvial fans are depositional systems that develop because of a disparity between the upstream and downstream sediment transport capacity of a system, usually at the base of mountain fronts as rivers emerge from the constrained mountain area onto the plain. They are dynamic landforms that are prone to abrupt changes on a geomorphological (decades to centuries) time scale, while also being long-term deposition features that preserve sedimentary strata and are sensitive indictors of environmental change. The complexity of interactions between catchment characteristics, climate, tectonics, internal system feedbacks, and environmental processes on field alluvial fans means that it is difficult to isolate individual variables in a field setting; therefore, the controlled conditions afforded by experimental models has provided a novel technique to overcome some of these complexities. The use of experimental models of alluvial fans has a long history and these have been implemented over a range of different research areas utilising various experimental designs. Using this technique, important advances have been made in determining the primary factors influencing fan slope, understanding of avulsion dynamics, identifying autogenic processes driving change on fan systems independent of any change in external conditions, and the mechanics of flow and flood risk on alluvial fans, to name a few. However, experiments cannot be carried out in isolation. Thus, combining the findings from experimental alluvial fans with field research and numerical modelling is important and, likewise, using these techniques to inform experimental design. If this can be achieved, there is potential for future experimental developments to explore key alluvial fan issues such as stratigraphic preservation potential and simulating extra terrestrial fan systems.

  7. HK Shop Rents to Soar as Tourism Booms


    The expansion of Abercrombie & Fitch Co and Gap Inc in Hong Kong may help push shop rents in the Central business district up almost 50 percent over the next three years, according to Jones Lang LaSalle Inc.

  8. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.


    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  9. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.


    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  10. Immigration and Housing Rents in Canada: A Panel Data Analysis

    Latif, E.


    This study examines the impact of new immigration on housing rent, using Canadian province-level panel data from 1983 to 2010. In its estimations, it utilises econometric methods such as panel unit roots, panel co-integration regressions and panel vector error correction models. Both fully-modified ordinary least squares and dynamic ordinary least squares models suggest that immigration flow has a significant positive impact on housing rent in the long run. The panel vector error correction m...

  11. Koroška Bela alluvial fan – The result of the catastrophic slope events; (Karavanke Mountains, NW Slovenia

    Jernej Jež


    Full Text Available The Koroška Bela alluvial fan deposits were investigated to determine the genesis of the fan and the source area of sediments. The alluvial fan is composed of a sequence of diamicton layers, and related subaeric sediments that were deposited by multiple mass flow events, in some cases certainly by debris flows. The predominant sources ofsediments are tectonically deformed clastic and partly carbonate Carbonifferous and Permian rocks. In diamictons also pebbles of other rocks from the hinterland are present. These were eroded from the channel of Bela during the mass flow events. We estimate the future debris flow hazard along Bela stream as high.

  12. Fair Market Rents (Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on Fair Market Rents (FMRs). FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice...

  13. 76 FR 14421 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs...


    ... Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\1\\ CPI indexes CUUSA103SEHA and CUSR0000SAH2... AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and utilities inflation factors for large metropolitan... produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2008 ACS median rent and utility costs. Geographic Areas Contract...

  14. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.


    ... rents for project-based assistance at comparable market rents unless the PAE finds that exception rents... rents charged for properties that the PAE determines to be comparable properties (as defined in section... control and other characteristics determined by the PAE. The PAE may make appropriate adjustments...

  15. Alluvial Fan Study Submission for UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Alluvial fan study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix G: Guidance for Alluvial Fan Flooding Analyses and Mapping

  16. Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction at the Thar margin

    Jain, M.; Tandon, S.K.


    Quaternary alluvial record at the Thar desert margin has been examined using the exposed succession along Mahudi, Sabarmati river, Western India. Different alluvial facies, their associations and granulometry have been studied for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Clay mineral indices smectite/...

  17. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel [Centre de Geopolitique de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres (CGEMP) Universite Paris - Dauphine (France)


    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO{sub 2} emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO{sub 2} constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  18. Self-similar growth of an alluvial fan fed with bimodal sediment

    Delorme, Pauline; Voller, Vaughan; Paola, Chris; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Eric; Barrier, Laurie; Métivier, François


    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers flow onto flatter lowlands. The associated change of slope causes sediment deposition. As the river is free to move laterally, it builds conical sedimentary structures called alluvial fans. Their location at the interface between erosional and depositional areas makes them valuable sedimentary archives. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. We carried out a series of experiments to investigate the growth of alluvial fans fed with mixed sediments. The density difference between silica and coal sediments mimics a bimodal grain-size distribution in nature. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experiment. During the run, we track the evolution of the surface pattern by digital imaging. At the end of each run, we acquire the fan topography using a scanning laser. Finally, we cut a radial cross section to visualize the sedimentary deposit. We observe there is a distinct slope break at the transition that dominates the overall curvature of the fan surface. Based on mass conservation and observations, we propose that this alluvial fan grows in a self-similar way, thus causing the transition between silica and coal deposits to be a straight line. The shape of the experimental transition accords with this prediction.

  19. Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

    Marchi, L.; Cavalli, M.; D'Agostino, V.


    Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy). Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.

  20. Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

    L. Marchi


    Full Text Available Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy. Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.

  1. Composition and provenance of Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial sediments of the eastern Andean piedmont between 33 and 34° S (Mendoza Province, Argentina)

    Mehl, A.; Blasi, A.; Zárate, M.


    The Andean cordillera, and its piedmont in the central western Argentina, has been long considered as one of the main source areas of detritus for the Chaco-Pampean plain sand dune fields and loess/loess-like deposits of central Argentina. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the composition of the late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial deposits of the Andes cordillera piedmont, from 33° to 34° S. The results are interpreted in the context of the regional geology, tectonic setting of the study area and its implications in the continent-wide perspective of modern alluvial sands proposed by Potter (1994). Sampling was conducted at the alluvial stratigraphic sequences of four study sites along three Andean piedmont arroyos; modal mineralogy in the very fine sand fraction (3 phi to 4 phi) was determined using standard petrographic microscope methods. Q:F:LF average compositions indicate that the Late Pleistocene-Holocene very fine-grained alluvial sands of the Cordillera Frontal piedmont reflects the modern lithic arenites of the Argentine Association reported by Potter (1994). The results show two geologically distinct sources in the catchment areas, volcaniclastic and metamorphic rocks. High concentrations of mica and volcanic glass are likely related to particle morphologies and to the deposition sedimentary environment recorded in the alluvial sequences—floodplains. The overabundance of micas over the volcanic glass in the mid-late Holocene alluvial sequence indicates the drainage of a metamorphic area at the expense of other lithological sources. Source areas are located mainly in the Frontal cordillera, and to a lesser extent, in the piedmont Tertiary deposits, another likely source for the analyzed Quaternary alluvial sediments. The mineralogical signature of the late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial sequences is in agreement with the composition of the southern Pampean sand mantles, loess and loess-like deposits mainly formed by a volcanic mineral

  2. Surface exposure dating of moraines and alluvial fans in the Southern Central Andes

    Terrizzano, Carla; Zech, Roland; García Morabito, Ezequiel; Haghipour, Negar; Christl, Marcus; Likermann, Jeremías; Tobal, Jonathan; Yamin, Marcela


    The role of tectonics versus climate in controlling the evolution of alluvial fans in discussed controversially. The southern Central Andes and their forelands provide a perfect setting to study climate versus tectonic control of alluvial fans. On the one hand, the region is tectonically active and alluvial fan surfaces are offset by faults. The higher summits, on the other hand, are glaciated today, and glacial deposits document past periods of lower temperatures and increased precipitation. We applied 10Be surface exposure dating on 5 fan terraces 4 moraines of the Ansilta range (31.6°S - 69.8°W) using boulders and amalgamated pebbles to explore their chronological relationship. From youngest to oldest, the alluvial fan terraces yield minimum ages of 15 ± 1 ka (T1), 97 ± 9 ka (T2), 141 ± 9 ka (T3), 286 ± 14 ka (T4) and 570 ± 57 ka (T5). Minimum ages derived from moraines are 14 ± 1 ka (M1), 22 ± 2 ka (M2), 157 ± 14 ka (M3) and 351 ± 33 ka (M4), all calculations assuming no erosion and using the scaling scheme for spallation based on Lal 1991, Stone 2000. The moraines document glacial advances during cold periods at the marine isotope stages (MIS) 2, 6 and 10. The terraces T1, T3 seem to be geomorphologic counterparts during MIS 2 and 6. We suggest that T2, T4 and T5 document aggradation during the cold periods MIS 5d, 8 and 14 in response to glacial advances, although the respective moraines are not preserved. Our results highlight: i) the arid climate in the Southern Central Andes favors the preservation of glacial and alluvial deposits allowing landscape and climate reconstructions back to ~570 ka), ii) alluvial deposits correlate with moraines or fall into cold glacial times, so that climate, and in particular the existence of glaciers, seems to be the main forcing of alluvial fan formation at our study site. References Lal, D., 1991: Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: In situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. Earth and Planetary

  3. Rapid delineation of alluvial fans using IfSAR-derived DEM for selected provinces in the Philippines

    Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila; Norini, Gianluca; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Lagmay, Alfredo


    Alluvial fans are fan-shaped geomorphic features formed when sediments from a watershed are transported and deposited downstream via tributaries flowing out from the sudden break of a slope. Hazards usually associated with alluvial fans are flooding and debris flows. In this study, we used an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar-derived digital elevation model of Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija Provinces in the Philippines to identify and delineate alluvial fans. Primary parameters considered include the geomorphic characteristics of the catchment area, stream network and slopes ranging from 0.11 to 8 degrees. Using this method, 12 alluvial fans were identified in Pangasinan and 16 in Nueva Ecija with areas ranging from 0.35 to 80 sq. km. The largest fan identified is the Mangatarem-Aguilar fan in Pangaisnan with a total area of 80.87 sq km while the Gabaldon fan in Nueva Ecija with total area of 48.11 sq km. We observed from the results that some alluvial fans have multiple feeder streams, and others have overlapping lateral extents with adjacent fans. These overlapping fans are called bajadas. In addition, the general location of fans and their apices in the two provinces appear to coincide with segments of the Philippines Fault System. There are about people 1.4 million living within these alluvial fans. Mapping and characterizing and identifying their associated hazards is crucial in the disaster preparedness efforts of the exposed population.

  4. Influence of alluvial cover and lithology on the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial bedrock channels

    Ferguson, Sean P.; Rennie, Colin D.


    A growing body of research has focused on evaluating the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial channels containing proximate bedrock, mixed, and alluvial sections. Active orogens have been the focus of most empirical field-based studies with comparatively less focus on semi-alluvial bedrock channels located in other regions. In this study, we present an inventory of channel geometry data collected from semi-alluvial bedrock channels in Ontario and Québec, Canada, which are not subject to tectonic uplift. Data were sourced from a variety of physiographic settings, permitting evaluation of the influence of alluvial cover, lithology, and gradient on cross-sectional channel form. Our results show no substantial difference in channel width or scaling behaviour amongst bedrock, mixed, and alluvial channels included in our study, except for sedimentary bedrock channels virtually bare of alluvial cover that represent a uniquely wide, distinct subgroup. Channel gradient does not appear to exhibit any observable control on channel width amongst our study rivers, suggesting that sedimentary bedrock channels form a distinct subgroup because of lithology. Comparatively, the widths of our bedrock channels formed in igneous/metamorphic bedrock are comparable to the widths of mixed channels and alluvial channels for a given discharge and drainage area. Our findings also suggest that cross-sectional adjustment of sedimentary bedrock channels is achieved through lateral erosion of the channel banks and downward erosion of the channel bed, whereas cross-sectional adjustment of igneous/metamorphic bedrock is primarily achieved through downward erosion of the bed with limited lateral erosion of the banks.

  5. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa


    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO4(2-) and Ni but in negative with NH4(+), suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  6. Analysis of the Sediment Hydrograph of the alluvial deltas in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    Daranpob, A.; Hagen, S.; Passeri, D.; Smar, D. E.


    Channel and alluvial characteristics in lowlands are the products of boundary conditions and driving forces. The boundary conditions normally include materials and land cover types, such as soil type and vegetation cover. General driving forces include discharge rate, sediment loadings, tides and waves. Deltas built up of river-transported sediment occur in depositional zones of the river mouth in flat terrains and slow currents. Total sediment load depends on two major abilities of the river, the river shear stress and capacity. The shear stress determines transport of a given sediment grain size, normally expressed as tractive force. The river capacity determines the total load or quantity of total sediments transported across a section of the river, generally expressed as the sediment loading rate. The shear stress and sediment loading rate are relatively easy to measure in the headwater and transfer zones where streams form a v-shape valley and the river begins to form defined banks compared to the deposition zone where rivers broaden across lower elevation landscapes creating alluvial forms such as deltas. Determinations of deposition and re-suspension of sediment in fluvial systems are complicated due to exerting tidal, wind, and wave forces. Cyclic forces of tides and waves repeatedly change the sediment transport and deposition rate spatially and temporally in alluvial fans. However, the influence decreases with water depth. Understanding the transport, deposition, and re-suspension of sediments in the fluvial zone would provide a better understanding of the morphology of landscape in lowland estuaries such as the Apalachicola Bay and its estuary systems. The Apalachicola River system is located in the Florida Panhandle. Shelf sedimentation process is not a strong influence in this region because it is protected by barrier islands from direct ocean forces of the Gulf of Mexico. This research explores the characteristic of suspended sediment loadings in


    A.A. Gde Putra Pemayun


    Full Text Available This present study was intended to analyze the Life Style of the Rented Land Owners at Ubud Subdistrict. The problems of the study are formulated as follows: (1 what is the characteristic of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict like? (2 How has the process of life style of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict  taken place? And (3 what is the implication of the life style of the rented land owners on their lives? Qualitative method was employed in the study. The data were processed using observation, interview and documentary techniques. The workability of the law regulating the demand for land at Ubud Subdistrict motivated the land owners to rent out their land to investors. Apart from that, the internal dimension, which is made up of the economical capital, was the most important element as it could activate small, medium and big enterprises. Another aspect was image which was reflected through perception, cognition, motivation, and attitude of individuals as consumers. As an illustration, they built luxurious houses and showed off luxurious cars to show the image that they were new wealthy people. On the other hand, there was external dimension, namely, the highly rapid development of tourism, which could positively and negatively contribute to the life style of the people living at Ubud Subdistrict. Such an implication could not be avoided. The other aspect was consumerism; the consumers were around the symbol and sign. Mass media were the miracles of the object liturgy; pleasure was defined as the realization of freedom, and the human body was the main object of consumers. The last aspect was the government’s policy which determined that Ubud Subdistrict was a tourist destination. As a result, the local people had the opportunity to rent out their land which was used to expand the industry of tourism and to activate the other economic enterprises.


    Homans, Frances R.; Wilen, James E.


    Using a new model of markets in regulated open access resources, we illustrate the evolution of a fishery as demand for the product grows. We show that increased demand for fish in its fresh form shortens the fishing season and leads to the development of a market for processed fish. The model allows us to calculate the rent gains from rationalizing the fishery, and we show that much of the rent gains come on the market side as the season lengthens and more fish can be delivered to the higher...

  9. Economic Analysis on Rent of Equipment Lease of Coal Enterprise

    童磊; 王立杰


    Rent is the key factor in equipment lease. The business that equipment lease company of coal mining often engaged in can be divided into three kinds, that is sublease, operating lease and inter lease, in term of the difference of the role of lease, character of business, object of the trade and condition of t he market. The problem in rent calculating of the three kind s of lease that equipment lease company of coal mining often involved was an alyzed. Hope to b e helpful to the decision-making of the equipment lease company of coal mining.

  10. Predicting returns and rent growth in the housing market using the rent-to-price ratio: Evidence from the OECD countries

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...

  11. Late Quaternary eolian and alluvial response to paleoclimate, Canyonlands, southeastern Utah

    Reheis, M.C.; Reynolds, R.L.; Goldstein, H.; Roberts, H.M.; Yount, J.C.; Axford, Y.; Cummings, L.S.; Shearin, N.


    In upland areas of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, thin deposits and paleosols show late Quaternary episodes of eolian sedimentation, pedogenesis, and climate change. Interpretation of the stratigraphy and optically stimulated luminescence ages of eolian and nearby alluvial deposits, their pollen, and intercalated paleosols yields the following history: (1) Eolian deposition at ca. 46 ka, followed by several episodes of alluviation from some time before ca. 40 ka until after 16 ka (calibrated). (2) Eolian deposition from ca. 17 ka to 12 ka, interrupted by periods of pedogenesis, coinciding with late Pleistocene alluviation as local climate became warmer and wetter. (3) A wetter period from 12 to 8.5 ka corresponding to the peak of summer monsoon influence, during which soils formed relatively quickly by infiltration of eolian silt and clay, and trees and grasses were more abundant. (4) A drier period between ca. 8.5 and 6 ka during which sheetwash deposits accumulated and more desertlike vegetation was dominant; some dunes were reactivated at ca. 8 ka. (5) Episodic eolian and fluvial deposition during a wetter, cooler period that began at ca. 6 ka and ended by ca. 3-2 ka, followed by a shift to drier modern conditions; localized mobilization of dune sand has persisted to the present. These interpretations are similar to those of studies at the Chaco dune field, New Mexico, and the Tusayan dune field, Arizona, and are consistent with paleoclimate interpretations of pollen and packrat middens in the region. A period of rapid deposition and infiltration of eolian dust derived from distant igneous source terranes occurred between ca. 12 and 8 ka. Before ca. 17 ka, and apparently back to at least 45 ka, paleosols contain little or no such infiltrated dust. After ca. 8 ka, either the supply of dust was reduced or the more arid climate inhibited translocation of dust into the soils. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  12. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.


    We have used terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) to establish the age of some of the most extensive Quaternary alluvial fans in Death Valley, California. These intermediate-age alluvial fans are most extensive on the western side of the valley, where tectonic deformation is considerably less pronounced than on the eastern side of the valley. These fans are characterized by a relatively smooth, densely packed desert pavement formed by well-varnished (blackened) clasts. These surfaces have been mapped as the Q2 gravel by previous workers and as unit Qai (intermediate age) by us. However, the intermediate-age gravels probably contain multiple subunits, as evidenced by slight differences in morphologic expression, soil formation, and inset geomorphic relations. The TCN technique used herein sums the cosmogenic 36Cl in approximately 2.5-meter-deep profiles through soil and host alluvium, thus avoiding some of the problems associated with the more typical surface-exposure dating of boulders or smaller clasts. Our TCN 36Cl dating of 12 depth profiles indicates that these intermediate-age (Qai) alluvial fans range from about 100 to 40 kilo-annum (ka), with a mean age of about 70 ka. An alternative interpretation is that alluvial unit Qai was deposited in two discrete episodes from 90 to 80 ka and from 60 to 50 ka, before and after MIS (marine oxygen-isotope stage) 4 (respectively). Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time. Thus, in Death Valley, alluvial unit Qai largely brackets MIS 4, which is not associated with a deep phase of Lake Manly. These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through

  13. Reconciling Holocene Alluvial Records in Buckskin Wash, Utah--Where do Arroyo Cycles end and Paleofloods Begin?

    Harvey, J. E.; Pederson, J.; Rittenour, T.


    Drainages that undergo arroyo cut-and-fill cycles clearly change their grade over time, probably in response to climatic forcing. Reconstructions of this behavior are usually based on alluvial records found in broad alluvial valleys. Conversely, paleoflood hydrologists have constructed flood records by studying slackwater deposits preserved in nearby bedrock canyons, typically assuming a constant grade over millennial timescales. These contrasting approaches to interpreting alluvium from a single drainage must be reconciled, as many drainages feature both reach types along their length. This OSL/radiocarbon-based chronostratigraphic investigation has the goal of linking these alluvial records in Buckskin Wash, a major tributary of the Paria River, south-central Utah, where a broad alluvial reach drains into a severely constricted slot canyon. We are testing the hypothesis that the same floods that cut arroyos in the alluvial reach are preserved as depositional packages in the constricted reach downstream. OSL dating in this setting is challenging, partly due to the partial bleaching of sand grains during transport. However, initial results indicate that fine-grained alluvium stored within the unconstricted reach consists of aggradational packages as old as late Pleistocene--much older than previously thought. Conversely, the constricted-reach sediments are latest Holocene in age. Sedimentology also appears to be controlled by reach geometry. The upstream alluvial reach is a complex series of interfingering tributary and mainstem facies; heavily bioturbated and penetrated by a series of filled paleochannels. Depositional units in the slot canyon are thicker, less bioturbated, and instead preserve mostly high-stage mainstem floods. Observations from the modern wash suggest that the grade of the constricted reach is not static over millennial timescales. Ongoing work includes hydraulic modeling to identify a transition zone between the two end-member geomorphic

  14. Balti kalleim lao- ning tootmispindade rent on Riias / Kristo Kiviorg

    Kiviorg, Kristo


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras

  15. The Struggle for Rents in a Schumpterian Economy

    de Groot, H.L.F.


    This paper develops a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market. Trade unions strive for the extraction of as high a rent as possible from the growth generating imperfectly competitive primary sector. This union behaviour results in a non-competitive wage differential between the

  16. The meaning of competition between social and market rented housing

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.


    When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit definit

  17. 18 CFR 367.1720 - Account 172, Rents receivable.


    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1720 Account 172, Rents... receivable. 367.1720 Section 367.1720 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  18. Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Alluvial Fan Evolution: The Lost River Range, Idaho

    Phillips, R. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Sharp, W. D.; Pierce, K. L.


    In the northern Basin &Range, alluvial fans developed along the Lost River range-front consist of several distinct inset fan segments with concave-up radial profiles. Multiple large radius (>5 km), shallow (2- 3°), alluvial fans extend across and beyond the active, ~140-km-long, normal Lost River fault. These large fans are relict features, formed by major sheetfloods that occurred intermittently between ~15-180 ka. More recent deposition has been dominated by debris-flows that form small-radius (cuts through gravelly fan deposits, indicates that the fan soils are geochemically suitable for uranium-series dating (median U=7ppm, 232Th=0.09ppm, 232Th/230Th=154). 230Th/U analysis of these calcic soils can thus provide precise temporal constraints on intervals of surface stability and subsequent soil formation. The oldest fan surface (Qfo1, 178+/-8 ka), exposed within the footwall of the trench, suggests an interval of surface stability, indicating that the fan was likely abandoned due to incision early in MIS 6. Incision may have resulted from surface faulting along the Arco segment of the Lost River fault, but could relate to changes in stream power or sediment supply associated with climatic change or with auto-cyclic variations within the drainage basin. A younger incised and faulted fan surface (Qfo2, 69+/-6 ka), likely represents active alluviation at the beginning of MIS 4 and, since it formed as hanging-wall alluvial gravel, provides age limits on an episode of fault displacement between Qfo1 and Qfo2. In situ pedogenic carbonate coats on sub-angular gravels within the colluvial fault wedge date at 68+/-2 ka, suggesting that either faulting occurred soon after Qfo2 stabilized or that soil carbonate coats were recycled into the colluvial wedge from the faulted surface. Further studies in the Lost River Range will assess the timing of fan deposition, surface stabilization and fault activity since the late Pleistocene using coupled application of Optically

  19. Alluvial Fan Morphology, distribution and formation on Titan

    Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Radebaugh, J.


    Titan is a hydrologically active world, with dozens of alluvial fans that are evidence of sediment transport from high to low elevations. However, the distribution and requirements for the formation of fans on Titan are not well understood. We performed the first global survey of alluvial fans on Titan using Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, which cover 61% of Titan's surface. We identified 82 fans with areas ranging from 28 km2 to 27,000 km2. A significant fraction (∼60%) of the fans are restricted to latitudes of ±50-80°, suggesting that fluvial sediment transport may have been concentrated in the near-polar terrains in the geologically recent past. The density of fans is also found to be correlated with the latitudes predicted to have the highest precipitation rates by Titan Global Circulation Models. In equatorial regions, observable fans are not generally found in proximity to dune fields. Such observations suggest that sediment transport in these areas is dominated by aeolian transport mechanisms, though with some degree of recent equatorial fluvial activity. The fan area-drainage area relationship on Titan is more similar to that on Earth than on Mars, suggesting that the fans on Titan are smaller than what may be expected, and that the transport of bedload sediment is limited. We hypothesize that this has led to the development of a coarse gravel-lag deposit over much of Titan's surface. Such a model explains both the morphology of the fans and their latitudinal concentration, yielding insight into the sediment transport regimes that operate across Titan today.

  20. Exploring the use of weathering indexes in an alluvial fan chronology

    Hardenbicker, Ulrike; Watanabe, Makiko; Kotowich, Roberta


    Alluvial fan sediments can act as an archive of local environmental history. Two borehole cores (FN 350 cm and AG 850cm) from Holocene alluvial fans located in the Qu'Appelle Valley in southern Saskatchewan were analyzed in order to identify how changes in land use of upland catchment plateaus modified the pattern and rate of sediment delivery to the fan. Due to the lack of material for radiometric dating a chronology of depositional events within the alluvial fans was established by using lithostratigraphy data of soils and sediments. In order to establish a more detailed relative chronology we evaluated if weathering indexes (the Parker Index, the CaO/ZrO2 molar ratio, the Product Index) originally developed for studies of in situ weathering of bedrock, are suitable to assess sediment weathering within alluvial fan sediments. To quantify the degree of weathering within the sediment samples the three indexes of weathering were calculated using the proportions of elements measure by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and there is an inverse relationship between weathering index and sample age. For further statistical analyses the fan sediments were classified into three groups: a sheet flow facies of well sorted silt loam and sandy loam textures, bed load facies characterized by high sand and gravel content and layers with high organic matter in combination with higher clay content indicative of in situ weathering and soil development. First results show that the Product Index may be the most suitable weathering index to indicate weathering or input of less weathered sediment within the sheet flow and bed load facies. In general, the weathering indexes do not take into account complexities of the weathering processes nor the overall environmental conditions in an alluvial fan. But chemical weathering indexes accompanied by geophysical and geo-chemical information have value, especially when the amount of sample material is limited.

  1. Modeling 3-D permeability distribution in alluvial fans using facies architecture and geophysical acquisitions

    Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Dai, Zhenxue; Guo, Gaoxuan; Teatini, Pietro


    Alluvial fans are highly heterogeneous in hydraulic properties due to complex depositional processes, which make it difficult to characterize the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity (K). An original methodology is developed to identify the spatial statistical parameters (mean, variance, correlation range) of the hydraulic conductivity in a three-dimensional (3-D) setting by using geological and geophysical data. More specifically, a large number of inexpensive vertical electric soundings are integrated with a facies model developed from borehole lithologic data to simulate the log10(K) continuous distributions in multiple-zone heterogeneous alluvial megafans. The Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, is used as an example to test the proposed approach. Due to the non-stationary property of the K distribution in the alluvial fan, a multiple-zone parameterization approach is applied to analyze the conductivity statistical properties of different hydrofacies in the various zones. The composite variance in each zone is computed to describe the evolution of the conductivity along the flow direction. Consistently with the scales of the sedimentary transport energy, the results show that conductivity variances of fine sand, medium-coarse sand, and gravel decrease from the upper (zone 1) to the lower (zone 3) portion along the flow direction. In zone 1, sediments were moved by higher-energy flooding, which induces poor sorting and larger conductivity variances. The composite variance confirms this feature with statistically different facies from zone 1 to zone 3. The results of this study provide insights to improve our understanding on conductivity heterogeneity and a method for characterizing the spatial distribution of K in alluvial fans.

  2. Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher program, to determine initial renewal rents for some...

  3. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...


    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  4. Late Quaternary Alluvial Fans of Southern Baja California, Mexico: Relation to Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclones

    Antinao, J.; McDonald, E.


    establishing a linkage of the alluvial fan deposition in the area to the Late Pleistocene-Holocene changes in EPTC activity, which in turn is tied to changes in large scale climate systems like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Investigation of these linkages will provide insight into EPTC climatology, which is currently restricted due to a short record of direct observations.

  5. Revenue Management approach to car rental business : Revenue Management guide for Helkama Rent Ltd

    Rantanen, Aimo


    The purpose of this product-oriented thesis is to study revenue management as a business practise and and create a Revenue Management guide for the assigning company Helkama Rent Ltd car rental. The guide is supposed to give ideas and a structure for Revenue Management in Helkama Rent Ltd. Helkama Rent Ltd has been struggling with the profitability issues recently. Revenue Management guide will help Helkama Rent to obtain Revenue Management philosophy, and give ideas and tools for more effici...

  6. 24 CFR 888.113 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology. 888.113 Section 888.113 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... existing housing: Methodology. (a) Basis for setting fair market rents. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are...

  7. 41 CFR 102-85.140 - How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs?


    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR... specified in OAs will serve as notice to agencies of future Rent changes for budgeting purposes. For a discussion of budgeting for Rent, see § 102-85.160. (b) Changes to Rent other than those identified in...

  8. 77 FR 46447 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are... housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In addition, all rents subsidized under... that HUD would not want to utilize in setting FMRs (e.g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent...

  9. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    Ventra, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823708


    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to sediment

  10. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    Ventra, D.


    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to sediment

  11. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    Ventra, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823708


    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to


    Guangqian WANG; Junqiang XIA


    This paper first describes the phenomenon of channel widening during degradation of alluvial rivers,explains the mechanisms of channel widening, and analyzes the stability of cohesive riverbank. Then a one-dimensional mathematical model is developed to simulate the transport of non-uniform suspended sediments, with a sub-model for the simulation of channel widening, and is used to study the process of channel widening during degradation. The effects of different incident flow and sediment conditions and different riverbank material characteristics on channel widening and bed degradation are compared.Finally, main factors that control the deformation processes are identified.

  13. The Control of Land Rent in the Fortified Farming Town

    John Hartwick


    We consider costly administration at the center of a farming community surrounding a fortified village. Land rent taxation is high cost mode of financing central administration in a tax incidence sense. Participatory administration by the governed is a lower cost alternative. We speculate why the low cost option has been out-competed by its higher cost alternative throughout history. We also take up constraints on predation on farmers by a landlord at the center.

  14. Rent seeking oligopolistic behaviour in European gasoline markets

    Michael L. Polemis; Panagiotis N Fotis


    This paper explores the asymmetric adjustment speed of gasoline price in twelve European Union (EU) countries transmitted directly in a single stage formulation. The empirical results shed new light on the taxation effect and its role to the price asymmetry nexus, pointing that in many EU countries a crude oil price increase is passed through more forcefully than a price decrease revealing a rent-seeking oligopolistic behaviour by the marketers.

  15. Optimal Licensing Contracts with Adverse Selection and Informational Rents

    Daniela MARINESCU


    Full Text Available In the paper we analyse a model for determining the optimal licensing contract in both situations of symmetric and asymmetric information between the license’s owner and the potential buyer. Next we present another way of solving the corresponding adverse selection model, using the informational rents as variables. This approach is different from that of Macho-Stadler and Perez-Castrillo.

  16. Migration as an antidote to rent-seeking?

    Mariani, Fabio


    International audience; We develop a new mechanism through which skilled migration may influence economicperformance in the sending country. If agents can choose between acting asrent-seekers and engaging in productive activities, and only productive skills are exportable,a positive probability of migration (to a more secure economy) reduces therelative expected returns from rent-seeking, thus decreasing the proportion of skilledworkers who opt for ”parasitic” activities. Such an improvement ...

  17. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.


    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  18. Increasing natural resource rents from Farmland: A curse or a blessing for the rural poor?

    Hvid, Anna


    agricultural land on rent seeking and rent distribution. Results suggest that the potential for small scale farmers to organize and obtain political power determines the extent of rent seeking and rent distribution, and that while more democratic institutions may increase the share of rents going...... as a diffuse resource with low economic value, this categorization may no longer be appropriate, because demand for land is currently on the rise, and may continue to increase in the future. This study presents and discusses recent theoretical and empirical approaches to analyzing the effects of high-value...

  19. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history

    Williams, Martin


    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  20. Geomorphology, internal structure and evolution of alluvial fans at Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    Sánchez-Núñez, J. M.; Macías, J. L.; Saucedo, Ricardo; Zamorano, J. J.; Novelo, David; Mendoza, M. E.; Torres-Hernández, J. R.


    Alluvial fans and terraces develop in diverse regions responding to different tectonic and climatic conditions. The Motozintla basin is located in the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico and has an E-W orientation following the trace of the left-lateral Polochic Fault. The evolution of the Motozintla basin and the alluvial plain is related to several factors, such as fault movement, intense erosion by hydrometeorological events, and anthropogenic activity. This study presents the geomorphology of the alluvial plain that between the villages of Motozintla and Mazapa de Juárez exposes 31 alluvial fans, 5 hanging terraces and 13 ramps. Fourteen of these alluvial fans have been truncated by the Polochic fault, exposing maximum uplifts of ~ 12 m. The internal structure of truncated fans consists of single massive beds (monolithologic fans) or stacked beds (polygenetic fans). The fans' stratigraphy is made of debris flow deposits separated by paleosols and minor hyperconcentrated flows, fluviatile beds, and pyroclastic fall deposits. The reconstruction of the stratigraphy assisted by radiocarbon geochronology suggests that these fans have been active since late Pleistocene (25 ka) to the present. This record suggests that at least 10 events have been recorded at the fan interior during the past ~ 1840 years. One of these events at 355 ± 65 14C yrs. BP (cal yrs. AD 1438 to 1652) can be correlated across the fans and is likely associated with an extreme hydrometeorologic event. The presence of a 165 ± 60 14C yrs. BP (cal yrs. AD 1652-1949) debris flow deposit within the fans suggests that movement along the Polochic fault formed the fans' scarp afterwards. In fact, a historic earthquake along the fault occurred east of Motozintla on July 22, 1816 with a Mw of 7.5-7.75. Recent catastrophic floods have affected Motozintla in 1998 and 2005 induced by extreme hydrometeorological events and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, scenarios for Motozintla involved several types of

  1. New morpho-stratigraphic constraints for the evolution of the alluvial fan system along the northern slopes of the Taburno-Camposauro Mountains (Calore River basin, Southern Italy)

    Leone, Natalia; Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Cesarano, Massimo; Filocamo, Francesca; Petrosino, Paola; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Valente, Ettore; Giralt, Santiago; Casciello, Emilio


    The Lower Calore River Valley is a morphostructural depression located in the inner sector of the Campanian Apennine, between the Taburno-Camposauro and the Matese carbonate massifs. The river is the main left tributary of the Volturno River, it has a meandering channel partially structural-controlled. Numerous morphotectonic clues and historical seismicity data suggest that this part of the Apennine chain was particularly active during the late-Quaternary. In detail, the valley is E-W oriented and presents an asymmetry of the opposed valley slopes. The left side, corresponding to the northern flank of the Camposauro massif, is characterized by a steep slope (70°-35°), partially controlled by a ~E-W oriented fault system, and by a wide less-inclined piedmont aggradation zone. The latter started growing since middle Pleistocene, with the deposition of alluvial fans and slope deposits over the well cemented early Pleistocene breccias of Laiano Synthem. The alluvial fan deposition has been active until present giving rise to three main generations of alluvial fans. The right side of the valley, instead, is characterized by seven orders of fluvial terraces, both of erosional and depositional origin. The quaternary morpho-stratigraphic evolution of alluvial fans and fluvial terraces has been strongly conditioned by the interaction of tectonic phases and climatic variations. A detailed geomorphological study (1:5.000 in scale) was carried out with the aim to map the main depositional and erosional fluvial landforms and to identify the main tectonic lineaments of the area. A detailed field survey allowed to better define the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context in which the alluvial deposits developed and also to find chrono-stratigraphic markers. Tephra-stratigraphic analyses were performed on pyroclastic deposits interbedded into the alluvial fan and fluvial successions. At the moment the age of the first generation of alluvial fans is still under

  2. Patterns and Processes of Width Adjustment to Increased Streamflows in Semi-Alluvial Rivers

    Kelly, S. A.; Belmont, P.


    While it is understood that river channel width is determined by fluxes of water and sediment, predictive models of channel width, and especially changes in width under non-stationary conditions, have proven elusive. Classic hydraulic geometry relations commonly used in numerical models and channel design typically scale width as a power law function of discharge, without consideration of bank properties. This study investigates the role of bank material in determining spatial and temporal variability in channel width and widening rates for semi-alluvial rivers that have experienced increases in flow. The 45,000 km2 Minnesota River Basin contains many semi-alluvial rivers that have been rapidly incising into fine-grained glacial deposits over the last 13,400 years in response to a catastrophic base level drop. Large, recent increases in streamflows have caused significant channel widening and migration, exacerbated erosion of channel (alluvial) banks and (consolidated till) bluffs, and dramatically increased sediment supply. Here we leverage multiple decades of aerial photos, repeat lidar surveys, Structure from Motion photogrammetry and sediment gaging to examine past, and predict future, changes in channel width. We use empirical observations and a simple model to examine whether semi-alluvial channels tend toward a single, or multiple, equilibrium channel width(s). Preliminary results suggest that under stationary hydrologic conditions (1930s - 1970s) channel width was relatively consistent among reaches underlain by alluvium versus consolidated till. Since the late 1970s the study area has undergone profound hydrologic changes, with geomorphically-active flows nearly doubling in magnitude. Alluvial reaches widened relatively quickly in response to the increase in flows, whereas reaches underlain by till have not seen the same amount of widening. Aerial lidar-based geomorphic change detection between 2005 - 2012 records channel width changes in response to an

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Asphaltene Deposition Process during Different Production Schemes Étude expérimentale du processus de dépôt d’asphaltènes au cours de différents modes de production

    Bagheri M.B.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of asphaltene precipitation and deposition during lean gas injection, CO2 injection and natural depletion in reservoir conditions. In addition, the effect of variations in operating pressure, injection gas concentration and production rate on asphaltene precipitation and deposition were investigated. The severity of asphaltene deposition was found to be more pronounced in lean gas injection in comparison with CO2 injection and natural depletion. Increasing the flow rate in natural depletion experiments showed a considerable increase in asphaltene deposition, and consequently permeability reduction in the core matrix. Moreover, more asphaltene deposition was observed along the porous media in the gas injection experiments when the gas mol percent of the mixture was increased. Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude de la précipitation et du dépôt d’asphaltènes qui peuvent se produire lors d’une injection de gaz pauvre, d’une injection de CO2 ou d’une déplétion naturelle en conditions de réservoir. En outre, les effets de la pression de fonctionnement, de la concentration en gaz injecté et du débit de production sur la précipitation et le dépôt d’asphaltènes ont été étudiés. Il a été constaté que l’importance du dépôt d’asphaltènes est plus prononcée dans le cas d’une injection de gaz pauvre comparativement à une injection de CO2 ou à une déplétion naturelle. Une augmentation du débit au cours d’expériences de déplétion naturelle a montré un accroissement considérable du dépôt d’asphaltènes et, en conséquence, une réduction de perméabilité au sein de la matrice poreuse. Par ailleurs, un dépôt d’asphaltènes plus important a été observé au cours des expériences d’injection de gaz lorsque la concentration molaire gazeuse dans le mélange était augmentée.

  4. Upstream effects of dams on alluvial channels: state-of-the-art and future challenges

    Liro, Maciej


    More than 50,000 large dams (with the height above 15 m) operate all over the world and, thus, they significantly disturb water and sediment transport in river systems. These disturbances are recognized as one of the most important factors shaping river morphology in the Anthropocene. Downstream effects of dams have been well documented in numerous case studies and supported by predictions from existing models. In contrast, little is known on the upstream effects of dams on alluvial channels. This review highlights the lack of studies on sedimentological, hydromorphological and biogeomorphological adjustments of alluvial rivers in the base-level raised zones of backwater upstream of dam reservoirs where water level fluctuations occur. Up to date, it has been documented that backwater effects may facilitate fine and coarse sediment deposition, increase groundwater level, provide higher and more frequent channel and floodplain inundation and lead to significant morphological changes. But there have been no studies quantifying short- and long-term consequences of these disturbances for the hydromorphological and biogeomorphological feedbacks that control development of alluvial channels. Some recent studies carried out on gravel-bed and fine-grained bed rivers show that the above mentioned disturbances facilitate vegetation expansion on exposed channel sediments and floodplain influencing river morphology, which suggests that backwater area of alluvial rivers may be treated as the hotspot of bio-geomorphological changes in a fluvial system. To set the stage for future research on upstream effects of dams, this work presents the existing state-of-art and proposes some hypotheses which may be tested in future studies. This study was carried out within the scope of the Research Project 2015/19/N/ST10/01526 financed by the National Science Centre of Poland

  5. Regional water quality patterns in an alluvial aquifer: direct and indirect influences of rivers.

    Baillieux, A; Campisi, D; Jammet, N; Bucher, S; Hunkeler, D


    The influence of rivers on the groundwater quality in alluvial aquifers can be twofold: direct and indirect. Rivers can have a direct influence via recharge and an indirect one by controlling the distribution of fine-grained, organic-carbon rich flood deposits that induce reducing conditions. These direct and indirect influences were quantified for a large alluvial aquifer on the Swiss Plateau (50km(2)) in interaction with an Alpine river using nitrate as an example. The hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of water were characterized using a network of 115 piezometers and pumping stations covering the entire aquifer. Aquifer properties, land use and recharge zones were evaluated as well. This information provided detailed insight into the factors that control the spatial variability of groundwater quality. Three main factors were identified: (1) diffuse agricultural pollution sources; (2) dilution processes resulting from river water infiltrations, revealed by the δ(18)OH2O and δ(2)HH2O contents of groundwater; and (3) denitrification processes, controlled by the spatial variability of flood deposits governed by fluvial depositional processes. It was possible to quantify the dependence of the nitrate concentration on these three factors at any sampling point of the aquifer using an end-member mixing model, where the average nitrate concentration in recharge from the agricultural area was evaluated at 52mg/L, and the nitrate concentration of infiltrating river at approximately 6mg/L. The study shows the importance of considering the indirect and direct impacts of rivers on alluvial aquifers and provides a methodological framework to evaluate aquifer scale water quality patterns.

  6. Political rents in the European Union’s agriculture

    Czyżewski Bazyli


    Full Text Available Występowanie rent gruntowych we współczesnym rolnictwie UE potwierdza wieloletni rosnący trend cen ziemi rolniczej. Nasuwa się jednak pytanie, czy są to przede wszystkim renty różniczkowe związane z różną wydajnością gruntów rolnych, czy renty absolutne w klasycznym rozumieniu, czy też renty polityczne w ujęciu teorii wyboru publicznego? Cele artykułu mają przede wszystkim wymiar teoriopoznawczy. Podjęto w nim próbę weryfi kacji koncepcji renty gruntowej, którą sformułowano na podstawie badań przeprowadzonych w Polsce. Tym razem jednak zakres badań obejmuje pełen przekrój struktur agrarnych UE. Według wspomnianej koncepcji źródłem współczesnej renty gruntowej jest wyższa oczekiwana produktywność kapitału w rolnictwie niż w jego otoczeniu rynkowym. Często tłumaczy się to zjawisko wypłacaniem rent politycznych w ramach WPR. Czy tak jest w istocie ? Przeprowadzone badania odpowiadają na pytanie w jakich krajach i strukturach agrarnych ewentualna różnica wspomnianej produktywności kapitału jest największa i na ile wynika to z rent politycznych, a na ile z innych czynników?

  7. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.


    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  8. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul


    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  9. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard


    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  10. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul


    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  11. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    Hvid, Anna


    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  12. Optical dating using feldspar from Quaternary alluvial and colluvial sediments from SE Brazilian Plateau, Brazil

    Tatumi, Sonia H. E-mail:; Peixoto, Maria Naise O.; Moura, Josilda R.S.; Mello, Claudio L.; Carmo, Isabela O.; Kowata, Emilia A.; Yee, Marcio; Brito, Silvio Luiz M.; Gozzi, Giuiliano; Kassab, Luciana R.P


    Opticallly stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to a wide variety of materials such as loess, sand dunes, colluvium, alluvium, volcanic products, etc., helping geologic geomorphologic studies. OSL dating results using feldspar crystals extracted from alluvial and colluvial deposits of SE Brazilian Plateau will be presented in this work. The methodology used is based on the regeneration method, with multiple aliquot protocol. A total of 23 sample ages were obtained spanning 6.5-97.2 kyr. Results of radioactive contents and comparison with radiocarbon ages will be discussed.

  13. The potential for groundwater contamination along basin margins in the arid west: Alluvial fans and lake features

    Clyde, Calvin G.; Oaks, Robert Q.; Peter T. Kolesar; Fisk, Edward P.


    Many towns of the arid west were built upon alluvial fans and upon sites underlain by Pleistocene lake deposits. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of these activities of man upon groundwater quality within these geological features. Emphasis was placed on shallow groundwater quality after it was determined that deep groundwater is rarely contaminated at such sites. A reconnaissance of...

  14. Delineation of alluvial fans from Digital Elevation Models with a GIS algorithm for the geomorphological mapping of the Earth and Mars

    Norini, Gianluca; Zuluaga, Maria Clara; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila T.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar F.


    Alluvial fans are prominent depositional geomorphic features present in nearly all global climates on Earth, and also found on Mars. In this study, we present a Geographic Information System (GIS) algorithm designed for the semi-automated detection of alluvial fans that are connected to their contributing upstream drainage network, from the analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Through a combination of spatial analysis procedures, the GIS algorithm generates maps of alluvial fans and their upstream source drainage and watersheds. Tests of the algorithm in areas with well-known alluvial fans indicate that this new GIS procedure is capable of high-accuracy mapping of the fan apexes and correct delineation of fan deposits, in both arid and humid climates. Possible future applications of the GIS algorithm presented in this study include the systematic survey of alluvial fans at the local, regional and planetary scales, important for geologic hazard assessment, studies on the evolution of climate, analysis of continental sedimentary environments, understanding of the interplay between the endogenous dynamics and exogenous processes, and the evaluation of natural resources.

  15. Rent, Lease or Buy: Randomized Algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental

    Lotker, Zvi; Rawitz, Dror


    In the Multislope Ski Rental problem, the user needs a certain resource for some unknown period of time. To use the resource, the user must subscribe to one of several options, each of which consists of a one-time setup cost (``buying price''), and cost proportional to the duration of the usage (``rental rate''). The larger the price, the smaller the rent. The actual usage time is determined by an adversary, and the goal of an algorithm is to minimize the cost by choosing the best option at any point in time. Multislope Ski Rental is a natural generalization of the classical Ski Rental problem (where the only options are pure rent and pure buy), which is one of the fundamental problems of online computation. The Multislope Ski Rental problem is an abstraction of many problems where online decisions cannot be modeled by just two options, e.g., power management in systems which can be shut down in parts. In this paper we study randomized algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental. Our results include the best possibl...

  16. Geophysical and Hydrological Characterization of Alluvial Fans in the Valle El Sauz Encinillas, Chihuahua, México.

    Villalobos-Aragón, A.; Chávez-Aguirre, R.; Osuna-Vizcarra, A.; Espejel-García, V. V.


    The Valle El Sauz Encinillas (VESE) is located 92 km north of Chihuahua City, México. Despite being the principal aquifer feeding Chihuahua City, and being flanked by two well studied geological features (Bloque Calera-Del Nido to the West, and the Sierra Peña Blanca to the East), a lack of available hydrogeological data prevails in the valley. The goals of this study are two: 1) geomorphometrical analysis of the sub-basins and alluvial fans, and 2) determination of the alluvial fan geoelectrical units via electrical-resistivity soundings. The Basin and Range system forms a closed sub-basin with a lacustrine basin system in extinction process. The aquifer is located in alluvial Quaternary sediments, with varying granulometry, reaching a thickness of 600 meters at the center of the valley. The biggest alluvial fan in the VESE is located at the Cañón de Santa Clara, and intersects the playa-lake deposits of the Laguna de Encinillas. This fan has a surface of 73.2 km2 and an average slope of 0.437°. The geomorphometrical analysis included the sub-basins, currents, and the fans in the area. These analyses allow a comparison between alluvial fans in the VESE and those in Death Valley, California, USA. The alluvial fans in both areas show a similar behavior in all plots. Twenty electrical resistivity soundings (Schlumberger array, AB/2 distance of 400 m) were performed in the alluvial fan. The basement and four other geoelectrical units were identified in the fan. The geophysical data, granulometric determinations, plus geochemical information of twelve wells in the area were analyzed. These data show how the decrease in granulometry, both frontally and laterally in the fan, results in a rise of the hydraulic conductivity and transmisivity values (water wells in Los Sauces and El Faro). However, both the permeability and the water quality in its distal portion, are affected by the playa lake deposits, the raising ratio of clay-size sediments (and evaporites) in the

  17. Tributary debris fans and the late Holocene alluvial chronology of the Colorado River, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Hereford, R.; Thompson, K.S.; Burke, K.J.; Fairley, H.C.


    Bouldery debris fans and sandy alluvial terraces of the Colorado River developed contemporaneously during the late Holocene at the mouths of nine major tributaries in eastern Grand Canyon. The age of the debris fans and alluvial terraces contributes to understanding river hydraulics and to the history of human activity along the river, which has been concentrated on these surfaces for at least two to three millennia. Poorly sorted, coarse-grained debris-flow deposits of several ages are interbedded with, overlie, or are overlapped by three terrace-forming alluviums. The alluvial deposits are of three age groups: the striped alluvium, deposited from before 770 B.C. to about A.D. 300; the alluvium of Pueblo II age deposited from about A.D. 700 to 1200; and the alluvium of the upper mesquite terrace, deposited from about A.D. 1400 to 1880. Two elements define the geomorphology of a typical debris fan: the large, inactive surface of the fan and a smaller, entrenched, active debris-flow channel and fan that is about one-sixth the area of the inactive fan. The inactive fan is segmented into at least three surfaces with distinctive weathering characteristics. These surfaces are conformable with underlying debris-flow deposits that date from before 770 B.C. to around A.D. 660, A.D. 660 to before A.D. 1200, and from A.D. 1200 to slightly before 1890, respectively, based on late-19th-century photographs, radiocarbon and archaeologic dating of the three stratigraphically related alluviums, and radiocarbon dating of fine-grained debris-flow deposits. These debris flows aggraded the fans in at least three stages beginning about 2.8 ka, if not earlier in the late Holocene. Several main-stem floods eroded the margin of the segmented fans, reducing fan symmetry. The entrenched, active debris-flow channels contain deposits debris fans at the mouth of the channel adjacent to the river. Early and middle Holocene debris-flow and alluvial deposits have not been recognized, as they were

  18. Evaluating the controls of shear stress, sediment supply, alluvial cover, and channel morphology on experimental bedrock incision rate

    Johnson, Joel P. L.; Whipple, Kelin X.


    We explored the dependence of experimental bedrock erosion rate on shear stress, bed load sediment flux, alluvial bed cover, and evolving channel morphology. We isolated these variables experimentally by systematically varying gravel sediment flux Qs and water discharge Qw in a laboratory flume, gradually abrading weak concrete "bedrock." All else held constant, we found that (1) erosion rate was insensitive to flume-averaged shear stress, (2) erosion rate increased linearly with sediment flux, (3) erosion rate decreased linearly with the extent of alluvial bed cover, and (4) the spatial distribution of bed cover was sensitive to local bed topography, but the extent of cover increased with Qs/Qt (where Qt is flume-averaged transport capacity) once critical values of bed roughness and sediment flux were exceeded. Starting from a planar geometry, erosion increased bed roughness due to feedbacks between preferential sediment transport through interconnected topographic lows, focused erosion along these zones of preferential bed load transport, and local shear stresses that depended on the evolving bed morphology. Finally, continued growth of bed roughness was inhibited by imposed variability in discharge and sediment flux, due to changes in spatial patterns of alluvial deposition and impact wear. Erosion was preferentially focused at lower bed elevations when the bed was cover-free, but was focused at higher bed elevations when static alluvial cover filled topographic lows. Natural variations in discharge and sediment flux may thus stabilize and limit the growth of roughness in bedrock channels due to the effects of partial bed cover.

  19. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization for Mapping the Subsurface of Alluvial Fans: A Case Study in Punata (Bolivia

    Andres Gonzales Amaya


    Full Text Available Conceptual models of aquifer systems can be refined and complemented with geophysical data, and they can assist in understanding hydrogeological properties such as groundwater storage capacity. This research attempts to use geoelectrical methods, Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization parameters, for mapping the subsurface in alluvial fans and to demonstrate its applicability; the Punata alluvial fan was used as a case study. The resistivity measurements proved to be a good tool for mapping the subsurface in the fan, especially when used in combination with Induced Polarization parameters (i.e., Normalized Chargeability. The Punata alluvial fan characterization indicated that the top part of the subsurface is composed of boulders in a matrix of finer particles and that the grain size decreases with depth; the electrical resistivity of these deposits ranged from 200 to 1000 Ωm, while the values of normalized chargeability were lower than 0.05 mS/m. The bottom of the aquifer system consisted of a layer with high clay content, and the resistivity ranged from 10 to 100 Ωm, while the normalized chargeability is higher than 0.07 mS/m. With the integration of these results and lithological information, a refined conceptual model is proposed; this model gives a more detailed description of the local aquifer system. It can be concluded that geoelectrical methods are useful for mapping aquifer systems in alluvial fans.

  20. The land rent category in mainstream economics and its contemporary applications

    Bazyli Czyżewski


    Full Text Available The economic globalisation process makes the economic factors rotate faster. As a result the value added is intercepted by market mechanism and transferred to the economically stronger entities. That process concerns especially agriculture. There exists a crucial question whether an agricultural land factor is still capable to generate economic rents which would be the determinants of comparative advantages? On the one hand, D. Ricardo’s land rents are vanishing, H. George’s rents are provoking financial crisis, monetarists assumptions are becoming unsufficient, on the other, the land factor gains new environmental applications and there is still a hope that land rents have its origins in a real value. This paper aims at presenting the evolution of the land rents theory starting from classical economics. The author makes an attempt to answer the question if the land rent theories are still relevant and how land rent category can be implemented in agricul-tural policy of the UE? One formulates a hypothesis that the neoclassical theory of rent usually presented in economic textbooks is insufficient to describe reality reducing the sources of land rent to a low land supply flexibility and treating that as constant variable in economic models.

  1. Alluvial basin statistics of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study.

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SWPA_alvbsn is a vector dataset of alluvial-fill basin statistics for the Southwest United States. Statistics for each basin include physical details such as area,...

  2. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  3. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  4. Aquifers of Alluvial and Glacial Origin - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the alluvial and glacial aquifers north of the southern-most line of glaciation. Aquifers are shown in the States of Maine,...

  5. Floodplain biogeochemical mosaics: A multidimensional view of alluvial soils

    Appling, Alison P; Bernhardt, Emily S; Stanford, Jack A


    The alluvial floodplains of large rivers are exceptionally productive and dynamic ecosystems, characterized by a complex mosaic of vegetation at different successional stages overlying soils sorted by historic floods...

  6. Alluvial fan response to climatic change: Insights from numerical modeling (Invited)

    Pelletier, J. D.


    Alluvial fans in the western U.S. exhibit a regionally correlative sequence of Plio-Quaternary deposits. Cosmogenic and U-series dating has greatly improved the age control on these deposits and their associated terraces and generally strengthened the case for aggradation during humid-to-arid transitions. Still, the linkages between climate change, upland basin response, and alluvial fan response are not well constrained. Fans may fill and cut as a result of autogenetic processes/internal adjustments, changes in regional temperature (which controls snowmelt-induced flooding), changes in the frequency-size distribution of rainfall events, and/or changes in upslope vegetation. Here I describe the results of a numerical modeling study designed to better constrain the relationships between different end-member forcing mechanisms and the geologic record of alluvial fan deposits and terraces. The model solves the evolution of the fan topography using Exner's equation (conservation of mass) coupled with a nonlinear, threshold-controlled transport relation for sand and gravel. Bank retreat is modeled using an advection equation with a rate proportional to bank shear stress. I begin by considering the building of a fan under conditions of constant water and sediment supply. This simple system exhibits all of the complexity of fans developed under experimental conditions, and it provides insights into the mechanisms that control avulsions and it provides a baseline estimate for the within-fan relief that can result from autogenetic processes. Relationships between the magnitude and period of variations in the sediment-to-water ratio and the geomorphic response of fans are then discussed. I also consider the response of a coupled drainage basin-fan system to changes in climate, including the hydrologic and vegetation response of upland hillslopes. Fans can aggrade or incise in response to the same climatic event depending on the relief of the upstream drainage basin, which

  7. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    Moody, John A.


    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes. Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture-laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  8. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    Moody, John A.


    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes.Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture—laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  9. Effects of alluvial knickpoint migration on floodplain ecology and geomorphology

    Larsen, Annegret; May, Jan-Hendrick


    Alluvial knickpoints are well described as erosional mechanism within discontinuous ephemeral streams in the semi-arid SW USA. However, alluvial knickpoints occur globally in a wide range of settings and of climate zones, including temperate SE Australia, subtropical Africa, and tropical Australia. Much attention has been given in the scientific literature to the trigger mechanisms of alluvial knickpoints, which can be summarized as: i) threshold phenomena, ii) climate variability and iii) land-use change, or to a combination of these factors. Recently, studies have focused on the timescale of alluvial knickpoint retreat, and the processes, mechanisms and feedbacks with ecology, geomorphology and hydrology. In this study, we compile data from a global literature review with a case study on a tropical river system in Australia affected by re-occurring, fast migrating (140 myr-1) alluvial knickpoint. We highlight the importance of potential water table declines due to channel incision following knickpoint migration, which in turn leads to the destabilization of river banks, and a shift in floodplain vegetation and fire incursion. We hypothesize that the observed feedbacks might also help to understand the broader impacts of alluvial knickpoint migration in other regions, and might explain the drastic effects of knickpoint migration on land cover and land-use in semi-arid areas.

  10. Alluvial fan facies of the Yongchong Basin: Implications for tectonic and paleoclimatic changes during Late Cretaceous in SE China

    Chen, Liuqin; Steel, Ronald J.; Guo, Fusheng; Olariu, Cornel; Gong, Chenglin


    Late Cretaceous continental redbeds, the Guifeng Group of the Yongchong Basin in SE China have been investigated to conduct detailed fan facies description and interpretation. Tectonic activities determined the alluvial fan development along the basin margin, but the alluvial facies was linked with paleoclimate changes. The Guifeng Group is divided into the Hekou, Tangbian and Lianhe formations in ascending order. The Hekou conglomerates are typically polymict, moderately sorted with erosional bases, cut-and-fill features, normal grading and sieve deposits, representing dominant stream-flows on alluvial fans during the initial opening stage of the basin infill. The Tangbian Formation, however, is characterized by structureless fine-grained sediments with dispersed coarse clasts, and couplets of conglomerate and sandstone or siltstone and mudstone, recording a change to a playa and ephemeral lake environments with occasional stream flooding, thus indicating a basin expanding stage. The hallmark of the Lianhe Formation is disorganized, poorly sorted conglomerates lack of erosional bases, and a wide particle-size range from clay to boulders together reflect mud-rich debris-flows accumulating on fans, likely related to reactivation of faulting along the northwestern mountain fronts during a post-rift stage. The depositional system changes from stream-flows up through playa with ephemeral streams to debris-flows during the accumulation of the three formations are thus attributed to different source rocks and climatic conditions. Therefore, the fluvial-dominated fans of the Hekou Formation recorded a subhumid paleoclimate (Coniacian-Santonian Age). The dominant semiarid climate during the Campanian Age produced abundant fine-grained sediments in the playa and ephemeral lake environments of the Tangbian Formation. A climatic change towards more humidity during the late stage of the Guifeng Group (Maastrichtian Age) probably yielded high deposition rate of coarse clasts in

  11. Differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of ecological land rent among provinces in China

    LONG Kaisheng; ZHAO Yali; ZHANG Honghui; CHEN Ligen; LU Fangfang; GU Yuanyuan


    Ecological land rent is the excess profit produced by resource scarcity,and is also an important indicator for measuring the social and economic effects of resource scarcity.This paper,by calculating the respective ecological land rents of all the provinces in China for the years 2002 and 2007,and with the assistance of the software programs ArcGIS and GeoDA,analyzes the spatial differentiation characteristics of ecological land rent; then,the influencing factors of ecological land rent differentiation among the provinces are examined using the methods of traditional regression and spatial correlation analysis.The following results were obtained:First,ecological land rent per unit of output in China shows stable distribution characteristics of being low in the southwestern and northeastern provinces,and high in Hebei and Henan provinces.There is also an increasing tendency in the central and western provinces,and a decreasing one in the eastern provinces.In general,the spatial distribution of ecological land rent per unit of output in China is quite scattered.Second,the total ecological land rent shows significant spatial aggregation characteristics,in particular the provinces in China possessing high total amounts of ecological land rent tend to be adjacent to one another,as do those with low total amounts,and the spatial difference characteristics of the eastern,central and western provinces are distinguished.The Bohai Rim,Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta are shown to be highly clustering regions of total ecological land rent,while the western provinces have very low ecological land rent in terms of total amount.Third,population distribution,economic level and industrial structure were all important influencing factors influencing ecological land rent differentiation among provinces in China.Furthermore,population density,urbanization level,economic density,per capita consumption level and GDP per capita were all shown to be positively related to total

  12. Alluvial-eolian interaction in a Cambrian rift margin: the Pedra das Torrinhas and Pedra Pintada formations (Guaritas Group, RS

    André Marconato


    Full Text Available This work presents a study of selected outcrops from the Pedra das Torrinhas Formation of the Guaritas Group (Cambrian, Camaquã Basin, near the basin bordering Encantadas Fault Zone. The studied succession includes alluvial fan deposits that pass laterally into eolian deposits. Sedimentary facies and architectural element analysis were performed, followed by sedimentary petrography and microscopic porosity analysis, aiming to characterize the porosity of the deposits and its spatial distribution. The main objective was to contribute to a better understanding of the porosity spatial distribution in depositional systems characterized by the interaction between alluvial and eolian processes, with special reference to deposits formed prior to the development of terrestrial plants. Porosity values are related to depositional processes, with higher porosities associated to eolian dune deposits (mean of 8.4%, and lower porosity related to interdunes (mean of 3.4% and alluvial fans (mean of 4.3%. Architectural elements analysis revealed the spatial relationships of these deposits, a response to the interplay of the eolian and alluvial processes. The integration of porosity data reveals that the interaction of alluvial and eolian processes results in heterogeneous distribution of porosity at the facies association scale. Eolian reworking of alluvial facies increases porosity whereas sheet-flood and other alluvial processes in the interdune areas reduce porosity.O presente trabalho consiste no estudo de afloramentos da Formação Pedra das Torrinhas do Grupo Guaritas (Cambriano, Bacia Camaquã, próximo à Zona de Falha das Encantadas. As sucessões estudadas incluem depósitos de leques aluviais que passam lateralmente para depósitos eólicos. Foram realizadas análises de fácies e de elementos arquiteturais, seguidos de petrografia sedimentar e análise microscópica de porosidade, com o objetivo de caracterizar a porosidade da unidade e sua

  13. Radar facies and architecture of alluvial fans and related sediments in high-energy alpine environments, British Columbia

    Ekes, Csaba


    It is widely recognized that the dominant depositional processes on alluvial fans include rock falls, rock slides, rock avalanches, debris flows, sheetfloods and incised-channel floods. A fundamental question addressed in this thesis is: Can ground penetrating radar (GPR) differentiate between the sediments associated with these processes? Do these individual deposits have characteristic radar reflection signatures? The dissertation is divided into two parts. In part one, a calibration exercise conducted in southern British Columbia, it was demonstrated that GPR was able to obtain good penetration and resolution in rock fall, rock slide, fluvial and alluvial fan sediments, and that a characteristic radar reflection pattern (or radar facies) can be assigned to these deposits. Bedrock reflection pattern is characterised by a discontinuous radar signal and by stacked diffractions. The radar facies for rock slide and rock avalanche sediments, where boulders constitute the predominant clast size, is characterized by discontinuous, high amplitude, macro-scale, hyperbolic reflections that are different from diffractions generated by bedrock. Alluvial fans dominated by debris flow processes produce a chaotic and discontinuous radar pattern; diffractions in these patterns are attributed to boulders. Alluvial fans dominated by sheetflood processes are likely to produce surface-parallel, gently dipping, more or less continuous radar patterns. Large-scale meandering-river radar-patterns are characterized by high amplitude, continuous, dipping clinoforms. Braided-river radar facies, based on data collected on the Kicking Horse braidplain, are characterized by predominantly horizontally continuous reflections with few identifiable features. Based solely on GPR data, it was possible to distinguish between sediments of meandering and braided rivers. Analysis of over 95 km GPR data suggests that alluvial fan radar-reflection patterns are distinctly different from those observed in

  14. Rent Regulation in Jamaica: Socialist Past, Global reality, Inaction and the Working Class

    M. Mills


    Full Text Available Empirical evidence has established the association between rent control and crises such as oil and World wars; yet the Jamaican governments have not reintroduced rent control and updated the Rent Restriction Act despite global recession, oil and food crises and increased poverty. The objectives of this work are: 1 To conduct a documentary analysis of prior research on the extent of the problem, and these will provide an understanding and a content for the current work; 2 To identify the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act; 3 To assess the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act, and 4 Drawing on the knowledge of Rent Restriction Act, recommend policies or measures that can be instituted to address changes in the framework in Jamaica. The current work used mixed method approach, phenomenology and survey research. Landlords indicated that they had more right than for tenants; their complaints were the non-payment of rent; were more knowledge of Rent Restriction Act than the tenants and the majority of them did not answer the question on “Have you ever had a case where the Act was referred to?” Two times more males were knowledge about the Rent Restriction Act than that of female; more males indicated that they had rights than that of females, less females’ problem was harassment than that of males; more males gave the Rent Restriction Act a good rating compared to females and 3.5 times more males believed that the Rent Restriction Act was relevant in contemporary Jamaica. The findings provide understanding of the issues, and can be used to aid policy formulation.

  15. The role of tropical cyclones on landscape dynamics in southern Baja California, Mexico based on Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial stratigraphy

    McDonald, Eric; Antinao, Jose Luis; Rhodes, Edward J.; Brown, Nathan; Gosse, John


    Region-wide alluvial records provide evidence that time-transgressive changes in climate can be a major driver of landscape evolution. Historically, landfall of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in southwestern North America during the late summer and early fall provide the strongest storms that have demonstrated geomorphic impact on the landscape. The alluvial fan record of the southern portion of Baja California (Mexico) was investigated to determine if linkages exist between region-wide fluvial deposits and tropical cyclones. The regional distribution and Pleistocene to Holocene morphostratigraphy of alluvial fans has been established for the southern portion of Baja California with primary focus on the La Paz and San José del Cabo basins. Six discrete morphopedosedimentary alluvial units (Qt1 through Qt6) were differentiated across the region using a combination of geomorphologic mapping, sedimentological analysis, and soil development further reinforced with geochronology using radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and cosmogenic depth-profiles. A first phase of regional aggradation began before ~ 100 ka (Qt1) and culminated ~10 ka (Qt4). After deposition of Qt4, increasing regional incision of older units and the progressive development of a channelized alluvial landscape coincide with deposition of Qt5 and Qt6 units in a second, incisional phase. All units are conformed of multiple 1-3 m thick alluvial packages deposited in upper-flow regime and representing individual storms. Aggradational units (Qt1-Qt4) covered broad (>2 km) channels in the form of sheetflood deposition while incisional stage deposits are mostly confined to channels of ~0.5-2 km width. Continuous deposition of the thicker sequences is demonstrated by closely spaced luminescence dates in vertical profiles. In a few places disconformities between major units are evident and indicated by partly eroded buried soils. Analysis of historical terraces as part of the younger units

  16. Multilevel approach to the geomorphological setting of an alluvial plain in the Alpine environment

    Minciotti, Nancy A.; Brivio, Pietro A.; Zilioli, Eugenio


    This paper presents an integrated use of cartography and remote sensing imagery supplied by satellite and aircraft to study the geomorphological aspects of an alluvial plain for archaeological purposes. The study area is located at the confluence of the Valtellina (Adda River) and Lower Mera River valleys in northern Italy. Landsat data and aerial photographs were used to study the partial filling of the Lake Como lacustrine basin resulting from the progradation of the Adda River delta. Different soil humidity content, related to variable grain size of the alluvial deposits is an indicator of ancient river beds which were formed in this area before the nineteenth century artificial rectification of the River Adda's final stretch. Profiles coincident with geological sections gained by geophysical sounding were performed on the remote sensing imagery to verify eventual correspondence of depositional features with different analysis techniques. The integration of remote sensing multilevel data with cartography and archaeological evidences has been useful for the assessment of the paleoenvironment which conditioned human settlements.

  17. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    Sørensen, Allan

    International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  18. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Hartwick, J.M.


    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  19. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement (vol 93, pg 477, 1997)

    Schoonbeek, L; Kooreman, P

    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  20. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.


    ... date. The applicable Federal rate for a rental agreement means— (i) The Federal short-term rate if the... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent...

  1. Reducing Rents from Energy Technology Adoption Programs by Exploiting Observable Information

    Aalbers, R.F.T.; Vollebergh, H.R.J.; de Groot, H.L.F.


    In this paper, we study how regulators may improve upon the efficiency of their energy technology adoption programs by exploiting readily observable information to limit rent extraction by firms. Using panel data on 862 investment decisions in the Netherlands, we find that rent extraction is closely

  2. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    Hvid, Anna


    and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...... of organizational capacity may be determined by land inequality, the heterogeneity of farmers and the political environment....

  3. The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas

    Walker, Bruce


    This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

  4. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.


    ... PROGRAM Program Operation § 984.304 Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. 984.304 Section 984.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  5. 76 FR 52057 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... where statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and... privately owned, decent, and safe rental housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In....g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent for more than typical one-bedroom units). HUD...

  6. Barriers to the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture on Rented Land: An Examination of Contesting Social Fields

    Carolan, Michael S.


    While over half of the cropland in the United States is rented, interest in land tenancy within sociological circles has been sporadic at best. In light of the prevalence of rented land in agriculture--particularly in the Midwest--it is vital that further research be conducted to investigate the effect that the rental relationship has upon the…

  7. Effects of Alluvial and Debris Flow Fans on Channel Morphology in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon

    Bigelow, P. E.; Benda, L.; Miller, D.; Andras, K.


    Formation of debris flow and alluvial fans at tributary confluences from episodic erosion associated with large storms and fires ("extreme events") are often viewed negatively over short time spans (years). However, when viewed over long periods of time (decades to centuries), fans that form at tributary junctions are often sources of morphological diversity in streams and rivers. To evaluate effects of tributary fans on the morphology of mainstem channels, we surveyed a total of 44 km of streams in the Sawtooth Mountains of Idaho (27 km), Olympic Mountains of Washington (10 km), and Central Coast Range of Oregon (7 km). Rejuvenated alluvial fans resulting from post-fire gully erosion in the Sawtooth Mountains created gradient nick points in 4th to 6th order mainstem channels (30 to 350 km2 drainage area) that increased sediment storage upstream resulting in decreased channel gradients, widened flood plains, side channel construction, and the beginning of terrace formation. Downstream effects included increased channel gradients, often creating rapids. In 3rd and 4th order mainstem channels (< 10 km2 drainage area) in the Olympic Mountains, there was statistically significant association between low-order confluences containing debris flow deposits and gravel abundance, wide channels, and numbers of logs and large pools. Moreover, heterogeneity of mainstem channel morphology increased in proximity to low-order confluences prone to debris flows in the Olympic study sites. In 3rd and 4th order channels in the Oregon Coast Range, density of large wood and boulders in mainstem channels (< 30 km2 drainage area) increased with proximity to all debris flow fans at low-order confluences regardless of fan age, while channel gradients and sediment depth in mainstem channels increased with proximity to recent (< 60 yrs old) debris fans. Consequently, alluvial and debris flow fans can be significant agents of heterogeneity in riverine habitats, similar to other sources of

  8. Holocene alluvial stratigraphy and response to climate change in the Roaring River valley, Front Range, Colorado, USA

    Madole, Richard F.


    Stratigraphic analyses and radiocarbon geochronology of alluvial deposits exposed along the Roaring River, Colorado, lead to three principal conclusions: (1) the opinion that stream channels in the higher parts of the Front Range are relics of the Pleistocene and nonalluvial under the present climate, as argued in a water-rights trial USA v. Colorado, is untenable, (2) beds of clast-supported gravel alternate in vertical succession with beds of fine-grained sediment (sand, mud, and peat) in response to centennial-scale changes in snowmelt-driven peak discharges, and (3) alluvial strata provide information about Holocene climate history that complements the history provided by cirque moraines, periglacial deposits, and paleontological data. Most alluvial strata are of late Holocene age and record, among other things, that: (1) the largest peak flows since the end of the Pleistocene occurred during the late Holocene; (2) the occurrence of a mid- to late Holocene interval (~ 2450-1630(?) cal yr BP) of warmer climate, which is not clearly identified in palynological records; and (3) the Little Ice Age climate seems to have had little impact on stream channels, except perhaps for minor (~ 1 m) incision.

  9. Holocene alluvial stratigraphy and response to climate change in the Roaring River valley, Front Range, Colorado, USA

    Madole, Richard F.


    Stratigraphic analyses and radiocarbon geochronology of alluvial deposits exposed along the Roaring River, Colorado, lead to three principal conclusions: (1) the opinion that stream channels in the higher parts of the Front Range are relics of the Pleistocene and nonalluvial under the present climate, as argued in a water-rights trial USA v. Colorado, is untenable, (2) beds of clast-supported gravel alternate in vertical succession with beds of fine-grained sediment (sand, mud, and peat) in response to centennial-scale changes in snowmelt-driven peak discharges, and (3) alluvial strata provide information about Holocene climate history that complements the history provided by cirque moraines, periglacial deposits, and paleontological data. Most alluvial strata are of late Holocene age and record, among other things, that: (1) the largest peak flows since the end of the Pleistocene occurred during the late Holocene; (2) the occurrence of a mid- to late Holocene interval (~2450–1630(?) cal yr BP) of warmer climate, which is not clearly identified in palynological records; and (3) the Little Ice Age climate seems to have had little impact on stream channels, except perhaps for minor (~1 m) incision. Published

  10. Is There Rent Sharing in Italy? Evidence from Employer-Employee Data

    Alessia Matano


    Full Text Available Using a unique employer-employee panel database, we investigate the extent of rent sharing in Italy from 1996 to 2003. We derive the following findings. First, after controlling for the national bargaining level, there is robust evidence of rent sharing at firm level. Second, by means of fixed effects estimates we show that the sorting of high-ability workers into high-profit firms appears to play a substantial role, since it captures a significant amount of cross sectional estimates of rent sharing. Third, in accordance to the related literature the endogeneity of profits causes a severe underestimation of rent sharing. Our final IV estimate of the elasticity of wages with respect to profits per employee amounts to 6%, with a "Lester" range of 24%. Moreover, we point out that the impact of rent sharing is not homogeneous across several dimensions (gender, occupation, sector and macroarea.

  11. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    Hvid, Anna


    In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effects...... of increasing land rents in land-abundant developing countries from a theoretical viewpoint, and provides historical case examples to support the theoretical propositions. It is proposed that the specific characteristics of a rent-generating natural resource have implications for the concentration of economic...... and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...

  12. Characterizing subsurface hydraulic heterogeneity of alluvial fan using riverstage fluctuations

    Wang, Yu-Li; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Wen, Jet-Chau; Huang, Shao-Yang; Zha, Yuanyuan; Tsai, Jui-Pin; Hao, Yonghong; Liang, Yue


    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the ability of riverstage tomography to estimate 2-D spatial distribution of hydraulic diffusivity (D) of Zhuoshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan, using groundwater level data from 65 wells and stream stage data from 5 gauging stations. In order to accomplish this objective, wavelet analysis is first conducted to investigate the temporal characteristics of groundwater level, precipitation, and stream stage. The results of the analysis show that variations of groundwater level and stream stage are highly correlated over seasonal and annual periods while that between precipitation is less significant. Subsequently, spatial cross-correlation between seasonal variations of groundwater level and riverstage data is analyzed. It is found that the correlation contour map reflects the pattern of sediment distribution of the fan. This finding is further substantiated by the cross-correlation analysis using both noisy and noise-free groundwater and riverstage data of a synthetic aquifer, where aquifer heterogeneity is known exactly. The ability of riverstage tomography is then tested with these synthetic data sets to estimate D distribution. Finally, the riverstage tomography is applied to the alluvial fan. The results of the application reveal that the apex and southeast of the alluvial fan are regions with relatively high D and the D values gradually decrease toward the shoreline of the fan. In addition, D at northern alluvial fan is slightly larger than that at southern. These findings are consistent with the geologic evolution of this alluvial fan.

  13. A multiple-point geostatistical method for characterizing uncertainty of subsurface alluvial units and its effects on flow and transport

    Cronkite-Ratcliff, C.; Phelps, G.A.; Boucher, A.


    This report provides a proof-of-concept to demonstrate the potential application of multiple-point geostatistics for characterizing geologic heterogeneity and its effect on flow and transport simulation. The study presented in this report is the result of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Stanford University. This collaboration focused on improving the characterization of alluvial deposits by incorporating prior knowledge of geologic structure and estimating the uncertainty of the modeled geologic units. In this study, geologic heterogeneity of alluvial units is characterized as a set of stochastic realizations, and uncertainty is indicated by variability in the results of flow and transport simulations for this set of realizations. This approach is tested on a hypothetical geologic scenario developed using data from the alluvial deposits in Yucca Flat, Nevada. Yucca Flat was chosen as a data source for this test case because it includes both complex geologic and hydrologic characteristics and also contains a substantial amount of both surface and subsurface geologic data. Multiple-point geostatistics is used to model geologic heterogeneity in the subsurface. A three-dimensional (3D) model of spatial variability is developed by integrating alluvial units mapped at the surface with vertical drill-hole data. The SNESIM (Single Normal Equation Simulation) algorithm is used to represent geologic heterogeneity stochastically by generating 20 realizations, each of which represents an equally probable geologic scenario. A 3D numerical model is used to simulate groundwater flow and contaminant transport for each realization, producing a distribution of flow and transport responses to the geologic heterogeneity. From this distribution of flow and transport responses, the frequency of exceeding a given contaminant concentration threshold can be used as an indicator of uncertainty about the location of the contaminant plume boundary.

  14. Heat Transfer Characterization Using Heat and Solute Tracer Tests in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Dassargues, A.


    Very low enthalpy geothermal systems are increasingly considered for heating or cooling using groundwater energy combined with heat pumps. The design and the impact of shallow geothermal systems are often assessed in a semi-empirical way. It is accepted by most of the private partners but not by environmental authorities deploring a lack of rigorous evaluation of the mid- to long-term impact on groundwater. In view of a more rigorous methodology, heat and dye tracers are used for estimating simultaneously heat transfer and solute transport parameters in an alluvial aquifer. The experimental field site, is equipped with 21 piezometers drilled in alluvial deposits composed of a loam layer overlying a sand and gravel layer constituting the alluvial aquifer. The tracing experiment consisted in injecting simultaneously heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in 3 control panels set perpendicularly to the main groundwater flow. Results showed drastic differences between heat transfer and solute transport due to the main influence of thermal capacity of the saturated porous medium. The tracing experiment was then simulated using a numerical model and the best estimation of heat transfer and solute transport parameters is obtained by calibrating this numerical model using inversion tools. The developed concepts and tests may lead to real projects of various extents that can be now optimized by the use of a rigorous and efficient methodology at the field scale. On the field: view from the injection well in direction of the pumping well through the three monitoring panels Temperature monitoring in the pumping well and in the piezometers of the three panels: heat transfer is faster in the lower part of the aquifer (blue curves) than in the upper part (red curves). Breakthrough curves are also more dispersed in the upper part with longer tailings.

  15. Estimating the value and interest rate risk of demand deposits in concentrated markets


    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to determine the value and interest rate risk of funds deposited in demand deposit accounts under imperfect competition among banks. The value of a demand deposit is divided into two components, which are rent and liability. The former is defined as the profit bank receives from accepting demand deposits (by paying rates below the short-term market interest rate) and the latter as the nominal value of deposits minus the rent. The interest ...

  16. Quantifying sediment dynamics on alluvial fans, Iglesia basin, south Central Argentine Andes

    Harries, Rebekah; Kirstein, Linda; Whittaker, Alex; Attal, Mikael; Peralta, Silvio


    Qualitative interpretations of environmental change drawn from alluvial fan stratigraphy typically tie the deposition of greater volumes of coarser sediment to wetter climatic periods. For example, step changes in sediment flux and discharge associated with glacial-interglacial cycles are often linked to the progradation and back stepping of a fan's toe (Harvey et al, 2002). Indeed, more recent quantitative stratigraphic models demonstrate changes in the volume and calibre of sediment fluxed from an uplifted catchment can produce predictable shifts in the rate at which fluvial deposits fine downstream (Duller et al. 2010, Armitage et al. 2011). These interpretations, however, make three important assumptions: 1) the volume and calibre of the sediment transferred from an eroding mountain belt to a depositional basin is directly related to climate through some value of time-averaged discharge or catchment wetness; 2) lateral sources of sediment, such as tributaries, do not significantly influence the pattern of deposition in a basin and, similarly, 3) the reworking of older fan surfaces is minimal and does not impact the depositional pattern of younger deposits. Here we demonstrate each of these assumptions underestimates the importance of variance in transportable grain sizes in influencing the local and basin-wide deposited grain size trends. Using the Iglesia basin in the Argentine south Central Andes as a natural laboratory, we compare three large, adjacent, alluvial fan systems whose catchments experience the same background tectonic and climatic forcing. We find regional climate forcing is not expressed uniformly in the downstream grain size fining rates of their modern systems. Furthermore, we observe the variance in transportable grain sizes supplied from each primary catchment and the variance of material introduced by tributaries and fan surfaces downstream can act as first order controls on the rate of downstream fining. We also raise the importance of

  17. The Effects of Tax Competition when Politicians Create Rents to Buy Political Support

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    . Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...... all rents, a coordinated rise in capital taxation will always be welfare-improving. For plausible parameter values it will even be welfare-enhancing to carry tax coordination beyond the point where rents to public sector workers start to emerge...

  18. Turnover Rates of Fall Migrating Pectoral Sandpipers Through the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MA V) is the historic alluvial floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River. Most of the MAV is located in Arkansas, Louisiana, and...

  19. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the Piedmont Zone of Ganga Plain, Uttarakhand, India

    Pradeep K Goswami; Charu C Pant; Shefali Pandey


    The Piedmont Zone is the least studied part of the Ganga Plain.The northern limit of the Piedmont Zone is defined by the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT)along which the Himalaya is being thrust over the alluvium of the Ganga Plain.Interpretation of satellite imagery,Digital Terrain Models (DTMs)and field data has helped in the identification and mapping of various morpho-tectonic features in the densely forested and cultivated Piedmont Zone in the Kumaun region of the Uttarakhand state of India.The Piedmont Zone has formed as a result of coalescing alluvial fans,alluvial aprons and talus deposits.The fans have differential morphologies and aggradation processes within a common climatic zone and similar litho-tectonic setting of the catchment area. Morphotectonic analysis reveals that the fan morphologies and aggradation processes in the area are mainly controlled by the ongoing tectonic activities.Such activities along the HFT and transverse faults have controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin,and aggradation processes by causing channel migration,channel incision and shifting of depocentres.The active tectonic movements have further modified the landscape of the area in the form of tilted alluvial fan,gravel ridges,terraces and uplifted gravels.

  20. Sediments and processes on a small stream-flow dominated, devonian alluvial fan, Shetland Islands

    Allen, Philip A.


    The main conglomerate type of a small Devonian alluvial fan in Shetland, northern Britain, is an inverse to normally graded framework-supported gravel. The sedimentological details of these beds and fundamental considerations of the mechanics of movement of highly concentrated flows suggests that neither debris-flow nor grain-flow were responsible for the deposition of these conglomerates. On the contrary, these inverse to normally graded conglomerates were deposited by water as thick gravel sheets with little topographic relief, but broadly analogous to longitudinal bars. They were deposited under high aggradation conditions first on the rising and then on the falling flood. The high concentration of material in transport on the rising and peak flood was responsible for the polymodal and unstratified nature of the conglomerates. As the flood waned, normal grading was developed and a preferred horizontal fabric was produced under low concentrations of sediment. Other conglomerate types, comparatively of lesser importance, were deposited from highly concentrated clast dispersions and are notably richer in matrix and locally possess inverse grading. The hydrological environment was one of flashy discharges of short duration but of high velocity. Flow was dissipated rapidly, perhaps due to extreme water loss. This example from the Devonian of Shetland provides an interesting alternative to the mass-transport dominated fan models currently in vogue.

  1. Rente und subnationale Gewalt. Der Beitrag der politischen Ökonomie

    Hartmut Elsenhans


    Full Text Available Rents are a basic element of the political economy of underdeveloped economies. They hinder and often block the mechanism of social integration through gainful employment and veto the power of labour, which characterizes capitalist societies and the constitution of citizenship. The impact of rent on political structures is, however, ambiguous. Anomie is only one possible result. Hence the link between raw material exports and non-state violence is also ambiguous. Many societies, which are characterized by rents, have developed quite powerful mechanisms of keeping internal peace, possibly with limited participation. The conditions of differential impacts of rent on social structures and political behaviour call for an analysis of internal interest mediation.

  2. Retail Concentration and Shopping Center Rents - A Comparison of Two Cities

    François Des Rosiers; Marius Thériault; Catherine Lavoie


    This study aims primarily at testing whether, and to what extent, retail concentration within regional and super-regional shopping centers affect rent levels, as well as the differential impact it may...




    The theoretical conditions for the bend development or attenuation have been reviewed and tested for a study reach of the Meghna river.The field observations in the natural alluvial meander do not support the theories developed for bend development.The limitations of the theory to apply in the natural meandering river are discussed.

  4. Mid-Eocene alluvial-lacustrine succession at Gebel El-Goza El-Hamra (Shabrawet area, NE Eastern Desert, Egypt): Facies analysis, sequence stratigraphy and paleoclimatic implications

    Wanas, H. A.; Sallam, E.; Zobaa, M. K.; Li, X.


    This study aims to provide the depositional facies, sequence stratigraphic and paleoclimatic characteristics of the Mid-Eocene (Bartonian) continental succession exposed at Gebel El-Goza El-Hamra (Shabrawet Area, NE Eastern Desert, Egypt). The studied succession consists of siliciclastic rocks followed upward by carbonate rocks. Detailed field observation and petrographic investigation indicate accumulation in floodplain-dominated alluvial and shallow lacustrine systems. The floodplain-dominated alluvial facies (45 m thick) is composed mainly of carbonate nodules-bearing, mottled mudrock with subordinate sandstone and conglomerate beds. The conglomerate and pebbly sandstone bodies interpreted as ephemeral braided channel deposits. The massive, laminated, planner cross-bedded, fine- to medium-grained sandstone bodies interlayered within mudstone reflect sheet flood deposits. The mudrocks associated with paleosols represent distal floodplain deposits. The shallow lacustrine facies (15 m thick) is made up of an alternation of marlstone, micritic limestone, dolostone and mudrock beds with charophytes and small gastropods. Both the alluvial and lacustrine facies show evidence of macro-and micro-pedogenic features. Pollen assemblages, stable δ18O and δ13C isotopes, and paleopedogenic features reflect prevalence of arid to semi-arid climatic conditions during the Bartonian. The sequence stratigraphic framework shows an overall fining-upward depositional sequence, consisting of Low- and High-accommodation Systems Tracts (LAST, HAST), and is bounded by two sequence boundaries (SB-1, SB-2). Conglomerate and pebbly sandstone deposits (braided channel and sheet flood deposits) of the lower part of the alluvial facies reflect a LAST. Mudrock and silty claystone facies (distal floodplain deposits) of the upper part of alluvial facies and its overlying lacustrine facies correspond to a HAST. The LAST, HAST and SB were formed during different accommodation-to-sediment supply (A

  5. Grain size trends reveal alluvial fan sensitivity to late Pleistocene climate change

    Whittaker, A. C.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Roda Boluda, D. C.


    The effects of climate change on eroding landscapes and the sedimentary record remain poorly understood. The measurement of grain size fining rates in stream-flow dominated deposits provides one way to address this issue because, in principle, these trends embed important information about the dynamics of sediment routing systems and their sensitivities to external forcing. At a fundamental level, downstream fining is often driven by selective deposition of sediment. The relative efficiency of this process is determined by the physical characteristics of the input sediment supply and the spatial distribution of subsidence rate, which generates the accommodation necessary for mass extraction. Here, we measure grain size fining rates from apex to toe on two alluvial fan systems in northern Death Valley, California, which have well-exposed modern and 70 ka surfaces, where the long-term tectonic boundary conditions are known and where climatic variation over this time period is well-constrained. We integrate a self-similar gravel fraction fining model, based on selective sediment extraction, with cosmogenically-derived catchment erosion rates and gravel fining data, to estimate the change in sediment flux that occurred between 70 ka and the present day. Our results show that a 30 % decrease in average precipitation rate led to a 20 % decrease in sediment flux and a clear increase in the down-fan rate of fining. This supports existing landscape evolution models that relate a decrease in precipitation rate to a decrease in sediment flux, but implies that this relationship may be sub-linear. This study offers a new approach to applying grain size fining models to mountain catchments and their alluvial fan systems, and shows fan stratigraphy can be highly sensitive to climate changes over sensitivity is lost when sediment is remobilised and recycled over a time period longer than the duration of the climatic perturbation.

  6. Occurrence, Distribution, Sources, and Trends of Elevated Chloride Concentrations in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Clark, Brian R.


    underlies the alluvial aquifer, indicate that leakage from the river and upward flow of saline water in underlying aquifers are not likely sources for the saline water in the alluvial aquifer in Area I. A good comparison was noted for chloride concentrations in Area I and surface geomorphology. In the majority of cases, elevated chloride concentrations occurred in backswamp deposits, with low concentrations (less than 50 milligrams per liter) in areas of active or abandoned channel deposits. The fine-grained, clay-rich deposits associated with backswamp areas likely restrict recharge, induce increased ratios between evapotranspiration and recharge, and experience minimal flushing of salts concentrated during evapotranspiration. In Area II, chloride isoconcentration maps of the underlying upper Claiborne aquifer, in addition to samples from wells completed in the middle and lower Claiborne aquifers, showed a similar chloride distribution to that of the alluvial aquifer with decreasing chloride concentrations to the east of the zone of elevated chloride concentrations, which suggests a deeper source of saline water that affects Tertiary and Quaternary aquifer systems. Mixing curves developed from bromide/chloride ratios in water samples from the alluvial aquifer, Tertiary aquifers, and samples of brine water from the Jurrasic Smackover Formation additionally discounted upward flow of saline water from underlying Tertiary formations as a potential mechanism for salinity in the alluvial aquifer in Area II. A review of information on oil exploration wells in Chicot County revealed that most of these wells were drilled from 1960 to 1980, after the elevated chloride concentrations were detected in the early 1950s. The elongated nature of the zone of elevated chloride concentrations in Area II suggests a line source or linear conduit connection with the source. Maps of a fractured limestone in the Smackover Formation in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana for purpose

  7. Quaternary alluvial fans of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, northern México: OSL ages and implications for climatic history of the region

    Zúñiga de León, David; Kershaw, Stephen; Mahan, Shannon


    Alluvial fans formed from sediments derived from erosion of the Juárez Mountains in northernmost México have a significant flood impact on the Ciudad Juárez, which is built on the fan system. The northern part of Ciudad Juárez is the most active; further south, older parts of the fan, upon which the rest of the city is built, were largely eroded by natural processes prior to human habitation and subsequently modified only recently by human construction. Three aeolian sand samples, collected from the uppermost (youngest) parts of the fan system in the city area, in places where human intervention has not disturbed the sediment, and constrain the latest dates of fan building. Depositional ages of the Quaternary alluvial fans were measured using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) on aeolian sands that have inter-fingered with alluvial fan material. These dates are: a) sample P1, 31 ka; b) sample P2, 41 ka; c) sample P3, 74 ka, between Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 3 to 5. They demonstrate that fan development, in the area now occupied by the city, terminated in the Late Pleistocene, immediately after what we interpret to have been an extended period of erosion without further deposition, lasting from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. The three dates broadly correspond to global glacial periods, implying that the cool, dry periods may reflect periods of aeolian transport in northern México in between phases that were wetter to form the alluvial fans. Alluvial fan margins inter-finger with fluvial terrace sediments derived from the Río Bravo, indicating an additional component of fan dissection by Río Bravo lateral erosion, presumed to be active during earlier times than our OSL ages, but these are not yet dated. Further dating is required to ascertain the controls on the fan and fluvial system.

  8. Openness of Economy, Foreign Investment Inflows and the Phenomenon of Rent Seeking Corruption

    Syed Toqueer Akhter


    Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.

  9. Sedimentology and clast fabric of subaerial debris flow facies in a glacially-influenced alluvial fan

    Eyles, N.; Kocsis, S.


    A large alluvial fan (2 km 2), constructed between 11,000 and 7000 years B.P. at the mouth of Cinquefoil Creek in interior British Columbia, Canada, is identified as "glacially-influenced, debris flow-dominated". The fan was rapidly constructed during and immediately after deglaciation when large volumes of glacial debris were resedimented downslope; fans of this type are widespread in the glaciated portion of the North American Cordillera. Diamict facies, deposited as debris flows, account for 48% of the fan volume, sheetflodd gravels 37%, and other facies 15%. Diamicts show three facies types; crudely-bedded facies containing rafts of soft sediment that are attributed to downslope collapse and mixing of heterogeneous glacial deposits. These occur within the core of the fan. Massive and weakly graded (inverse to normal) diamict facies, derived from the downslope flow of weathered volcanic bedrock, occur within a well-defined bed that can be traced across the entire fan. The occurrence of weakly graded facies as lateral equivalents to massive facies within the same bed, implies the partial development of turbulent, high-velocity "streams" within a viscous debris flow moving over a slope of 6°. Clast fabrics in these facies show weakly-clustered a-axes dipping up and downslope comparable to other debris flows and lahars. The Cinquefoil fan, its internal structure and facies, provides a good "modern" analogue for ancient diamictite sequences deposited in areas of active uplift, rifting and glaciation.

  10. Alluvial fan sensitivity to glacial-interglacial climate change: case studies from Death Valley.

    Whittaker, Alexander; D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda-Boluda, Duna; Brooke, Sam


    The effects of climate change on eroding landscapes and the sedimentary record remain poorly understood. The measurement of regional grain size trends in stream-flow deposits provides one way to address this issue because, in principle, these trends embed important information on the dynamics of sediment routing systems and their sensitivity to external forcings. In many cases, downstream stratigraphic fining is primarily driven by selective deposition of sediment. The relative efficiency of this process is determined by the physical characteristics of the input sediment supply and the spatial distribution of subsidence rate, which generates the accommodation necessary for mass extraction. Here, we measure grain size fining rates from apex to toe for alluvial fan systems in Death Valley, California, which have well-exposed modern and late Pleistocene deposits, where the long-term tectonic boundary conditions are known and where climatic variation over this time period is well-constrained. Our field data demonstrate that input grain sizes and input fining rates do vary noticeably over the late Pleistocene-Holocene period in this study area, although there is little evidence for significant changes in rates of faulting in the last 200 ky. For two catchments in the Grapevine Mountains for which we have excellent stratigraphic constraints on modern and 70 ka fan deposits, we use a self-similarity based grain size fining model to understand changes in sediment flux to the fans over this time period. When calibrated with cosmogenically-derived catchment erosion rates, our results show that a 30 % decrease in average precipitation rate over this time-frame led to a 20 % decrease in sediment flux to the fans, and a clear increase in the down-fan rate of fining. This supports existing landscape evolution models that relate a decrease in precipitation rate to a decrease in sediment flux, but implies that the relationship between sediment flux and precipitation rate may be


    Ramona DOBRE


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to demonstrate the role that ground rent has in establishing the agricultural land price. In order to be able to prove the connection between the ground rent and the agricultural land price, there are submitted to debate indicators that are part of ground rent such as the positioning of the land, the distance between the land and the access roads and water source, the intrinsic qualities of the land soil, the type of land and the manner of exploitation. The debate is intended to show how and in what manner the indicators part of ground rent may influence the price of an agricultural land. The final purpose of this study is to prove that a justified land price may contribute to encourage the agricultural land transactions and therefore to develop the land market. To fulfil the purpose of this paper it is necessary to understand what land ground means, why it is important the land price and how can the agricultural land price influence the agricultural land market and the development of the agriculture overall. The main methods utilized are collecting, analyze and interpreting data and information from the specialized literature. The conclusions formulated at the end of the study allow seeing the influence of ground rent on agricultural land price, the influence of the agricultural land price on agricultural land market and the influence of agricultural land market on the development of the agriculture.

  12. River terraces and alluvial fans: The case for an integrated Quaternary fluvial archive

    Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Whitfield, E.


    The fluvial archive literature is dominated by research on river terraces with appropriate mention of adjacent environments such as lakes. Despite modern sedimentary basins comprising a significant (>88%) volume of distributive fluvial systems, of which alluvial fans (>1 km, archive community. Published literature is used to examine both thematic and geographical based benefits of alluvial fan research that can assist understanding of Quaternary fluvial archives. 3 regional case studies are presented that illustrate the interaction between alluvial fan and river terrace archives at Quaternary time-scales at 3 different stages of landscape evolution. These are i) continuous mountain front alluvial fans interacting with a non incising but laterally eroding axial fluvial system; ii) alluvial fans which transition into fluvial terraces as sedimentary basins shift from net aggradation to net incision and iii) tributary-junction alluvial fans that develop predominantly within incising river valley systems. A simple conceptual model is proposed to summarise the dynamic role of alluvial fans within this landscape context. The alluvial fans act as potential 'buffers' between hillslopes and river terrace records under 'top down' climate-driven high sediment supply and alluvial fan aggradation, and 'couplers' during periods of less sediment (in relation to water) discharge and alluvial fan incision. These dynamics will change with the addition of 'bottom up' controls such as main river incision, which will typically enhance the coupling effect of both systems.

  13. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    Burger, Ulrich


    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks

  14. Controls on modern tributary-junction alluvial fan occurrence and morphology: High Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Stokes, Martin; Mather, Anne E.


    Modern tributary-junction alluvial fans (cone-shaped depositional landforms formed in confined valley settings) were analysed from a 20-km-long reach of the Dades River in the distal part of the fold-thrust belt region in the south-central High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Here, a deeply dissected network of ephemeral tributary streams and a perennial trunk drainage characterised by an arid mountain desert climate are configured onto a folded and thrust faulted Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. Out of 186 tributary streams, only 29 (16%) generated alluvial fans at their tributary junctions. The fan-generating catchments possess higher relief, longer lengths, lower gradients, and larger areas than nonfan-generating catchments. Whilst geologically, fan-generating catchments are underlain by folded/steeply dipping weak bedrock conducive to high sediment yield. Tributary-junction fans are built from debris flow or fluvial processes into open or confined canyon trunk valley settings. The proximity of the perennial trunk drainage combined with the valley morphology produces lobate or foreshortened trimmed fan forms. Analysis of fan (area, gradient, process), catchment (area, relief, length, gradient), and tributary valley (width) variables reveals weak morphometric relationships, highlighted by residual plots that show dominance of smaller and lower gradient than expected fan forms. These morphometric relationships can be explained by interplay between the catchment and trunk drainage geology, morphology, climate, and flood regime that are combined into a conceptual 'build and reset' model. Ephemeral tributary-junction fans develop progressively during annual localised winter-spring storm events, attempting to build towards a morphological equilibrium. However, the fans never reach an equilibrium morphological form as they are reset by rare (> 10 year) large floods along the River Dades that are linked to regional incursions of Atlantic low pressure troughs. The model

  15. Changes of levels of rent and risk in the activity of rural farms in Poland

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska


    Full Text Available Lease of agricultural land is a form of the land use. It enables to create or increase a farm, without having to pay capital-expenditure related to the purchase of land. In exchange for the land lease, the tenant agrees to pay a rent, which is a constant burden on its budget and can affect the economic situation of the farm. Changes in the value of rent result in, to a large extent, deficit of land in some areas of Poland, increase of prices and demand for agricultural land. The aim of the study was to analyse the determinants and dynamics of changes in the rates of agricultural rents. The source material for the study were data on the agricultural land market in Poland in 2000-2011 published by the IERiGŻ and GUS.

  16. WHY MY PARTICIPATION MATTERS: Rent-seeking with endogenous prize determination

    Klarizze Anne Puzon; Marc Willinger


    We analyze an institutionalized rent-seeking game in which groups can endogenously choose the prize at stake, e.g. a common-pool resource. In the first stage, groups determine how much of the resource to protect and equally share. In the second stage, the unprotected fraction is competed for in a rent-seeking game. We consider two institutions varying in the extent by which subjects participate: majority voting (i.e. "unrestrained participation" where all group members participate in the prot...

  17. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu


    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  18. Capital switching and the role of ground rent: 2 Switching between circuits and switching between submarkets

    R J King


    In the first paper of this series of three, Harvey's 'circuits of capital' argument was discussed, and was linked first to ground rent theory, and second to forms of social change and crisis in advanced, Western-style economies. In the present paper these various theoretical insights are used to reflect upon the urban housing market in Melbourne from the 1930s to the 1980s. It is concluded (1) that average rent (average annual cost relative to wages), and thereby housing-related accumulation,...

  19. The effects of tax competition when politicians create rents to buy political support

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch


    We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees....... Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...

  20. The Effect of a Sports Stadium on Housing Rents: An Application of Geographically Weighted Regression

    Jorge Enrique Agudelo Torres


    Full Text Available Researchers have determined that real estate prices vary in continuous ways as a function of spatial characteristics.  In this study we examine whether geographically weighted regression (GWR provides different estimates of price effects around a sports stadium than more traditional regression techniques.  We find that an application of GWR with hedonic prices finds that the stadium has a negative external effect on housing rents that extends outward 560 meters, in contrast to the positive external effect on housing rents found using a conventional estimation technique.

  1. Finding Good Areas for Renting Apartments Using Apartments Information and Users' Trajectories

    Si, R.; Lu, M.; Arikawa, M.; Asami, Y.; Iwasaki, J.


    Current apartment renting web sites provide services to search apartments by attribute filters while they lack the services to help find areas that are convenient for living and meet customers' personal preference. In many cases, people not only need attributes of the apartments meeting their requirements, but also need the attributes of the area be satisfied. We propose an IT service that can find appropriate areas for customers to rent apartments while they want to move to new places. The areas are picked according to users' life styles mined from their former moving trajectories and to the attributes of the areas calculated from preferences of present rooms of users.


    Stephanie O. Crofton


    Full Text Available The bubonic plague that swept England in 1349 provides an example of how changes in economic conditions can change norms of social behavior. The death of almost 50 percent of the population altered the returns to labor and land. As the demand for land and the supply of labor declined, rents fell and wages rose. This increased wage-to-rent ratio shifted the structure of the economy from household production to market production. In turn, these changes affected migration, family and community ties, women s labor force participation, family size, inheritance customs, the status of landowning widows, and care for the elderly.

  3. Using Synthetic Aperture Radar data of terrestrial analogs to test for alluvial fan formation mechanisms on Titan

    Cartwright, R. J.; Burr, D. M.


    Landforms on Titan include features hypothesized to be alluvial fans. Terrestrial alluvial fans form via two processes: fluid-gravity flows (sheetfloods) and sediment-gravity flows (debris flows). Along the Panamint Mountain Range in Death Valley, California, USA, seven fans formed primarily by debris flows are located adjacent to seven fans formed primarily by sheetfloods. The causal difference between these two groupings stems from their catchment lithologies; the debris flow fan catchments are clay-rich and relatively sand-poor, and the sheetflood fan catchments are clay-poor and sand-rich. On Titan, the low and mid latitudes are dominated by sand seas, demonstrating that sand is available for transport. At high latitudes, these sand seas are absent, suggesting that transportable sand is scarce. Based on the sedimentology of the two Panamint Range fan types, we hypothesize that possible fans at lower latitudes on Titan are formed by sheetfloods, whereas those at higher latitudes formed primarily by debris flows. To test these hypotheses, we measured and analyzed the mean normalized radar cross sections (σ°) and changes in σ° with downfan distance for debris flow and sheetflood fans along the Panamint Range. We then compared the results with the same measurements for possible fans on Titan. We find that, in the Panamint Range, debris flow fans are brighter than sheetflood fans and have greater change in σ° with downfan distance, and that on Titan, low-latitude possible fans are likewise brighter than the fans at high latitudes with greater change in σ° with downfan distance. Consequently, our findings suggest that low-latitude possible fans on Titan are formed primarily by debris flows, whereas high-latitude possible fans on Titan are formed primarily by sheetfloods. Thus, our results do not support our hypotheses. Scenarios to explain these results include: (1) high-latitude possible fans are dominated by radar-dark debris flow deposits, (2) low- and mid

  4. Alluvial fan flooding in the Department of Pocito, Province of San Juan, Argentina

    LauraPatriciaPerucca; JuanParedes


    The study consists of the identification of landforms subject to alluvial fan flooding in active sectors of the Zonda range piedmont. In the Department of Pocito, located about 5 km southwest of San Juan City, a series of alluvial fans have been identified. These alluvial fans are located downstream of the natural drainage basins covering an area of approximately 130 km2 towards the eastern slopes of the Zonda range at a median elevation of 2,000 m a.s.l.

  5. Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding

    Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim

    sont grossièrement caractérisés par des différentes gammes de résistivitéélectrique se recouvrant, dépendant surtout de la teneur en argiles et du degré de cimentation. Les résistivités près de la côte diminuent du fait de l'intrusion marine. Ces variations de résistivité ont été cartographiées à partir de 400km de profils électromagnétiques, dans le domaine temporel ; trois zones ont été distinguées dans l'aquifère alluvial. Le biseau salé a aussi été délimité, jusqu'à 10km de la côte. L'épaisseur de la partie saturée des graviers va de 20-160m sur une étendue supérieure à 600km2. Resumen Un tercio de la población de Omán depende de las aguas subterráneas extraídas del aluvial de la Llanura de Batinah, en la costa del Golfo de Omán. Para determinar la profundidad y naturaleza del aluvial, así como los límites del acuífero, se han usado técnicas de exploración geofísica profunda. El basamento y los límites estructurales del aluvial en su contacto con los sedimentos marinos del Terciario y la ofiolita cretácica se obtuvieron mediante sísmica de reflexión, registrada previamente en campañas de exploración petrolífera. La base del aluvial buza hacia el norte desde el pie de las Montañas del Norte de Omán, alcanzando una profundidad máxima de 2000m en la costa. Las distintas facies del aluvial están caracterizadas por rangos distintos, pero superpuestos, de resistividad eléctrica, dependiendo del contenido en arcillas y del grado de cementación. Las resistividades cerca de la costa se reducen por la intrusión salina. Estas variaciones de resistividad se obtuvieron con registros electromagnéticos a lo largo de un perfil de 400km, con el objetivo de distinguir las tres zonas del acuífero aluvial. También se pudo obtener la geometría de la cuña de intrusión, que llega hasta 10km de la costa. El espesor de las gravas saturadas que forman el acuífero oscila entre los 20-160m en un área superior a 600km2.

  6. Characterization of alluvial dust sources and their temporal development - a multi-sensor approach for the Aïr Massif, Niger

    Feuerstein, Stefanie; Schepanski, Kerstin


    One of the world's largest sources of atmospheric dust is the Sahara. It is said that 55% of the total global dust emission can be linked to the desert in northern Africa. Thus, understanding the Saharan dust sources is of great importance to estimate the total global dust load and its variability. Especially one type of dust sources has gained attention in dust research in recent years: The emission of dust from sediments formed by hydrologic processes, so called alluvial dust sources. These sediments were either formed in the past under the influences of a more humid paleoclimate or are deposited recently, e.g. during strong precipitation events when surficial runoff leads to the activation of wadi systems or to the occurrence of flash floods. Especially the latter phenomenon is able to deliver a huge amount of potentially erodible sediments. The research presented here focuses on the characterization of these alluvial dust sources with special attention on their temporal variability in relation to wet and dry phases. A study area covering the Aïr Massif in Niger is analysed over a four years time span from January 2013 to December 2016. The whole cycle from sediment formation to dust emission is illustrated by using data of various satellite sensors that are able to capture the processes taking place at the land surface as well as in the atmosphere: (1) The rainfall distribution for the study area is shown by time series of the TRMM precipitation estimates. A catchment analysis of the area helps to estimate the amount of surficial runoff and to detect areas of potential sediment accumulation. (2) Changes in the sediment structure of the land surface are analysed using atmospherically corrected time series of NASA's Landsat-8 OLI satellite. A land cover classification shows the distribution of alluvial sediments over the area; fresh layers of alluvial deposits are detected. Furthermore, the evolution of the vegetation cover, which inhibits dust emission, is

  7. Morphodynamics of semi-alluvial streams in northern Fennoscandia: a flume experiment to determine bedform self-organization

    Polvi, Lina


    ; scour and deposition in relation to large immobile clasts were examined. Preliminary results show that at high flows at the lower slope (2%), fine sediment was deposited above immobile clasts and scour was common below. High flows at the higher slope (5%) caused scour above and occasionally directly below immobile clasts, with fine sediment deposited nearby scour zones above immobile clasts. These results indicate that these channels experience a shielding effect by large immobile clasts, inhibiting bedload transport and creating pockets of fine sediment upstream of large boulders. Additionally, pools downstream of immobile boulders may experience velocity reversals, causing scour instead of deposition in low-velocity zones. In addition, the combined aggradation and degradation between the Q50 and Q10 flows was less than between the Q10 and Q2 flows. This is most likely because the snowmelt-dominated flow regime of northern Sweden with buffering capacity of lakes precludes extremely high flows, causing a small difference in intermediate- and high-recurrence interval flow magnitudes. Therefore, flows with an intermediate recurrence interval likely do the most geomorphic work, but major sediment self-organization as seen in alluvial mountain streams is unlikely barring an extreme event. In conclusion, classical slope-dependent bedform relationships found in alluvial gravel-bed streams may not be applicable in semi-alluvial channels in northern Fennoscandia.

  8. Integrative geomorphological mapping approach for reconstructing meso-scale alluvial fan palaeoenvironments at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    Büdel, Christian; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland


    Alluvial fans and aprons are common depositional features in general Iranian geomorphology. The countries major cities as well as settlements and surrounding area have often been developed and been built up on this Quaternary sediment covers. Hence they periodically face the effects of varying fluvial and slope-fluvial activity occurring as part of this geosystem. The Geological Survey of Iran therefore supports considerable efforts in Quaternary studies yielding to a selection of detailed mapped Quaternary landscapes. The studied geomorphologic structures which are settled up around an endorheic basin in Semnan Province represent a typical type of landform configuration in the area. A 12-km-transect was laid across this basin and range formation. It is oriented in north-south direction from the southern saltpan, called "Kavir-e-Haj Aligholi"/"Chah-e-Jam" ("Damghan Kavir"), across a vast sandy braided river plain, which is entering from the north east direction of the city of Shahroud. At its northern rim it covers alluvial sediment bodies, which are mainly constituted by broad alluvial aprons, fed by watersheds in Alborz Mountains and having their genetic origins in Mio-/Pliocene times. During this study a fully analytical mapping system was used for developing a geodatabase capable of integrating geomorphological analyses. Therefore the system must provide proper differentiation of form, material and process elements as well as geometric separation. Hence the German GMK25 system was set up and slightly modified to fit to the specific project demands. Due to its structure it offers most sophisticated standards and scale independent hierarchies, which fit very well to the software-determinated possibilities of advanced geodatabase applications. One of the main aspects of mapping Quaternary sediments and structures is to acquire a proper description and systematic correlation and categorization of the belonging mapping-objects. Therefore the team from GSI and

  9. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program staff... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... Market Rents published on August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38716), HUD conducted Random Digit Dialing (RDD)...

  10. Co-contamination of As and F in alluvial aquifer

    Kim, S.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Zhu, W.; Lee, E.; Ko, K.


    Co-contamination of As and F is frequently observed in alluvial aquifers of many countries including Argentina, Mexico, China, and Pakistan. However, processes causing this phenomenon are still poorly understood. In arid or semi-arid areas, the aquifers are generally under oxidizing condition and As and F show a good correlation. In contrast, groundwaters under reducing condition generally show a poorer correlation. In this study, we explored the geochemical mechanisms causing the co-contamination of As and F and their poorer correlation in the reducing environment by investigating alluvial groundwaters of the Mankyeong River floodplain, Korea. For this study, we collected 72 groundwater samples from 42 shallow wells placed into the alluvial aquifer. Desorption experiments using soils collected from the study area were also performed. Groundwater chemistry data showed that waters are under strong reducing condition and the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides was the main process increasing As concentration in groundwaters. The co-contamination was also observed in the study area and F did not show a good correlation with As. F showed concentrations increasing with pH. Desorption experiments also showed the dependences of As and F on pH. The experiments using soils treated with Na citrate-NaHCO3-dithonite solution indicated that iron oxides were the main phases hosting both As and F in soils. In our study area, pH of groundwaters increases due to a series of reduction reactions, and which increased F concentration by desorption from iron oxides. This result suggests that sharing the same adsorption hosts and the pH increased by reduction reactions are the main reason for the co-occurrence of As and F in alluvial groundwater under reducing environments. The lack of correlation between As and F was derived by the precipitation of As as sulfides in sulfate reducing condition. However, the correlation could be much better in the oxidizing condition because As released

  11. Surface processes on a mud-dominated Mars analogue alluvial fan, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Hobley, D. E.; Howard, A. D.; Morgan, A. M.; Matsubara, Y.; Moore, J. M.; Parsons, R.; Williams, R. M.; Burr, D. M.; Hayes, A. G.; Dietrich, W.


    We characterize surface processes on highly unusual terrestrial alluvial fans, which we interpret as a strong analogue for large fans on Mars. The Mars fans date to post-Noachian periods when the martian climate was dominated by cold, hyperarid conditions. Some of the martian fans are differentially eroded to leave their distributary channels in positive relief. This inversion, along with the lack of boulders visible on most fan surfaces, reveals that the dominant grain size of the fans is fine enough for the overbank deposits to be stripped by wind. Degradation, image resolution, and lack of ground truthing all act to obscure the nature of the past flow processes. The fans in the Pampa de Tamarugal of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile are excellent potential Mars analogues for a number of reasons: 1. Hyperaridity, with ~2 mm/y rainfall over the fans themselves, resulting in 2. very little vegetation, 3. no fluvial erosion on the fans themselves, and 4. wind-driven erosion of the fan surfaces; 5. equivalent fan scale (tens of km); 6. similar fan gradient (low); 7. low channel branching density; 8. runoff fed from adjacent, much steeper terrain receiving more precipitation (~500 km2 drainages receiving 0.1-1 m/y precipitation in the High Andes, crater walls and interpreted orographic effects on Mars). Both the modern channels and the preserved stratigraphy are dominated by debris flow-like sheetflow mud deposits. Channels are leveed by concrete-like mass-supported deposits of granules and sand suspended in a silt and clay matrix, often overtopping the channel margins and forming up to 150 m wide levees and km-length sheet flows. This leveeing strongly constrains the aggrading channel, which is typically dominated by better sorted and imbricated fluvial deposits. We infer that the wetter tail of mudlfows sorts the deposits, keeping the central channel unblocked by mud. Relatively few channels are active at any time, but aggradation triggers occasional avulsions

  12. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.


    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  13. Using the private rented sector as a form of social housing

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.


    The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives

  14. 75 FR 46958 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... metropolitan areas. However, the first publication of five-year ACS data does not begin until the fourth... current survey data. For FY 2011, FY 2010 FMRs are updated using 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data, and more recent Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes. HUD continues to use ACS data in...

  15. 78 FR 47339 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program, Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are used... Budget (OMB) metropolitan area definitions as updated through December 1, 2009 and include HUD... definition update has not been incorporated in the FMR process due to the timing of the release and the...

  16. The welfare costs of rent-seeking: a methodologically individualist and subjectivist revision

    Michael Makovi


    Full Text Available Gordon Tullock is acknowledged for being the first to recognize the true costs of rent-seeking as including not only the Harberger triangle but also the Tullock rectangle. This rectangle does not constitute merely a lossless transfer of wealth, but it causes a misallocation of resources as rent-seekers invest resources in lobbying. However, a close reading of Tullock’s writings shows that his arguments are formulated in a holistic fashion, speaking of what is efficient or inefficient for society. Rent-seeking is inefficient because it reduces societal welfare. But according to a methodologically individualist and subjectivist economics, such a claim is invalid. We must distinguish between positive economic fact and normative moral philosophy. We call for a reconstruction of utility and welfare economics based on methodological individualism and subjectivism with implications for the theories of monopoly and competition: practices which Neoclassical perfect-competition theory considers to be evidence of rent-seeking should instead be deemed as indications of genuine competition Political economy should be concerned with ascertaining which institutions will best enable individuals to pursue their individually subjective ends – or else economists should be explicit about their normative preferences and political philosophies.

  17. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    Mendoza, Roger Lee


    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion.

  18. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.


    ... GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent level... very low-, low-, or moderate-income families where the income of the family in the dwelling unit is not known to the Enterprise, the affordability of the unit is determined based on unit size as follows:...

  19. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.


    ...) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For a group home, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio derived by... owner for an assisted person may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the group...-rata portion of the payment standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the group...

  20. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.


    .... (a) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For shared housing, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio... for the family may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the shared housing... standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the family unit size; or (2) The pro-rata...

  1. Renting a Place to Live. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 9. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on renting a place to live. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills addressed in the…

  2. Rent Control and Virtual Prices: A Case Study for Interwar Belgium

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); E. Buyst (Erik)


    textabstractAfter World War I rent control became a cornerstone of housing policy in many European countries, resulting in quantity constraints on the demand for housing. The theory on complete demand systems provides a framework for analyzing the effects of these policies on consumption. As a test

  3. Geomorphic characterization of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, in support of the Yucca Mountain Project

    Cline, M.; Delong, S.; Pelletier, J.


    In the event of an unlikely volcanic eruption through the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, contaminated ash may be deposited in portions of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin and subsequently redistributed to the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan by fluvial processes. Characterization of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan has been undertaken as part of an effort to quantify the transport of contaminated ash throughout the fluvial system, especially to define the spatial distribution of fluvial activity over time scales of repository operation, and the rates of radionuclide migration into different soils on the fan. The Fortymile Wash alluvial fan consists of extremely low relief terraces as old as 70 ka. By conducting soils-geomorphic mapping and correlating relative surface ages with available geochronology from the Fortymile Wash fan and adjacent piedmonts, we identified 4 distinct surfaces on the fan. Surface ages are used to predict the relative stability of different areas of the fan to fluvial activity. Pleistocene-aged surfaces are assumed to be fluvially inactive over the 10 kyr time scale, for example. Our mapping and correlation provides a map of the depozone for contaminated ash that takes into account long-term channel migration for the time scales of repository operation, and it provides a geomorphic framework for predicting radionuclide dispersion rates into different soils across the fan. The standard model for vertical migration of radionuclides in soil is diffusion; therefore we used diffusion profiles derived from 137Cs fallout to determine radionuclide infiltration rates on the various geomorphic surfaces. The results show a strong inverse correlation of the geomorphic surface age and diffusivity values inferred from the 137Cs profiles collected on the different surfaces of the fan.

  4. 林地地租量化研究%A Study on the Calculation of Woodland Rent

    邹秀清; 张志云


    以马克思地租理论为指导,阐明市场经济条件下我国林地地租的内涵及特征:求出零级土地的立地指数等级和各立地等级的年级差地租,从总地租中分离出绝对地租和级差地租。%Guided by Marxist land rent theory, under the condition of market economy, the connotation and characteristics of woodland rent in our country are expounded. By calculating site index of zero-leveled woodland, annually differential woodland rent has been separated from absolute woodland rent among total rent.

  5. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.


    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  6. On the Role of Flash Floods for Dust Emission over North Africa: Alluvial Sediments acting as Dust Source

    Schepanski, K.; Klueser, L.; Tegen, I.


    Studies analyzing satellite dust products show that numerous dust sources are located in the foothills of arid and semi-arid mountain regions. There, alluvial sediments deposited on valley bottoms and flood plains are very susceptible to wind erosion and frequently serve as dust source. This study focuses on the spatio-temporal distribution of dust source activation events over the mountain foothills and flood plains over North Africa. Satellite dust retrievals with sub-daily resolution such as from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and METOP A/B Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instruments are used to identify dust source regions. Identified dust source regions are then linked to soil properties and land type classification data sets. Information on the mineralogical composition of transported dust inferred from IASI observation are used (a) to investigate the impact of different source geomorphologies and thus different radiative properties of airborne dust particles, and (b) to estimate the contribution of dust uplift from alluvial sediments compared to dust emission from non-hydrological sources. Ultimately, this study contributes to the understanding of controlling mechanism on the interannual variability of dust source activation and will improve current dust emission modules coupled to atmosphere models.

  7. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    Kenitiro Suguio


    Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

  8. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.


    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during

  9. Statistic inversion of multi-zone transition probability models for aquifer characterization in alluvial fans

    Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Gable, Carl; Teatini, Pietro


    Understanding the heterogeneity arising from the complex architecture of sedimentary sequences in alluvial fans is challenging. This paper develops a statistical inverse framework in a multi-zone transition probability approach for characterizing the heterogeneity in alluvial fans. An analytical solution of the transition probability matrix is used to define the statistical relationships among different hydrofacies and their mean lengths, integral scales, and volumetric proportions. A statistical inversion is conducted to identify the multi-zone transition probability models and estimate the optimal statistical parameters using the modified Gauss-Newton-Levenberg-Marquardt method. The Jacobian matrix is computed by the sensitivity equation method, which results in an accurate inverse solution with quantification of parameter uncertainty. We use the Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, as an example for elucidating the methodology of alluvial fan characterization. The alluvial fan is divided...

  10. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?


    ... classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b) GSA... review of the measurement, classification, service levels provided, or charges assessed that pertain to... contract rent passed through from the underlying lease cannot be appealed; (3) In GSA-owned space, when...

  11. Comparison of planform multi-channel network characteristics of alluvial and bedrock constrained large rivers

    Carling, P. A.; Meshkova, L.; Robinson, R. A.


    The Mekong River in northern Cambodia is an multi-channel mixed bedrock-alluvial river but it was poorly researched until present. Preliminary study of the Mekong geomorphology was conducted by gathering existing knowledge of its geological and tectonic settings, specific riparian vegetation and ancient alluvial terraces in which the river has incised since the Holocene. Altogether this process has allowed a geomorphological portrait of the river to be composed within the Quaternary context. Following this outline, the planform characteristics of the Mekong River network are compared, using analysis of channel network and islands configurations, with the fluvial patterns of the Orange River (South Africa), Upper Columbia River (Canada) and the Ganga River (India, Bangladesh). These rivers are selected as examples of multi-channel mixed bedrock alluvial, anastomosed alluvial and braided alluvial rivers respectively. Network parameters such as channel bifurcation angles asymmetry, sinuosity, braid intensity and island morphometric shape metrics are compared and contrasted between bedrock and alluvial systems. In addition, regional and local topographic trend surfaces produced for each river planform help explain the local changes in river direction and the degree of anastomosis, and distinguish the bedrock-alluvial rivers from the alluvial rivers. Variations between planform characteristics are to be explained by channel forming processes and in the case of mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers mediated by structural control. Channel metrics (derived at the reach-scale) provide some discrimination between different multi-channel patterns but are not always robust when considered singly. In contrast, island shape metrics (obtained at subreach-scale) allow robust discrimination between alluvial and bedrock systems.

  12. The use of O, H and Sr isotopes and carbamazepine to identify the origin of water bodies supplying a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Sassine, Lara; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Lancelot, Joël; Verdoux, Patrick


    Alluvial aquifers are of great socio-economic importance in France since they supply 82% of drinking water production, though they reveal to be very vulnerable to pesticides and emerging organic contaminants. The aim of this work is to identify the origin of water bodies which contribute to the recharge of an alluvial aquifer for a better understanding of its hydrochemistry and transfer of contaminants therein. The study is based on an isotopic and geochemical tracers approach, including major elements, trace elements (Br, Sr),and isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr), as well as organic molecules. Indeed, organic molecules such as pharmaceutical compounds, more precisely carbamazepine and caffeine, have shown their use as indicators of surface water in groundwater. The study area is a partially-confined shallow alluvial aquifer, the so-called Vistrenque aquifer, located at 15 km from the Mediterranean Sea, in the Quaternary alluviums deposited by an ancient arm of the Rhône River, in Southern France. This aquifer constitutes a shallow alluvial layer in a NE-SW graben structure. It is situated between a karst aquifer in lower Cretaceous limestones, on the NW border, and the Costières Plateau, on the SE border, having a similar geology as the Vistrenque. The alluvial plain is crossed by a surface water network with the Vistre as the main stream, and a canal used for irrigation essentially, the BRL canal, which is fed by the Rhône River. δ18O and δ2H allowed to differentiate the BRL canal water, depleted in heavy isotopes (δ2H = -71.5o vs V-SMOW), and the more enriched local rainwater (δ2H = -35.5o vs V-SMOW). In the Vistre surface water a binary mixing were evidenced with the BRL canal water and the rainwater, as end members. Then, in the Vistrenque groundwater both the BRL and the Vistre contributions could be identified, as they still show contrasting signature with local recharge. This allows to highlight the surface water contribution to a heavily exploited

  13. Groundwater components in the alluvial aquifer of the alpine Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges area, Wallis Canton, Switzerland

    Schürch, Marc; Vuataz, François-D.


    Source, type, and quantity of various components of groundwater, as well as their spatial and temporal variations were determined by different hydrochemical methods in the alluvial aquifer of the upper Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges, Wallis Canton, Switzerland. The methods used are hydrochemical modeling, stable-isotope analysis, and chemical analysis of surface water and groundwater. Sampling during high- and low-water periods determined the spatial distribution of the water chemistry, whereas monthly sampling over three years provided a basis for understanding seasonal variability. The physico-chemical parameters of the groundwater have spatial and seasonal variations. The groundwater chemical composition of the Rhone alluvial aquifer indicates a mixing of weakly mineralized Rhone River water and SO4-rich water entering from the south side of the valley. Temporal changes in groundwater chemistry and in groundwater levels reflect the seasonal variations of the different contributors to groundwater recharge. The Rhone River recharges the alluvial aquifer only during the summer high-water period. Résumé. Origine, type et quantité de nombreux composants d'eau de l'aquifère alluvial dans la vallée supérieure du Rhône, Bois de Finges, Valais, Suisse, ainsi que leurs variations spatiales et temporelles ont été déterminés par différentes méthodes hydrochimiques. Les méthodes utilisées sont la modélisation hydrochimique, les isotopes stables, ainsi que l'échantillonnage en période de hautes eaux et de basses eaux pour étudier la distribution spatiale de la composition chimique, alors qu'un échantillonnage mensuel pendant trois ans sert à comprendre les processus de la variabilité saisonnière. Les paramètres physico-chimiques des eaux souterraines montrent des variations spatiales et saisonnières. La composition chimique de l'aquifère alluvial du Rhône indique un mélange entre une eau peu minéralisée venant du Rhône et une eau sulfatée s

  14. Chronostratigraphic study of the Grottaperfetta alluvial valley in the city of Rome (Italy: investigating possible interaction between sedimentary and tectonic processes

    G. Di Giulio


    Full Text Available We carried out geomorphologic and geological investigations in a south-eastern tributary valley of the Tiber River in Rome, the Grottaperfetta valley, aimed to reconstruct its buried geometry. Since results of the geomorphologic study evidenced anomalies of the stream beds, we performed geoelectric and boreholes prospecting to check whether recent faulting, rather than an inherited structural control, possibly contributed to the evolution of the alluvial valley. Vertical offsets of the stratigraphic horizons across adjacent boreholes were evidenced within the Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvium and its substratum. In order to rule out the effects of irregular geometry of the alluvial deposits, we focussed on sectors where vertical offsets affected all the stratigraphic horizons (alluvium and pre-Holocene substratum, showing an increasing displacement with depth. We identified a site where repeated displacements occur coupled with a lateral variation of soil resistivity, and we drilled an oblique borehole aimed to cross and sample the possible fault zone affecting the terrain. A 7 cm thick granular layer, inclined 50°÷70° on the horizontal, was recovered 5 m b.g., and it was interpreted as the filling material of a fracture. The convergence of the reported features with independent evidence from geoelectric and geomorphologic investigations leads to hypothesize the presence of a faulting zone within the Holocene alluvial terrains and to propose the excavation of a trench to verify this hypothesis.

  15. Late Quaternary mass-wasting records and formation of alluvial terraces in the actively uplifting Lao-nong catchment, southwestern Taiwan

    Tsui, H. K.; Hsieh, M. L.; Li, W. L.; Hsiao, Y. T.


    Although dominated by erosion over long term, the tectonically active mountains of Taiwan commonly contain thick landslide and debris-flow gravels capping hillslopes or forming alluvial terraces. These deposits and their associated landforms serve to study ancient mass-wasting histories and their controls on fluvial processes. This study focuses on the Lao-nong River draining the 1000-3000 m high mountain areas in southwestern Taiwan (current tectonic uplift: 10-20 mm/yr). The Lao-nong River exhibits numerous terraces, many of which are of tributary-fan origins and consist of fluvial/debris-flow gravels 20-200 m thick. The development of such alluvial terraces can be observed during 2009 Typhoon Morakot, which brought record-setting 2000 mm of rain. Triggered by this heavy rain, almost all the tributaries of the Lao-nong generated alluvial fans at their mouths and consequently caused up-to-30 m aggradation along the trunk river. The Lao-nong has yielded >100 radiocarbon dates (all internal factors on the timing, magnitude, and frequency of the events. Our field observation suggests that at least some of the large Holocene tributary-fan terraces were sourced from pre-Holocene colluviums.

  16. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...


    ..., and evapotranspiration, relief, slope and density of drainage channels; (B) Factors contributing to... coal mining operation may affect this alluvial valley floor or waters that supply the alluvial valley... alluvial valley floor that would be affected by the surface coal mining operation is of such small...

  17. Disruption of Alluvial Fan Processes in a Cascade Range Stream, and Attempts to Address the Resulting Problems...

    DeVries, P.


    Alluvial fan processes have been altered in two ways on Mouse Creek, tributary of the Sauk River, WA. A county road and low profile bridge were built in the vicinity of a large scale break in slope, and a berm was built upstream along one bank to confine flows. The system has a high sediment load from episodic mass wasting upstream. Over 10 years of survey data and analyses provide a case study of aggradation, flooding, and avulsion processes above the road crossing, and of efforts to address the resulting problems. The berm precluded fan deposition upstream, and appears to have shifted the deposition zone downstream closer to the bridge, leading to an avulsion and impacting upstream migration of salmon to spawning habitat. In addition, the bed elevation of the channel is now higher than the historic fan surface on the other side of the berm. The bridge was raised to reduce the road crossing influence on sediment transport and deposition, which worked for a while locally until the avulsion developed, which accelerated aggradation in the former main channel above the bridge. Plans have been developed for removing the berm and allowing the stream to re-engage its fan. The key design question presently is: should the berm be excavated to its toe on the channel side to accelerate restoration of depositional processes, or should a semblance of bankfull morphology be retained?

  18. Geomorphic and hydrodynamic responses of experimental alluvial channels to rigid vegetation

    Bennett, S. J.


    Vegetation such as trees and woody debris remains a key component of bank stabilization and stream restoration programs because of the beneficial ecologic and hydraulic effects and attributes it brings to river corridors. Yet few design criteria currently are available to guide the use and application of these activities, and part of this problem may lie in not knowing precisely how river corridors respond to the newly introduced vegetation. Physical experiments provide the unambiguous quantification of the geomorphic, hydraulic, and hydrodynamic responses of alluvial channels to the introduction of vegetation. To this end, a range of physical experiments have been conducted using simulated stands of rigid, emergent vegetation and submerged large woody debris in both fixed- and mobile-bed channels to identify these geomorphic responses to and hydrodynamic effects of the introduced vegetation. Experimental results will focus on flow resistance, secondary flow and meander development, coherent flow structures and turbulent mixing, localized erosion and deposition, and the potential for nutrient retention, all in relation to the size, shape, orientation, and density of managed plantings of vegetation or the placement of large woody debris. These experimental results will be compared to both theory and numerical models, and will be discussed within the context of stream restoration design.

  19. Rent pricing decision support mathematical model for finance leases under effective risks

    Rabbani Masoud


    Full Text Available Nowadays, leasing has become an increasingly important and popular method for equipment acquisition. But, because of the rent pricing difficulties and some risks that affect the lessor and lessee's decision making, there are many people that still tend to buy equipment instead of lease it. In this paper we explore how risk can affect the leasing issue support mathematical model. For this purpose, we consider three types of risk; Credit risk, Transaction risk and Risk based pricing. In particular, our focus was on how to make decision about rent pricing in a leasing problem with different customers, various quality levels and different pricing methods. Finally, the mathematical model has been solved by Genetic Algorithm that is a search heuristic to optimize the problem. This algorithm was coded in MATLAB® R2012a to provide the best set of results.



    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  1. It's the rents, stupid. The political economy of the resource curse

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)


    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)

  2. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E


    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy.

  3. Le référent zoulou omniprésent

    Frédéric Giraut


    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Ephémère mémorial à la gloire de Shaka sur la plage de DurbanAuteur :  Said Boujrouf, Durban, octobre 2007.En tant qu'épopée d'un royaume précolonial conquérant et éphémère vainqueur de l'armée coloniale britannique, l'histoire zouloue avec son mythique chef Shaka a été érigée en mythe par les colonisés d’Afrique australe et par les colons britanniques et afrikaners. L'histoire guerrière a été mise scène de différents points de vue et à travers différents médias (cinéma, télé...

  4. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Kelly M. Hastings


    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  5. Experimental determination of thermal properties of alluvial soil

    Kulkarni, N. G.; Bhandarkar, U. V.; Puranik, B. P.; Rao, A. B.


    In the present work, thermal conductivity and specific heat of a particular type of alluvial soil used in brick making in a certain region of India (Karad, Maharashtra State) are experimentally determined for later use in the estimation of ground heat loss in clamp type kilns. These properties are determined simultaneously using the steady-state and the transient temperature data measured in the setup constructed for this purpose. Additionally, physical properties of the soil are experimentally determined for use with six models for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of soil. The predictions from the models are compared with the experimental data. A separate data fitting exercise revealed a small temperature dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on the soil mean temperature.

  6. Alluvial terrace preservation in the Wet Tropics, northeast Queensland, Australia

    Hughes, Kate; Croke, Jacky; Bartley, Rebecca; Thompson, Chris; Sharma, Ashneel


    Alluvial terraces provide a record of aggradation and incision and are studied to understand river response to changes in climate, tectonic activity, sea level, and factors internal to the river system. Terraces form in all climatic regions and in a range of geomorphic settings; however, relatively few studies have been undertaken in tectonically stable settings in the tropics. The preservation of alluvial terraces in a valley is driven by lateral channel adjustments, vertical incision, aggradation, and channel stability, processes that can be further understood through examining catchment force-resistance frameworks. This study maps and classifies terraces using soil type, surface elevation, sedimentology, and optically stimulated luminescence dating across five tropical catchments in northeast Queensland, Australia. This allowed for the identification of two terraces across the study catchments (T1, T2). The T1 terrace was abandoned ~ 13.9 ka with its subsequent removal occurring until ~ 7.4 ka. Abandonment of the T2 terrace occurred ~ 4.9 ka with removal occurring until ~ 1.2 ka. Differences in the spatial preservation of these terraces were described using an index of terrace preservation (TPI). Assessments of terrace remnant configuration highlighted three main types of terraces: paired, unpaired, and disconnected, indicating the importance of different processes driving preservation. Regional-scale variability in TPI was not strongly correlated with catchment-scale surrogate variables for drivers of terrace erosion and resistance. However, catchment-specific relationships between TPI and erosion-resistance variables were evident and are used here to explain the dominant processes driving preservation in these tropical settings. This study provides an important insight into terrace preservation in the tectonically stable, humid tropics and provides a framework for future research linking the timing of fluvial response to palaeoclimate change.

  7. Celestial marriage and earthly rents: interests and the prohibition of polygamy.

    Anderson, G M; Tollison, R D


    Just prior to the Civil War, the US government set out on a relentless campaign to eliminate polygamy within the Mormon Church. This paper offers evidence that the political restrictions on the practice of polygamy were the result of rent seeking by potential beneficiaries of such laws (the Edmonds Act of 1882). Polygamy created benefits for women, but reduced the welfare of most men, in a time period when only adult males had the franchise.

  8. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Zhi-Hua Hu; Qing Li; Xian-Juan Chen; Yan-Feng Wang


    The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and...

  9. Home : no less will do - homeless people's access to the private rented sector

    Reeve, Kesia; Cole, Ian; Batty, Elaine; Foden, Michael; Green, Stephen; Pattison, Ben


    The research on which this report is based was carried out by the Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research (CRESR) at Sheffield Hallam University. It was commissioned by Crisis in response to concerns that single homeless people are finding it difficult to access the private rented\\ud sector, at a time when there is increased reliance on the sector to meet housing need. Changes introduced through the Localism Act 2011 in England, for example, allowed local\\ud authorities to discharge ...

  10. Rent sharing to control non-cartel supply in the German cement market


    A challenge for many cartels is avoiding a destabilizing increase in non-cartel supply in response to having raised price. In the case of the German cement cartel that operated over 1991-2002, the primary source of non-cartel supply was imports from Eastern European cement manufacturers. Industry sources have claimed that the cartel sought to control imports by sharing rents with intermediaries in order to discourage them from sourcing foreign supply. Specifically, cartel members would all...

  11. Kebijakan Ekonomi Politik Stated-Centered dan Rent-Seeking Behavior dalam Kebijakan Pangan Impor Beras

    Wahyu Riawanti


    Full Text Available This present a critical assessment of the political economy that underlie food policy and rice import in Indonesia. State-centric behavior and rent-seeking practices are important determinants of food policy formulation in Indonesia. The study analyzes the importation of rice by the Indonesian government. Study result show that rice policy is based on three main point which are: relationship between farmer's term of trade (NTP, ruse production and distribution; and political power in policy formulation.

  12. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area


    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  13. Viewpoint – Rent-Seeking in Agricultural Water Management: An Intentionally Neglected Core Dimension?

    Walter Huppert


    The author, drawing on thirty-five years of experience in the field of agricultural water management and on cases from research and from development cooperation, puts forward his personal viewpoint on this matter. He contends that local as well as international professionals on different levels in the water sector are caught in multifaceted conflicts between formal objectives and hidden interests – and often tend to resort to rent-seeking behaviour themselves.

  14. Architecture and development of the alluvial sediments of the Upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation in the Cañada Ancha Valley, northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    López-Gómez, José; Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Palma, Ricardo M.


    The Upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation at Cañada Ancha area, northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina, comprises a multi-stage suit of predominantly alluvial sediments that is heterolithic in nature. In that suit, several lithofacies, architectural elements, and bounding surfaces of different order have been identified and their lateral and vertical distribution characterized. This analysis allowed the differentiation of 3 main units (lower, middle and upper), 20 subunits (C-1 to C-20), and the characterization of their alluvial styles. The lower unit (which comprises subunits C-1 to C-4) is mainly formed by fine- to medium-grained sandstones, which become medium- to coarse-grained towards the top. These sandstones characterize settings ranging from floodplains with isolated, unconfined flows, to more complex, vertically stacked, multi-storey sheet sandstones of braided fluvial systems. The middle unit (C-5 to C-10) is dominated by pale brown-grey fine-to coarse-grained sands and medium size subangular to angular conglomerates, which reflect amalgamated complexes of sandstone sheets and downstream accretion macroforms. Remarkably, this alluvial sedimentation was episodically punctuated by volcaniclastic flows. The upper unit (C-11 to C-20) consists of finer sediments, mainly pink to white fine-to medium grained sandstones and red to green siltstones. Towards the top, bioturbation becomes important, and also the presence of volcanosedimentary flows is noticeable. Fluvial settings include braided sheet sandstones with waning flood deposits evolving to isolated high-sinuosity fluvial systems, with flash flood deposits. At the top of this unit, facies may suggest marine influence. Vertical changes in the fluvial style result from both climatic and tectonic controls. A semiarid to arid climate and the active tectonism linked to the eastward migration of the Andean volcanic arc determined major bounding surfaces, fluvial style evolution and the presence of the volcano

  15. Metatranscriptomic Analysis Reveals Unexpectedly Diverse Microbial Metabolism in a Biogeochemical Hot Spot in an Alluvial Aquifer

    Jewell, Talia N. M.; Karaoz, Ulas; Bill, Markus; Chakraborty, Romy; Brodie, Eoin L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Beller, Harry R.


    Organic matter deposits in alluvial aquifers have been shown to result in the formation of naturally reduced zones (NRZs), which can modulate aquifer redox status and influence the speciation and mobility of metals, affecting groundwater geochemistry. In this study, we sought to better understand how natural organic matter fuels microbial communities within anoxic biogeochemical hot spots (NRZs) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at the Rifle (CO) site. We conducted a 20-day microcosm experiment in which NRZ sediments, which were enriched in buried woody plant material, served as the sole source of electron donors and microorganisms. The microcosms were constructed and incubated under anaerobic conditions in serum bottles with an initial N2 headspace and were sampled every 5 days for metagenome and metatranscriptome profiles in combination with biogeochemical measurements. Biogeochemical data indicated that the decomposition of native organic matter occurred in different phases, beginning with mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to CO2 during the first week of incubation, followed by a pulse of acetogenesis that dominated carbon flux after 2 weeks. A pulse of methanogenesis co-occurred with acetogenesis, but only accounted for a small fraction of carbon flux. The depletion of DOM over time was strongly correlated with increases in expression of many genes associated with heterotrophy (e.g., amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism) belonging to a Hydrogenophaga strain that accounted for a relatively large percentage (~8%) of the metatranscriptome. This Hydrogenophaga strain also expressed genes indicative of chemolithoautotrophy, including CO2 fixation, H2 oxidation, S-compound oxidation, and denitrification. The pulse of acetogenesis appears to have been collectively catalyzed by a number of different organisms and metabolisms, most prominently pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Unexpected genes were identified among the most highly expressed

  16. A model to quantify sediment mixing across alluvial piedmonts with cycles of aggradation and incision

    Malatesta, Luca C.; Berger, Quentin; Avouac, Jean-Philippe


    The accurate interpretation of clastic sedimentary records hinges on a good understanding of the timescale and mode of sediment transport from source to sink. An environmental signal can be accurately recorded in the stratigraphy if it is transported quickly without being mixed with older sediments, or it can be entirely shredded by a slow transport and significant mixing along the way. Both transformations can happen in alluvial piedmonts by successive episodes of aggradation and incision. For example, in the Tian Shan the sediment flux reaching the foreland basin is mixed with sediments of up to 0.5 Ma age, mixing and blurring the environmental signals it carries. We present here a numerical model that reproduces cycles of aggradation and incision on an alluvial fan and keeps track of the age composition in the sediment outflow. The model is based on three fundamental time- and length-scales: the period of aggradation-incision cycles, the depth of incision with respect to net aggradation, and the pattern of lateral migration. All three parameters can be reasonably easily surveyed in the field and with remote sensing. For simple geometries, we replace the numerical model with a probabilistic light analytical model. The output of both models quantifies sediment mixing in terms of the probability of finding a given minimum proportion of sediments of age T or older in the output flux. We apply and test the analytical and numerical models to the Eastern Tian Shan where we can rely on independent measurements of mixing and buffering. There, rivers repeatedly aggraded and incised 100's of meters every 20 to 30 kyr with two main effects: 1) the delivery of coarse sediments to the basin is delayed by at least 7 to 14 kyrs between being first evacuated from the mountain and later re-eroded and transported basinward; 2) the outflux of coarse sediments from the piedmont contains a significant amount of recycled material that was deposited on the piedmont as early as the

  17. A Bi-modal Model for Chinese Cities: City Size, Car Use and Land Rent

    DAI Teqi; WANG Liang; ZHOU Binxue


    China is experiencing rapid urbanization and motorization.Urban transport congestion poses a challenge to the cities of China.Policies have been made trying to control the car use and the land use in Chinese cities without sound modelling researches.The existing literature on monocentric city modelling has shown that the parameters are critical for the outcome of the modelling.Following the Alonso-type monocentric model,this paper introduces a bi-modal model to simulate the city size,the distribution of land rent and the modal substitution in Chinese cities.We set the key parameters according to the recent available data of China's cities,and re-explain the hypothesis of the model.Then we make a sensitivity analysis to reveal the impacts of key parameters on the Chinese cities.According to the results,we find that the wage,the price of car use and the agriculture rent have significant impacts on city size.The land supply for the private transport or the public transport has the strongest impacts on car use and the level of transport congestion.The total population of the city and the wage level have strong impacts on land rent.Some results are counter-intuitive,but explainable.We also discuss implication of these results for policy making.

  18. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation...... the rent regulation regimes in Sweden and Denmark as opposed to the »free market« in Finland. The aim is to draw conclusions on the functionality of the different and whether some things can be learned from the differences in between them. The elements of tenant »ownership rights« in the three countries...... are also compared and leads up to the question of whether they should be assessed as so important in relation to contractual principles that one can state that a tenant has a »right of ownership« to a home in the three countries. Analysing rent regulation regimes understanding the importance of path...

  19. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    Diane Saint-Laurent


    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg-1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg-1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg-1 (Pb, respectively, while the 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10–C50, most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth. The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils.

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan


    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses the unconsolidated terrace deposits and alluvium associated with the North Fork of the Red River and the Red River in the western half of Tillman County. These sediments consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer extends over an area of 285 square miles and is used for irrigation and domestic purposes. Granite and the Hennessey Formation outcrop in northern parts of the aquifer where alluvial deposits are absent. These outcrops were included as part of the aquifer in a thesis that modeled the ground-water flow in the aquifer. Most of the aquifer boundaries and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity and recharge data sets were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. Most of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and 1969 water-level elevation contour data sets, and one line in the aquifer boundary data set were digitized from a paper map published at a scale of 1:249,695 in a thesis in which the ground-water flow in the aquifer was modeled. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  1. Climatic and Tectonic forcing on alluvial fans in the Southern Central Andes

    Terrizzano, C. M.; García Morabito, E.; Christl, M.; Likerman, J.; Tobal, J.; Yamin, M.; Zech, R.


    Mountainous regions and their forelands commonly support a suite of landforms sensitive to climate change and tectonics. Alluvial fans in particular, are prominent geomorphological features in arid and semiarid regions which provide record for landscape, climate, and tectonic evolution. We applied 10Be surface exposure dating on moraines and associated fan terraces of the Ansilta range (31.6°S - 69.8°W) in the Southern Central Andes with the aim of comparing both chronologies and examining the nature of alluvial fan development. The alluvial fans yield minimum ages of 19 ± 1 (T1), 120 ± 9 (T2), 185 ± 9 (T3), 389 ± 22 (T4) and 768 ± 35 (T5) ka. Minimum ages derived from moraines are 18 ± 1 (M1), 27 ± 1 (M2), 279 ± 23 (M3) and 410 ± 28 (M4) ka. M1-T1 and M4-T4 seem to be geomorphic counterparts during MIS2 and MIS11-12. Combining our glacial and alluvial database with that available from other published studies, we recognized further glacial-alluvial counterparts. The distinct phases of alluvial fan aggradation mainly correlate with moraines or have a regional extension and fall into local cold and wet times, so that climate seems to be the main forcing of alluvial fan formation at our study site, even being a region with proofed neotectonic activity. We interpret the presence of at least six cold and humid periods of alluvial aggradation which correlate with global MIS 2, 3, 5d-e, 8, 12 and 18-20. Based on these results, alluvial fans may allow landscape and climate reconstructions back to ∼750 ka in our study region.

  2. Partially inverted, mixed grain size alluvial fans in the Atacama Desert as analogues for Martian sediment fans

    Hobley, D. E.; Howard, A. D.


    Martian alluvial fans have now been recognized in many craters around the equatorial latitudes of Mars. HiRISE imagery reveals that their surfaces often show a radial pattern of narrow (10s to 100s of meters), long (km), low relief (thread, with some anastomosing reaches. Almost all flows transport abundant muds as well as a coarser load of cobbles and larger clasts. Occasionally this mud fraction may instead be replaced by sandier material, but this contrast makes little difference to the bulk channel form. Low natural levees are present around many channels, but lobate sheets of fine sediment are ubiquitous beyond these, indicating very frequent overtopping of the levees by hyperconcentrated flows. The main channel course also avulses frequently. Once inactive, channels subsequently begin to be inverted by wind erosion and winnowing of fines, and the second order surface texture of the eroded surfaces and the orientation of some channel segments are both controlled by the wind direction. The first order degradation of the individual channel lobes however is not well predicted by the deposit age and hence duration of exposure. Instead, the original grain size distribution of the deposit and the channel form are of comparable importance. We are developing a numerical model of concurrent fan deposition and inversion to further understand and quantify these processes.

  3. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.


    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  4. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Gran, K. B.


    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  5. Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee; 2006-2008

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

  6. Effects of Silicon on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Maize (Zea maysL.) on Alluvial Soil

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Ri


      The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on alluvial soil, including total chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate [subscript] P n [/subscript...

  7. Deciphepring the grain-size trends through time: case study of the quaternary Urumqi alluvial in the Chinese Tian Shan piedmont

    Guerit, Laure; Barrier, Laurie; Gayer, Eric; Narteau, Clément; Youcun, Liu; Lajeunesse, Eric; Meunier, Patrick; Van der Woerd, Jerôme; Murray, Andrew; Métivier, François


    Understanding the controls on the size of the sediments observed in sedimentary basins is a key challenge in sedimentology, as it influences strongly the physical processes of transport and deposition, and thus the characteristics of basin filings. In addition, the size of the sediments is related to the conditions prevailing in the area where they have been produced, and we should theoretically be able to read the tectonic and climatic conditions that prevailed at the time of deposition from the granulometric evolution of the sediments coming from a given area. If large changes in the granulometry of the sediments are often associated to climatic or tectonic perturbations, the influence of autogenic processes, and in particular of autogenic incisions of alluvial deposits, should also be considered. To bring insight into this question, we sampled the grain size along a well-exposed, vertical section of an alluvial fan mainly made up of gravels, and located in the semi-arid northern piedmont of the Tian Shan in China. Alluvial fans are well designed to explore such questions, as they are located at the outlet of drainage basins and constitute therefore the first record of the sediments exported out of the relief. Datations based on cosmogenic and OSL analyses provide a good temporal framework, and allow the comparison with the documented climatic or tectonic events that have affected the area. Based on these data, we discuss the possible relationships between the observed evolution in grain size for the last 300 000 years and the known history of the studied fluvial system. We propose that the granulometric signal is related initially to the growth of the alluvial fan, and then, to its incision due to the last glacial-interglacial climatic change. However, autogenic events might also have been recorded and in particular, a recent and short-lived increase of the average grain size could be related to the rapid incision of the river, which could have enhanced the

  8. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.


    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  9. Strength and Stiffness of Stabilized Alluvial Silt under Frost Actions

    Haibo Wang


    Full Text Available The Yellow River alluvial silt was stabilized into pavement base materials for cold regions. The stabilizing additives were cement, fly ash, and lime, which were included in a range of combinations and dosages when mixed with the silt. Freeze-thaw cyclic impacts were conducted on the treated samples to assess materials performance of withstanding the frost actions. The tests were conducted on samples cured for 7 days to up to 180 days. Test results show that the cement-fly ash-treated samples outperform the other two stabilization categories with respect to material strength and stiffness developed under both normal and frost conditions. Under the normal conditions, the material unconfined compressive (UC strength rises to 3.0 MPa on day 28 depending on the cement and fly ash dosage used. If subjected to frost actions, the fly ash inclusions warrant a residual UC strength value of 1.3 MPa and above. The antifrost performance of the cement-fly ash-treated samples is related to thermal buffer capacity of the fly ash particles. Water adsorption and material soundness results agree with the strength and stiffness development. An optimal dosage was 3–6% for the cement and 0.3 for cement to fly ash mass ratio.

  10. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  11. Cobalt in alluvial Egyptian soils as affected by industrial activities


    Twenty-five surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Co content in alluvial soils of Delta in Egypt using the delayed Neturen activation analysis technique (DNAA). The two prominent gamma ray lines at 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV was efficiently used for 60Co determination. Co content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 13.12 to 23.20 ppm Co with an average of 18.16*4.38 ppm. Cobalt content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 26.5 to 30.00 ppm with an average of 28.3*1.3 ppm. The highest Co levels (ranged from 36 to 64.69 ppm with an average of 51.9*9.5); were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils due to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  12. Interactions between fauna and environment in recent alluvial soils (Dunajec River, SE Poland)

    Mikuś, Paweł; Uchman, Alfred


    Recent riverine system is a particular place for interactions between fauna and the deposited sediments containing young and old alluvial soils. It is characterized by large energy gradients in relatively short time, which forces special adaptations of burrowing animals recorded in bioturbation structures. Predators produce mainly shelter burrows (interpreted as domichnia), and saprofags, especially earthworms, produce locomotion and feeding structures (pascichnia). Such structures have been studied in non- or poorly vegetated, sandy or muddy Holocene alluvia in the lower reach of the Dunajec River flowing through the Carpathian Foredeep in SE Poland. The observed burrows are mostly produced by a variety of organisms, including the European mole (Talpa europaea), common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), ground beetles (Carabidae), solitary bees (Ammophila), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European beaver (Castor fiber), shrews (Soricidae), European otter (Lutra lutra), several species of mice (Muridae), voles (Myodae, Microtae), and the swallow sand martin (Riparia riparia). Burrows of a few species of ground beetles have been subjected to more detailed studies. Fertile deposits of older (early to middle Holocene) terraces, formed with many long-term interruptions in sedimentation processes, have a well-developed soil levels, more vulnerable to burrowing than recently deposited sediments. The terraces contain layers of sands and muds, which primary sedimentary structures and layer boundaries are completely or partly disturbed by bioturbation. Organic-rich muds have been moved up and down and mixed with sand. Moreover, sediments have been leached into open burrows during floods or rainfalls. In the natural levee sediments, mostly fine to medium sands, are horizontally burrowed, foremost by earthworms (Lumbricidae). Vertical, long (over 2 m deep) burrows of larger earthworms cross cut the natural levee sediments and enter buried soils. They were formed during a long period

  13. Reducing appropriable quasi rents to combat the hold-up problem in contract agriculture

    Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg


    This paper examines the problem of hold-up in the agri-food sector. Production contracts offered to future Danish Broiler producers give rise to specific investments and appropriable quasi rents. Farmers are vulnerable to opportunistic behaviour by poultry processors which materializes in lower......, when building the broiler house, to prepare a viable future change in production from broilers to pigs. This will increase the bargaining power to farmers and may result in higher producer prices. Based on the general model of the hold-up problem with co-specific investments (Koss & Eaton, 1997...

  14. Marx’s Ground Rent Theory and Innovation of China’s Urban Land System

    Jiefang; ZHU


    China’s traditional urban land system is established in highly centralized planned economy. This system negates functions of value law and economic law fundamentally,so it is not favorable for establishment of market mechanism and development of market economy. This study took Marx’s ground rent theory as guidance,combined existing problems of China’s land use system,and made analysis on innovation of China’s urban land system from property right system,land market and land price.

  15. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Mărioara Drugă


    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  16. Controls on morphometry and morphology of alluvial and colluvial fans in the high-Arctic setting, Petuniabukta, Svalbard.

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek


    The Petuniabukta (78o42' N, 16o32') is a bay in the northern part of Billefjorden in the central part of Spitsbergen Island, Svalbard. The bay is surrounded by six major, partly glaciated valleys. A numerous alluvial and colluvial fans have developed within valleys as well as along the fiord margins. Distribution and characterization of morphometric parameters of fans were investigated using time-series of orthophotos and digital elevation models (generated based on 1961, 1990, 2009 aerial photographs) and high resolution satellite imagery from 2013. In addition, a very detailed DEM and orthophoto (5 cm resolution) have been produced from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery from 2014 and 2015, covering three fans characterised by different types of surface morphology. A 1:40,000 map showing the distribution of almost 300 alluvial and colluvial fans (ranging in area from 325 km2 to 451 275 km2), together with time-series of 1:5,000 geomorphological maps of sample fans enabled an assessment of the spatial and temporal evolution of processes responsible for delivery and erosion of sediments from the fans. The relationship between terrain parameters (e.g. slope, exposition) as well as geology was also investigated. Many of the studied alluvial fans were at least partly coupled and sediments were transferred from the upstream zone to the downstream zone, either due to debris-flow or channelized stream flow. In other cases, coarse sediments were stored within fans, and fines were transported downstream by sheet flows or sub-surface flows. In most of smaller colluvial fans and debris cones, sediments were delivered by mass movement processes (mainly rockfalls and snowfalls) and did not reach lower margin of landforms. Analysis of historical aerial photographs indicated recent increase in the activity of debris-flow modification of surface morphology of fans. Fans located outside limits of the Little Ice Age (LIA) glaciation are dominated by the secondary processes

  17. Les Glasgow Rent Strikes de 1915 ou quand la désobéissance civile des femmes contraint le législateur When Female Disobedience Lays Down the Law: the 1915 Glasgow Rent Strikes

    Olivier Esteves


    Full Text Available The outbreak of World War I in 1914 generated a massive influx of workers into the Clyde area, a hugely strategic region for heavy industry (shipyards, but also ammunition factories. This influx caused rents to rise in a certain number of districts, mostly around the factories and the shipyards. In order to protest against such grossly unfair increases, the women of Glasgow and their families decided to refuse to pay the new rents. They argued that they too contributed actively to the war effort, and that, by imposing rent hikes, the landlords of Glasgow and their factors implicitly sided with the German foe, by weakening a portion of the population so instrumental in supplying the British armed forces on the continent. After several months of actively sustained civil disobedience, Parliament passed a law that fixed rents until the end of the conflict. But in actual fact the Glasgow Rent Strikes generated certain changes that were to go way beyond the peculiar context of the Great War.

  18. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Tick, Geoffrey R.


    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer–aquitard complexes.

  19. Resolving electrolayers from VES: A contribution from modeling the electrical response of a tightly constrained alluvial stratigraphy

    Mele, M.; Ceresa, N.; Bersezio, R.; Giudici, M.; Inzoli, S.; Cavalli, E.


    The reliability of the hydrostratigraphic interpretation of electrostratigraphy derived from ground based, Direct Current resistivity methods is analyzed through the forward modeling of synthetically derived electrostratigraphic layering in a tightly constrained alluvial framework. To this purpose, a high-resolution stratigraphic model of the horizontally-stratified, alluvial aquifers hosted by the Quaternary regressive cycle of the Po plain in Lombardy was elaborated for a small area (1 ha) by correlation of borehole lithostratigraphic data down to 160 m below the ground surface. The stratigraphic model was used to compute 1-D synthetic electrostratigraphy based on the petrophysical relationship linking the bulk electrical resistivity of porous sediments to the coarse-to-fine litho-textural ratio and to the average pore-water electrical conductivity. A synthetic apparent resistivity curve was computed for the 1-D synthetic electrostratigraphy and for a traditional Vertical Electrical Sounding with Schlumberger array and a maximum dipole separation of 300 m. A good agreement was observed with the experimental apparent resistivity curve obtained with a Vertical Electrical Sounding collected in the study area. The comparison of the 1-D synthetic electrostratigraphy with the results obtained by inversion of the experimental data with the linear-digital filter method, under the assumption of electrically homogeneous layers and no lateral resistivity transition, was used to estimate the hydrostratigraphic resolving power of ground-based resistivity data at various depths. Stratigraphic units of different hierarchic orders can be resolved by Direct Current methods at different depths and at different sites. In this specific case study, Vertical Electrical Sounding resolution was comparable to the hierarchy of the genetic depositional systems, corresponding to the rank of the hydrostratigraphic systems.


    Bazyli Czyżewski


    Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.

  1. [Palliative care for elderly patients living in rented housing by pharmacists].

    Uno, Tatsuya; Aoyama, Miyoshi; Shibata, Kenzo


    Yanase Pharmacy Co., Ltd. actively provides home health care intervention. The present study examined the effects of drug management guidance provided as home-visit-based health care support for elderly patients living in rented housing. The subjects were 117 patients who moved into rented accommodation for the elderly between June 2009 and February 2012, and who received drug administration guidance. The majority of the subjects had intractable diseases: 74(63%)were terminally ill with cancer, 7(6%)had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 2(2%)had muscular dystrophy. Home-visit-based support included accompanying physicians' visits, formulation support, participation in the conference, and the provision of drug information for home-visiting nurses. The following formulation support measures were used: reducing intravenous infusion was proposed to address terminally ill cancer patients with a large amount of sputum; advice was provided on the selection of opioids for patients with renal failure; and drug options were discussed to alleviate the symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction. All of these measures effectively alleviated symptoms.

  2. Perceptions of private market landlords who rent to tenants of a Housing First program.

    Aubry, Tim; Cherner, Rebecca; Ecker, John; Jetté, Jonathan; Rae, Jennifer; Yamin, Stephanie; Sylvestre, John; Bourque, Jimmy; McWilliams, Nancy


    The rental of housing units by landlords to participants in Housing First (HF) programs is critical to the success of these programs. Therefore, it is important to understand the experiences of landlords with having these individuals as tenants. The paper presents findings of qualitative interviews with 23 landlords who rented to tenants from a HF program located in a small city and adjoining rural area in eastern Canada and in which approximately 75 % of tenants had been housed for at least six consecutive months at 2 years in the program. Findings showed that landlords are motivated to rent to HF tenants for financial and pro-social reasons. They reported holding a range of positive, neutral, and negative perceptions of these tenants. They identified problems encountered with some HF tenants that included disruptive visitors, conflict with other tenants, constant presence in their apartments, and poor upkeep of units. On the other hand, landlords perceived HF tenants as being mostly good tenants who are similar to their other tenants. Implications for practice in the context of HF programs are discussed.

  3. Characterization of an alluvial aquifer with thermal tracer tomography

    Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter


    In the summer of 2015, a series of thermal tracer tests was performed at the Widen field site in northeast Switzerland. At this site numerous hydraulic, tracer, geophysical and hydrogeophysical field tests have been conducted in the past to investigate a shallow alluvial aquifer. The goals of the campaign in 2015 were to design a cost-effective thermal tracer tomography setup and to validate the concept of travel time-based thermal tracer tomography under field conditions. Thermal tracer tomography uses repeated thermal tracer injections with different injection depths and distributed temperature measurements to map the hydraulic conductivity distribution of a heterogeneous aquifer. The tracer application was designed with minimal experimental time and cost. Water was heated in inflatable swimming pools using direct sunlight of the warm summer days, and it was injected as low temperature pulses in a well. Because of the small amount of injected heat, no long recovery times were required between the repeated heat tracer injections and every test started from natural thermal conditions. At Widen, four thermal tracer tests were performed during a period of three days. Temperatures were measured in one downgradient well using a distributed temperature measurement system installed at seven depth points. Totally 12 temperature breakthrough curves were collected. Travel time based tomographic inversion assumes that thermal transport is dominated by advection and the travel time of the thermal tracer can be related to the hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer. This assumption is valid in many shallow porous aquifers where the groundwater flow is fast. In our application, the travel time problem was treated by a tomographic solver, analogous to seismic tomography, to derive the hydraulic conductivity distribution. At the test site, a two-dimensional cross-well hydraulic conductivity profile was reconstructed with the travel time based inversion. The reconstructed profile

  4. Effect of coal ash disposal upon an unconfined alluvial system

    Shergill, B.S.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Dinger, J.S. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Kentucky Geological Survey)


    Fly and bottom ash from coal combustion has been disposed in four ash ponds in an alluvial valley. Three of the ash ponds are receiving ash and one was filled and closed. Twenty eight monitoring wells ranging in depth from 10 feet to 65 feet have been installed at the site to study groundwater flow and chemistry. Hydraulic heads are influenced by the stage of the Kentucky River, and the flow direction is vertical below the ash ponds and predominantly horizontal a short distance from the pond all the way to the river. Three different groundwater flow zones were observed and have unique water chemistry. The deep zone (near bedrock) has a low Eh (< [minus]80), and high concentration of Fe, ammonia nitrogen, below detection sulfate values (< 5 mg/l) and trace metals. The age of the deep groundwater as determined by tritium analyses is between 20 to 30 years old (5.68 TU). The intermediate groundwater zone (from ash pond) has relatively higher Eh (> 100) and lower concentrations of Fe and ammonia nitrogen, median sulfate concentration (114 mg/l), and arsenic is below detection limits. The shallow groundwater zone is through the closed out ash point and has higher concentrations of nearly all cations and anions, including sulfate (888 mg/l) and arsenic (exists as arsenite) at concentration of 0.9 mg/l, low Eh (< [minus]100), and high pH. When shallow flow enters the alluvium, the sulfate are attenuated by sulfate reduction and this results in high bicarbonate values. Saturation indices (SI) as calculated by the geochemical model, MINTEQA2, indicate that deep and intermediate groundwater are unsaturated and shallow groundwater is at or near equilibrium with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum.

  5. Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Soils from in-situ Tests

    Młynarek, Zbigniew; Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicki, Jedrzej


    The article concentrates on the identification of geotechnical parameters of alluvial soil represented by silts found near Poznan and Elblag. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (static penetration) and SDMT (dilatometric) methods, as well as by the vane test (VT). Geotechnical parameters of the subsoil were analysed with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. The article includes an analysis of the overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 9 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne's formula (1995) was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefullness of the sediments found near Poznan as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterised by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition (Fig. 18 and 19). On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  6. Lithium isotope behaviour during weathering in the Ganges Alluvial Plain

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Frings, Patrick J.; Murphy, Melissa J.


    The Ganges river system is responsible for the transportation of a large flux of dissolved materials derived from Himalayan weathering to the oceans. Silicate weathering-driven cooling resulting from uplift of the Himalayas has been proposed to be a key player in Cenozoic climate variation. This study has analysed Li isotope (δ7Li) ratios from over 50 Ganges river waters and sediments, in order to trace silicate weathering processes. Sediments have δ7Li of ∼0‰, identical to bulk continental crust, however suspended sediment depth profiles do not display variations associated with grain size that have been observed in other large river systems. Dissolved δ7Li are low (∼11‰) in the Ganges headwaters, but reach a constant value of 21 ± 1.6‰ within a relatively short distance downstream, which is then maintained for almost 2000 km to the Ganges mouth. Given that Li isotopes are controlled by the ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation, this suggests that the Ganges floodplain is at steady-state in terms of these processes for most of its length. Low δ7Li in the mountainous regions suggest silicate weathering is therefore at its most congruent where uplift and fresh silicate exposure rates are high. However, there is no correlation between δ7Li and the silicate weathering rate in these rivers, suggesting that Li isotopes cannot be used as a weathering-rate tracer, although they do inform on weathering congruency and intensity. The close-to-constant δ7Li values for the final 2000 km of Ganges flow also suggest that once the size of the alluvial plain reached more than ∼500 km (the flow distance after which riverine δ7Li stops varying), the Ganges exerted little influence on the changing Cenozoic seawater δ7Li, because riverine δ7Li attained a near steady-state composition.

  7. IBIEM modelling of the amplification of seismic waves by a three-dimensional layered alluvial basin

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liang, Jianwen; Huang, Yihe; Liu, Lei


    We develop an indirect boundary integral equation method (IBIEM) to solve the scattering of seismic waves by a 3-D layered alluvial basin. We adopt the dynamic Green's functions for concentrated loads for a layered half-space derived from the modified stiffness method. This new algorithm of Green's function can solve the near-source response efficiently and accurately, and also facilitates the meshless implementation of the IBIEM. The numerical accuracy and stability of the IBIEM are tested for a homogeneous, hemispherical alluvial basin, and a two-layered model. Based on the IBIEM, the effects of several important parameters, such as the incident frequency, the angle of incidence and the properties of the alluvial layers are investigated for incident plane P and SV waves, respectively. The results show that the local amplification effects of a 3-D layered alluvial basin on the ground motion are strikingly significant, and that the spatial variation of the displacement response is drastic. We also find that the thickness of the near-surface low-velocity alluvial layer has a pronounced influence on the frequency spectrum of ground motion within the basin. As for the thick low-velocity layer, the amplification effect on the displacement amplitude spectrum appears in a wide range of frequencies, with more resonant models in the same frequency range. As for the thin low-velocity layer, in contrast, the amplification effect is close to the homogeneous case but becomes more significant for high-frequency waves. The displacement amplification for a basin with a soft intermediate layer is larger than that of the homogeneous basin for the lower frequencies, but seems to be weakened for high-frequency waves. Additionally, the damping ratio of the alluvial layer can substantially reduce the displacement amplitude in the basin, especially in the range of resonant frequencies. Our results provide a better understanding of the 3-D wave focusing and basin-edge effect within 3-D

  8. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    Li Zhe, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ouyang Minggao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: > Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. > Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. > Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. > Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. > The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  9. New Approach to Depositing Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Buffer Layers for Coated Conductors (Postprint)


    YBa2Cu3O7− ( YBCO ) cannot be deposited directly onto the tapes due to tape oxidation and chemical interdiffu- sion issues,5 so buffer layers must be used... YBCO can be deposited. Control of the biaxial texture of the final YBCO superconducting layer is critical to the success of the YBCO -coated conductor...Misorientation at YBCO grain boundaries, both [100]-tilt and [100]-twist, have a significant impact on critical cur- rent density (Jc); nearly an


    Jianchun HUANG; Blair GREIMANN; Chih Ted YANG


    This paper presents a one-dimensional numerical model for predicting sediment transport and bed evolution in natural rivers that have floodplains. The sediment transport in floodplains is generally different from that in the main channel. Even when erosion occurs in the main channel,the floodplain usually experiences deposition. To predict the erosion and deposition in the same cross section,the river is divided into three subchannels in the transversal direction: the main channel and the left and right floodplains. The non-equilibrium sediment transport equation is modified to account for the sediment exchanges between the subchannels. The numerical model has been applied to the stretch of the Rio Grande from San Acacia Diversion Dam to Elephant Butte Reservoir. Based on a comparison with field data,the bed profile and cumulative deposition are estimated satisfactorily by the numerical model.

  11. Longitudinal Variation of River Hydrodynamics in a Semi-Alluvial River

    Rennie, C. D.; Venditti, J. G.; Adderly, C.; Church, M. A.


    Knowledge of the longitudinal variation of river hydrodynamics is essential for understanding flood potential as well as transport of sediment, nutrients, and contaminants. The long profile has generally been studied by means of surveying a few representative cross-sections, along with cartographic analyses of the longitudinal variation of channel width and slope. Understanding the complete longitudinal distribution of river hydrodynamics generally requires numerical modelling. As an alternative, in this paper we present a 524 km continuous centreline acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) survey of the dominantly rock-bound, gravel-bed Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. Air photo analysis provided river widths along the surveyed reach, and the aDcp data yielded continuous centreline depth, depth-averaged velocity, and shear velocity. The survey reach was subdivided into 10 morphological sub-reaches, which ranged from alluvial gravel-bed reaches with relatively moderate slope to steep non-alluvial rock-walled canyons. Within each sub-reach the data were grouped based on presence of bedrock confinement on both banks, either bank, or neither bank. The results demonstrate that river widths decreased and water depths, flow velocities, and shear velocities increased from the alluvial sub-reaches to the semi-alluvial reaches to the canyon reaches. Within each sub-reach, locations with bedrock encroachment on both banks were narrower and deeper and had lower depth-averaged velocity and shear velocity. These results demonstrate the influence of bedrock on semi-alluvial channel morphology and hydrodyanamics.

  12. Clay Mineralogy of Soils and Sediments from an Alluvial Aquifer, Rifle, Colorado

    Elliott, W. C.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Lim, D.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Qafoku, N. P.


    Alluvial aquifers along the Colorado River corridor in central to western Colorado contain legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial aquifers host important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface that are both significant on their own, but also influence contaminant behavior. Mineral phases likely active in the sequestration of metal contaminants are chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite, and smectite. These minerals are also important biogeofacies markers. The Colorado alluvial sediments include lenses of silt and clay that are commonly more reduced than coarser grained materials. The clay minerals that make up the alluvial aquifer sediments include these mineral phases important for metal sequestration (chlorite, smectite, illite), as well as kaolinite and quartz. More specifically, the clay mineralogy of soils derived from these sediments at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the alluvial sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade. The vermiculite-smectite intergrade is a weathering product of illite. The presence of illite and chlorite in both the sediments and the soils at Rifle reflect a mineralogically immature character of the source rocks. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate, indicative of mixed provence of immature (chlorite, smectite, illite) and mature (kaolinite) minerals relative to their source areas.

  13. Modelling the Holocene Evolution of a Drift-dominated Alluvial-fan Coast

    Hicks, M.; Dickson, M.; Coco, G.


    A numerical model is being developed to simulate shore evolution along an alluvial fan coast over the Holocene. The alluvial fan of the Waitaki River, on the east coast of New Zealand's South Island, was built by Pleistocene glacial advances but has been eroded back by waves over recent millennia. The retreat has left a cliffed shore fronted by a narrow beach of mixed sand and gravel and a gently sloping seabed with only a thin, patchy sand cover over the Pleistocene substrate. The study motivation is to examine the sensitivity of shoreline movements in this setting to wave-climate change, sea-level rise, and river sediment supplies. The modelling couples a profile evolution model with a shoreline model. The profile evolution model is operational and is driven by a series of coupled process models which include seabed scour, berm construction during normal waves, berm overtopping and subsequent beach-stripping and scour of the exposed substrate and cliff-toe notching by storm waves, gravity failure of the cliffs and talus construction, and beach sediment abrasion. Negative feedback regulates the rate of cliff erosion through the protection provided by the new material added into the beach from the eroding cliffs and substrate. The model is forced by two wave conditions: a normal swell and a randomly-varying storm wave. These operate for proportions of the yearly time step. The model was begun on a sloping fan surface inundated by the last stages of post-glacial sea-level rise (8000 yr BP). The initial response is for rapid growth of a gravel beach ridge fed by wave-excavation of the nearshore. As the nearshore profile nears equilibrium with the wave climate, the onshore feed wanes below the abrasion rate and the beach ridge loses volume. As sea level rises the beach ridge moves upward and landward, but its capacity to do so is limited by the rate of sediment feed from the nearshore. When the beach size reduces to a threshold at which storm waves periodically

  14. Event scale variability of mixed alluvial-bedrock channel dynamics

    Cook, Kristen; Turowski, Jens; Hovius, Niels


    The relationship between flood events and fluvial behavior is critical for understanding how rivers may respond to the changing hydrologic forcing that may accompany climate change. In mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers, the response of the system to a flood event can be affected by a large number of factors, including coarse sediment availability in the channel, sediment supply from the hillslopes, bedrock-controlled changes in channel width and planform, and the shape of the hydrograph. We use the Daan River Gorge in western Taiwan as a case study to directly observe the effect of individual flood events on channel evolution. The 1200 m long and up to 20 m deep bedrock gorge formed in response to uplift of the riverbed during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The extremely rapid pace of change ensures that flood events have measurable and often dramatic effects on the channel. Taiwan is subject to both summer typhoons and a spring monsoon, resulting in numerous channel-altering floods with a range of magnitudes. Discharge is therefore highly variable, ranging from 5 to over 2000 m3/s, and changes in the channel are almost entirely driven by discrete flood events. Since early 2009 we have monitored changes in the gorge with repeated RTK GPS surveys, laser rangefinder measurements, and terrestrial LIDAR surveys. Six rainfall stations and five water level gauges provide hydrological data for the basin. We find a distinct relationship between flood magnitude and the magnitude of geomorphic change; however, we do not find a clear relationship between flood characteristics and the direction of change - whether the channel experienced aggradation or erosion in a particular flood. Upstream coarse sediment supply and the influence of abrupt changes in channel width on bedload flux through the gorge appear to have important influences on the channel response. The better understand these controls, we use the model sedFlow (Heimann et al., 2014) to explore the effects of interactions

  15. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Zhi-Hua Hu


    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  16. Morphometry and Geomorphic Characteristics of Large Alluvial fans and Megafans in South America

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Sounny-Slitine, M. A.


    Alluvial megafans are 'large' fan-shaped bodies of sediment that form from lateral migrations of a river as it exits a topographic front. They differ from large alluvial fans (radial length between 30-100km) with sizes greater than 100-km in radial length. This study characterizes and describes megafans and large alluvial fan through morphometrics. We cataloged the fans into a geodatabase delineating size and extent of basins both upstream and downstream from the apex. Through remote sensing, elevation modeling and geomorphic mapping, we populated the database with fan morphometric measurements, qualitative descriptions and basin parameters. Metrics include planform area, catchment area, gradient, relief index, drainage density, and others. These were compared to longitudinal/transverse profiles, satellite imagery, and geomorphic maps. The database is global, however since the largest megafans of the world are located in South America, this preliminary analysis will focus on the continent. We found morphometric and characteristic differences between large alluvial fans and megafans in the region. These include difference in relationship between morphometrics, for example the ratio between catchment and fan size area. These properties of fans could be a better approach in differentiating megafans from large alluvial fans. The current criteria is an artificial scale divide, which varies in the literature, with the most common being a 100-km apex-to-toe length. Alternative values as little of 30-km apex-to-toe length have been proposed, as well as alternative metrics like coverage areas of greater than 10,000 square-km. We propose that geomorphic characteristics and morphometrics provide an intrinsic approach to differentiating megafans from larger alluvial fans.

  17. 24 CFR 1000.124 - What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income rental...


    ... homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income rental tenant or homebuyer residing in housing units... Activities § 1000.124 What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income... charge a low-income rental tenant or homebuyer rent or homebuyer payments not to exceed 30 percent of...



    <正>20070291 Gong Ping (Northern Fujian Geological Party, Shaozou 354000) Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Control Factors of the Shimen Au-polymetallic Deposit in Zhenghe County, Fujian Province (Geology of Fujian, ISSN1001-3970, CN38-1080/P, 25(1), 2006, p.18-24, 2 illus., 2 tables, 1 ref.) Key words: gold deposits, polymetallic deposits, Fujian Province

  19. 77 FR 61157 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... publication of ACS data to use the 2010 Decennial census for geographic boundaries. Consequently, HUD... Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated by one-year recent-mover 2010 ACS data using areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are...

  20. 78 FR 61667 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... publication did show much lower coverage of the 2005-2009 PRCS compared with the 2005-2009 ACS, 79.5 percent... Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated by one-year recent-mover 2011 ACS data for areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are...

  1. 76 FR 12985 - Request for Comments on Trend Factor Methodology Used in the Calculation of Fair Market Rents


    ... publication in final form in the Federal Register. Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection... Bedroom FMR, (do not remove ACS Update). 3. Determine Current Year ACS Update Factor and Apply to Value in... months (to the Midpoint of the publication Fiscal Year). A. Base Year Data FMRs start with base rents...

  2. 76 FR 60967 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... by the American Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated using one-year ACS data in areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are... comment and shall become effective upon the date of publication in final form in the Federal Register...

  3. 75 FR 61253 - Final Fair Market Rents for Fiscal Year 2011 for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate...


    ..., FY 2010 FMRs are updated using 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data, and Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes through the year end of 2009. HUD continues to use ACS data in different... of publication in final form in the Federal Register. Each fair market rental in effect under this...

  4. 77 FR 71195 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  5. 41 CFR 102-85.15 - What are the basic policies for charging Rent for space and services?


    ... 2%) on the cost of the prospective capital investment. Each specific use of Return on Investment... customer agency. Once the ROI methodology is employed to establish Rent for a capital investment, the ROI...-owned buildings, a return on investment pricing approach if an appraisal-determined rental value...

  6. 76 FR 59712 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Budget-Based Rent Increase


    ... Increase AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The proposed... to submit a Budget Worksheet when requesting rent increases. HUD Field Office's review and evaluate the amount and reasonableness of the requested increase. DATES: Comments Due Date: October 27, 2011...

  7. Why do many resource-rich countries have negative genuine saving? Anticipation of better times or rapacious rent seeking

    van der Ploeg, F.


    We investigate the Hartwick rule for saving of a nation necessary to sustain a constant level of private consumption for a small open economy with an exhaustible stock of natural resources. The amount by which a country saves and invests less than the marginal resource rents equals the expected capi

  8. 78 FR 25295 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... for Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Final Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Fair Market.... Kahn, Economic and Market Analysis Division, Office of Economic Affairs, Office of Policy Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  9. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi


    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.    

  10. Nest survival of forest birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.


    In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, flood control has led to a drastic reduction in the area of forest habitat and altered the patchwork of forest cover types. Silvicultural management of the remaining fragmented forests has changed to reflect the altered hydrology of the forests, current economic conditions of the area, and demand for forest products. Because forest type and silvicultural management impact forest birds, differences in avian productivity within these forests directly impact bird conservation. To assist in conservation planning, we evaluated daily nest survival, nest predation rates, and brood parasitism rates of forest birds in relation to different forest cover types and silvicultural management strategies within this floodplain. Within bottomland hardwood forests, nest success of blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea, 13%), eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 28%), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea, 18%), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 22%), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus, 18%) did not differ from that within intensively managed cottonwood plantations. However, average daily survival of 542 open-cup nests of 19 bird species in bottomland hardwoods (0.9516 + 0.0028, -27% nest success) was greater than that of 543 nests of 18 species in cotlonwood plantations (0.9298 + 0.0035, -15% nest success). Differences in daily nest survival rates likely resulted from a combination of differences in the predator community--particularly fire ants (Solenopsis invicta)--and a marked difference in species composition of birds breeding within these 2 forest types. At least 39% of nests in bottomland hardwood forests and 65% of nests in cottonwood plantations were depredated. Rates of parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were greater in managed cottonwoods (24%) than in bottomland hardwoods (9%). Nest success in planted cottonwood plantations for 18 species combined (-14%), and for yellow-breasted chat (Icteria

  11. River path selection in response to uplift and interaction with alluvial fans

    Grimaud, J. L.; Paola, C.; Voller, V. R.


    River systems construct stratigraphic successions and build land by depositing and redistributing sediments as they migrate across the entire basin. This mobility arises from the intrinsic variability of a river system but can also be forced by external changes. It is particularly observable in tectonically active basins where the basement can be partly uplifted and where sediments can come from multiple sources. Theoretically, the ability of these perturbations to steer channels depends on their capacity to create lateral topographic gradients at a faster rate than the aggradation. Following these lines, we present an experimental study on the impacts of lateral tilting by tectonics and lateral alluvial fans on rivers path. The experiment was conducted in the eXperimental Earth Scape facility, also known as the Jurassic tank, where the basement tilting rate can be monitored by controlling individually gravel subsidence through 108 hexagonal cells. The basin was relatively uplifted on one side of the tank according to an anticline-shape and sediments were input through two sources: a main, axial one and a lateral, secondary one. We analyzed the differences in the topographic signature and flow occupation of rivers in response to the uplift or the lateral sediment source as well as the competition of these forcing in the late stages of the experiments. We found that both tectonic tilting and fan activity tend to decrease the basin-wide channel mobility. Indeed, the area at the convergence of the two interacting fans is a long-lasting topographic low that tends to channelize the flow while areas away from it are less visited. The position of this boundary is correlated with the relative flow contribution from both fans. This highlights the self-healing capacity of fans that are able to rapidly restore a graded shape. As opposed to fans, an uplifted area will not heal but force rivers to carve long-lasting valleys and increase the relief. When eroded, these uplifted

  12. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.


    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account

  13. Application of time-domain electromagnetic method in mapping saltwater intrusion of a coastal alluvial aquifer, North Oman

    El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Abdalla, Osman


    One-third of the population of Oman depends on the groundwater extracted from the alluvium deposits located along the coast of the Gulf of Oman. However, groundwater depletion and seawater intrusion constitute major challenges along the coastal water accumulations in Oman. The objective of this study is to locate the extent of seawater intrusion and to map the shallow alluvial aquifer in the region, where water accumulates from the rain or the flooding at AlKhod dam. In order to assess the effect of groundwater infiltration, which recharges the aquifer and fights the seawater invasion, a quantitative approach for the groundwater quality and distribution is required to provide reasonable knowledge on the spatial distribution of the aquifers, their thickness and the type of sediments. When groundwater wells and their subsurface geologic and electrical logs are not available or not deep enough, surface geophysical surveys can be considered due to their low cost and short acquisition time. The application of time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method in Al-Khod area, Oman has proven to be a successful tool in mapping the fresh/saline water interface and for locating the depth of fresh water aquifer. The depths and inland extents of the saline zone were mapped along three N-S TDEM profiles. The depths to the freshwater table and saline interface calculated from TDEM closely match the available well data.

  14. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    Hamer, de W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.


    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non‐perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi‐arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper‐Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  15. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    Hamer, de W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.


    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  16. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  17. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non‐perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi‐arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper‐Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  18. Strontium isotope geochemistry of alluvial groundwater: a tracer for groundwater resources characterisation

    P. Négrel


    Full Text Available This study presents strontium isotope and major ion data of shallow groundwater and river water from the Ile du Chambon catchment, located on the Allier river in the Massif Central (France. There are large variations in the major-element contents in the surface- and groundwater. Plotting of Na vs. Cl contents and Ca, Mg, NO3, K, SO4, HCO3, Sr concentrations reflect water–rock interaction (carbonate dissolution for Ca, Mg, HCO3 and Sr because the bedrock contains marly limestones, agricultural input (farming and fertilising and sewage effluents (for NO3, K, SO4, although some water samples are unpolluted. Sr contents and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70892 to 0.71180 along the hydrological cycle in the groundwater agree with previous work on groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Loire catchment. The data plot along three directions in a 87Sr/86Sr v. 1/Sr diagram as a result of mixing, involving at least three geochemical signatures–Allier river water, and two distinct signatures that might be related to different water-rock interactions in the catchment. Mixing proportions are calculated and discussed. The alluvial aquifer of the Ile du Chambon catchment is considered, within the Sr isotope systematic, in a larger scheme that includes several alluvial aquifers of the Loire Allier catchment. Keywords: : Loire river, major and trace elements, Sr isotopic ratio, alluvial aquifer, hydrology

  19. Spatial patterns of lacustrine fish assemblages in a catchment of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Andrews, Caroline S.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Goetz, Daniel B.; Kroger, Robert


    In the alluvial valley of the lower Mississippi River, floodplain lakes form isolated aquatic fragments that retain differing degrees of connectivity to neighbouring rivers. Within these floodplain lakes it was hypothesized that fish species composition, relative abundance, and biodiversity metrics would be shaped largely by aquatic connectivity within a catchment.

  20. The recharge process in alluvial strip aquifers in arid Namibia and implication for artificial recharge

    Sarma, Diganta; Xu, Yongxin


    Alluvial strip aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers are important groundwater supply sources that sustain numerous settlements and ecological systems in arid Namibia. More than 70 % of the population in the nation's western and southern regions depend on alluvial aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers. Under natural conditions, recharge occurs through infiltration during flood events. Due to the characteristic spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in arid regions, recharge is irregular making the aquifers challenging to manage sustainably and they are often overexploited. This condition is likely to become more acute with increasing water demand and climate change, and artificial recharge has been projected as the apparent means of increasing reliability of supply. The article explores, through a case study and numerical simulation, the processes controlling infiltration, significance of surface water and groundwater losses, and possible artificial recharge options. It is concluded that recharge processes in arid alluvial aquifers differ significantly from those processes in subhumid systems and viability of artificial recharge requires assessment through an understanding of the natural recharge process and losses from the aquifer. It is also established that in arid-region catchments, infiltration through the streambed occurs at rates dependent on factors such as antecedent conditions, flow rate, flow duration, channel morphology, and sediment texture and composition. The study provides an important reference for sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems in similar regions.

  1. A stand-development approach to oak afforestation in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile Gardiner; Theodor Leininger; John Stanturf


    Oak (Quercus spp.) afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley has involved planting 1-year-old bareroot seedlings on a relatively wide spacing in single-species stands or planting light-seeded species with oaks to form mixed-species stands. In the former case, the developing single-species stands have limited future management options...

  2. Bottomland Forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley associated with the endangered Lindera melissifolia

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Daniel A. Skojac; Brian R. Lockhart; Theodor D. Leininger; Margaret S. Devall; Nathan M. Shiff


    Forest canopy and subcanopy data were collected from and compared amongfive disjunct bottomland hardwood forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, each withknown occurrence of a population of the federally endangered shrub Lindera melissifolia. Allstudy sites are cut-over forests, underlain by...

  3. The alluvial architecture of the Coevorden Field (Upper Carboniferous), the Netherlands

    Kombrink, H.; Bridge, J.S.; Stouthamer, E.


    A detailed reconstruction of the alluvial architecture of the Coevorden gas Field (Tubbergen Formation, Upper Carboniferous), which is located in the northeastern part of the Netherlands, is presented. This reconstruction is based on well logs, cross-sections and paleogeographic maps. Sedimentolog

  4. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...


    ... written testimony and comments on the public interest factors (see determination of public interest at 43... final decision on the proposed exchange and whether it is in the public interest. The BLM will discuss... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange...

  5. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.


    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  6. Debris-flow dominance of alluvial fans masked by runoff reworking and weathering

    de Haas, Tjalling; Ventra, Dario; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.


    Arid alluvial fan aggradation is highly episodic and fans often comprise active and inactive sectors. Hence the morphology and texture of fan surfaces are partly determined by secondary processes of weathering and erosion in addition to primary processes of aggradation. This introduces considerable

  7. Experimental and numerical evidence for intrinsic nonmigrating bars in alluvial channels

    Crosato, A.; Mosselman, E.; Desta, F.B.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.


    Alternate bars in straight alluvial channels are migrating or nonmigrating. The currently accepted view is that they are nonmigrating if the width-to-depth ratio is at the value of resonance or if the bars are forced by a persistent local perturbation. We carried out 2-D numerical computations and a

  8. Intrinsic steady alternate bars in alluvial channels. Part 1: experimental observations and numerical tests.

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.


    Alternate bars in straight alluvial channels are migrating or steady. The currently accepted view is that they are steady only if the width-to-depth ratio is at the value of resonance or if the bars are forced by a steady local perturbation. Experimental observations, however, seem to indicate that


    Linked tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers, which are the main threat to human health around the world. These groundwaters are commonly found a long distance from their ultimate source of...

  10. Economic evaluation of the raw material reserves of the oil deposits of the ''Azneft'' Union

    Kerimov, I.M.; Martirosova, E.A.; Mukhtarova, I.A.; Pal' yan, S.A.; Toropova, S.I.


    The technical and economic indicators of deposits in the long term are the basis of an economic evaluation of the residual extractible oil reserves according to development plans. Used as the basic evaluating indicator is the differential annual rent, as the difference between the level of the closing relative expenditures and their size by deposits in the long term period. With a comparison of the corresponding technical and economic indicators, such as the size of the extractible reserves, the cost, the specific capital investments, the relative expenditures and the annual rent in the section of the deposits for the entire period of final development, the degree of economy of each deposit is exposed relative to the others.

  11. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England)

    Mader, Detlef

    The Permian and Triassic of South Devon (England) are a continental red bed sequence of very diversified lithogenetical composition. Within the thick series, the distribution of the main depositional environments being fluvial braidplain, fluvial floodplain and playa lake, alluvial fan, aeolian dune and calcrete palaeosol changes repeatedly in both horizontal and vertical direction. Significant sedimentary milieus such as aeolian dunes and calcrete palaeosols occur repeatedly within the succession, but are also lacking in several parts of the sequence. Fluvial braidplain deposits comprise conglomerates, sandstones, intraformational reworking horizons and mudstones and originate in channels and overbank plains of a braided river system. Conglomerates and sandstones are formed by migration of bars and spreading out of sheets during infilling of streams and aggradation of flats. Gravel is often enriched as lag pockets or veneers within steeper scour holes and kolk pots or on the plane floor of the watercourse. Finer-grained sandstones and mudstones are laid down by suspension settling in stagnant water bodies such as small lakes in the overbank area and residual pools in interbar depressions during low-stage or waning-flow in active channels or in abandoned streams. Spectacular bioturbation features in some sandstones with both horizontal tubes and vertical burrows testify to the colonization of the sediments at the bottom of the rivers with declining discharge and transport capacity. Intraformational reworking horizons with ghost-like remnants of degraded sandstones, mudstones and pedogenic carbonates document partially severe condensation of the sequence by removal of some facies elements from the depositional record. The occasionally occurring gravel-bearing mudstones or silty-clayey sandstones represent products of high-energy water surges overspilling the channel banks and transporting sandy and gravelly bed-load in limited amounts beyond the levee wall. The

  12. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions and after implementation of two storage capacity measures. These measures are heightening the spillway of the ‘Mnyabezi 27’ dam and constructing a sand storage dam in the alluvial aquifer of the Mnyabezi River. The upper-Mnyabezi catchment covers approximately 22 km 2 and is a tributary of the Thuli River in southern Zimbabwe. Three coupled models are used to simulate the hydrological processes in the Mnyabezi catchment. The first is a rainfall-runoff model, based on the SCS-method. The second is a spreadsheet-based model of the water balance of the reservoir. The third is the finite difference groundwater model MODFLOW used to simulate the water balance of the alluvial aquifer. The potential water supply in the Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions ranges from 2107 m 3 (5.7 months) in a dry year to 3162 m 3 (8.7 months) in a wet year. The maximum period of water supply after implementation of the storage capacity measures in a dry year is 2776 m 3 (8.4 months) and in a wet year the amount is 3617 m 3 (10.8 months). The sand storage dam can only be used as an additional water resource, because the storage capacity of the alluvial aquifer is small. However, when an ephemeral river is underlain by a larger alluvial aquifer, a sand storage dam is a promising way of water supply for smallholder farmers in southern Zimbabwe.

  13. Alluvial fan dynamics in the El'gygytgyn Crater: implications for the 3.6 Ma old sediment archive

    G. Schwamborn


    Full Text Available A sedimentological program has been conducted using frozen core samples from the 141.5 m long El'gygytgyn 5011-3 permafrost well. The drill site is located in sedimentary permafrost west of the lake that partly fills the El'gygytgyn Crater. The total core sequence is interpreted as strata building up a progradational alluvial fan delta. Four structurally and texturally distinct sedimentary units are identified. Unit 1 (141.5–117.0 m is comprised of ice-cemented, matrix-supported sandy gravel and intercalated sandy layers. Sandy layers represent sediments which rained out as particles in the deeper part of the water column under highly energetic conditions. Unit 2 (117.0–24.25 m is dominated by ice-cemented, matrix-supported sandy gravel with individual gravel layers. Most of the unit 2 diamicton is understood to result from alluvial wash and subsequent gravitational sliding of coarse-grained material on the basin slope. Unit 3 (24.25–8.5 m has ice-cemented, matrix-supported sandy gravel that is interrupted by sand beds. These sandy beds are associated with flooding events and represent near-shore sandy shoals. Unit 4 (8.5–0.0 m is ice-cemented, matrix-supported sandy gravel with varying ice content, mostly higher than below. It consists of slope material and creek fill deposits. The uppermost meter is the active layer into which modern soil organic matter has been incorporated. The nature of the progradational sediment transport taking place from the western and northern crater margins may be related to the complementary occurrence of frequent turbiditic layers in the central lake basin as is known from the lake sediment record. Slope processes such as gravitational sliding and sheet flooding that takes place especially during spring melt are thought to promote mass wasting into the basin. Tectonics are inferred to have initiated the fan accumulation in the first place and possibly the off-centre displacement of the crater lake.

  14. Alluvial systems as archives for environmental change at a Hominid site with Oldowan archaeological occurrences: the Homa Peninsula, southwestern Kenya

    Vincent, Thomas; Whitfield, Elizabeth; Kirby, Jason; Hunt, Christopher; Bishop, Laura; Plummer, Thomas; Ditchfield, Peter


    The Homa Peninsula, southwestern Kenya, preserves fossiliferous sedimentary sequences dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. Evidence of hominids inhabiting an open grassland setting and utilising Oldowan tools has been reported here, as well as some of the oldest known traces of hominin activity. Reconstructions of the palaeoenvironment have suggested that alluvial and lake marginal environments on a grassy plain, between wooded slopes and a permanent water body might be plausible. However, these interpretations are based only on field sedimentological analyses and stable isotope analysis at a single site on the peninsula (Kanjera South). It is the aim of this study to utilise a multiproxy approach to develop our understanding of the palaeoenvironmental characteristics here. Sediments will also be characterized at a new site (Nyayanga) through field analyses, as well as through analyses of particle size, siliceous microfossils (diatoms, phytoliths and sponge spicules), pollen and stable isotopes. By utilizing this approach, new insights into the palaeoecology, palaeohydromorphology and palaeoclimate of the locale may be revealed, expanding the limited data available to palaeoanthropological studies of Oldowan occurrences in east Africa. Efforts to refine palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Kanjera South through particle size analysis have shown that sediments in the lower beds of the sequence are characterised by poor sorting, a bimodal distribution and sand/silty-sand grade material. This suggests rapid deposition and/or a variable hydrological regime and may represent the role of relatively unconfined ephemeral channels in the transportation and deposition of sediments. Fluvial reworking of aeolian sediments, most likely during unconfined flood events may also have occurred.

  15. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D


    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  16. Effect of castration on performance and profitability of finishing cattle in rent feedlot

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes


    Full Text Available Effects of castration on performance and profitability of finishing beef cattle in feedlot was evaluated and compared to no-castrated animals. Data came from a rent feedlot of beef cattle, conducted from August to November of 2005. Half of 50 animals, randomly chosen, were castrated by knife 18 days before the beginning of feedlot. Averages of initial body weight for castrated and no-castrated animals were 341kg and 347kg, while for final body weight were 437kg and 463kg, respectively. Were considered as expenses arroba value of thin cattle (R$50.00, and R$2.85 daily expenses per animal paid by cattle owner to “boitel”; and were considered as earnings sale of fat cattle at R$56.14 and R$54.14/arroba, respectively for castrated and no-castrated animals. For profitability analysis, CU$TO BOVINO CORTE software was utilized. Was tested the mean differences between castrated and intact groups by Student t test of average daily weight gains (GMPD and total weight gain (GMPT. Was acceptable the minimum level of confidence of 95%. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 17.0 program. Effect of castration negatively influenced animals´ performance, evaluated by weight gain, and, consequently profitability of the system, evaluated by net margin. Earnings from sale of additional arrobas of no-castrated animals were enough to compensate penalization practiced by packinghouses for these animals.

  17. Modifications vibrationnelles induites par différentes vapeurs acides sur les polyanilines

    Cochet, M.; Quillard, S.; Buisson, J. P.; Lefrant, S.; Louarn, G.


    We present a comparative study of conductive form of polyaniline, i.e, polyemeraldine doped with HCl vapor or with HCSA upon m-cresol vapor. UV-Vis.-nir absorption measurements on polyaniline thin films, vs acid vapors time exposure, have been made. In the same way, Raman spectra have been recorded with different excitation lines from the blue and red ranges to the infrared region. Finally, an assignment of Raman bands observed, is proposed and confirmed by vibrational calculations based on valence-force-field. Nous présentons une étude comparative de la forme conductrice de la polyaniline, c'est-à-dire de la polyéméraldine dopée par des vapeurs d'HCl ou dopée par l'acide camphre sulfonique (HCSA) sous vapeurs de m-crésol. Des mesures d'absorption UV-Vis-proche infrarouge sur des films minces de polyaniline, en fonction du temps d'exposition aux vapeurs acides, ont été réalisées. Parallèlement, les spectres Raman ont été obtenus pour différentes longueurs d'onde d'excitation allant du visible jusqu'au proche infrarouge. Finalement, une attribution des bandes Raman observées est proposée et confirmée par des calculs vibrationnels basés sur des champs de force de valence.

  18. The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA

    Jackson, R. E.

    The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. Résumé La migration, la dissolution et l'évolution consécutive des rejets de solvants chlorés dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest des États-Unis paraissent déterminées par un même ensemble de processus hydrogéologiques et géochimiques intervenant dans des formations de dépôts clastiques terrigènes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le piégeage des solvants par des sédiments fins sous les centres des vallées urbanisées, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqués par le pompage à l'échelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, étendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de

  19. Developing Depositional Models for Mercury Contaminated Floodplain Deposits Using Geomorphic Mapping and GIS in South River, Virginia

    Barbieri, A.; Pizzuto, J.; O'Neal, M. A.; Rhoades, E.


    Mercury was introduced into the South River from the 1930s to the 1950s from an industrial plant in Waynesboro, Virginia. Mercury contamination in fish tissue continues to exceed acceptable levels. The contaminated sediments in the river's floodplains are probably the present source of mercury to the South River ecosystem. Locating and determining the extent and depositional history of these deposits are important for understanding the mercury cycle in the river as well as for remediation plans. The South River is a sinuous, single thread alluvial river with frequent bedrock exposures along its bed and banks. Overbank deposits are discontinuous and thin. Rates of lateral migration by the South River are extremely low, averaging 0.02 m/yr, and the river has been influenced by mill dams along a 19 km study reach. This 19 km section of the 37 km river reach was selected for the study because of its high concentration of Hg. Six different categories of floodplain deposits dating from 1937-2005 have been identified throughout the river using studies of historical aerial photographs in a GIS framework, field mapping, dendro- and radionuclide dating, grain size and Hg analysis. Not surprisingly, traditional depositional models of meandering rivers do not apply. Floodplain depositional units include mill dam deposits, point bar/bench deposits, concave bank bench deposits, islands, cattle deposits, and tributary confluences deposits. The most important deposits for sequestering historic mercury are those that also store the most silt and clay. These include mill dam deposits, point bar/bench deposits, concave bank deposits, and tributary confluence deposits. Many of these deposits represent reservoirs of mercury-contaminated sediments that could supply significant amounts of mercury into the river presently and in the future.

  20. Housing for Female Factory Workers: The Association between Renting Accommodation and Satisfaction with Income and Living Conditions

    Quynh Thuy Nguyen


    Full Text Available Background: Vietnam has experienced a strong wave of migrants to urban and industrialized areas. This is a challenge for both local and national governments, which need to address the problems of the poor and socially marginalized, including providing housing for rural-to-urban migrants. Poor housing and the economic burden of house renting are increasingly recognized as determinants of both physical and mental health. Objectives: This paper examined the association between renting accommodation and income satisfaction and living conditions of female workers in light manufacturing industries in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented with quantitative survey of 2,818 female workers in 10 light manufacturing factories in 3 industrial zones by a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Over 38% of female workers had to rent accommodation. The average expense for accommodation, water and electricity accounted for 30.1% of renters’ income, which is 7.2% (CI 95%, 5.3–9.3% higher than for non-renters. A higher proportion of renters than non-renters considered their income was unstable and insufficient for living costs. In addition, only 7.2% of renters reported that their living conditions were suitable, notably lower than non-renters (22.4%. Conclusion: The study showed the economic burden of renting accommodation on workers’ income satisfaction and living conditions. The findings have implications for an adequate housing access strategy for workers including the integration of housing development in the planning and development of industrial zones and factories.

  1. Surface water?groundwater interactions in an alluvial plain: Chemical and isotopic systematics

    Négrel, Ph.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Barbier, J.; Gautier, E.


    Our work on the Loire River forms part of a French National Research Program dedicated to wetlands and aims to better understand the global functioning of the system from the hydrological, geochemical, ecological and sociological aspects. The present study, using a coupled hydrological and geochemical (stable and Sr isotopes) approach, focuses on the 'Soulangy' site with its secondary anastomosing channels just below the confluence of the Loire and Allier rivers, and also on the 'Dorna``nt' site with two unconnected oxbow lakes 50 km upstream of the confluence. The stable isotopes of water ( δ18O, δ2H) show that the alluvial (or riverbank) aquifer feeds the Loire River during the summer, but is not recharged by the river during flood periods in the winter; the alluvial groundwater thus has a purely local origin from precipitation. The major elements reveal an anthropogenic input of Cl and more importantly of NO 3, especially near farms. The 87Sr/ 86Sr isotopes identify different groundwater layers in the alluvium, i.e. an upper and a lower alluvial aquifer, and a perched aquifer at Dornant, that have relatively complex relationships with the surface water. The two main rivers (Loire and Allier) present distinct geochemical characteristics reflecting the different lithologies that they drain upstream. In addition, the secondary channels, lying parallel to the Loire main stream at the Soulangy site, give different geochemical signatures, which shows that they are not fed by the same overflows of the Loire; they are more-or-less well connected to the upper level of the alluvial plain, and a longitudinal study of one of these channels has revealed a Loire River influence progressively replaced by a water contribution from the upper alluvial aquifer. Similarly, the two oxbow lakes at the Dornant site are not supplied by the same water during the summer months. A conceptual scheme of the Loire hydrosystem based on δ18O and 87Sr/ 86Sr suggests that the isotopic




    Full Text Available The setting mechanism of the remuneration proper to the factors of production is not different from the merchandise price determination, in this case the type of the market pattern being. When the price of the production factors is determined it must be considered both the type of the market where the goods are sold (as output of the manufacture process and the type of the market where the production factors are provided (engaged. Among the incomes determined by using the production factors mix, the rent represents a very important one. Due to its long term existence, the revenue of rent is one of the economical notion, which has the largest application and the most different signification. For a long time, the rent was attached to the use of the natural resources, especially to those of the earth. Nowadays the application area of this notion has been extended over some other factors of production. In Romania, on the ground of the mining branch development, there were not too many reason of the economic efficiency and the theoretical developments with reference to the costs generated by using the factors of production were ignored. The correct substantiation of the decisions with reference to the application of the national mineral potential can’t ignore the costs generated by the remuneration of the production factor in the mining revenue system.

  3. Green Auctions and Reduction of Information Rents in Payments for Environmental Services: An Experimental Investigation in Sunan County, Northwestern China

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin


    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263

  4. Green auctions and reduction of information rents in payments for environmental services: an experimental investigation in Sunan County, northwestern China.

    Xiaohong Deng

    Full Text Available Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the "Grain for Green" Payments for environmental services (PES program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. "Perfect information" in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions.


    Tomislav Malvić


    Full Text Available Neogene depositional environments in the Drava depression can be classified in two groups. One group is of local alluvial fans, which were active during the period of Middle Miocene (Badenian extension through the entire Pannonian Basin. The second group is represented by continuous Pannonian and Pontian sedimentation starting with lacustrine environment of partly deep water and partly prodelta (turbidity fans and terminating at the delta plain sedimentation. The coarse-grained sediments of alluvial fans have the great hydrocarbon potential, because they often comprise reservoir rocks. Reservoir deposits are mostly overlain (as result of fan migration by pelitic seal deposits and sometimes including organic rich source facies. That Badenian sequences are often characterised by complete petroleum systems, what is confirmed by large number of oil and gas discoveries in such sediments in the Drava and other Croatian depressions. Alluvial environments are characterised by frequent changes of petrophysical properties, due to local character of depositional mechanism and material sources. In the presented paper, Stari Gradac-Barcs Nyugat field is selected as a case study for demonstrating the above mentioned heterogenic features of the Badenian sequences. Structural solutions are compared by maps of parameters related to depositional environment, i.e. porosity and thickness maps. Geostatistics were used for spatial extension of input dataset. The spatial variability of porosity values, i.e. reservoir quality, is interpreted by transition among different sub-environments (facies in the alluvial fan system.



    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  7. Apropiación privada de renta de recursos naturales? El caso del cobre en Chile /Private Appropriation of Natural Resource Rent? The case of Cooper in Chile

    Benjamín Leiva Crispi


    ... a sustainable trajectory. As a case study about private appropriation of natural resource rent, this work explores the case of copper in Chile since 1990, empirically analyzing if the 12 main private mining companies...

  8. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question B4: Where are the alluvial aquifers and their recharge areas (if known)?

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows potential alluvial aquifers based on sand, gravel, and alluvium types in the surficial geology datasets of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah.

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The...

  10. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds; Annual Report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Major efforts have been initiated in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMA V. Fig. I) from within both the U.S. Departments of Interior and Agriculture to...

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses...

  12. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant recharge values for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace and...

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace and...

  14. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds: 2002 Annual Report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual report outlines the importance of conserving and restoring lands for migratory birds in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.

  15. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds: 2000 Annual Report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual report outlines the importance of conserving and restoring lands for migratory birds in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.

  16. Design of alluvial Egyptian irrigation canals using artificial neural networks method

    Hassan Ibrahim Mohamed


    Full Text Available In the present study, artificial neural networks method (ANNs is used to estimate the main parameters which used in design of stable alluvial channels. The capability of ANN models to predict the stable alluvial channels dimensions is investigated, where the flow rate and sediment mean grain size were considered as input variables and wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, and water surface slope were considered as output variables. The used ANN models are based on a back propagation algorithm to train a multi-layer feed-forward network (Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The proposed models were verified using 311 data sets of field data collected from 61 manmade canals and drains. Several statistical measures and graphical representation are used to check the accuracy of the models in comparison with previous empirical equations. The results of the developed ANN model proved that this technique is reliable in such field compared with previously developed methods.

  17. Comparative Study Of Alluvial Cnidion-Type Meadows In The Lower Danube River Basin

    Schneider-Binder Erika


    Full Text Available Alluvial Cnidion-type meadows (Habitat type 6440 of the Habitats Directive, mostly characteristic for the lower courses of large rivers in continental climate conditions of Europe are presented from the Lower Danube upstream the municipality of Giurgiu (river-km 510-524. The ecological requirements of the characteristic species, as well as their sensitivity to human-induced changes that derive from regular flooding, drainage, intensification of use and/or abandonment, are highlighted; these changes frequently lead to a decrease of biodiversity of the Cnidion-type meadows or to their total loss The studied meadows are compared with similar alluvial meadows from other sites of the lower Danube River basin. Finally, the strong interlocking of Cnidion type meadows with those of the Agropyro-Rumicion, Molinion and Deschampsion caespitosae alliances are discussed.

  18. Composition of Rent and How Extracted by the Network Participants%网络参与者的租金来源与实现途径



    Value can be created through inter-organizational relationships, but not all participants can get benefit or get equal benefit from network cooperation. This paper addresses the issue of what types of rents,generated through network, are extracted by participating firms. We differentiate participant's rents between common rent and private rent and further divided into three sources: appropriated common rent, internal quasi-rent and net inbound spillover rent. All the three rents are related to the partner's resource base and resource nature.Appropriated common rent is created from the shared resourced of all participants and should be distributed among all members; quasi-rent and net inbound spillover rent come from the firm's non-shared resources which is effected by shared resources and partner's non-shared resources.%网络合作虽然可以产生协同协应,但并非所有参与者都能够从中获取均等收益.本文从网络参与者的角度分析了其从网络合作中的获益,认为参与者的租金主要来源于共有租金和私有租金两个方面,具体细分为可占用的共有租金、内部准租金和溢入租金净值三种类型.这三类租金的实现与参与者所拥有的资源基础和资源属性密切相关,可占用的共有租金是网络参与者通过资源交换、联合、共享而创造的共有租金在不同参与者之间分配的结果;内部准租金和溢入租金净值是参与者的私有资源(或非共享资源)产生的独有的、不与其他参与者分享的私有租金,私有租金的实现也与网络合作密不可分.

  19. Sequence stratigraphy and U/b shrimp geochronology of the active margin deposits of the Cacheuta sub-basin, Cuyo Basin, Northwestern Argentina

    Avila, Janaina Nunes [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:; Chemale Junior, Farid [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Borba, Andre Weissheimer de [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geociencias; Cingolani, Carlos [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina)


    This study focuses on the stratigraphic and geochronologic analysis of the deposits related to the faulted active margin of the Cacheuta sub-basin, Cuyo Basin (Triassic), in NW-Argentina. This basin was mainly controlled by extensional tectonics along NW-trending structures inherited from Paleozoic sutures. The whole stratigraphic package of this basin is interpreted as a second order depositional sequence. Low stand deposits comprise coarse-grained alluvial fans (sheet flood and debris-flow deposits). Fluvial and minor lacustrine deposits with expressive volcaniclastic contribution make up the transgressive systems tract. The maximum flooding surface was traced on lacustrine black shales of the Cacheuta Formation (source rock for petroleum accumulations). The high stand system tract comprises fluvial meandering facies and more sparse volcanic contribution. U/Pb SHRIMP dating of a pyroclastic rock inter layered with basal alluvial fans yielded a magmatic age of 243 {+-} 4.7 Ma positioned in the Early to Middle Triassic. (author)



    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  1. Corporate rent-seeking and the managerial soft-budget constraint: An incremental cash flow approach to some corporate governance issues

    Apreda, Rodolfo


    This paper seeks to expand on two topical strands in Government Finance and Political Science literature, rent-seeking and the soft-budget constraint, so as to bring forth a strong linkage with corporate governance environments. It will attempt to accomplish this task by setting up a distinctive framework of analysis that hinges on incremental cash flows. Firstly, it claims that both rent-seeking behavior and the soft-budget constraint are worthy of being applied to corporate governance learn...

  2. Debris-flow dominance of alluvial fans masked by runoff reworking and weathering.

    Haas, T.; Ventra, D.; Carbonneau, P. E.; Kleinhans, M. G.


    Arid alluvial fan aggradation is highly episodic and fans often comprise active and inactive sectors. Hence the morphology and texture of fan surfaces are partly determined by secondary processes of weathering and erosion in addition to primary processes of aggradation. This introduces considerable uncertainty in the identification of formative processes of terrestrial and Martian fans from aerial and satellite imagery. The objectives of this study are (i) to develop a model to describe the s...

  3. Spatial variability and prediction modeling of groundwater arsenic distributions in the shallowest alluvial aquifers in Bangladesh

    Shamsudduha, M.


    Elevated arsenic in groundwater is the greatest environmental problem in Bangladesh. Spatial variability of arsenic in groundwater has been examined by semivariogram analysis that revealed high degree of small-scale spatial variability in alluvial aquifers. Small-scale variability of arsenic concentrations, indicated by high "nugget" values in semivariograms, is associated with heterogeneity in local-scale geology and geochemical processes. In unsampled locations, arsenic concentrations have ...



    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  5. Managed aquifer recharge by using spreading basin methods on alluvial fans: a general overview of the situation in Japan

    Hida, N.


    In this paper, the author reviews the present situation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) by using basin method as of 2009 in Japan. Most of the MAR basin is carried in the area of alluvial fans. The enhancing groundwater resources in the Rokugo alluvial aquifer has resulted in sustain ability for the groundwater environment, especially in the distal fan. As a recent tendency, the MAR basin contributes to sustainable aquifer management in alluvium and is spreading in Japan. (Author)

  6. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian



    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  7. Sources of dissolved ammonia and iron in Borovnica alluvial fan groundwater

    Janko Urbanc


    Full Text Available The article deals with chemical and isotopic properties of Borovnica alluvial fan groundwater. Increased concentrations of ammonium and iron were detected in well VB-3 of the Borovnica alluvial fan pumping station. On the basis of analyses it was found out that increased concentrations of both elements are linked to the hydrogeological conditions in the aquifer area. In the upper part of the Borovnica alluvial fan aquifer, layers of clay prevent the access of oxygen to groundwater. This fact, together with the presence of organic matter in the aquifer, creates reduction conditions causing the mobility of iron and manganese in groundwater and the transformation of nitrogen from nitrate into ammonium form. Water from the lower aquifer contains more dissolved oxygen, and on the basis of tritium presence it can be concluded that the water is old up to 50 years. Wells VB-5 and VB-6 capture water from the lower pleistocene aquifer, while well VB-3 recharges also with water from the upper holocene aquifer.

  8. Bed load tracer mobility in a mixed bedrock/alluvial channel

    Ferguson, R. I.; Sharma, B. P.; Hodge, R. A.; Hardy, R. J.; Warburton, J.


    The presence of bare or partially covered rock in an otherwise alluvial river implies a downstream change in transport capacity relative to supply. Field investigations of this change and what causes it are lacking. We used two sets of magnet-tagged tracer clasts to investigate bed load transport during the same sequence of floods in fully alluvial, bare rock, and partial-cover reaches of an upland stream. High-flow shear stresses in different reaches were calculated by using stage loggers. Tracers seeded in the upstream alluvial channel moved more slowly than elsewhere until the frontrunners reached bare rock and sped up. Tracers seeded on bare rock moved rapidly off it and accumulated just upstream from, and later in, a partial-cover zone with many boulders. The backwater effect of the boulder-rich zone is significant in reducing tracer mobility. Tracer movement over full or partial sediment cover was size selective but dispersion over bare rock was not. Along-channel changes in tracer mobility are interpreted in terms of measured differences in shear stress and estimated differences in threshold stress.

  9. Knowledge Rent Effect to Knowledge Production and Control Mechanisms%“知识租”对知识生产的影响及治理机制

    吴黎正; 米俊


    In the era of knowledge economy, knowledge will become the core of the organization of production factors, knowledge producers by virtue of its knowledge will get a lot of rent. This rent is the knowledge rent. The cause of knowledge rent is extremely complicated, the great danger based on the analysis of knowledge rent on the reasons for the basis of knowledge rent, put forward governance model and solutions.%知识经济时代,“知识”将成为组织的核心生产要素,知识生产者凭借其拥有的知识将会得到大量的“租”,这种“租”就是“知识租”。“知识租”的产生原因是极其复杂的,其危害性很大。在分析“知识租”产生原因的基础上,提出了“知识租”的治理模型,并给出了解决思路。

  10. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.


    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  11. Characterization of alluvial aquifers by multiscale hydrostratigraphic interpretation of DC resistivity data

    Mele, Mauro; Bersezio, Riccardo; Giudici, Mauro


    The characterization of aquifer heterogeneity plays a key role for the 3-D modelling of conductivity (K) distribution in the subsurface of alluvial plains. DC methods such as Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Ground Imaging (ERGI) yield respectively the 1-D and 2-D resistivity (ρ) distribution in the ground and are often applied in hydrogeology because ρ is controlled by the prevailing process of current conduction ('shale' vs. electrolytic conduction) determined by the occurrence of fine-grained sediments and saline groundwater. Assuming that the sedimentary heterogeneity can be described with hierarchical elements at different scales (from hydrofacies to hydrostratigraphic systems) and recalling that the resolution of DC surveys decreases with depth, we propose an interpretation of the subsurface ρ distribution as a function of the hierarchical properties of aquifers (i.e., the vertical trends of facies with prevailing 'shale' or electrolytic conduction) with hydrostratigraphic constrains. A correlation between ρ and pore-fluid saturation and chemistry permits the use of resistivity as a 'proxy' of facies stacking. Our case-study is the Quaternary valley of palaeo-Sillaro extinct meandering river (Po plain, Italy). The local stratigraphy up to 80 m below ground surface consists of LGM sand-gravel point bar and channel bodies overlying: i) clay to fine sand aquitard of an Upper Pleistocene flood plain, ii) alternating gravel-sand aquifer bodies and fine sand to silty-clay drapes formed by Middle-Upper Pleistocene braiding to meandering depositional systems that developed above iii) a basal aquiclude of silty-clays. To interpret 1-D resistivity models obtained by 89 VES collected with Schlumberger array (maximum half-spacing 300 m) over an area of 30 km2, a Coarse-to-Fine (C/F) litho-textural ratio (particle size cut-off=0.30 mm) was used to classify hydrofacies. The variability of C/F was compared with the K and ρ values of

  12. Taphonomy and paleoecology of nonmarine mollusca: indicators of alluvial plain lacustrine sedimentation, upper part of the Tongue River Member, Fort Union Formation ( Paleocene), Northern Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana ( USA).

    Hanley, J.H.; Flores, R.M.


    The composition, species abundances, and spatial and temporal distributions of mollusc assemblages were controlled by the environments in which they lived and the depositional processes that affected the molluscs after death and before final burial. Post-mortem transport, reworking and concentration of shells, and mixing of faunal elements from discrete habitats produced a taphonomic 'overprint' on assemblage characteristics that directly reflects the processes of alluvial plain and floodbasin lacustrine sedimentation. The 'overprint' can be interpreted from outcrop analysis of molluscan biofabric, which consists of: 1) orientation, fragmentation, size-sorting, abrasion, density, and dispersion of shells, 2) the nature and extent of shell-infilling, and 3) ratio of articulated to disarticulated bivalves. Taphonomic characteristics were used with sedimentological properties to differentiate in-place, reworked, transported, and ecologically mixed mollusc assemblages. This study also defines the paleoecology of habitat preferences of mollusc species as a basis for recognition of the environments in which these assemblages were deposited: 1) large floodbasin lakes, 2) small floodbasin lakes, and 3) crevasse deltas and splays. Integration of sedimentology and paleoecology provides an interdisciplinary approach to the interpretation of alluvial environments through time in the Tongue River Member. -Authors



    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.



    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  15. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick


    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest



    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  17. Permanentnost primitivne akumulacije, ali o privatni lastnini, komodifikaciji in povratku rente

    Jernej Prodnik


    moderne in zagovarja nujnost absolutne demokracije pri upravljanju, vzpostavljanju in dojemanju skupnega. /// English title: The Permanence of Primitive Accumulation, or: On the Private Property, Commodification and Return of the Rent /// Abstract: In his analysis of current social antagonisms, the author starts from a critique of political economy and focuses on two historically and politically/theoretically important concepts, without which it would not be possible to understand the development of the capitalist system and the way it currently functions: primitive accumulation and modern private property. Newer interpretations of the process of primitive accumulation (Perelman, DeAngelis, Harvey start from the premise that primitive accumulation is not just a historical period belonging to the past, but a necessarily present part of capital in its expansion and search for news ways out of recurring crises. This permanence of primitive accumulation, which Harvey refers to as accumulation-by-disposses sion, in which a key factor is the difference between the generation and existence of capital, helps us to understand the ever present processes of capital expansion and their often violent incorporation of various fields. Although these processes are an always-already-present characteristic of capitalism, by manifesting themselves, they have marked the past decades, when capital has attempted to resolve its own profitability crisis through financialisation and privatisation. At the same time, because the existence of the modern form of private property has appeared as an important condition for capitalist accumulation and as that element which facilitates the effective functioning, development and expansion of capitalist relations of production, at the beginning of the article, this socially constructed phenomenon of modern society, which, through a process of reductionism, makes it almost impossible to consider different forms of ownership such as common forms of property

  18. Pollen analysis of a peaty mud sample from the Dunajec River alluvial fan (Sandomierz Basin, Poland in the context of its morphological position, radiocarbon dating, and comparison with neighbouring sites

    Mamakowa Kazimiera


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating of a peaty mud sample from a gravel-sand outlier of the Vistulian alluvial fan of the Dunajec River. The study showed the occurrence of open birch-pine forests with sporadic larch and stone pine at the time of mud deposition. The vegetation, of park tundra type, was characterised by the development of shrubby and sedge-grass communities. The radiocarbon dating of 39 100 ± 3000 BP indicates that deposition occurred in the Middle Plenivistulian (Hengelo interstadial or older, colder climatic stadial. A comparison of the palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating with data from other sites suggests that both the alluvia of the north-western part of the Dunajec River fan and the alluvia of its southern part were formed during the Middle Plenivistulian.

  19. Partitioning a Steady State Sediment Budget to Represent Long tailed Distributions of Contaminant Residence Times: A Modeling Approach for Routing Tracers Through Alluvial Storage Reservoirs

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Ackerman, T. R.


    Mercury (Hg) was released into the South River, VA, from an industrial source from 1929-1950. Because of mercury's affinity for fine grained particles, a budget for fine sediment can be used to model the trajectories of Hg through the alluvial valley. We adopt Malmon's (2002) model, which requires each storage compartment to be "well-mixed". Our sediment budget quantifies residence times, exchange rates, and sediment storage volumes in the floodplain (FP), hyporheic zone, and in fine-grained channel margin (FGCM) deposits that form in the lee of obstructions (chiefly downed trees) along the sides of the wetted perimeter of the channel. This simple model with only 3 storage compartments fails to fit Hg concentration histories in the FGCM and under predicts contemporary mercury loading to the channel from bank erosion. We speculate that the FP and FGCM deposits are not well-mixed. Mercury is preferentially stored and remobilized from frequently-inundated, low elevation floodplain areas near the stream channel. Radiometric dates from FGCM deposits suggest that most sediments are reworked within a few years, but a small fraction of the deposits remains in storage for decades. We therefore partition the FP and FGCM deposits into multiple reservoirs, each with a different residence time. We divide the FGCM deposits into two sub-reservoirs with characteristic exchange rates and masses that represent the observed age distribution. Sediment accumulation rates on the FP follow an exponential distribution of FP relief, and we divide the floodplain into 5 reservoirs with inundation frequencies of 0.3, 2, 5, 62, and 100 years. Since erosion is assumed to be evenly distributed across each reservoir, FP area as a function of age decreases exponentially. With time, the elevation of floodplains increases through sedimentation, so a portion of each reservoir evolves into a less frequently inundated category every year, creating a unidirectional mass flux from each FP reservoir into

  20. Subfossil oaks from alluvial deposits and their role in past fluvial activities analysis: case study East Carpathian rivers, Romania

    Constantin NECHITA


    Full Text Available Dendrochronological research was conducted in Europe in several centers whereby oak trees, regardless of species, originating from various archaeological sites were studied. Thereby, several shronologies were assembled in Ireland, Germany and the UK, covering the past 7000 to 8000 years. The environment impacts on tree growth by generating higher / lower growth ratescompared to the multinannual average, thus indicating extreme years. The patterns of extreme years pertaining to individual sequences are subsequently synchronized by cross-dating.The study area consists of two rivers with different typologies but comparable in terms of size: river Moldova (braided to wandering channel in the lower reach and river Siret (sinuosmeandering channel. Along the 100 km-long floodplain of the former and the 144 km-long floodplain of the latter we found and sampled 77 subfossil trunks from which 26 were subjectedto 14C dating




    Since 1960 the Bistriţa River basin came under the profound influence of anthropic incidence. This river basin represents a pattern of use for hydropower potential: reservoirs (9); channels (61 km); water dams; transfers of flows; protection structures works for banks and slopes; relocation of human settlements (13 villages); gravel pits; galleries; viaducts; communication paths, etc. Bistriţa River development has led to significant changes in the structure of the hydrological regime, throug...

  2. Geology and mineral deposits of Churchill County, Nevada

    Willden, Ronald; Speed, Robert C.


    Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits contemporaneous with the western deposits of Lake Lahontan. The eastern mountain ranges are more rugged than the western ranges and have higher relief; the eastern valleys are generally narrower.



    <正>20090243 Chen Zhibin (Hebei Institute of Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang 050081, China) Ore-Controlling Factors of the Beichagoumen Ag-Polymetallic Deposits in Northern Hebei Province (Geological Survey and Research, ISSN1672-4135, CN12-1353/P, 31(1), 2008, p.1-5, 3 illus., 10 refs.)



    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,



    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761



    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  7. The fate of Salicaceae seedlings related to the dynamics of alluvial bars during floods: differentiating bed erosion, uprooting and burying.

    Wintenberger, C. L.; Rodrigues, S.; Bréhéret, J. G.; Juge, P.; Villar, M.


    Riparian vegetation is a key factor of the morphological evolution of river. In Europe, riparian Salicaceae is declining following the loss of potential recruitment areas associated with river management. As an exception for lowland rivers, the Loire River (France) shows, in its middle reaches, an efficient sexual regeneration of Populus nigra and Salix alba on bare sediments deposited during flood events. In the literature, the influence of hydrological patterns as a key factor of the seedlings survival is well documented. Some studies focused on seedlings ability to withstand flood constraints and detailed the effect of duration and intensity of floods but few studies characterized precisely the processes applied on seedlings. As a working hypothesis, we consider that three types of flood stresses can induce mortality of seedlings: (i) uprooting by drag applied on the seedlings without sediment erosion, (ii) erosion of the recruited areas and (iii) burying. The distinction of these three processes allows identifying the importance of survival factors due to a strong sediment dynamics (e.g. erosion height > root height) or to the anchorage and resprouting ability. The main issues are: what are the governing processes (type and intensity) determining survival or death of seedlings and which factor (fluvial dynamics vs. own characteristics of seedlings) controls their survival? In-situ measurements were performed on a forced alluvial bar (20.000 m2) to detail the bar dynamics (bathymetry, topography, scour/fill processes, grain size surveys, flow velocity) and to survey the associated recruitment. On 48 plots (1.410 m2) the density, height and species (P. nigra and S. alba) were surveyed the year of recruitment (after dry period) and the next year after flood period. We highlight the following phases of processes during floods. The erosion of substrate dominates at the beginning of the rising limb. The erosion or uprooting processes depend of the balance between

  8. Arboreous vegetation of an alluvial riparian forest and their soil relations: Porto Rico island, Paraná river, Brazil

    João Batista Campos


    Full Text Available The dynamics of alluvial deposits in floodplains forms islands and sandbanks. Deposits frequently accumulate at the river margins and on islands with consequent side growths. One of these sandbanks which started to form in 1952 annexed an area of 12.4ha to the Porto Rico island (53º15’W and 22º45’S. At present a forest fragment of approximately 2.0 ha exists in this place. The structural analysis of arboreous vegetation of this fragment showed a floristic gradient related to the physical and chemical variations of the substratum. High density of pioneer species associated to the absence of recruitment of new individuals of these and other successional categories indicated that the forest was impaired in its succession process. This fact could be associated with constant disturbances caused by cattle in the area.A dinâmica de deposições aluviais em planícies de inundação proporciona a formação de ilhas e barras (bancos de areia, que muitas vezes agregam-se às margens dos rios ou ilhas propiciando o seu crescimento lateral. Uma dessas barras, com início de formação a partir de 1952, agregou a ilha Porto Rico (53º15’W e 22º45’S uma área de 12,40ha, onde existe, atualmente, um fragmento florestal de aproximadamente 2,0ha. A análise estrutural da vegetação arbórea desse fragmento mostra a presença de um gradiente florístico relacionado às variações físicas e químicas do substrato. A elevada densidade de espécies pioneiras, associada a ausência de recrutamento de novos indivíduos, dessas e de outras categorias sucessionais, indicam que esta floresta está limitada em seu processo de sucessão, podendo, este fato, estar associado às constantes perturbações provocada pela presença de gado na área.

  9. A model of the Quaternary geological deposits of Bucharest City

    Serpescu, Irina; Radu, Emil; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Bica, Ioan


    Bucharest city is located in the central part of the Moesic Platform, in the Romanian Plain with micro-relief resulting from erosion and sedimentary processes which extended along the valleys of the Dambovita River to the south and the Colentina River to the north. The city is located in the axial area of a syncline where the thickness of the sedimentary deposits is up to 1000 m. The area lies on a rigid base is made of metamorphites, and various igneous intrusions (granodiorite, granite). The sedimentary deposits covering this rigid base are made by different phases of erosion and sedimentary processes of marine, lacustrian or continental sediments ending with Quaternary sediments. As a result, different alluvial deposits (such as piedmont, deltaic, alluvial cones, terrace, waterside and lacustrine deposits) can be met. Furthermore one also can find loess deposits which in turn cover totally the older deposits where rivers dug the present relief. To highlight the spatial extent of these geological structures, a geological model of Bucharest city is developed. A set of information coming from different sources as geological and geotechnical boreholes showing a detailed geological and lithological description, geological and topographical maps, geological and hydrogeological reports have been used to develop the 3D geological model of this region. 33 geological cross sections were defined and interpreted by using lithological and sedimentological criteria. Using these geological cross sections and prior geological knowledge, the Quaternary deposits have been described and classified into 6 structural units given from top to down as follows: (1) Superficial deposits represented by loess and anthropogenic materials. The geological model indicates that these deposits show a sporadic development becoming more concentrated in the central west part of the city. (2) Colentina Formations composed by of poorly sorted, cross-stratified sand and gravel with clayey lens

  10. Coupling heat and chemical tracer experiments for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers.

    Wildemeersch, S; Jamin, P; Orban, P; Hermans, T; Klepikova, M; Nguyen, F; Brouyère, S; Dassargues, A


    Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54MJ/m(3)/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for

  11. Hydrochemical evolution within a large alluvial groundwater resource overlying a shallow coal seam gas reservoir.

    Owen, Daniel D R; Cox, Malcolm E


    A combination of multivariate statistical techniques, simple hydrochemical mixing models and inverse geochemical modelling was used to investigate the major hydrochemical evolutionary pathways of a large alluvial aquifer, the upper Condamine River alluvium, south-east Queensland, Australia. Hydrochemical similarities between alluvium and sedimentary bedrock groundwater imply some mixing between alluvial and sedimentary bedrock aquifers, but spatial assessment showed that this was localised around outcrops of sedimentary bedrock in upstream areas. Within the alluvium, a distinct shift towards a low salinity Na-HCO3 water type and a brackish Na-HCO3-Cl water type was obvious in two separate locations. Both of these water types are unique to the alluvium, and inverse modelling shows that they can evolve via a combination of in situ alluvial processes, including diffuse recharge of rainfall or river water or the evolution of basalt-derived groundwater via gypsum dissolution plagioclase weathering, cation exchange and some carbonate precipitation/dissolution. The evolution of these water types is potentially influenced by overlying sodic alkaline soils, and often is associated with a source of sulfate. Evapotranspiration is the dominant salinization process in the alluvium and increases in calcium cations during salinization indicate that brackish Na-HCO3-Cl groundwater in the underlying Walloon Coal Measures are unlikely to have a major influence on salinization in the alluvium. The most saline water types observed were endemic to shallow zones of the alluvium where evapotranspiration is likely. Results demonstrate that a combination of multivariate statistics and inverse geochemical modelling can be successfully used to delineate hydrochemical pathways in complex hydrogeological settings where a range of environmental and anthropogenic factors may be influencing the evolution of water types with similar hydrochemical compositions.

  12. Fate of polar organic trace compounds infiltrating into an alluvial aquifer from an urban lowland river

    Schaper, J. L.; Popp, A. L.; Meinikmann, K.; Shanafield, M.; Banks, E.; Putschew, A.; Lewandowski, J.; Nuetzmann, G.


    High loads of polar organic trace compounds (TrOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface waters threatening both, ecosystem functioning and local drinking water supply. Here we investigate the fate and turnover rate of 17 TrOCs infiltrating from the urban river Erpe into the adjacent alluvial aquifer. River Erpe is a lowland stream in Berlin, Germany that receives up to 80 % of its discharge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) thus containing TrOCs in the µg/L range. To this end, a horizontal piezometer transect extending into the alluvial plane as well as a vertical piezometer nest in the riverbed were installed and sampled in June and July 2016. Within the horizontal transect, redox condition remained aerobic resulting in attenuation rates of up to 25 % for benzotriazol, Carbamazepine, metoprolol and 4 - formylaminoantipyrin. Concentrations of bezafibrate and acesulfame increased although the concentrations of more persistent compounds such as primidone and gabapentin, remained relatively constant. Within the vertical piezometer nest, Fe(II) concentrations increased with depth, allowing for a more rapid turnover of Sulfamethoxazole, but also inhibiting turnover of other compounds such as, benzotriazol, metoprolol and Valsartan. In contrast to previous studies undertaken in more mountainous settings, alluvial attenuation rates at River Erpe were profoundly different. We attribute these findings to both, hydrological characteristics of lowland rivers as well as to the high amounts of labile organic carbon originating from the WWTP effluent. This work further demonstrates that the fate of TrOCs in gaining aquifers adjacent to urban streams is highly complex and demands much more research.

  13. Evaluation of groundwater recharge in Choushui River alluvial fan and Mingchu Basin for specific rainfall events

    Lin, Zong Sheng; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin


    Sound groundwater resources planning and management are lack in the Choushui River alluvial fan, resulting in the occurrence of serious land subsidence and seawater intrusion. Even the disasters induced by overpumping of groundwater pose a potential threat on the Taiwan High Speed Rail. In addition to improving the water resources management in the alluvial fan, the development of groundwater resources in the neighboring hills. Mingchu Basin, which is located on the midstream segment of the Choushui River and comprised of the gravel formation of Pleistocene, is an effective solution to resolve the problem in limited water resources. Moreover, the Dongpurui River and Qingshui River both converge into Choushui River in this basin. Because of wide drainage areas and good hydrogeological conditions, the Mingchu Basin is considered a high potential recharging region of groundwater. This work is to evaluate the groundwater recharge in the Choushui River alluvial fan and Mingchu Basin, using the WASH123D model equipped with the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) to simulate the interaction of surface water and groundwater for specific five rainfall events. This study particularly focuses on the simulation of the groundwater flow, and evaluates the effect of different rainfall events on the groundwater recharge. First, to meet in-situ hydrogeological structure and hydraulic parameters, the GMS is used to construct hydrogeological database, mesh, hydrogeological parameters, initial condition and boundary conditions. Then, simulated parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity and pumping rates, need to be calibrated and verified in the model. After the calibration and verification, the simulated groundwater flow can reflect actual groundwater situation. Finally, when specific five rainfall events impose on the ground, groundwater recharge can be determined using the groundwater model.

  14. Linking aquifer spatial properties and non-Fickian transport in mobile-immobile like alluvial settings

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Baeumer, Boris


    Time-nonlocal transport models can describe non-Fickian diffusion observed in geological media, but the physical meaning of parameters can be ambiguous, and most applications are limited to curve-fitting. This study explores methods for predicting the parameters of a temporally tempered Lévy motion (TTLM) model for transient sub-diffusion in mobile–immobile like alluvial settings represented by high-resolution hydrofacies models. The TTLM model is a concise multi-rate mass transfer (MRMT) model that describes a linear mass transfer process where the transfer kinetics and late-time transport behavior are controlled by properties of the host medium, especially the immobile domain. The intrinsic connection between the MRMT and TTLM models helps to estimate the main time-nonlocal parameters in the TTLM model (which are the time scale index, the capacity coefficient, and the truncation parameter) either semi-analytically or empirically from the measurable aquifer properties. Further applications show that the TTLM model captures the observed solute snapshots, the breakthrough curves, and the spatial moments of plumes up to the fourth order. Most importantly, the a priori estimation of the time-nonlocal parameters outside of any breakthrough fitting procedure provides a reliable “blind” prediction of the late-time dynamics of subdiffusion observed in a spectrum of alluvial settings. Predictability of the time-nonlocal parameters may be due to the fact that the late-time subdiffusion is not affected by the exact location of each immobile zone, but rather is controlled by the time spent in immobile blocks surrounding the pathway of solute particles. Results also show that the effective dispersion coefficient has to be fitted due to the scale effect of transport, and the mean velocity can differ from local measurements or volume averages. The link between medium heterogeneity and time-nonlocal parameters will help to improve model predictability for non

  15. Dark humic alluvial paleosols in Central and Southern Mexico: Micromorphological indicators of Late Pleistocene megafauna habitats Paleosuelos aluviales con humus oscuro en el Centro y Sur de México: indicadores micromorfológicos de los hábitats de la megafauna del Pleistoceno tardío Paleosolos aluviais com húmus escuro no Centro e Sul do México: indicadores micromorfológicos dos habitats da megafauna do Pleistocénico tardio

    Rosa E. Tovar; Sergey Sedov; Berenice Solís; Elizabeth Solleiro


    During the Late Pleistocene, Mexico had a richer fauna than today with many different forms of megafauna that are now extinct. However, the ecosystems they inhabited and the particular ecological niches that they occupied are still poorly understood. Most of the findings of Pleistocene megafauna have been in alluvial deposits that present rich opportunities for paleoecological studies using paleopedological records. Floodplain paleosols commonly are poorly developed. However, micromorphologic...

  16. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.


    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  17. Determination of vulnerability areas to pollution: case of alluvial water table of Tebessa (East Algeria)

    Djabri, L.; Hani, A.; Assassi, F.; Djprfi, S.


    This work related to the alluvial water table of Tebessa, which is characterised by a semi-dry climate and a very heterogeneous geology. To examine the pollution problem who seems exists, we have used two methods: the DRASTICS method who combines the information given by the seven parameters leading to the map of vulnerability to pollution and a second method that is based on hydrochemistry and take into account the results of the ratio Sr{sup 2}/Ca{sup 2}+. (Author)

  18. The distribution and modeling of nitrate transport in the Carson Valley alluvial aquifer, Douglas County, Nevada

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Welborn, Toby L.; Rosen, Michael R.


    Residents of Carson Valley in Douglas County, Nevada, rely on groundwater from an alluvial aquifer for domestic use and agricultural irrigation. Since the 1970s, there has been a rapid increase in population in several parts of the valley that rely on domestic wells for drinking water and septic systems for treatment of household waste. As a result, the density of septic systems in the developed areas is greater than one septic system per 3 acres, and the majority of the domestic wells are shallow (screened within 250 feet of the land surface).

  19. Conceptual model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Brooks, Lynette E.


    A conceptual model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system (GBCAAS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for a regional assessment of groundwater availability as part of a national water census. The study area is an expansion of a previous USGS Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis (RASA) study conducted during the 1980s and 1990s of the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin. The geographic extent of the study area is 110,000 mi2, predominantly in eastern Nevada and western Utah, and includes 165 hydrographic areas (HAs) and 17 regional groundwater flow systems.

  20. Mapping alluvial fans in Death Valley, California, using multichannel thermal infrared images

    Gillespie, A. R.; Kahle, A. B.; Pallluconi, F. D.


    Alluvial fans have been mapped in Death Valley, California using NASA's 8-12 micron six-channel airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS). Both composition and relative age differences were recognized. Age unit boundries are generally consistent with those obtained by conventional mapping. Composition was verified by field investigation and comparison with existing geologic maps. Bedrock and its young derived fan gravels have similar emissivities. The original composition of the fans is modified by differential erosion and weathering, permitting relative age mapping with TIMS.

  1. Modeling flow and sediment transport dynamics in the lowermost Mississippi River, Louisiana, USA, with an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition: Implications for land building using engineered diversions

    Viparelli, Enrica; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Parker, Gary


    The lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the river segment downstream of the Old River Control Structure and hydrodynamically influenced by the Gulf of Mexico, extends for approximately 500 km. This segment includes a bedrock (or more precisely, mixed bedrock-alluvial) reach that is bounded by an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical formulation for the long-term evolution of lowland rivers that is able to reproduce the morphodynamics of both the alluvial-bedrock and the bedrock-alluvial transitions. Model results show that the magnitude of the alluvial equilibrium bed slope relative to the bedrock surface slope and the depth of bedrock surface relative to the water surface base level strongly influence the mobile bed equilibrium of low-sloping river channels. Using data from the lowermost Mississippi River, the model is zeroed and validated at field scale by comparing the numerical results with field measurements. The model is then applied to predict the influence on the stability of channel bed elevation in response to delta restoration projects. In particular, the response of the river bed to the implementation of two examples of land-building diversions to extract water and sediment from the main channel is studied. In this regard, our model results show that engineered land-building diversions along the lowermost Mississippi River are capable of producing equilibrated bed profiles with only modest shoaling or erosion, and therefore, such diversions are a sustainable strategy for mitigating land loss within the Mississippi River Delta.

  2. Fan type end moraine related glaciofluvial deposits of Last Glaciation from Lithuania

    Šinkūnė, Eglė; Šinkūnas, Petras


    Several alluvial-fan type end moraine related sites were chosen for detailed sedimentological analyses in ice marginal zone of the last glaciation in Lithuania. Such glaciofluvial ice-marginal fans are formed close to linear ice-sheet front and have semi-conical form or represent simple asymmetric hill forms or more complex ridges with steep proximal and gentler distal slopes. Sedimentary sequences of ice-marginal fans studied consist mainly of waterlain sandy and gravelly deposits with pebbles and boulders. In some sequences a debris-flow deposits are observed as well as beds of sorted material interbedded with dominating high energy sheetflow deposits. Sediment grain size, sorting, structure and bedding characteristics dependent on ice proximity and hydrodynamic conditions were analysed. Highly pulsatory water discharge can be interpreted from depositional architecture of the end moraine related fans. The inferred character of sedimentation suggests that landforms consisting of deposits studied are genetically similar to the alluvial fans. According to the sedimentation features the investigated landforms are an intermediate between the marginal glaciofluvial ridges and sandur fans. Are they a transition zone of sedimentation between the end moraines and proximal outwash plains, or can be the end moraine related fans distinguished as a separate type of glaciofluvial deposits? This question is still open.

  3. Late Cenozoic surficial deposits and valley evolution of unglaciated northern New Jersey

    Stanford, S.D.


    Multiple alluvial, colluvial, and eolian deposits in unglaciated northern New Jersey, and the eroded bedrock surfaces on which they rest, provide evidence of both long-term valley evolution driven by sustained eustatic baselevel lowering and short-term filling and excavation of valleys during glacial and interglacial climate cycles. The long-term changes occur over durations of 106 years, the short-term features evolve over durations of 104 to 105 years. Direct glacial effects, including blockage of valleys by glacial ice and sediment, and valley gradient reversals induced by crustal depression, are relatively sudden changes that account for several major Pleistocene drainage shifts. After deposition of the Beacon Hill fluvial gravel in the Late Miocene, lowering of sea level, perhaps in response to growth of the Antarctic ice sheet, led to almost complete dissection of the gravel. A suite of alluvial, colluvial, and eolian sediments was deposited in the dissected landscape. The fluvial Bridgeton Formation was deposited in the Raritan lowland, in the Amboy-Trenton lowland, and in the Delaware valley. Following southeastward diversion of the main Bridgeton river, perhaps during Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene glaciation, northeastward drainage was established on the inactive Bridgeton fluvial plain. About 30 to 45 m of entrenchment followed, forming narrow, incised valleys within which Late Pleistocene deposits rest. This entrenchment may have occurred in response to lowered sea level caused by growth of ice sheets in the northern hemisphere. Under periglacial conditions in the Middle and Late Pleistocene, valleys were partially filled with alluvium and colluvium. During interglacials slopes were stabilized by vegetation and the alluvial and colluvial valley-fill was excavated by gullying, bank erosion, and spring sapping. During Illinoian and late Wisconsinan glaciation, the lower Raritan River was diverted when glacial deposits blocked its valley, and the

  4. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des

  5. Distinguishing allogenic from autogenic causes of bed elevation change in late Quaternary alluvial stratigraphic records

    Daniels, J. Michael


    Allogenic and autogenic mechanisms both cause changes in the bed elevation of rivers and thereby influence the characteristics of alluvial stratigraphic records (ASRs). Allogenic forcing mechanisms can be grouped into five categories whose relative influence varies with timescale: climate, tectonism, base level, land use/land cover and direct human modification of channels. Late Quaternary ASRs are influenced by the greatest range of allogenic forcing variables with climate among the most important. Autogenic mechanisms of bed elevation change are ubiquitous throughout fluvial systems and are always time-transgressive. Autogenic bed elevation change propagates through drainage networks at predictable rates and results in a time-space envelope within which its effects are capable of operating. ASRs that can be correlated over geographical areas large enough and time intervals small enough to exist outside this envelope most likely result from allogenic forcing. This formulation represents a quantitative and geographic set of threshold criteria for distinguishing between autogenic and allogenic mechanisms. Over late Quaternary timescales (10 2 to 10 5 years) in tectonically stable regions climate change is the dominant allogenic mechanism and, therefore, the first-order control on the morphology, sedimentology, pedologic characteristics and chronology of alluvial stratigraphic records that meet or exceed the threshold criteria for demonstrating allogenic causality.

  6. Resonance analysis of a 2D alluvial valley subjected to seismic waves.

    Chai, Juin-Fu; Teng, Tsung-Jen; Yeh, Chau-Shioung; Shyu, Wen-Shinn


    The T-matrix formalism and an ultrasonic experiment are developed to study the scattering of in-plane waves for an alluvial valley embedded in a two-dimensional half-space. The solution of the in-plane scattering problem can be determined by the T-matrix method, where the basis functions are defined by the singular solutions of Lamb's problems with surface loading in both horizontal and vertical directions. In the experiment, a thin steel plate with a semicircular aluminum plate attached on the edge is used to simulate the two-dimensional alluvial valley in the state of plane stress. Based on the spectra of displacement signals measured at the free edge of the scatterer, the resonance frequencies where the peaks appear can be identified. It can be shown that the nondimensional resonance frequency is one of the characteristic properties of the scattering system. Furthermore, it is noted that the nondimensional resonance frequencies measured experimentally are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically.

  7. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Hermans, Thomas; Nguyen, Frederic; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain


    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the recovery well and in monitoring wells. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells distributed throughout the field site (space-filling arrangement) were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume was explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with the pilot point inverse approach, main preferential flow paths were delineated.

  8. Rainfall-induced nutrient losses from manure-fertilized farmland in an alluvial plain.

    Wang, Yiyao; Li, Huaizheng; Xu, Zuxin


    Nutrient transport and loss in farmlands are affected by factors such as land cover, fertilization, soil type, rainfall, and management practices. We investigated the temporal and spatial changes in macronutrient transport and loss after fertilization and precipitation in manure-fertilized eggplant farmland in an alluvial plain. Upon adding topical fertilizer, concentrations of most nutrients in runoff and groundwater increased, and nitrogen runoff increased from 22.11 to 35.81 kg/ha, although eggplant yield did not increase correspondingly. Incorporation of fertilizer by plowing reduced nutrient losses (nitrogen runoff/fertilizer decreased from 18.40 to 12.29 %). Measurements taken along the nutrient transport route (runoff, drainage ditch, groundwater, river water, and finally rainfall) revealed that concentrations of most nutrients declined at each stage. Nutrient characteristics varied by transport, and the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus differed greatly between runoff and groundwater (nitrate/nitrogen in runoff was ~43.49 %, while in groundwater ~5.41 %). Most nutrient concentrations in runoff decreased greatly during the planting season (total nitrogen decreased from 62.25 to 4.17 mg/L), correlated positively with temperature and stage of plant growth, but little temporal change was observed in groundwater. This field investigation during one planting season exemplifies the basic principles of nutrient loss and transport from manure-fertilized farmland in an alluvial plain.

  9. Monsoon triggered formation of Quaternary alluvial megafans in the interior of Oman

    Blechschmidt, Ingo; Matter, Albert; Preusser, Frank; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk


    A vast bajada consisting of coalescing low-gradient (veneer of weakly cemented Quaternary gravels. A combination of remote sensing, lithological analyses and luminescence dating is used to interpret the complex aggradation history of the Quaternary alluvial fans from the interior of Oman in the context of independent regional climate records. From satellite imagery and clast analysis four fans can be discerned in the study area. While two early periods of fan formation are tentatively correlated to the Miocene-Pliocene and the Early Pleistocene, luminescence dating allows the distinction of five phases of fan aggradation during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. These phases are correlated with pluvial periods from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 through 3, when southern Arabia was affected by monsoonal precipitation. It is concluded that the aggradation of the alluvial fans was triggered by the interplay of increased sediment production during arid periods and high rainfall with enhanced erosion of hillslopes and transport rates during strong monsoon phases. However, the lack of fine-grained sediments, bioturbation and organic material implies that although the Quaternary fans are sourced by monsoonal rains they formed in a semi-arid environment. Thus, it appears that, in contrast to the Oman Mountains, the interior was not directly affected by monsoonal precipitation.

  10. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    Kim, Kangjoo [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eungyu [Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Dong-Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO{sub 4} concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO{sub 4}, supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO{sub 3} at shallow depths and by SO{sub 4} reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area.

  11. Effect of heterogeneity on radionuclide retardation in the alluvial aquifer near Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    Painter, S; Cvetkovic, V; Turner, D R


    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a geological high-level waste repository. In the current conceptual models of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain, part of the transport path to pumping locations would be through an alluvial aquifer. Interactions with minerals in the alluvium are expected to retard the downstream migration of radionuclides, thereby delaying arrival times and reducing ground water concentrations. We evaluate the effectiveness of the alluvial aquifer as a transport barrier using the stochastic Lagrangian framework. A transport model is developed to account for physical and chemical heterogeneities and rate-limited mass transfer between mobile and immobile zones. The latter process is caused by small-scale heterogeneity and is thought to control the macroscopic-scale retardation in some field experiments. A geostatistical model for the spatially varying sorption parameters is developed from a site-specific database created from hydrochemical measurements and a calibrated modeling approach (Turner and Pabalan 1999). Transport of neptunium is considered as an example. The results are sensitive to the rate of transfer between mobile and immobile zones, and to spatial variability in the hydraulic conductivity. Chemical heterogeneity has only a small effect, as does correlation between hydraulic conductivity and the neptunium distribution coefficient. These results illustrate how general sensitivities can be explored with modest effort within the Lagrangian framework. Such studies complement and guide the application of more detailed numerical simulations.

  12. The preliminary study on the alluvial stratigraphy of Peinan archaeological site, Taiwan

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan; Yeh, Changkeng


    Many of the activities of prehistoric people who lived in Taiwan were concentrated around river terrace environments and seldom in alluvial environments which are resulting from the rapid tectonic uplift and high erosion rate of the late Cenozoic mountain belt. However, the Peinan archaeological site, one of the most important Neolithic sites in Taiwan because of the great amount of slate slab coffins and nephrite artifacts unearthed, is located at the bottom of Peinan Hill which is formed by the activity of Lichi and Luyeh Faults. According to the radioactive carbon dating results, the Peinan alluvial fan used as cemetery was lasted over 3,700 years (5700-2000 yr BP) but the related cultural formation was only lasted 400 years (3500-3100 yr BP). What have happened to the prehistoric people? As the stratigraphic record allows archaeologists to ascertain the effects of geological processes on the preservation of the archaeological record, determining which parts of the archaeological records are absent, which have potentially been preserved, and how fragmentary are the preserved portions of the records. The limitations that geologic processes impose on the archaeological record must be recognized and understood before meaningful interpretations of prehistory can be made. Therefore, the reconstruction of the landscape and stratigraphic records in archaeological site not only provides the paleo-environmental context but also helps to explain changes that occurred to human cultures over time.

  13. Geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, Garden County, Western Nebraska

    Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.


    In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.

  14. Quantitative visualization of coherent flow structures in alluvial channels using multibeam echo-sounding

    Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Best, J.


    Multibeam Echo-Sounder systems have developed rapidly over recent decades and are routinely deployed to provide high-resolution bathymetric details in range of aquatic environments. Modern data handling and storage technologies now facilitate the logging of the raw acoustic back-scatter information that was previously discarded by these systems. This paper describes methodologies that exploit this logging capability to quantify the concentration and dynamics of suspended sediment within the water column and presents a novel method that also allows for quantification of 2D flow velocities. This development provides a multi-purpose tool for the holistic surveying of the process linkages between flow, sediment transport and bed morphology. The application of this new technique is illustrated with reference to flow over alluvial sand dunes, which allows, for the first time in a field study, quantitative visualization of larg-scale, whole flow field, turbulent coherent flow structures, associated with the dune leeside, that are responsible for suspending bed sediment. This methodology holds great potential for use in a wide range of aqueous geophysical flows. CFS captured by MBES in the lee of an alluvial dune. Contours of suspended sediment concentration and superimposed 2D flow velocity vectors

  15. The impact of medium architecture of alluvial settings on non-Fickian transport

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Fogg, Graham E.


    The influence of heterogeneous architecture of alluvial aquifers on non-Fickian transport is explored using the Monte Carlo approach. More than two thousand high-resolution hydrofacies models representing seven groups of alluvial settings are built to test the effects of varying facies proportions, mean length and its anisotropy ratio, juxtapositional tendencies, and sub-facies heterogeneity. Results show that the volumetric fraction (P(Z)) of floodplain layers classified by their thicknesses Z controls the non-Fickian tailing of tracer transport at late times. A simple quantitative relationship SBTC≈SP(Z)/2-1 is built based on a multi-rate mass transfer analysis, where SBTC is the slope of the power-law portion of tracer breakthrough curve, and SP(Z) denotes the slope of the power-law portion of the distribution of P(Z) which can be measured, e.g., in core logs. At early times, the mean length of hydrofacies affects the non-Fickian tailing by controlling the channeling of flow in high-permeability non-floodplain materials and the sequestration in surrounding low-permeability floodplain layers. The competition between channeling and sequestration generates complex pre-asymptotic features, including sublinear growth of plume mean displacement, superlinear growth of plume variance, and skewed mass distribution. Those observations of the influence of medium heterogeneity on tracer transport at early and late times may lead to development of nonlocal transport models that can be parameterized using measurable aquifer characteristics.

  16. Well-balanced numerical modelling of non-uniform sediment transport in alluvial rivers

    Honglu Qian; Zhixian Cao; Gareth Pender; Huaihan Liu; Peng Hu


    abstract The last two decades have witnessed the development and application of well-balanced numerical models for shallow flows in natural rivers. However, until now there have been no such models for flows with non-uniform sediment transport. This paper presents a 1D well-balanced model to simulate flows and non-capacity transport of non-uniform sediment in alluvial rivers. The active layer formulation is adopted to resolve the change of bed sediment composition. In the framework of the finite volume Slope LImiter Centred (SLIC) scheme, a surface gradient method is incorporated to attain well-balanced solutions to the governing equations. The proposed model is tested against typical cases with irregular topography, including the refilling of dredged trenches, aggradation due to sediment overloading and flood flow due to landslide dam failure. The agreement between the computed results and measured data is encouraging. Compared to a non-well-balanced model, the well-balanced model features improved performance in reproducing stage, velocity and bed deformation. It should find general applications for non-uniform sediment transport modelling in alluvial rivers, especially in mountain areas where the bed topography is mostly irregular.

  17. Object-based forest classification to facilitate landscape-scale conservation in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Mitchell, Michael; Wilson, R. Randy; Twedt, Daniel J.; Mini, Anne E.; James, J. Dale


    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley is a floodplain along the southern extent of the Mississippi River extending from southern Missouri to the Gulf of Mexico. This area once encompassed nearly 10 million ha of floodplain forests, most of which has been converted to agriculture over the past two centuries. Conservation programs in this region revolve around protection of existing forest and reforestation of converted lands. Therefore, an accurate and up to date classification of forest cover is essential for conservation planning, including efforts that prioritize areas for conservation activities. We used object-based image analysis with Random Forest classification to quickly and accurately classify forest cover. We used Landsat band, band ratio, and band index statistics to identify and define similar objects as our training sets instead of selecting individual training points. This provided a single rule-set that was used to classify each of the 11 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes that encompassed the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We classified 3,307,910±85,344 ha (32% of this region) as forest. Our overall classification accuracy was 96.9% with Kappa statistic of 0.96. Because this method of forest classification is rapid and accurate, assessment of forest cover can be regularly updated and progress toward forest habitat goals identified in conservation plans can be periodically evaluated.

  18. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System; Depositos auriferos del sector occidental del sistema Central espanol

    Barrios, S.; Florido, P.; Reguilon, R.


    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  19. A Study on Correlation Between Car Use Tax and Urban Space Development:Based on Bid Rent Function of Urban Land-use


    Based on the model of the bid rent function in a mono-centric city,this paper,by introducing the concept of opportunity cost and extending partial equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis,conducts a theoretical analysis on the possibility that the typical car use taxes including fuel consumption tax,traffic congestion tax,and parking tax can affect the urban space development through their impact on transport cost and the rent bid under certain conditions.Some conclusions drawn from the comparison might be useful when it comes to the practical problems of urban space development.



    <正>20122389 Cai Lianyou ( No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China );Weng Wangfei Geologic Characteristic and Ore-Control Factors of the Nanshan W-Mo Polymetallic Ore Deposit in South Anhui Province ( Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353 / P,34 ( 4 ), 2011,p.290-298,3 illus.,1table,14refs. ) Key words:tungsten ores,molybdenum ores,ore guide of prospecting,Anhui Province



    <正>20110165 Chen Jiawei(The 3rd Geological Team,Henan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xinyang 464000,China)Ore Control Conditions and Genetic Model for the Bodaoling Ag-Au Deposit in Guangshan,Henan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(1),2010,p.28-30,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:gold ores,Henan Province20110166 Chen Mingquan(Geological Team 306,Yunnan Bureau of Nonferrous Geology,Kunming 650216,Ch

  2. Risk assessment based on a combination of historical analysis, a detailed field study and numerical modeling on the alluvial fan Gadeinerbach as a basis for a risk management concept

    Moser, M.


    The catchment Gadeinerbach in the District of Lungau/Salzburg/Austria is prone to debris flows. Large debris flow events dates back from the years 1934 and 1953. In the upper catchment large mass movements represent debris sources. A field study shows the debris potential and the catchment looks like a "sleeping torrential giant". To carry out mitigation measures a detailed risk management concept, based on a risk assessment in combination of historical analysis, field study and numerical modeling on the alluvial fan was conducted. Human activities have partly altered the surface of the alluvial fan Gadeinerbach but nevertheless some important hazard indicators could be found. With the hazard indicators and photo analysis from the large debris flow event 1934 the catchment character could be pointed out. With the help of these historical data sets (hazard indicators, sediment and debris amount...) it is possible to calibrate the provided numerical models and to win useful knowledge over the pro and cons and their application. The results were used to simulate the design event and furthermore to derive mitigation measures. Therefore the most effective protection against debris with a reduction of the high energy level to a lower level under particular energy change in combination with a debris/bedload deposition place has been carried out. Expert opinion, the study of historical data and a field work is in addition to numerical simulation techniques very necessary for the work in the field of natural hazard management.

  3. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management

    Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Jacobsen, Brian H.


    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized...... basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates...... by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling...

  4. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment scale water management

    Jacosen, T.; Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse effects of specific, localized basin water management...... plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates potential and limitations......Abstract The EU WFD requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive...

  5. Etude comparative des différents systèmes d'alimentation au cours du gavage des canards

    Paquot épouse Negny, Virgine


    Les méthodes de gavage des canards ont beaucoup évolué ces dernières années. Pour faire face à un marché de plus en plus compétitif, la filière « canards gras » s'est organisée : cette rationalisation de la production se traduit par la mise en place de techniques de plus en plus performantes et l'utilisation de pâtées de maïs broyé. Après un rappel du mécanisme d'apparition de la stéatose hépatique de gavage, cette étude expose les différents essais réalisés pour mesurer l'influence des techn...

  6. Micro-Nano : des comportements différents, des procédés à adapter

    Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Lamy, Peggy; Thomas, Gérard; Bonnefoy, Olivier


    6 pages; L'arrivée de nanomatériaux parmi les différents matériaux utilisés en pyrotechnie pose de nombreux problèmes de mise en œuvre. En effet, leurs propriétés texturales particulières ne permettent pas de les utiliser comme des matériaux classiques. Il est impératif d'adapter les procédés de mise en œuvre habituels. Pour obtenir l'adéquation de ces nouveaux matériaux et de nos procédés, des études spécifiques du comportement des nanomatériaux au cours des procédés de mise en œuvre par cou...

  7. Coarse grain deposit feature of Guantao formation in western depression Shuyi area of Liaohe basin

    GUO Jian-hua; LIU Chen-sheng; ZHU Mei-heng


    The extensive distribution of coarse-grained clastic rock of Guantao formation in Shuyi area of Liaohe basin was considered as a result of fluvial deposit. According to the comprehensive analysis of seism data, well log, core observation and experimental data, this kind of clastic rock is composed of pebblestone-cobblestone, microconglomerate, sand conglomerate, medium-coarse grained sandstone and fine-sandstone. According to the clast composition, sedimentary texture, structure and rock type, 3 kinds of sediment facies can be recognized ie the mixed accumulation-conglomerate dominated debris flow, pebblestone-cobblestone dominated gradient flow and sandstone dominated braided stream. Vertically, the bottom gradient current deposit and top braided stream deposit form fining-upward sediment sequence, and the debris flow deposit distributes in them at random. The sedimentary feature of coarse grain clastic of Guantao formation in Shuyi area is accordant with proximal wet alluvial fan deposited in wet climate at foreland and this kind of alluvial fan is different from the traditional one.



    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  9. Characterization and dating of coastal deposits of NW Portugal (Minho-Neiva area): A record of climate, eustasy and crustal uplift during the Quaternary

    Carvalhido, Ricardo P.; Pereira, Diamantino I.; Cunha, Pedro P.


    This study presents the characterization and numerical dating of Quaternary coastal deposits of NW Portugal, located between the mouths of the Minho and Neiva rivers. They record continental (small alluvial fans and streams) and transitional (aeolian dunes, interdune ponds, estuary, sandy...... and gravelly beaches) paleoenvironments. Quartz and K-feldspar optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is employed as well as AMS C-14 dating. A staircase of coastal terraces (abrasion shore platforms) was identified (altimetry, a.s.l.) and ascribed to the following probable Marine Isotope Stages (MIS......) the lower sub-unit, corresponding to ferruginous stream deposits and aeolian dunes dated ca. 67-61 ka (MIS4), probably related with sub-humid to arid mid-cold conditions; b) on the slopes, the lower sub-unit is overlapped by sandy-silty colluvium and sandy alluvial deposits dated ca. 56-28 ka (MIS3...

  10. Facies control on seismites in an alluvial-aeolian system: The Pliocene dunefield of the Teruel half-graben basin (eastern Spain)

    Liesa, Carlos L.; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Ezquerro, Lope; Alfaro, Pedro; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Ángel; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Simón, José L.


    The recognition of seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in sedimentary successions characterized by different facies, and hence by different rheology, is challenging. This is the case for high porosity and high permeability aeolian facies interbedded with muddy wet interdune deposits and alluvial conglomerates and sandstones. Several types of SSDS have been studied in two exposures of the Upper Pliocene (2.9-2.6 Ma) sediments of a fault-bounded intracontinental aeolian dune field in the Teruel Basin (Iberian Chain, eastern Spain). Among SSDS, load and fluid-escape structures, apart from several animal tracks, have been recognized. Those structures show an irregular distribution through the studied stratigraphic sections, being scarce in homogenous aeolian sands and frequent in water-related facies. A detailed study of the distribution and geometry of SSDS and their relationships with respect to the stratigraphic architecture and facies has allowed a critical discrimination of trigger mechanisms, i.e. biological or physical overloading vs. earthquakes. The seismically induced structures are concentrated into seven deformed beds, showing an uneven lateral distribution and geometry closely controlled by the hosting sedimentary facies and their rheology. These seismites resulted from liquefaction during moderate earthquakes (estimated magnitude from 5.0 to 6.8). The most probable seismogenic source was the Sierra del Pobo normal fault zone, located 2 km to the East. Results show how an appropriate recognition of sedimentary facies is crucial to understand the lateral variability of seismites in sedimentary environments characterized by sharp facies changes.

  11. Integration of LiDAR and cropmark remote sensing for the study of fluvial and anthropogenic landforms in the Brenta-Bacchiglione alluvial plain (NE Italy)

    Ninfo, Andrea; Mozzi, Paolo; Abbà, Tiziano


    The geomorphological study of alluvial plains takes great advantage from the integration of detailed altimetry with high-resolution images, especially in the lower-relief sectors, like those in the distal plain of the Brenta and Bacchiglione rivers near the city of Padua (mean slope 1-0.8‰). The LiDAR data which were specifically acquired for this research (Riegl LMS-Q560, mean density 7 points/m2, overall area 123 km2), were classified and interpolated in order to map fluvial and anthropogenic landforms. The acquisition was carried out in a moment of minimal vegetation luxuriance (March 2011), in order to minimize ground cover. The DEM (z accuracy aggradation, associated with ridges and widespread crevasse channels and splays during the middle Holocene. The derived maps provide significant support to land and urban planning, e.g., in the definition of appropriate geotechnical analysis, the estimation of buried archeological deposits in the city center, and the assessment of flooding hazard.

  12. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. III. Black, alluvial and rendzina soils

    Maria Jędruszczak


    Full Text Available The weed flora growing stubble-fields area is determined by soil features. Weeds found in cereal stubble-fields on black soils formed from sands and loams, medium and haevy alluvial soils as well as brown and chernozem rendzina soils are presented in the paper. The 273 phytosociological records were worked out. They were collected from 87 stands situated in 76 localities of Kielce region. The results showed that species number and species composition were dependent on the soils (black. alluvial, rendzina. The existance of 118 (medium alluvial soil to 140 (brown rendzina soil weed species, including 73 common for all of the soils considered, was found there. Relatively high per cent (29-35 of them belonged to perennial weeds. From 22 (brown rendzina soil to 35 (heavy alluvial soil of species reached high constancy degrees (V-III. Stellaria media, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Agropyron repens and Cirsium arvense predominated on the all of the soil examined. Among the weed flora registered, 25 species, recorded only on rendzina soils, were distinguishable for that soils.

  13. Development of a black willow improvement program for biomass production in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Randell J. Rousseau; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger


    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) has the potential to be a significant feedstock source for bioenergy and biofuels production in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV). This potential is based on a number of primary factors including rapid growth, ease of vegetative propagation, excellent rooting, and the ability to regenerate from coppice...

  14. The Temporal-Spatial Distribution of Shule River Alluvial Fan Units in China Based on SAR Data and OSL Dating

    Lu Zhang


    Full Text Available Alluvial fans in arid and semi-arid regions can provide important evidence of geomorphic and climatic changes, which reveal the evolution of the regional tectonic activity and environment. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing technology, which is sensitive to geomorphic features, plays an important role in quickly mapping alluvial fan units of different ages. In this paper, RADARSAT-2 (Canada’s C-band new-generation radar satellite and ALOS-PALSAR (Japan’s advanced land observing satellite, phased array type L-band SAR sensor data, acquired over the Shule River Alluvial Fan (SRAF, are used to extract backscattering coefficients, scattering mechanism-related information, and polarimetric characteristic parameters. The correlation between these SAR characteristic parameters and fan units of the SRAF of different ages was studied, and the spatial distribution of fan units, since the Late Pleistocene, was extracted based on the Maximum Likelihood classification method. The results prove that (1 some C-band SAR parameters can describe the geomorphic characteristics of alluvial fan units of different ages in the SRAF; (2 SAR data can be used to map the SRAF’s surface between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene and to extract the spatial distribution of fan units; and (3 the time-spatial distribution of the SRAF can provide valuable information for tectonic and paleoenvironmental research of the study area.

  15. Experimental and numerical findings on the long-term evolution of migrating alternate bars in alluvial channels

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.; Cornelisse, J.; Schuurman, F.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.


    Migrating alternate bars form in alluvial channels as a result of morphodynamic instability. Extensive literature can be found on their origin and short-term development, but their long-term evolution has been poorly studied so far. In particular, it is not clear whether migrating bars eventually re

  16. 41 CFR 102-85.190 - Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies?


    ... when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies? 102-85.190 Section 102-85.190... perform or contract for such services must be obtained in advance by the customer agency from the... of Service § 102-85.190 Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by...

  17. A 27-Year-Old Man With Acute Severe Low Back Pain and Bilateral Leg Swelling That Prompted Renting a Wheelchair for Mobility.

    Williams, John G; Phan, Huy; Winston, Helena R; Fugit, Randolph V; Graney, Bridget; Jamroz, Brant; English, Benjamin; Chan, Edward D


    A 27-year-old man with OSA, posttraumatic stress disorder, and chronic mechanical back pain presented with a 3-day history of acute atraumatic worsening of his low back pain as well as right groin numbness that was exacerbated by walking. He also complained of bilateral leg "heaviness," pain, and swelling, all becoming so severe that he rented a wheelchair for mobility.

  18. 30 CFR 285.508 - What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects?


    ... RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects? 285.508 Section 285.508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF... § 285.508 What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable...

  19. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio


    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  20. Cosmogenic helium and volatile-rich fluid in Sierra Leone alluvial diamonds

    Mcconville, P.; Reynolds, J. H.


    Noble gas measurements were carried out on two identical splits of a finely powdered harshly acid-washed sample derived from fragments of a single alluvial diamond from Sierra Leone, with essentially identical results obtained for both splits. Isotopic ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe were found to be atmospheric. Their elemental abundances were high relative to published data, owing to the effect of shock implantation in the crushing step, as was verified in a supplementary experiment. No Ne was detected above the blank level. The He-3 was exceptionally abundant, while He-4 was exceptionally depleted, possibly due to the acid wash. The He-3/He-4 ratio was anomalously high at an R/Ra value of 246 + or - 16. The results support the hypothesis that the He-3 excess in diamonds is cosmogenic.