WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewed terrorist attacks

  1. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number...... of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later....

  2. Terrorist Attacks and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bonekamp, Bas; van Veen, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude and the duration of the effect of a terrorist attack on stock market indices. We investigate the impact of New York (2001), Madrid (2004), London (2005), Boston (2013), Paris (2015), Brussels (2016), Nice (2016) and Berlin(2016) on the stock indices of the USA (S&P), Japan (NIKKEI), Germany (DAX), Spain (IBEX), UK (FTSE), France (CAC) and the Euronext Index (BEL). We use both a graphical analysis and an event study methodology to assess the effect of terr...

  3. Psychological interventions following terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansdorf, Irwin J

    2008-01-01

    Psychological reactions to terror attacks have been documented as ranging from no symptoms to transient behavioural symptoms to more serious posttraumatic stress. A review of representative studies is presented, with a critical analysis of the salient points of the various psychological intervention strategies for terrorist attacks. Common aspects of both most intervention approaches include multifaceted models that foster social support and include a preparatory phase, a phase of 'psychological first aid' and a follow-up phase of referral for more severe cases. The notion of intervention for all who may show some symptoms is not universally accepted. Where treatment or intervention is used, the debriefing aspect of CISM (Critical Incident Stress Management) remains highly disputed, with the focus on intrusively revisiting the trauma appearing to have questionable value at best. Some data questions whether formal treatment or intervention is necessary or even desirable. For many who choose not to seek out any help following a trauma, clinical data shows no negative results. Moreover, the preponderance of data shows that conventional 'debriefing' is not recommended. If the debriefing mechanism is refined so that intrusive emotional rehashing of the traumatic event is eliminated, the resultant interventions resemble resilience based approaches. Further defining when intervention is called for and refining the mechanisms of intervention in multi-stage intervention.

  4. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  5. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  6. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  7. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  8. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  9. The timing of terrorist attacks: An optimal stopping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later.

  10. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore...

  11. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  12. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  13. Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist Chemical Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    DATE December 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited EXPLORING FIRST RESPONDER TACTICS IN A TERRORIST CHEMICAL ATTACK Kong Pin Gilbert...115 b. Earlier First Responder Entry Times are Associated with a Better Chance of Mean Percentage < 18.9

  14. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Martens

    Full Text Available Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  15. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  16. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  17. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  18. [The hospital care of victims of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaddou, Assena; Nion, Nathalie; Riou, Bruno; Blandeau, Fanny; Moreau, Pilar; Guemache, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of victims of terrorist attacks in a trauma centre requires the putting in place of plans, training and simulation exercises. Previous experiences have highlighted the areas which require improvement. As exceptional health situations are unpredictable, it is essential to always be vigilant and prepared for an unforeseen event.

  19. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks; Haftung fuer Terrorismusschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2004-10-01

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  20. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.

  1. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  2. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  3. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  4. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  6. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 9, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-23609 Filed 9-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C....

  7. 78 FR 56579 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 10, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-22406 Filed 9-11... Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50...

  8. 77 FR 56515 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22708 Filed 9-11-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Notice of September 11, 2012--Continuation of the National... the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of...

  9. Help-Seeking Behaviours of Adolescents in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Israeli Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima; Kelman, Talia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism poses a challenge for children and adolescents as well as parents. For many years, Israeli citizens have been exposed to ongoing terrorist attacks. The present article is aimed at revealing the reactions of Israeli parents when facing terrorist attacks and their perceptions regarding the help-seeking behaviours of their…

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National...

  11. Remediation following a CBRN terrorist attack : domestic and international perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanofsky, N. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The risks of chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) agents in terrorist attacks is well recognized. Serious measures must be in place to respond to terrorist attacks that involve these agents, including cleanup of affected buildings, machinery, land, water and air. This paper describes what is expected from the science community in the development of adequate, reliable and economical decontamination methods and equipment. It also discusses improved detection methods and adequate personal protection. Cleanup after a terrorist attack has much in common with the cleanup of contaminated sites or dealing with the consequences of industrial accidents, particularly as most potential chemical terror agents are represented by toxic industrial chemicals. The major needs of organizations involved in cleanup procedures were reviewed. Issues concerning first responders, assessment of situations, information collecting and the detection of possible chemical, biological and radiological agents were discussed. The development of generic decontamination procedures and equipment was suggested, with reference to the fact that the spectrum of CBRN weapons is very broad. In addition, the development of detection systems and instruments capable of analyzing a broad range of agents was also seen as desirable. New generation instruments such as Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) detectors were reviewed. Guidelines for cleanup procedures and remediation efforts were examined. It was also noted that there is relatively little information available to predict the behaviour of potential agents of CBRN terrorism in a complex urban environment. By studying different complex threat scenarios, scientists, first responders and other parties can achieve a better understanding of how to optimize the deployment of their resources. Mechanical, physiochemical and biological methods of decontamination were evaluated. Issues concerning waste disposal were discussed. It was noted that the

  12. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  13. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.).

  14. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: A systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. Methods A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Conclusions Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed. PMID:21627850

  15. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  16. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., September 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-22988 Filed 9-10-10; 1:30 pm] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent...

  17. About a hypothetical terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    After the terrorism attack on the World Trade Center, a record number ( two thirds) of US citizens favour the use of nuclear energy and consider nuclear plants to be safe. At the same time 59% definitely support building more nuclear plants, less than in March during the Californian crisis, but more than earlier., Most american citizens ( 84%) continue to support licence renewal for nuclear plants and 72 % agree with keeping the option open to build new nuclear plants in the future. The strongest supporters are those who have visited a nuclear plant or information centre. (N.C.)

  18. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder of Florida State (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincide with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder shows that terrorist attacks against the U.S. have affecte...

  19. The Influence of Charismatic Authority on Operational Strategies and Attack Outcomes of Terrorist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Hofmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the historical and contemporary prevalence of charismatic terrorist leaders, there has been very little empirical examination of the relationship between charismatic forms of authority and the strategic operation of terrorist groups. In response to this gap in knowledge, this study seeks to investigate if charismatic authority has a real-world impact on strategic choices and attack outcomes of terrorist groups. Using a theoretical framework meant to help measure charisma in terrorist organizations, this study quantitatively examines how differing levels of the presence of charismatic authority contributes to the choice in operational tactics (e.g., weapon and target choices and the results of attack outcomes (e.g., success rates, lethality within a sample of thirty international terrorist groups. In the concluding section, relevant findings, policy recommendations, study limitations, and areas for future research are discussed.

  20. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Janecky, David R; Doerr, Ted B

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist actions are aimed at maximizing harm (health, psychological, economical, and political) through the combined physical impacts of the act and fear. Immediate and effective response to a terrorist act is critical to limit human and environmental harm, effectively restore facility function, and maintain public confidence. Though there have been terrorist attacks in public facilities that we have learned from, overall our experiences in restoration of public facilities following a terrorist attack are limited. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. For example, there may be a great need to quickly restore the facility to full operation and allow public access even though it was not designed for easy or rapid restoration, and critical information is needed for quantitative risk assessment and effective restoration must be anticipated to be incomplete and uncertain. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the "adaptive management" paradigm provides a constructive parallel paradigm for restoration of public facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, inefficiencies, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a public facility after a terrorist attack suggest that integration of adaptive management principles explicitly into restoration processes will result in substantially enhanced and flexible responses necessary to meet the uncertainties of potential terrorist attacks.

  1. Providing Crisis Counseling to New Yorkers after the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Karin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of two crisis intervention techniques used by a marriage and family counselor who served as a crisis counselor in New York City after the September 11th terrorist attack. The intervention techniques described are Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and one-on-one crisis counseling. An overview of both techniques…

  2. After a terrorist attack: Challenges for political and administrative leadership in norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Christensen (Tom); P. Laegreid (Per); L.H. Rykkja (Lise Hellebø)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the challenges that the terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway created for central government and, more particularly, for the political and police leadership. The emphasis is on 'meaning making', focusing on how the leaders played out their reactions in the

  3. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs.

  4. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  5. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  6. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field.

  7. Terrorist Attacks: Do We Know How to Assess the Results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 11, 2001, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center (WTC in New York City. Explosions and fires resulted in the complete collapse of the two WTC towers. The collapsing towers served as enormous point sources of gaseous and particulate air pollution, seen as huge plumes of smoke and dust. The smoke contained volatile organic compounds and fine particles and aerosols. The dust fraction contained parts of ceiling tiles, carpets, concrete, adhesives, asbestos, chromium, lead, titanium, and many other elements and materials. Whether there were unusually toxic ingredients in the plumes is largely unknown.

  8. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period.

  9. 体育恐怖袭击事件探析%Analysis of Sports Terrorist Attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松

    2014-01-01

    通过对体育赛事中发生的恐怖袭击事件进行梳理,探析重大体育恐怖袭击事件发生的特征与深层次原因,发现:政治霸权与政治纷争是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的本质原因;体育赛事的高影响度是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的主要原因;不同体育文明冲突与意识形态是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的重要原因。提出预防和消除体育恐怖袭击事件的对策:全球共同努力建立公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序;发挥体育推动世界和平共处与社会和谐发展的功能;加强大型体育赛事的安保措施。%Through the terrorist attacks on sporting events to sort out, characteristic of major sporting events of the terrorist attacks and the deep-seated reasons, found that:political hegemony and political strife is the essential rea-son for sporting events of the terrorist attacks;High Impact sporting events is the main reason sports terrorist attacks;the clash of civilizations and ideologies of different sports is an important cause of sports terrorist attacks occurred. Proposed to prevent and eliminate terrorist attacks coun-termeasures sports:a global effort to establish a fair and rational new international political and economic order;play sports to promote peaceful coexistence and harmoni-ous social development of the world functions;strengthen security measures of major sports events.

  10. Stock Market Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: Empirical Evidence from a Front Line State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The world financial markets have reacted in a highly consistent pattern to the incident of 9/11 in the United States, suicide blasts at night clubs at Bali in 2002, the Madrid and London train bombings in 2004-2005 and a series of continuous blasts and suicide attacks in Pakistan. In this study, we examined the effect of terrorist attack news on returns and volatility for the Karachi Stock Exchange. We employ the EGARCH model proposed by Engle and Ng (1993as it allows good and bad news to have a different impact on volatility. Our results indicate that terrorist attack news has negative impact on the returns of all the sector indices. However, news of these events increased the volatility of KSE100 index and financial sector index. Further it is concluded that the results of oil and gas, and industry are not statistically significant in response to terrorist attack news, indicating that such type of news does not affect the volatility of these two sectors. Moreover, volatility asymmetry is negative in all of the sectors including KSE100 confirming leverage effect.

  11. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse. Keywords: Media discourse analysis, Norway terrorist attacks, Islam, Western media

  12. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsdal, Nils O

    2014-01-01

    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again.

  13. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  14. Analysis of Protection Measures for Naval Vessels Berthed at Harbor Against Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    by the Mexican Navy to prevent terrorist attacks on the strategic Campeche Sound (petroleum production area) in the Gulf of Mexico. Martinez used... visualization techniques (Lucas, Kelton, Sanchez, Sanchez, & Anderson, 2015). After choosing factors and the ranges of these factors to explore, an...accurate map possible would be the territory, and thus would be perfectly accurate and perfectly useless. — Neil Gaiman, American Gods “One of the

  15. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), e-mail: iris.eshed@sheba.health.gov.il

    2010-03-15

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  16. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  17. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  18. Tracking and Analyzing Individual Distress Following Terrorist Attacks Using Social Media Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Margolin, Drew; Wen, Xidao

    2017-08-01

    Risk research has theorized a number of mechanisms that might trigger, prolong, or potentially alleviate individuals' distress following terrorist attacks. These mechanisms are difficult to examine in a single study, however, because the social conditions of terrorist attacks are difficult to simulate in laboratory experiments and appropriate preattack baselines are difficult to establish with surveys. To address this challenge, we propose the use of computational focus groups and a novel analysis framework to analyze a social media stream that archives user history and location. The approach uses time-stamped behavior to quantify an individual's preattack behavior after an attack has occurred, enabling the assessment of time-specific changes in the intensity and duration of an individual's distress, as well as the assessment of individual and social-level covariates. To exemplify the methodology, we collected over 18 million tweets from 15,509 users located in Paris on November 13, 2015, and measured the degree to which they expressed anxiety, anger, and sadness after the attacks. The analysis resulted in findings that would be difficult to observe through other methods, such as that news media exposure had competing, time-dependent effects on anxiety, and that gender dynamics are complicated by baseline behavior. Opportunities for integrating computational focus group analysis with traditional methods are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients.

  20. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  1. Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2013-05-15

    Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries.

  2. Male fetal loss in the U.S. following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male birth) reportedly declines following natural disasters, pollution events, and economic collapse. It remains unclear whether this decline results from an excess of male fetal loss or reduced male conceptions. The literature also does not converge as to whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 induced "communal bereavement", or the widespread feeling of distress among persons who never met those directly involved in the attacks. We test the communal bereavement hypothesis among gravid women by examining whether male fetal deaths rose above expected levels in the US following September 11, 2001. Methods We apply interrupted time-series methods to all fetal deaths at or greater than the 20th week of gestation in the US from 1996 to 2002. Time-series methods control for trends, seasonality, and other forms of autocorrelation that could induce spurious associations. Results Results support the hypothesis in that the fetal death sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male fetal death) increased above its expected value in September 2001. Additional analysis of the secondary sex ratio indirectly supports that the terrorist attacks may have threatened the gestation of male more than female fetuses. Conclusions Societal responses to events such as September 11, 2001 do not appear confined only to persons who have ever met the deceased. The fetal death sex ratio in the US population may serve as a sentinel indicator of the degree to which pregnant women react to population stressors. PMID:20500812

  3. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  4. An assessment of the terrorist threat to use a nuclear or radiological device in an attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: kingshob@gvsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)

  5. The Treatment of Images in 11-M Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Violence in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Torres Romay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to analyze the pictures publishing in the Spanish and international newspapers before the Madrid terrorist attack, March, 11. With this research we get some ideas about freedom speech limits: the respect of the privacy and, in special, the respect of the pain. At the same time, we´ll remark the importance of the photography in the press and their communication power. For this research we used the March, 11 and 12 newspapers of most important Spanish editors and the digital edition of international press.

  6. [Treatment strategies for mass casualty incidents and terrorist attacks in trauma and vascular surgery : Presentation of a treatment concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemert, B; Franke, A; Bieler, D; Achatz, A; Hinck, D; Engelhardt, M

    2017-08-11

    The treatment of patients in the context of mass casualty incidents (MCI) represents a great challenge for the participating rescue workers and clinics. Due to the increase in terrorist activities it is necessary to become familiar with this new kind of threat to civilization with respect to the medical treatment of victims of terrorist attacks. There are substantial differences between a "normal" MCI and a terrorist MCI with respect to injury patterns (blunt trauma vs. penetrating/perforating trauma), the type and form of the incident (MCI=static situation vs. terrorist attack MCI= dynamic situation) and the different security positions (rescue services vs. police services). This article is concerned with question of which changes in the surgical treatment of patients are made necessary by these new challenges. In this case it is necessary that physicians are familiar with the different injury patterns, whereby priority must be given to gunshot and explosion (blast) injuries. Furthermore, altered strategic and tactical approaches (damage control surgery vs. tactical abbreviated surgical care) are necessary to ensure survival for as many victims of terrorist attacks as possible and also to achieve the best possible functional results. It is only possible to successfully counter these new challenges by changing the mindset in the treatment of terrorist MCI compared to MCI incidents. An essential component of this mindset is the acquisition of a maximum of flexibility. This article would like to make a contribution to this problem.

  7. Spatial proximity and the risk of psychopathology after a terrorist attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Emch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with the relation of proximity to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent psychopathology have produced conflicting results. The goals of this analysis are to assess the appropriateness of using Bayesian hierarchical spatial techniques to answer the question of the role of proximity to a mass trauma as a risk factor for psychopathology. Using a set of individual-level Medicaid data for New York State, and controlling for age, gender, median household income and employment-related exposures, we applied Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods for spatially-aggregated data. We, we found that distance from the World Trade Center site in the post-attack time period was associated with increased risk of anxiety-related diagnoses. In the months following the attack, each two mile increment in distance closer to the World Trade Center site was associated with a seven percent increase in anxiety-related diagnoses in the population. No similar association was found during a similar time period in the year prior to the attacks. We conclude that spatial variables help more fully describe post-terrorism psychiatric risk and may help explain discrepancies in the existing literature about these attacks. These methods hold promise for the characterization of disease risk where spatial patterning of ecologic-level exposures and outcomes merits consideration. PMID:20079543

  8. Introduction: 9/11. The Socio-Political consequences of terrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier especial explora las consecuencias socio-políticas de los ataques terroristas. Los primeros dos artículos examinan el impacto que los eventos del 11 de septiembre de 2001 han tenido sobre los discursos culturales en el mundo occidental. ¿Cúal es la reacción de las democracias al ataque terrorista? Tras los ataques del 11 de septiembre la mayoría de la población hubiera esperado que el gobierno pasara a desarrollar leyes que restringieran las libertades individuales y dieran a las autoridades amplios poderes para rastrear los terroristas y sus acólitos. Los siguientes dos artículos examinan las diferentes formas en que el 11 de septiembre han influenciado la política exterior americana contemporánea. En el último artículo William Messner y Carlos Yordan observan las reacciones estadounidenses a los ataques del 11 de septiembre y la implantación del Consejo de Seguridad para lograr un nuevo sistema global anti-terrorista.Palabras clave: 11/S, Estados Unidos, consecuencias socio-políticas, discursos políticos, Política de Seguridad americana contemporánea.___________________________ABSTRACT:This special issue explores the sociopolitical consequences of terrorist attacks. The first two articles examine the impact the events of 11 September 2009(9/11 had on cultural discourses in the West. What are democracies’ reactions to a terrorists attack? Following the 9/11 attacks, most people would expect the government to pass legislation that would restrict individual liberties and give the authorities wide powers to track terrorists and its supporters. Then, the next two articles examine the different ways the 9/11 attacks influenced contemporary American foreign policy. In the last article, William Messmer and Carlos Yordan look at the United Nations’ reactions to the 9/11 attacks and the Security Council’s establishment of new global counter-terrorism system.Keywords: 9/11; USA; United Nations; sociopolitical

  9. PTSD and Depression Among Museum Workers After the March 18 Bardo Museum Terrorist Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Chennoufi, Leila; Cheour, Mejda

    2017-02-07

    On March 18, 2015, two gunmen attacked the Bardo museum in Tunis, Tunisia, killing 23 foreign tourists. We assessed PTSD and depression symptoms 4-6 weeks after the event among museum workers, in relation to sociodemographic factors and social support, and we analysed the determinants and predictor factors of PTSD and depression symptoms among the participants. Our findings indicated that 68.6% of the respondents had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cutoff point (IER-S scores >33), and 40.6% reported severe levels of depressive symptoms (DASS-depression scores >20). Male and female participants did not significantly differ in terms of their symptom severities. Low social support was the best predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that interventions designed to reinforce ties within social networks may be particularly helpful for victims in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.

  10. Energy markets, US energy policy, and the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis A. Sosa; Daniel J. Desnyder [Colorado School of Mines (USA). Division of Economics and Business, Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 reinvigorated the debate over US energy policy initiated by the publication of the National Energy Policy Report (NEPR) of May 2001. US policymakers were aware of the importance of diversification and market risk management, but judged an expansion of domestic production could insulate the US from price shocks. The attacks called attention to the high petroleum intensity of the American economy, led to increases in costs associated with doing business in the oil patch, highlighted the fundamental security problem inherent in oil markets, and probably stymied a nascent recovery. Global energy markets were rattled but not rocked - a result of the preexisting economic downturn and determined market intervention. A review of the changes in US energy strategy since 11 September 2001 suggests cool heads blocked an emotional, short-run policy response and are instead working to diversify America's energy supply portfolio.

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to trauma reminders after a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Kristin A; Jensen, Tine K; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Dyb, Grete

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to systematically describe the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported after a terrorist attack and (b) to examine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. A total of 285 survivors (M age = 22.2, SD = 4.3, 53% males) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, were interviewed face to face 14-15 months after the terror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced a range of different trauma reminders in the past month and which was most distressing. Current posttraumatic stress reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. In all, 33.3% of the survivors reported having experienced 1 or more trauma reminders often/very often in the past month. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and were reported to be the most distressing, especially sudden and sharp noises. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was significantly associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. The findings suggest that trauma reminders are common among survivors of a terrorist attack almost 1.5 years after the trauma and that PTSD is strongly related to the frequency of exposure to reminders. It is important that clinicians are aware of the significant role trauma reminders may play in maintaining PTSD and help trauma survivors recognize and manage reminders.

  12. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Shedding Some Light on RFID Distance Bounding Protocols and Terrorist Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, J M E; van der Lubbe, Jan C A

    2009-01-01

    During the last years, researchers have focused on designing secure and efficient RFID authentication protocols. The vast majority of these protocols assume proximity between readers and tags due to the limited range of the radio channel. However, in real scenarios, an intruder can be located between the prover (tag) and the verifier (reader) and trick the latter into thinking that the prover is in close proximity. This attack is globally known as a relay attack, a kind that includes others such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist attacks. Distance bounding protocols represent a promising countermeasure to hinder relay attacks. Several protocols have been proposed in the last years, but vulnerabilities of major or minor relevance have been identified in all of them. In 2008, Kim et al. [10] proposed a new distance bounding protocol with the objective of being the best one in terms of security, privacy, tag computational overhead and fault tolerance - as claimed by their authors. The study of this rec...

  14. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  15. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  16. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  17. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  18. Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel TORRES-TOUKOUMIDIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

  19. A case study of conspiracy theories about Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack

    CERN Document Server

    Golo, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    The results of the public opinion poll performed in January 2015, just after the terrorist attack on the French satirical weekly magazine Charlie Hebdo and the kosher supermarket in Paris, when 17 people were killed, showed that a significant number of French citizens held conspiratorial beliefs about it (17 %). This gave reason to an alternative analysis of public opinion, presented in this paper. We collected 990 on-line articles mentioning Charlie Hebdo from Le Monde web site (one of the leading French news agencies), and looked at the ones that contained words related with conspiracy (in French: `complot', `conspiration' or `conjuration'). Then we analyzed the readers response, performing a semantic analysis of the 16490 comments posted on-line as reaction to the above articles. We identified 2 attempts to launch a conspiratorial rumour. A more recent Le Monde article, which reflects on those early conspiratorial attempts from a rational perspective, and the commentary thereon, showed that the readers hav...

  20. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  1. Mediating the social and psychological impacts of terrorist attacks: the role of risk perception and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon; Krieger, Kristian

    2007-06-01

    The public's understanding of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) related issues and their likely actions following a CBRN incident is an issue of great concern, as public psychological and behavioural responses will help determine subsequent morbidity and mortality rates. This paper explores the role of effective government communication with the public and its role in mediating the social and psychological impact of terrorist attacks. We examine the importance of effective communication in reducing morbidity and mortality in the event of a terrorist attack and explore the impact of risk perceptions in determining the success or failure of risk communication strategies. This includes the examination of the role of fear as a health risk, and the identification of factors relevant to public trust in risk communication. Finally, an investigation of the type of information desired by members of the public leads the authors to make risk communication recommendations targeted at the promotion of more adaptive behaviours in response to CBRN attacks.

  2. Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sara A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L; Avitzour, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    In this case study, virtual reality was used to augment imaginal exposure in a protocol based on prolonged exposure. A 29-year-old male patient developed posttraumatic stress disorder after surviving a deadly terrorist bulldozer attack on two civilian buses and several cars in Jerusalem; the traumas witnessed by the survivor included a decapitation. The crowded bus in which the patient was riding was pushed over onto its side by the terrorist, injuring, trapping, and terrifying the passengers and causing gasoline to leak. Guided by his therapist, the patient entered an immersive computer-generated virtual world to go "back" to the scene of the traumatic event to help him gain access to his memories of the event, process and reduce the intensity of the emotions (fear/anger) associated with his pathological memories, and change unhealthy thought patterns. Traumatic memories of childhood abuse and traumatic memories of the bulldozer terrorist attack were treated using imaginal exposure while the patient was in the virtual environment BusWorld. The patient showed large posttreatment reductions in PTSD symptoms, and his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores dropped from 79 pretreatment to zero immediately posttreatment, and CAPS was still at zero 6 months later. Although case studies are inconclusive by nature, these encouraging preliminary results suggest that further exploration of the use of virtual reality during modified prolonged exposure for PTSD is warranted. As terrorist attacks increase in frequency and severity worldwide, research is needed on how to minimize the psychological consequences of terrorism.

  3. A study on the trend of international radioactive material regulation since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    AI-Qaeda and other terrorist groups have tried to obtain the radioactive material which could be used to make a dirty bomb, and their documents relating to dirty bombs were found in the January 2003. International communities especially, the United States has made efforts to improve infrastructure of radiation regulation and security of radioactive material for protecting its people from radiological attacks. This study examines the likelihood of radiological terrorism and the radiological dispersal devices which could be used by determined terrorists, and the trend of international communities to respond it through improvement on radiation regulation and security.

  4. Identification With Terrorist Victims of the Washington, DC Sniper Attacks: Posttraumatic Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman Mash, Holly B; Ursano, Robert J; Benevides, K Nikki; Fullerton, Carol S

    2016-02-01

    In October 2002, a series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. We examined the association between identification with terrorist victims and psychological and behavioral outcomes. Participants were 1,238 residents of the Washington, DC area (ages 18-90 years; M = 41.73, SD = 12.56) who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and items pertaining to identification with attack victims approximately 3 weeks following the first sniper shooting. We examined 3 types of identification with the victims: (a) as like oneself, (b) as like a friend, and (c) as like a family member. The relationships of identification to posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms were examined using linear regression analyses. Greater total identification was associated with more posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms (B = 0.27, p < .001, and B = 0.44, p < .001, respectively), after adjusting for demographics. Those who specifically identified with the victims as either self (B = 0.24, p < .001), friend (B = 0.30, p < .001), or family member (B = 0.27, p < .001) reported more PTSD symptoms (n = 1,101). Identifying with victims as like a friend or family member, but not as like oneself, was associated with increased depressive symptoms (B = 0.61, p < .001, and B = 0.45, p = .01, respectively; n = 1,222). Presence and type of identification play a differential role in psychological and behavioral responses during traumatic events.

  5. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  6. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  7. The 9/11 terrorist attack and posttraumatic stress disorder revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Bohnert, Kipling M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-08-01

    Research published in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack reported elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the US population (4.3%-17.0%), attributable to indirect exposure through the media. We use data from a national survey conducted in 2004 to 2005 (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2) (n = 34,653). The list of traumatic events covered in the survey included indirect exposure to 9/11 through media coverage. Respondents who endorsed more than 1 traumatic event were asked to single out "the worst event" they had ever experienced. The worst event (or the only event) was the index event for diagnosing PTSD. Indirect experience of 9/11 had the lowest PTSD risk of all the traumatic events in the list, 1.3%. In the subset that endorsed only 9/11 indirect exposure (n = 3981), the PTSD risk was 0.3%. Of the total sample, 0.7% experienced PTSD in relation to indirect 9/11. Explanations for the lower estimates are discussed.

  8. A Game-Theoretical Model to Improve Process Plant Protection from Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Laobing; Reniers, Genserik

    2016-12-01

    The New York City 9/11 terrorist attacks urged people from academia as well as from industry to pay more attention to operational security research. The required focus in this type of research is human intention. Unlike safety-related accidents, security-related accidents have a deliberate nature, and one has to face intelligent adversaries with characteristics that traditional probabilistic risk assessment techniques are not capable of dealing with. In recent years, the mathematical tool of game theory, being capable to handle intelligent players, has been used in a variety of ways in terrorism risk assessment. In this article, we analyze the general intrusion detection system in process plants, and propose a game-theoretical model for security management in such plants. Players in our model are assumed to be rational and they play the game with complete information. Both the pure strategy and the mixed strategy solutions are explored and explained. We illustrate our model by an illustrative case, and find that in our case, no pure strategy but, instead, a mixed strategy Nash equilibrium exists.

  9. [Prospective study of post-traumatic stress in victims of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehel, L; Duchet, C; Paterniti, S; Consoli, S M; Guelfi, J D

    2001-01-01

    In 1995-96 several terrorist attacks struck Paris. After that, the French government decided to optimize the service claimed to treat psychological repercussions of attacks victims. For this reason we need to better understand the psychopathology developing after these traumatic events in order to adjust the various steps of the treatment. In December 1996, a terrorist attack occurred in a Paris subway. Medical and medico-psychological teams intervened immediately on the site to help victims. Among 115 victims, 4 persons died and 35 were seriously injured. The aim of our study was to evaluate the psychological impact among a population of terrorist attacks victims by a prospective study and to identify predictive factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We evaluated PTSD rates at 6 and 18 months, the relationship between coping style and PTSD, and whether PTSD increased health care utilization. Two follow up evaluations were performed in the 6th and 7th month respectively, by means of self-questionnaires sent by mail. Among 115 victims of the bombing attack occurred in December 1996, the 111 survivors were asked to participate to the study. The subjects who accepted and could use French questionnaires were considered eligible for the inclusion: the main criteria of the Watson's PTSD Inventory for the specific post-traumatic symptoms were used; the Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire was used to measure the general psychopathology; to identify coping styles we used the questionnaire "Ways of Coping Check List" of Vitaliano at 6 months and the "Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS)" by Endler at 18 months; a small questionnaire was proposed to evaluate injuries, hospitalization and specific treatment immediately or after the event. Among 70 subjects who accepted to participate, 56 (33 females) could be evaluated at 6 months and 32 (14 females) subjects at 18th months. The mean age at 6 months was 38.4 years: 41% of participants met PTSD

  10. Tenant reaction patterns to the threat of a terrorist attack after September 11, 2001, in downtown Chicago office market

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Dermisi

    2005-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) spread the fear of other terrorist attacks targeting downtown office buildings across other major U.S. cities. Among them, Chicago owners and tenants were even more concerned because of the concentration of corporate headquarters and the site of the tallest office building in the U.S. This paper studies the tenant reactions in response to the 9/11 attacks in three locations within the Chicago’s downtown office market, comparing the before and after 9/11...

  11. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2017-07-01

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. African-American adolescents’ stress responses after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Ludwig, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of indirect exposure to the 9/11/01 attacks upon physical and emotional stress-related responses in a community sample of African-American (AA) adolescents. Methods Three months after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks, 406 AA adolescents (mean age [SD] of 16.1 ± 1.3 years) from an inner-city high school in Augusta, GA were evaluated with a 12-item 5-point Likert scale measuring loss of psychosocial resources (PRS) such as control, hope, optimism, and perceived support, a 17-item 5-point Likert scale measuring post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PCL), and measures of state and trait anger, anger expression, and hostility. Given the observational nature of the study, statistical differences and correlations were evaluated for effect size before statistical testing (5% minimum variance explained). Bootstrapping was used for testing mean differences and differences between correlations. Results PCL scores indicated that approximately 10% of the sample was experiencing probable clinically significant levels of post-traumatic distress (PCL score > 50). The PCL and PRS were moderately correlated with a r = .59. Gender differences for the PCL and PRS were small, accounting for 1% of the total variance. Higher PCL scores were associated with higher state anger (r = .47), as well as measures of anger-out (r = .32) and trait anger (r = .34). Higher PRS scores were associated only with higher state anger (r = .27). Scores on the two 9/11/01-related scales were not statistically associated (i.e., less than 5% of the variance explained) with traits of anger control, anger-in, or hostility. Conclusions The majority of students were not overly stressed by indirect exposure to the events of 9/11/01, perhaps owing to the temporal, social, and/or geographical distance from the event. Those who reported greater negative impact appeared to also be experiencing higher levels of current anger and exhibited a characterologic style of higher overt anger

  13. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  14. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event.

  15. NDM-1- or OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonising Polish tourists following a terrorist attack in Tunis, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, R; Bojarska, K; Baraniak, A; Literacka, E; Herda, M; Żabicka, D; Guzek, A; Półgrabia, M; Hryniewicz, W; Gniadkowski, M

    2015-06-11

    We describe the introduction of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 and Escherichia coli ST410, and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae ST101 strains to Poland by two patients transported to the country after hospitalisation in Tunisia. The patients had gunshot wounds following the terrorist attack in the Bardo National Museum in Tunis in March 2015. Our report reinforces the need for microbiological screening of patients returning from travel on admission to healthcare institutions, especially following hospitalisation in countries where carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic.

  16. Computer modelling for risk assessment of emergency situations and terrorist attacks during transportation using methods of fuzzy set theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosterev, V.V.; Boliatko, V.V.; Gusev, S.M.; Panin, M.P. [MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Averkin, A.N. [CC RAS, Moscox (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    Computer software for risk assessment of transportation of important freight has been developed. It incorporates models of transport accidents, including terrorist attacks. These models use, among the others, input data of cartographic character. Geographic information system technology and electronic maps of a geographic area are involved as an instrument for handling this kind of data. Fuzzy set theory methods as well as standard methods of probability theory have been used for quantitative risk assessment. Fuzzy algebraic operations and their computer realization are discussed. Risk assessment for one particular route of railway transportation is given as an example. (author)

  17. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants; Genehmigungsrechtliche Fragen terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danwitz, T. von

    2002-07-01

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [German] Das allgemeine Risiko von terroristischen Anschlaegen auf Kernkraftwerke ist durch die Ereignisse vom 11. September 2001 wieder verstaerkt in das Bewusstsein der Oeffentlichkeit getreten. Die verfassungsrechtlichen Grundlagen und die atomgesetzliche Einordnung der Risiken von terroristischen Angriffen auf kerntechnische Anlagen bleiben jedoch in der aktuellen Diskussion weithin ungeklaert. Der Beitrag unternimmt es daher, die verfassungs- und verwaltungsrechtliche Bedeutung der Risiken terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke in atomrechtlichen Genehmigungsverfahren zu untersuchen. (orig./CB)

  18. Smallpox, risks of terrorist attacks, and the Nash equilibrium: an introduction to game theory and an examination of the smallpox vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Richard; McCain, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The smallpox vaccination emergency preparedness program has been unsuccessful in enrolling sufficient numbers of healthcare workers. The objective of this study was to use game theory to analyze a pre-event vaccination versus post-event vaccination program using the example of a terrorist considering an attack with smallpox or a hoax. A three-person game (normal and extensive form), and an in-person game are played for pre-event and post-event vaccinations of healthcare workers facing the possibility of a smallpox attack or hoax. Full pre-event vaccinations of all targeted healthcare workers are not necessary to deter a terrorist attack. In addition, coordinating vaccinations among healthcare workers, individual healthcare worker risk aversion, and the degree to which terrorists make the last move based on specific information on the status of pre-event vaccination all greatly impact strategy selection for both sides. A Nash Equilibrium of pre- and post-event vaccination strategies among a large number of healthcare professionals will tend to eliminate the advantage (of the terrorists) of a smallpox attack over a hoax, but may not eliminate some probability of a smallpox attack. Emergency preparedness would benefit from game theory analysis of the costs and payoffs of specific terrorism/counter-terrorism strategies.

  19. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  20. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

  1. Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377

  2. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  3. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  4. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined...

  5. No Evidence of Suicide Increase Following Terrorist Attacks in the United States: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B.

    2009-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of…

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

  7. The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeshin

    2016-01-01

    Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.

  8. Occupational Practitioner’s Role in the Management of a Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Paris November 2015 Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Huynh Tuong, Alice; Coninx, Pierre; Baer, Michel; Loeb, Thomas; Despréaux, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans. Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, posttraumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols. In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up. PMID:27703965

  9. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2016-12-29

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  10. The enduring mental health impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks: challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh

    2013-09-01

    The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers.

  11. Estimation of health hazards resulting from a radiological terrorist attack in a city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the concern for protection of urban populations against terror attacks involving radiological, biological or chemical substances has attracted increasing attention. It sets new demands to decision support and consequence assessment tools, where the focus has traditionally been on...

  12. Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3,271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGrande, Laura; Neria, Yuval; Brackbill, Robert M; Pulliam, Paul; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-01

    Although the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in US history, there is little extant research documenting the attacks' consequences among those most directly affected, that is, persons who were in the World Trade Center towers. Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2-3 years after the attacks ascertained the prevalence of long-term, disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 3,271 civilians who evacuated World Trade Center towers 1 and 2. Overall, 95.6% of survivors reported at least 1 current posttraumatic stress symptom. The authors estimated the probable rate of PTSD at 15.0% by using the PTSD Checklist. Women and minorities were at an increased risk of PTSD. A strong inverse relation with annual income was observed. Five characteristics of direct exposure to the terrorist attacks independently predicted PTSD: being on a high floor in the towers, initiating evacuation late, being caught in the dust cloud that resulted from the tower collapses, personally witnessing horror, and sustaining an injury. Working for an employer that sustained fatalities also increased risk. Each addition of an experience of direct exposure resulted in a 2-fold increase in the risk of PTSD (odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.84, 2.36). Identification of these risk factors may be useful when screening survivors of large-scale terrorist events for long-term psychological sequelae.

  13. 炭疽恐怖袭击直接经济损失评估方法%Assessment methods of direct economic losses from anthrax terrorist attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斗; 祖正虎; 徐致靖; 许晴; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    以炭疽杆菌芽孢气溶胶恐怖袭击为例,对城市地区遭受非传染性生物剂攻击的直接经济损失评估方法进行研究.将经济损失分为死亡损失、医疗损失、环境洗消、经济活动停顿4个方面构建评估模型,最后以北京某商业区为例,对遭受炭疽杆菌芽孢气溶胶恐怖袭击的经济损失进行计算和分析.相关评估方法可以对生物恐怖袭击后政府资源调配、经济援助等决策提供支持和依据.%The assessment methods of direct economic losses were studied for non-infectious biological agent attacks in urban areas using Bacillus anthracis spores aerosol terrorist attacks as an example. Economic losses, involving human death, medical expenses, environmental decontamination and interruption of economic activities were modeled by taking a commercial district in Beijing , which was assumed to have been attacked by terrorists equipped with Bacillus anthracis spores aerosol. The results of calculation and analysis can assist the government in resource deployment and financial assistance should similar terrorist attacks occur.

  14. Strengthening Hospital Surge Capacity in the Event of Explosive or Chemical Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    received chest tube thoracostomies . In an open-air attack with 190 survivors, only 7% were intubated and only 3% received a chest tube thoracostomy ...underwent endotracheal intubation; one received a surgical airway; and 1% received a chest tube thoracostomy .219 A major trauma center may not be overly...taxed with an average of six intubations and three chest thoracostomies as suggested by the Oklahoma data, but patients are not distributed equitably

  15. Dynamic Modeling of the Economic Impacts of a Terrorist Attack using a Radiological Dispersion Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    combined, the model uses historical examples of responses from the September 11 attacks, the Three Mile Island and Goiania , Brazil incidents, natural...radiological incidents is gathered from the Goiania , Brazil, Chernobyl, and Three Mile Island incidents. “The tragic radiological accident that occurred...treated for radiation burns, and 249 others were exposed to the cesium 137 radiation. Mass panic ensued across Goiania as the result of the incident

  16. Vulnerability of the United States’ Oil Supply to Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ukraine) Major Oil Pipelines (capacity, 2002E): Druzhba (1.2 million bbl/d); Baltic Pipeline System (240,000 bbl/d); CPC Tengiz- Novorossiisk... Pipelines & Terminals 12 Figure 3: Vulnerability Rankings of the Oil Infrastructure 16 Figure 4: Major Pipelines within the Continental...Qaida. 9-11 has demonstrated their global reach, and attacks on Iraqi and Saudi oil nodes have demonstrated their intent. The oil pipelines and

  17. The economic impacts of the September 11 terrorist attacks: a computable general equilibrium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois; Asay, Gary [University of Southern California

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a bottom-up approach that focuses on behavioral responses in estimating the total economic impacts of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. The estimation includes several new features. First, is the collection of data on the relocation of firms displaced by the attack, the major source of resilience in muting the direct impacts of the event. Second, is a new estimate of the major source of impacts off-site -- the ensuing decline of air travel and related tourism in the U.S. due to the social amplification of the fear of terrorism. Third, the estimation is performed for the first time using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis, including a new approach to reflecting the direct effects of external shocks. This modeling framework has many advantages in this application, such as the ability to include behavioral responses of individual businesses and households, to incorporate features of inherent and adaptive resilience at the level of the individual decision maker and the market, and to gauge quantity and price interaction effects across sectors of the regional and national economies. We find that the total business interruption losses from the WTC attacks on the U.S. economy were only slightly over $100 billion, or less than 1.0% of Gross Domestic Product. The impacts were only a loss of $14 billion of Gross Regional Product for the New York Metropolitan Area.

  18. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it.

  19. Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracer Studies to Support Risk Assessment Modeling of Critical Infrastructure Subjected to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Terry M.; Heiser, John H.; Watson, Tom; Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., “urban canyons”. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City’s (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving

  20. An Analysis of the Public Reporting to Lothian and Borders Police on Perceived Terrorism-Related Matters after the Glasgow Airport Terrorist Attack in 2007

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack of 2007 led to the initiation of a Lothian and Borders Police operation to investigate an expected increase in the public reporting of terrorism-related matters. This paper considers the two specific areas of data in respect of these reports: the reporters and the information they imparted. An analysis of reporter characteristics is undertaken, highlighting areas of interest concerning age, employment and place of birth. The information imparted to the pol...

  1. Vicarious Exposure to Terrorist Attacks and Substance Use: Results from an Urban Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, Michael; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the 9/11 attacks on substance use in Chicago, Illinois. The study design was a cross-sectional, audio-computer-assisted self-interview survey conducted in 2001 and 2002. Biological samples were also collected for toxicological analyses. Using a multistage area probability design, residents between the ages of 18 and 40 years were randomly selected. Compared to pre-9/11 interviewees, post-9/11 interviewees showed significantly less self-reported marijuana use, marijuana use per test results, and cocaine use per test results. Law enforcement and social–structural explanations for the findings are discussed. PMID:18363107

  2. Vicarious exposure to terrorist attacks and substance use: results from an urban household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Adam M; Fendrich, Michael; Johnson, Timothy P

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of the 9/11 attacks on substance use in Chicago, Illinois. The study design was a cross-sectional, audio-computer-assisted self-interview survey conducted in 2001 and 2002. Biological samples were also collected for toxicological analyses. Using a multistage area probability design, residents between the ages of 18 and 40 years were randomly selected. Compared to pre-9/11 interviewees, post-9/11 interviewees showed significantly less self-reported marijuana use, marijuana use per test results, and cocaine use per test results. Law enforcement and social-structural explanations for the findings are discussed.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult israeli jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Patrick A; Chipman, Katie J; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2010-12-15

    To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population.

  4. Age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of March 11, 2004 terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Vallet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of the terrorist attacks that took place in Madrid (Spain on March 11, 2004. One hundred and ninety-six individuals participated in this experiment: 92 were 9.60 years old on average and 104 were 39.41 years old on average at the time of the event. To evaluate their real memories of the event twelve years later, the Phenomenological Questionnaire on Autobiographical Memory was used. Differences were shown between the two groups in terms of memory quality, emotions associated with the event, and accessibility of the information remembered. Results were also represented using high-dimensional visualization (HDV graphs, supporting the assertion that long-term event memories have different characteristics depending on the age of the individual at the time the event took place. Memories in adult people meet the criteria to be considered flashbulb memories, while in the case of the younger people this kind of memory does not seem to emerge. Young people are probably less capable of evaluating the consequences of an event which results in reduced emotional arousal and a different elaboration of the event memory in comparison to older adults.

  5. Insights Into French Emergency Planning, Response, and Resilience Procedures From a Hospital Managerial Perspective Following the Paris Terrorist Attacks of Friday, November 13, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanchi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations. Staff performance was also facilitated by overwhelming staff solidarity and professionalism, ensuring the smooth running of crisis management and improving victim survival rates. Although lessons learned are ongoing, an initial debriefing of managers found organizational improvements to be made. These included improvements to the activation of Plan Blanc and how staff were alerted, bed management, emergency morgue facilities, and public relations. In conclusion, our preparations for an eventual terrorist attack on this unprecedented scale ensured a successful medical response. Even though anticipating the unthinkable is difficult, contingency plans are being made to face other possible terrorist threats including chemical or biological agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  6. Research on Risk Evaluation Model of Urban Terrorist Attacks%城市遭受恐怖袭击的风险评估模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滑腾飞; 白玲; 刘大庆

    2016-01-01

    自美国“9·11”事件发生以来,全球恐怖主义活动日益频繁,已成为21世纪城市所面临的重大安全问题。目前,对城市恐怖主义的研究也变得越来越紧要。本文以模糊层次分析法为基础,构建城市遭受恐怖袭击的风险评估模型,分析城市遭恐怖袭击的可能程度,得到我国15个大城市遭受恐怖袭击的风险排序,并用专题图展示。%Since 9· 11 events, global terrorism have become increasingly frequent , have become a major security issues facing cities in the 21st century.Currently, the study of urban terrorism has become more and more critical .In this paper, based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process , terrorist attacks on the city to build a risk assessment model to analyse the extent possible terrorist attacks in the cit -y.Detailed analysis of 15 major cities by the national terrorist attacks risk ranking , and with thematic maps show .

  7. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used

  8. Exposure Science for Terrorist Attacks and Theaters of Military Conflict: Minimizing Contact with Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The strategies for protecting our deployed U.S. Forces are outlined in National Research Council documents published in 1999–2000. This article summarizes experiences and information gathered and interpreted regarding population and rescue workers’ exposures in the aftermath of the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, with the aim to provide insights on issues related to military deployment to locations with hazardous agents. Issues coveted include phases of exposure, materials of concern, detection equipment, and personal protection equipment. The focus is on human exposure issues, which are primarily associated with strategies 1 through 3 of the National Research Council’s report entitled “Protecting Those Who Serve: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces”. Contact and duration of contact with hazardous substances are critical areas of concern, which require prevention and intervention procedures and protocols to reduce the incidence of acute and long-term health outcomes. PMID:21916334

  9. Frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia and migrant in the American online media on the example of New York Times (NYT and Washington Post (WP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urevna Marina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia, which then grow into migrant-phobia. In the study, the author came to the conclusion that the frame "terrorist attacks in Paris" is widely used in political technologies in the United States. It was also found that in order to justify harsh statements with respect to the policy of the Muslims used substitute frames, such as "terrorist" and "Muslim". At the same time with such a substitution of concepts Islamophobia has become more broad framework and became migrant-phobia.

  10. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Schroeder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, and travel trade sectors. Within each operating sector, there is also a variety of different stakeholders in various segments and organisations. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine tourism crisis communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks in Kenya. The main research question which guided this study was: did tourism communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks follow best practices for tourism crisis communications? Accordingly, this paper used participant observation to highlight communications surrounding the attacks from the perspective of a conference planner and a conference attendee.

  11. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack; Ejercicio de emergencia radiologica ocasionada por un atentado terrorista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: rrcana@sede.ar.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  12. New York City Department of Health response to terrorist attack, September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    In response to two jet aircraft crashing into and causing the collapse of the 110-storied World Trade Center (WTC) towers and the subsequent destruction of nearby portions of lower Manhattan, the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH) immediately activated its emergency response protocol, including the mobilization of an Emergency Operations Center. Surveillance, clinical, environmental, sheltering, laboratory, management information systems, and operations were among the preestablished emergency committees. Because of its proximity to the WTC site, an emergency clinic was established at NYCDOH for triage and treatment of injured persons. NYCDOH focused its initial efforts on assessing the public health and medical impact of the attack and the resources needed to respond to it such as the care and management of large numbers of persons injured or killed by the crash; subsequent fire and building collapse; the health and safety of rescue workers; the environmental health risks (e.g., asbestos, smoke, dust, or chemical inhalation); other illnesses related to the disruption of the physical infrastructure (e.g., waterborne and foodborne diseases); and mental health concerns. Despite the evacuation and relocation of NYCDOH's headquarters, the department continued essential public health services, including death registration.

  13. The National Contingency Plan versus the Federal Response Plan during terrorist attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.; Betsinger, G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Response to multimedia accidental chemical releases in the United States is covered by the National Contingency Plan (NCP), while major disasters or emergencies such as floods and hurricanes are covered by the Federal Response Plan (FRP). This paper reviewed the roles of both the NCP and the FRP and presented a responder's point of view as to how the plans were implemented in the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City. The NCP provides a comprehensive system of accident reporting, spill containment and cleanup. It also provides organizational structure and procedures for preparing for and responding to discharges of oil and releases of hazardous substances, pollutants and contaminants. The NCP consists of 16 federal agencies. The FRP describes the mechanism by which the federal government mobilizes resources and conducts activities following a major disaster. It delivers assistance in saving lives, protecting public health, safety and property, and makes efforts to reduce future vulnerability. The FRP includes 27 federal departments and agencies, including the American Red Cross. The authors suggest that the response to the World Trade Center disaster could have involved more primary lead agencies directing their responsibilities. One of the lessons learned from the event is that the FRP should be made more comprehensive and the rules of engagement for a multi-agency response activity involving more than two Emergency Support Function activities should be more explicit. It was also suggested that better communication is needed along with a well established chain of command.

  14. Attention orientation in parents exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M; Mandell, Donald J; Musa, George J; Britton, Jennifer C; Sankin, Lindsey S; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Hoven, Christina W

    2011-05-15

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions.

  15. Attention Orientation in Parents Exposed to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M.; Mandell, Donald J.; Musa, George J.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Sankin, Lindsey S.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions. PMID:20970198

  16. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as psychological toxin: increase in suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Monica N

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies of psychological morbidity produced by September 11, 2001, focused primarily on short-term development of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression in East Coast cities targeted. This study aimed to determine whether suicide attempts medically harmful enough to necessitate admission to the general hospital increased in the 2 years following September 11, 2001, in a region not on the East Coast, and if so, to characterize individuals contributing to this increase. This retrospective study compared two time periods: 2 years preceding and 2 years following September 11, 2001. Psychiatric consultation reports for all suicide attempters medically admitted to the University of Michigan Health Systems Hospital in Ann Arbor, Michigan, were examined (N = 254). In the 2-year period following September 11, 2001, there was a 49% increase in the number of individuals making a harmful suicide attempt (p = 0.002). The effect was greatest in the months following the attacks but continued over the next year, with a stepwise decline corresponding to the number of months elapsed since September 11. In the period following September 11, 2001, fewer subjects reported multiple personal stressors (p = 0.03). The subjects in the two time periods were not significantly different in age, gender, prior suicide attempts, prior psychiatric treatment, alcohol abuse, substance abuse, depression, or psychosis. Overrepresentation by those most vulnerable to suicide attempts did not account for the increased number of suicide attempts. The effects of chronic stress in the general population across the United States elicited by the terrorism of September 11, 2001, may have been of greater magnitude and longer lasting than previously realized.

  17. Relations between PTSD and distress dimensions in an Indian child/adolescent sample following the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Mehta, Panna; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Hovey, Joseph D; Geers, Andrew L; Charak, Ruby; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.

  18. An Analysis of the Public Reporting to Lothian and Borders Police on Perceived Terrorism-Related Matters after the Glasgow Airport Terrorist Attack in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gallagher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack of 2007 led to the initiation of a Lothian and Borders Police operation to investigate an expected increase in the public reporting of terrorism-related matters. This paper considers the two specific areas of data in respect of these reports: the reporters and the information they imparted. An analysis of reporter characteristics is undertaken, highlighting areas of interest concerning age, employment and place of birth. The information imparted to the police is then analysed with particular aspects of reporting identified, primarily the activity the subject was undertaking, with sub-analysis of ethnicity of subjects and premises cited. The influence of the media is also considered. The conclusions centre on the prevalence of Asian subjects in the reporting, an apparent lack of minority reporters and the nature of the public implications concerning terrorist activity as opposed to overt expressions of the nature of suspicions.

  19. Long-term memory for the terrorist attack of September 11: Flashbulb memories, event memories, and the factors that influence their retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lyle, Keith B.; Lustig, Cindy; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2010-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from seven US cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, one week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas others demonstrate accelerated forgetting. The present paper indicates that (1) the rate of forgetting for flashbulb memories and event memory (memory for details about the event itself) slows after a year, (2) the strong emotional reactions elicited by flashbulb events are remembered poorly, worse than non-emotional features such as where and from whom one learned of the attack, and (3) the content of flashbulb and event memories stabilizes after a year. The results are discussed in terms of community memory practices. PMID:19397377

  20. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following a Chemical Terrorist Attack: Decision Criteria for Multipathway Exposure Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annetta; Dolislager, Fredrick; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Love, Adam H.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21399674

  1. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following a chemical terrorist attack: Decision criteria for multipathway exposure routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  2. 恐怖活动的象征性标识--以巴黎恐袭案为例%Symbolic Signs of Terrorist Acts:the Case of Terrorist Attacks in Paris as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友龙

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] More and more symbolic signs are displayed in terrorist acts. By analyzing symbolic signs, we can better understand terrorism and grasp rules of terrorist acts, and then take measures of intelligence warning and prevention accordingly. [ Method/Process] Using symbolic communication theory of terrorism, terrorist acts are viewed as the special symbolic violence act with the purpose of information communication. From symbolic signs we can get the implicit information. [ Result/Conclusion] In the case of terrorist attacks in Paris, through many symbolic signs terrorists passed the important information, like religious doctrine of terrorism, op-position to secular life and clash of civilizations etc. The use of symbolic signs in the future will be more extensive, needs more attention and prevention.%[目的/意义]恐怖活动中呈现出越来越多的象征性标识,研究象征性标识将有助于我们更好地理解恐怖主义,掌握恐怖活动的规律,从而进行有针对性的情报预警与防范。[方法/过程]运用恐怖主义的象征性沟通理论,将恐怖活动看作以信息沟通为目的、具有特殊象征性的暴力行为,通过分析恐怖活动的象征性标识来揭示其传递的隐含信息。[结果/结论]巴黎系列恐怖袭击案件中的象征性标识,传递出恐怖主义的教义信仰、反世俗生活方式、文明冲突等重要信息。象征性标识的运用在未来将更加广泛,应加以关注与防范。

  3. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective: This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method: Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465 was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716 were 19% and 30%. Results: Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions: The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related

  4. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Background Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465) was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716) were 19% and 30%. Results Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related to later post

  5. Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

    2002-05-03

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were determined at World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174{plus_minus}0.074 (2{sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53{plus_minus}0.17 and 2.83{plus_minus}0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. Tritium is used in self-luminescent emergency EXIT signs. No such signs were present inside the WTC buildings. However, it was determined that Boeing 767-222 aircraft operated by the United Airlines that hit WTC Tower 2 as well as Boeing 767-223ER operated by the American Airlines, that hit WTC Tower 1, had a combined 34.3 Ci of tritium at the time of impact. Other possible sources of tritium include dials and lights of fire and emergency equipment, sights and scopes in weaponry, as well as time devices equipped with tritium dials. It was determined that emergency equipment was not a likely source. However, WTC hosted several law-enforcement agencies such as ATF, CIA, US Secret Service and US Customs. The ATF office had two weapon vaults in WTC Building 6. Also 63 Police Officers, possibly carrying handguns with tritium sights, died in the attack. The weaponry containing tritium was therefore a likely and significant source of tritium. It is possible that some of the 2830 victims carried tritium watches, however this source appears to be less significant that the other

  6. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endara, Skye M; Ryan, Margaret AK; Sevick, Carter J; Conlin, Ava Marie S; Macera, Caroline A; Smith, Tyler C

    2009-01-01

    Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002). We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes. PMID:19619310

  7. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following chemical terrorist attack: Introduction and key assessment considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  8. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21390292

  9. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  10. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  11. The Charlie Hebdo Terror Attack in Paris: Follow-up of French Citizens’ Terrorist Threat Perception and Its Aftermath [L’attaque Terroriste de Charlie Hebdo à Paris : Evolution temporelle de la Perception de la Menace Terroriste et de ses Conséquences auprès des Citoyens Français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pelletier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the most frightful large-scale societal threats nowadays. The January 7, 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris shattered French’s sense of security. The present research investigates French citizen’s ('N' = 160 terrorist threat perception (personal vs. collective, behavioral changes, social sharing of emotions and perceived socioemotional climate using the social stage model of collective coping with disasters (Pennebaker & Harber, 1993. This study was conducted by a questionnaire at three points of time (i.e., one week, one month and two month following the attack. The results suggest that terrorist threat perception has not decreased across time at the personal level nor at the collective level. However, the extent of social sharing of emotions and the positive socioemotional climate decreased from the initial emergency stage to the subsequent adaptation stage. Such findings point to the importance of taking temporality into account to provide better understanding of lay people’s responses to terrorism. Résumé Le terrorisme est l’une des menaces sociétales à grande échelle les plus effroyables de nos jours. L’attaque terroriste de Charlie Hebdo du 7 janvier 2015 à Paris a ébranlé le sentiment de sécurité des Français. La présente recherche examine la perception de la menace terroriste (personnelle vs. collective, les changements comportementaux, le partage social des émotions et le climat socio-émotionnel perçu auprès des citoyens français (N = 160 en se basant sur le modèle des étapes sociales de coping collectif avec les catastrophes (Pennebaker & Harber, 1993. Cette étude a été conduite par questionnaire à trois points temporels (c.-à-d., une semaine, un mois et deux mois après l’attaque. Les résultats suggèrent que la perception de la menace terroriste n’a pas diminué à travers le temps, ni au niveau personnel, ni au niveau collectif. Toutefois, l’ampleur du partage

  12. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  13. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, PTSD, and risk factors among lower Manhattan residents 2-3 years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGrande, Laura; Perrin, Megan A; Thorpe, Lorna E; Thalji, Lisa; Murphy, Joseph; Wu, David; Farfel, Mark; Brackbill, Robert M

    2008-06-01

    Manhattan residents living near the World Trade Center may have been particularly vulnerable to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. In 2003-2004, the authors administered the PTSD Checklist to 11,037 adults who lived south of Canal Street in New York City on 9/11. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 12.6% and associated with older age, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, low education and income, and divorce. Injury, witnessing horror, and dust cloud exposure on 9/11 increased risk for chronic PTSD. Postdisaster risk factors included evacuation and rescue and recovery work. The results indicate that PTSD is a continued health problem in the local community. The relationship between socioeconomic status and PTSD suggests services must target marginalized populations. Followup is necessary on the course and long-term consequences of PTSD.

  14. What Good Are Positive Emotions in Crises? A Prospective Study of Resilience and Emotions Following the Terrorist Attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Tugade, Michele M.; Waugh, Christian E.; Larkin, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks— gratitude, interest, love, and so forth—fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping. PMID:12585810

  15. Applying the Israeli Practice of Reconstruction Following a Terrorist Attack as a Model for Cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Civil Defense PTSD Post Traumatic Syndrome Disorder QHSR Quadrennial Homeland Security Report WTC World Trade Center...The collapse of the World Trade Center ( WTC ) towers in 2001 serves as an obvious example. The WTC attacks were both suicide and rocket propelled...The fact that construction/reconstruction continues on the WTC site more than a decade following the suicide attacks would suggest that even

  16. Istanbul Stock Market’s Reaction To Terrorist Attacks / İstanbul Borsasının Terörist Saldırılara Reaksiyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos CHRISTOFIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks can have a multitude of economic consequences that may adversely affect a number of economic sectors and activities including capital markets. This paper examines the impact of three major terrorist incidents on the Istanbul Stock Exchange, one of the major emerging markets internationally. The reaction of both the general index as well as sectorial indices is investigated. The findings reported herein indicate that the impact, although significant in certain cases, had only short-lived effects since the market rebound was fairly quick. Of the sectorial indices, the tourist industry is found to be more adversely affected by these events.

  17. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ALGERIA AFTER 1990 IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL UNREST, TERRORIST ATTACKS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTRICTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the conquest of independence, Algeria experienced major socio-economic changes, but it also faced a civil war that has been responsible for more than 150,000 casualties. Despite the efforts made by the auhorities in the direction of national reconciliation, the terrorist activities, like the one of January 2013, still feed the insecurity feeling. In its economic and social development, Algeria depends to a very large extent both on its oil fields and on the oil price on the world markets. Large public projects were started in economy, education, health, and transport infrastructure, with the revenues generated by oil and natural gas. However, the development efforts are influenced by the environmental restrictiveness, as the country is mostly a desert and water resources are scarce. Moreover, after the independence the population increased rapidly, exceeding the capacity of the state to provide enough jobs, which explains why unemployment is currently so high among young people.

  18. King has no clothes: The role of the military in responding to a terrorist chemical/biological attack. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterman, J.L.

    1996-06-14

    The United States has begun a program of counterproliferation in order to preempt the use of WMD by such elements, however, the ability to respond to the terrorist employment of biological/chemical weapons is absent. Given the structure, capability and technical expertise in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of Defense (DoD) will be tasked to conduct the response to such an incident. The geographical Commander in Chief (CINC) and the appointed Joint Task Force (JTF) commander will ultimately be assigned the response mission. Planning, training and coordination is required to develop a force capable of responding in a timely and coordinated manner.

  19. Unmet mental health care need 10–11 years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks: 2011–2012 results from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little current information about the unmet mental health care need (UMHCN) and reasons for it among those exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of UMHCN among symptomatic individuals enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) in 2011–2012, and to analyze the relationship between UMHCN due to attitudinal, cost, and access factors and mental health symptom severity, mental health care utilization, health insurance availability, and social support. Methods The WTCHR is a prospective cohort study of individuals with reported exposure to the 2001 WTC attacks. This study used data from 9,803 adults who completed the 2003–2004 (Wave 1) and 2011–2012 (Wave 3) surveys and had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression in 2011–2012. We estimated logistic regression models relating perceived attitudinal, cost and access barriers to symptom severity, health care utilization, a lack of health insurance, and social support after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Slightly more than one-third (34.2%) of study participants reported an UMHCN. Symptom severity was a strong predictor of UMHCN due to attitudinal and perceived cost and access reasons. Attitudinal UMHCN was common among those not using mental health services, particularly those with relatively severe mental health symptoms. Cost-related UMHCN was significantly associated with a lack of health insurance but not service usage. Access-related barriers were significantly more common among those who did not use any mental health services. A higher level of social support served as an important buffer against cost and access UMHCN. Conclusions A significant proportion of individuals exposed to the WTC attacks with depression or PTSD 10 years later reported an UMHCN, and individuals with more severe and disabling conditions, those who lacked health insurance, and those with low levels of social

  20. The Effects of September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on Public and Private Information Infrastructures: A Preliminary Assessment of Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11 attacks on public and private information infrastructures. Topics include the role of information technology in future homeland security initiatives; continuity and recovery plans; decentralization of operations; and the development of system redundancies to eliminate single…

  1. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  2. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J.; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as likely to report having a loved one at the 9/11 disaster site, twice as likely to know someone who was killed by the attacks, and twice as likely to know someone who was involved with the rescue/recovery efforts after the disaster. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19475656

  3. Searching for and Finding Meaning in Collective Trauma: Results From a National Longitudinal Study of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, John A.; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E. Alison

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one’s life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans’ searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval—the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N = 931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people’s fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability. PMID:18729704

  4. Chronic physical health consequences of being injured during the terrorist attacks on World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have focused on injuries from the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. Severe injury has health consequences, including an increased mortality risk 10 years after injury and the risk of mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Trade Center Health Registry identified 14,087 persons with none of a selected group of preexisting chronic conditions before 2002 who were present during and soon after the World Trade Center attacks, 1,980 of whom reported sustaining 1 or more types of injury (e.g., a broken bone or burn). Survey data obtained during 2003-2004 and 2006-2007 were used to assess the odds of reporting a diagnosis of chronic conditions (heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer) up to 5-6 years after the attacks. Number of injury types and probable PTSD were significantly associated with having any chronic conditions diagnosed in 2002-2007. Persons with multiple injuries and PTSD had a 3-fold higher risk of heart disease than did those with no injury and no PTSD, and persons with multiple injuries and with no PTSD had a 2-fold higher risk of respiratory diseases. The present study shows that injured persons with or without comorbid PTSD have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. Clinicians should be aware of the heightened risk of chronic heart and respiratory conditions among injured persons.

  5. Chronic Physical Health Consequences of Being Injured During the Terrorist Attacks on World Trade Center on September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Stellman, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have focused on injuries from the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. Severe injury has health consequences, including an increased mortality risk 10 years after injury and the risk of mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Trade Center Health Registry identified 14,087 persons with none of a selected group of preexisting chronic conditions before 2002 who were present during and soon after the World Trade Center attacks, 1,980 of whom reported sustaining 1 or more types of injury (e.g., a broken bone or burn). Survey data obtained during 2003−2004 and 2006−2007 were used to assess the odds of reporting a diagnosis of chronic conditions (heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer) up to 5–6 years after the attacks. Number of injury types and probable PTSD were significantly associated with having any chronic conditions diagnosed in 2002–2007. Persons with multiple injuries and PTSD had a 3-fold higher risk of heart disease than did those with no injury and no PTSD, and persons with multiple injuries and with no PTSD had a 2-fold higher risk of respiratory diseases. The present study shows that injured persons with or without comorbid PTSD have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. Clinicians should be aware of the heightened risk of chronic heart and respiratory conditions among injured persons. PMID:24561992

  6. Risk factors for persistence of lower respiratory symptoms among community members exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Friedman, Stephen M; Reibman, Joan; Goldring, Roberta M; Miller Archie, Sara A; Ortega, Felix; Alper, Howard; Shao, Yongzhao; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Berger, Kenneth I

    2017-06-01

    We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12-13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008-2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013-2014). Peripheral airway function was assessed with impulse oscillometry measures of R5 and R5-20. Probable PTSD was a PTSD checklist score ≥44 on a 2006-2007 questionnaire. Of 785 exam 1 participants, 545 (69%) completed exam 2. Most (321, 59%) were asymptomatic at all assessments. Among 192 participants with initial LRS, symptoms resolved for 110 (57%) by exam 2, 55 (29%) had persistent LRS and 27 (14%) had other patterns. The proportion with normal spirometry increased from 65% at exam 1 to 85% at exam 2 in the persistent LRS group (p<0.01) and was stable among asymptomatic participants and those with resolved LRS. By exam 2, spirometry results did not differ across symptom groups; however, R5 and R5-20 abnormalities were more common among participants with persistent LRS (56% and 46%, respectively) than among participants with resolved LRS (30%, p<0.01; 27%, p=0.03) or asymptomatic participants (20%, p<0.001; 8.2%, p<0.001). PTSD, R5 at exam 1, and R5-20 at exam 1 were each independently associated with persistent LRS. Peripheral airway dysfunction and PTSD may contribute to LRS persistence. Assessment of peripheral airway function detected pulmonary damage not evident on spirometry. Mental and physical healthcare for survivors of complex environmental disasters should be coordinated carefully. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  7. Compassion Fatigue Following the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: A Study of Secondary Trauma among New York City Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Experience suggests that individuals working in the caring and psychotherapeutic professions are among those to provide mental health services to disaster victims suffering from psychological trauma following catastrophic events. Yet, few studies have focused on the emotional exhaustion from working with such clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF) in this study, and how CF differs from other occupational hazards, such as secondary trauma (ST) and job burnout. In the present study, we used recently validated scales to predict ST and job burnout related to providing services to those affected by the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Our study data were based on a random survey of 236 social workers living in New York City (NYC), over 80% of which reported being involved in post-WTC disaster counseling efforts. Our analyses indicated that controlling for demographic factors, years of counseling, and personal trauma history, ST was positively associated with WTC recovery involvement (p < .001) and negatively associated with having a supportive work environment (p < .01). In contrast, job burnout was negatively associated with having a supportive work environment (p < .01), but not associated with WTC involvement or WTC counseling efforts. We discuss these results in light of future conceptual and empirical research needs. PMID:15298076

  8. Alcohol use in New York after the terrorist attacks: A study of the effects of psychological trauma on drinking behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Research has suggested that exposure to psychological trauma is associated with increased abuse of psychoactive substances, particularly alcohol. To assess this, we analyzed alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence among a random sample of 1681 New York City adults 1 year and 2 years after the September 11 attacks. In multivariate models controlling for demographic factors, other stressor exposures, social psychological resources, and history of anti-social behavior, we found that greater exposure to the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) was associated with greater alcohol consumption at 1 year and 2 years after this event. In addition, our analyses also indicated that exposure to the WTCD was associated with binge drinking at 1 year after but not 2 years after this event. Alcohol dependence, assessed as present in either year 1 or year 2, also was positively associated with greater WTCD exposures. Posttraumatic stress disorder was not associated with alcohol use, once WTCD exposure and other covariates were controlled. Our study suggests that exposure to psychological trauma may be associated with increases in problem drinking long after exposure and deserves further investigation. PMID:15982827

  9. 地铁应对恐怖袭击时的人流模型及其建筑安全设计%Design of subway passenger flow model and its architectural safety when terrorist attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华

    2013-01-01

      地铁作为一种高风险建筑设施,面临着各种形式的恐怖威胁。文中分析了可能威胁到地铁运营安全的爆炸、生化及放射性袭击、纵火等主要恐怖活动,并从地铁设计、现行地铁设计规范、制度管理、设备设施等方面,给出了地铁应对恐怖袭击的解决方案。%  As a kind of high risk building facilities, subway is faced with various terroristic threats. Some terrorist activities which could threaten the subway operation safety are analyzed, such as explosion, bio-chemical and radioactive attack, and arson. The solution to the terrorist attack is provided on subway design, current design specifications, systematic management and Equipment and facilities.

  10. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137

  11. On Modeling Terrorist Frauds

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Quite recently, distance-bounding protocols received a lot of attention as they offer a good solution to thwart relay attacks. Their security models at still unstable, especially when considering terrorist fraud. This considers the case where a malicious prover would try to bypass the protocol by colluding with an adversary without leaking his credentials. Two formal models appeared recently: one due to Fischlin and Onete and another one by Boureanu, Mitrokotsa, and Vaudenay. Both were propos...

  12. The true cost of renewables: An analytic response to the coal industry`s attack on renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G; Wan, Yih-huei

    1995-10-01

    In April 1995, the Center for Energy and Economic Development (CEED), an umbrella organization of pro-coal interests, released a report entitled Energy Choices in a Competitive Era: The Role of Renewable and Traditional Energy Resources in America`s Electric Generation Mix. The report purports to show that a very modest growth in the use of renewable energy in the U.S. power sector would entail unaffordable costs for the nation`s electricity ratepayers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to review the assumptions contained in the report, which was prepared for CEED by Resource Data International, Inc. (RDI). The NREL analysis finds that the conclusions of the CEED/RDI study are based on faulty data and assumptions regarding the comparative economics of coal and renewable energy development. After correcting these errors, NREL finds that a modest growth path of renewable resource development would essentially cost the nation little more than projected electricity market costs for coal-fired generation, even before considering the environmental benefits that would accompany this development.

  13. 试论城市地下公共空间的反恐问题%On Anti-terrorist Attack in Urban Underground Public Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿玺

    2012-01-01

    Urban underground public space is the place with a variety of public underground commercial facilities , underground entertainment facilities, underground parking, subway and other transportation facilities, as well as underground plaza with the people gathered. The inherent threat to the urban underground public space may be from the terrorism including the complexity of on-ground space environment and lack of external security. The external factors include high staff-intensity within the space, space-specific functionality and their own vulnerability. The main form of the terrorist threat is the explosion, arson, assassination and hostage taking, biochemical or radioactive material attacks. The protection includes enhancing access control, environmental prevention, eliminating the structural " crime corners" of underground public space and establishing the security evacuation mechanism.%城市地下公共空间是指城市各种公共地下商业设施、地下娱乐设施、地下停车场和地铁等交通设施、地下广场等具有聚集性人流的地下公共空间场所.城市地下公共空间可能遭受恐怖威胁的内在因素包括地上空间环境复杂和外部安全保障缺失,外在因素包括内部人员密集性、空间的特定功能性和空间自身的脆弱性,面临的恐怖威胁形式主要有爆炸、纵火、暗杀与人质劫持、生化或放射性物质攻击等.反恐预防措施包括地下公共空间的入口控制,引入地下公共空间的情景预防,消除空间的结构性“犯罪死角”以及建立安全疏散机制等措施.

  14. Attack of the Uber Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marni Soupcoff

    2014-01-01

      When the author first heard about Uber, Lyft, and other creative new ridesharing and car-hire companies, he felt sure they would be characterized as a bad idea by those enjoying the benefits of the current taxi cartel...

  15. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  16. Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters......Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters...

  17. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  19. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  20. Simulation Analysis on Hazardous Materials Transportation Network Survivability Under Terrorist Attack%恐怖袭击下危险品运输网络抗毁性仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    种鹏云; 帅斌

    2013-01-01

    Single node’s failure may cause cascading failure after hazardous materials transportation network is attacked by terrorist. Aiming at this problem, a model of cascading failure invulnerability for hazardous materials transportation network is established. Under the condition of the terrorist attack, it defines three kinds of node status which are“normal”,“failure”and“pause”, and from the perspective of“result”and“process”, the invulnerability indicators and their calculations are proposed. Then, it takes a quantificational research through different node degrees, different capacity coefficients and different planning modes by establishing simulation scene. The results show that the model is scientific and effective.%危险品运输网络在遭受恐怖袭击后单个节点的失效可能会引发网络级联失效现象。为解决该问题,构建一个危险品运输网络级联失效抗毁性模型。根据恐怖袭击条件,定义“正常”、“失效”和“暂停状态”3种节点状态,从“结果性”和“过程性”2个视角出发,提出网络抗毁性的评价测度。通过建立仿真场景,在不同节点的度、不同容量系数和不同规划方式下对危险品运输网络级联失效特性进行定量研究,结果证明了该级联失效抗毁性模型的科学有效性。

  1. Business interruption impacts of a terrorist attack on the electric power system of Los Angeles: customer resilience to a total blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Oladosu, Gbadebo; Liao, Shu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Regional economies are highly dependent on electricity, thus making their power supply systems attractive terrorist targets. We estimate the largest category of economic losses from electricity outages-business interruption-in the context of a total blackout of electricity in Los Angeles. We advance the state of the art in the estimation of the two factors that strongly influence the losses: indirect effects and resilience. The results indicate that indirect effects in the context of general equilibrium analysis are moderate in size. The stronger factor, and one that pushes in the opposite direction, is resilience. Our analysis indicates that electricity customers have the ability to mute the potential shock to their business operations by as much as 86%. Moreover, market resilience lowers the losses, in part through the dampening of general equilibrium effects.

  2. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective: To identify the methodological approaches used to study children's reactions to three recent major disasters--the September 11, 2001, attacks; the…

  3. BusWorld: an analog pilot test of a virtual environment designed to treat posttraumatic stress disorder originating from a terrorist suicide bomb attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Reisberg, Ayelet; Weiss, Patrice L; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Hoffman, Hunter G

    2008-12-01

    Exposure therapy treatment can lead to large reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is designed to facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. During VRE therapy, patients go into an immersive computer-generated environment (go back to the scene of the traumatic event) to help them gain access to their memories of the traumatic event, change unhealthy thought patterns, gradually habituate to their anxiety, and reduce the intensity of associated emotions. The therapist's ability to manipulate the amount of anxiety experienced by the client during therapy is an important element of successful exposure therapy. Using a within-subjects design, 30 asymptomatic volunteers each experienced four levels of a virtual world depicting a terrorist bus bombing, designed to be increasingly distressful. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean subjective units of discomfort scores (SUDS) of the four levels, and several planned paired comparisons showed significantly higher SUDS ratings with higher simulation levels. Results suggest that sound may play an important role in successful elicitation of emotional responses during VRE. The results of this analog study provide initial validation of the potential of BusWorld to provide graded exposure for individuals suffering from PTSD originating from suicide bus bombings. Future research exploring whether VR exposure therapy with BusWorld can reduce PTSD in clinical patients is warranted.

  4. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  5. The Developmental Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968–2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes. PMID:23185267

  6. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clauset

    Full Text Available We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  7. The Scale of Social Vulnerability to Terrorist Attack upon Large Complicated Commercial Complex:An Empirical Research on the Shanghai IFC Mall%大型复杂商业综合体恐袭社会脆弱性量表--基于上海国金中心商场IFC Mall的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 李佩兵

    2016-01-01

    “9·11”事件以来,恐怖袭击已经成为当前最为棘手的全球性安全问题。近年来,东突伊斯兰运动等国际恐怖组织不断在我国境内实施恐怖袭击,特别是2013年4月9日后,“伊拉克和大叙利亚伊斯兰国”( ISIS)极端组织迅速扩张,对我国国家安全和公共安全构成了严重威胁。人流密度高、内部结构复杂的大型复杂商业综合体往往面临着更严峻的潜在恐怖袭击威胁,但是针对大型复杂商业综合体恐怖袭击社会脆弱性的研究却很少。本文结合国外大型复杂商业综合体己经发生的恐怖袭击案例,以上海国金中心商场IFC Mall为实证研究样例,采集社会计量数据和社会调查数据,通过典型事件专家访谈方法,提取恐怖袭击社会脆弱性特征变量,编制IFC Mall恐怖袭击社会脆弱性量表,开发测量大型复杂商业综合体恐怖袭击社会脆弱性的量表工具,并实际检验了量表的构思效度、内容效度和信度。因素分析结果指出,大型复杂商业综合体恐怖袭击社会脆弱性主要是装箱货品及危险品的高度暴露性和低度敏感性、商场高密度人群和高流量人群的高度暴露性和低度敏感性。本研究开发的大型复杂商业综合体恐怖袭击社会脆弱性量表,可以用于实际测量潜在恐怖袭击的暴露性和敏感性,为上海城市安全治理决策部门提供恐怖袭击风险管理的科学支撑。%Since the“9 · 11” incident, terrorist attacks have become the most intractable global security issues. In recent years, the East Turkestan Islamic movement and other international terrorist organizations will continue in the territory of China’s implementation of the terrorist attacks, especially after 2013 April 9th, the rapid expansion of the Islamic state of Iraq and Syria ( ISIS) extremist organizations, to our national security and public safety constitute the serious threat

  8. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  9. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  10. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Co

  11. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  12. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6–7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2–3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11–18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5–12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1–28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners. PMID:28229007

  13. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6-7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2-3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11-18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5-12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1-28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners.

  14. The development of a quick-running prediction tool for the assessment of human injury owing to terrorist attack within crowded metropolitan environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the London ‘7/7’ attacks in 2005, UK government agencies required the development of a quick-running tool to predict the weapon and injury effects caused by the initiation of a person borne improvised explosive device (PBIED) within crowded metropolitan environments. This prediction tool, termed the HIP (human injury predictor) code, was intended to: — assist the security services to encourage favourable crowd distributions and densities within scenarios of ‘sensitivity’;— provide guidance to security engineers concerning the most effective location for protection systems;— inform rescue services as to where, in the case of such an event, individuals with particular injuries will be located;— assist in training medical personnel concerning the scope and types of injuries that would be sustained as a consequence of a particular attack;— assist response planners in determining the types of medical specialists (burns, traumatic amputations, lungs, etc.) required and thus identify the appropriate hospitals to receive the various casualty types.This document describes the algorithms used in the development of this tool, together with the pertinent underpinning physical processes. From its rudimentary beginnings as a simple spreadsheet, the HIP code now has a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows three-dimensional visualization of results and intuitive scenario set-up. The code is underpinned by algorithms that predict the pressure and momentum outputs produced by PBIEDs within open and confined environments, as well as the trajectories of shrapnel deliberately placed within the device to increase injurious effects. Further logic has been implemented to transpose these weapon effects into forms of human injury depending on where individuals are located relative to the PBIED. Each crowd member is subdivided into representative body parts, each of which is assigned an abbreviated injury score after a particular

  15. The BBC, Daily Telegraph and Wikinews timelines of the terrorist attacks of 7th July 2006 in London: a comparison with contemporary discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Thelwall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We assess the extent to which published media timelines reflect contemporary electronic discussions of major media events, using the London Attacks of July 2005 as a case study. The main objective is to judge whether timelines could, in principle, be automatically generated from contemporary debates. A secondary objective is to analyse the reasons for differences between contemporary debates and retrospective media timelines. Method. Our method exploits the new opportunities for large-scale analysis afforded by electronic news feeds and blogs. We compared published media timelines with blog postings and news stories related to the London attacks of July, 2005. Rich Site Summary (RSS technology was used to gather data from 19,587 blog and news sites. For the period of July 7 to July 31 we identified an average of 275 sources a day that posted new information containing the word 'London'. These postings, a combination of blogging and news stories, formed the raw data for our analysis. In particular, we extracted and counted the individual words used in the postings. Analysis. We compared contemporary word usage statistics from our RSS data with the text of three published media timelines, particularly seeking words and types of words that were present in one but not the other. Results. We found that the timelines tended to ignore the role of communication during the event itself, to use less emotionally charged language, and to gloss over to some extent the wider context of the event. Hence some aspects (frames of the unfolding discussion were ignored by the timelines. Moreover, all sources included a range of relatively trivial details, the timelines apparently using them as concept markers (metonymy for broader issues. Conclusion. . It seems that it would be difficult to automatically generate media timelines from contemporary discussions because of frame changes, and because of changes in terminology and the difficulty in

  16. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective To identify the methodological approaches used to study children’s reactions to three recent major disasters—the September 11, 2001, attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina. Methods This review was guided by a systematic literature search. Results A total of 165 unduplicated empirical reports were generated by the search and examined for this review. This included 83 references on September 11, 29 on the 2004 Tsunami, and 53 on Hurricane Katrina. Conclusions A diversity of methods has been brought to bear in understanding children’s reactions to disasters. While cross-sectional studies predominate, pre-event data for some investigations emerged from archival data and data from studies examining non-disaster topics. The nature and extent of the influence of risk and protective variables beyond disaster exposure are not fully understood due, in part, to limitations in the study designs used in the extant research. Advancing an understanding of the roles of exposure and various individual, family, and social factors depends upon the extent to which measures and assessment techniques are valid and reliable, as well as on data sources and data collection designs. Comprehensive assessments that extend beyond questionnaires and checklists to include interviews and cognitive and biological measures to elucidate the negative and positive effects of disasters on children also may improve the knowledge base. PMID:24443635

  17. The Mental Health Consequences of Disaster-Related Loss: Findings from Primary Care One Year After the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gross, Raz; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Blanco, Carlos; Manetti-Cusa, Julián; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the long-term psychiatric consequences, pain interference in daily activities, work loss, and functional impairment associated with 9/11-related loss among low-income, minority primary care patients in New York City. A systematic sample of 929 adult patients completed a survey that included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12). Approximately one-quarter of the sample reported knowing someone who was killed in the attacks of 9/11, and these patients were sociodemographically similar to the rest of the sample. Compared to patients who had not experienced 9/11-related loss, patients who experienced loss were roughly twice as likely (OR = 1.97, 95%; CI = 1.40, 2.77) to screen positive for at least one mental disorder, including major depressive disorder (MDD; 29.2%), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 19.4%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 17.1%). After controlling for pre-9/11 trauma, 9/11-related loss was significantly related to extreme pain interference, work loss, and functional impairment. The results suggest that disaster-related mental health care in this clinical population should emphasize evidence-based treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:19152283

  18. Profile of a Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    than those questions dealing with terrorists and their methods. Explosives are used routinely and plastique has entered the terrorist’s preferred...to handle. (12:23) The female Lebanese terrorist, May Mansin, easily concealed plastique in a body cavity and proceeded to blow a hole into the side

  19. Air monitoring activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Environmental Response Team during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.; Mickunas, D.; Campagna, P.; Burchette, S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducted air monitoring activities during the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. This paper describes ERT's response actions and analytical support. It covers ERT activities from the morning of September 11 to October 17, 2001 when ERT was alerted of anthrax activities in Washington, DC and Boca Raton, Florida. ERT members provided technical support regarding respirator/personnel protective equipment selection, decontamination and health and safety protocols. In the first few weeks, ERT was also providing analytical laboratory support to the EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the New York City Department of Health. ERT also provided on-site gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis via the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) bus, providing real-time direct readings to the EPA and the New York Fire Department. Site boundary air monitoring stations were maintained until early November at which point the EPA Region 2 took over all monitoring responsibilities. Air sampling efforts were initially directed at worker health and safety and the surrounding environments. Air sampling was conducted for asbestos, acid gases, heavy metals, phosgene, mercury, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The sampling activities were later expanded to include chlorine, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Site assessment is still ongoing. What began as a typical emergency response air sampling effort soon became a huge air monitoring effort with the original six stations expanded to more than 20. ERT made every effort to collect, analyze, quality assure and transfer data for posting on publicly accessible website within less than 24 hours. It was noted that one of the lessons learned from the disaster is

  20. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things

  1. 医院遂行城市维稳行动批量伤病员院内救治流程设计%Treatment Process Design for the Batches of Wounded in Terrorist Attacks in the Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭彦宏; 张琼; 曹金军; 缪绍武; 陶发胜

    2012-01-01

    针对城市维稳批量伤病员医疗救治特点和原则,基于军队平战时卫勤保障流程理论,利用运筹学原理,优化设计城市维稳批量伤病员在综合医院院内救治流程,明确流程设计的思路与目的.通过优化,将院内救治工作划分为:应急准备、分诊急救、专科救治和康复治疗等阶段.运用网络技术,对每个阶段各个工作节点和路线进行描述,从而确定了城市维稳批量伤病员院内救治工作的关键路线和关键活动;通过组织指挥和管理,保证关键路线和关键活动的如期实现,实施救治机构的标准化作业,确保伤病员救治效率和效益的最大化.要确保流程设计的合理性和有效性,医院还需建立救治流程管理制度体系,通过PDCA循环,在实践中不断校正和优化流程设计,以制度形式,保证团队对标准化流程掌握和运用,推动流程设计的持续改进,从而实现优化设计目的.%Based on the military medical support process theory and operations research theory, and combining with characteristics and principles of medical treatment of the sick and wounded at urban maintenance stability operations, the treatment process was redesigned for the batches of wounded in terrorist attacks in the hospital. In the new process, the treatment work was divided into the stages of emergency preparedness, triage emergency, special treatment and rehabilitation. With the network technology, each stage of work and route was described, and then the critical path and critical activities were determined of the treatment work. Then the measures were taken as the organization, command and management to ensure the critical path and activities to be carried out smoothly. Also the author proposed to schedule the standardized operation of the institutions, set up the process management system.

  2. Exploring the Current Trends and Future Prospects in Terrorist Network Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Chaurasia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era of hi-tech technologies, criminals are easily fulfilling their inhuman goals against the mankind. Thus, the security of civilians has significantly become important. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed using data mining techniques. One such technique is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways for identifying terrorist activities.

  3. Benchmark analysis for quantifying urban vulnerability to terrorist incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegorsch, Walter W; Cutter, Susan L; Hardisty, Frank

    2007-12-01

    We describe a quantitative methodology to characterize the vulnerability of U.S. urban centers to terrorist attack, using a place-based vulnerability index and a database of terrorist incidents and related human casualties. Via generalized linear statistical models, we study the relationships between vulnerability and terrorist events, and find that our place-based vulnerability metric significantly describes both terrorist incidence and occurrence of human casualties from terrorist events in these urban centers. We also introduce benchmark analytic technologies from applications in toxicological risk assessment to this social risk/vulnerability paradigm, and use these to distinguish levels of high and low urban vulnerability to terrorism. It is seen that the benchmark approach translates quite flexibly from its biological roots to this social scientific archetype.

  4. Needs of Terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov; Konstantin G. Surnov

    2009-01-01

    This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at diff erent stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of infl uence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  5. Needs of Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  6. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  7. Targeting Terrorist Leaders: The Peruvian Untouchables Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Dedication The Peruvian National Police is a divisional organization82 subdivided into directorates and regions (as divisions ) that are focused on...23 Strong, 203. 24 Revista Debate, El Poder en el Perú. (Power in Peru) (Lima: DESCO, 1983 1992). 25 Max...response to the increasing terrorist attacks in Lima, a division of the State Security Directorate was created with the name of Counter Subversion Division

  8. Terrorist financing beyond 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Loretta Napoleoni

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of counter-terrorism policies, e.g., the Patriot Act and the war in Iraq, on the financial structure of European terror networks and argues that such policies, far from defeating Jihadist activities, ended up boosting them. In response to such measures, terror finances have been skillfully restructured, the main changes being the decentralization of funding activity in Europe and in the Middle East and the declining cost of terrorist attacks.

  9. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  10. Terrorist Gang Smashed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese authorities said recently they have broken up a terrorist ring headed by "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)" sepamusts and captured more than 10 members,seizing their self-made explosives.

  11. Action against terrorist funding

    OpenAIRE

    Cranston, Ross

    2002-01-01

    Editorial comment on international measures to counter terrorist funding. Short commentary by Ross Cranston QC MP, Chairman of the SLAS Export Working Group on the Legal implications of the interdiction of terrorist property. Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  12. Exploring the Structure and Task Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations Using Agent Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Terrorist Networks, Agent Based Modeling, 2004 Madrid Attacks, Backcasting , Computational Organization Simulation 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...be understood in order to apply effective policies and practices to safeguard citizens, assets, and interests. For decades, terrorist cells have

  13. Reid et al.'s distance bounding protocol and mafia fraud attacks over noisy channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Dimitrakakis, C.; Peris-Lopez, P.; Hernandez-Castro, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are an effective countermeasure against relay attacks including distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist fraud attacks. Reid et al. proposed the first symmetric key distance bounding protocol against mafia and terrorist fraud attacks [1]. However, [2] claims that this is

  14. Reid et al.'s distance bounding protocol and mafia fraud attacks over noisy channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mitrokotsa; C. Dimitrakakis; P. Peris-Lopez; J.C. Hernandez-Castro

    2010-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are an effective countermeasure against relay attacks including distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist fraud attacks. Reid et al. proposed the first symmetric key distance bounding protocol against mafia and terrorist fraud attacks [1]. However, [2] claims that this is

  15. Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfand, Neil S

    2003-01-01

    ... engaging in the trafficking of women, and groups committing financial crimes against U.S. interests. The terrorist organizations examined were those that are viewed as potentially planning attacks...

  16. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  17. An Analysis of Media’s Role: Case Study of Army Public School (APS Peshawar Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Rameesha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing the role of media during and after terrorist attacks by examining the media handling of APS Peshawar attack. The sample consisted of males and females selected on convenience basis from universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It was hypothesized that (1 Extensive media coverage of terrorist attacks leads to greater publicity/recognition of terrorist groups (2 Media coverage of APS Peshawar attack increased fear and anxiety in public (3 Positive media handling/coverage of APS Peshawar attack led to public solidarity and peace. The results indicate that i Media coverage of terrorist attacks does help terrorist groups to gain publicity and recognition amongst public ii Media coverage of Aps Peshawar attack did not increase fear/anxiety in fact it directed the Pakistani nation towards public solidarity and peace.

  18. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  19. Estimating Terrorist Risk with Possibility Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Darby

    2004-11-30

    performed in PossibleRisk. [LEDTools] LEDTools is a general purpose linguistic evaluation tool and allows user defined universes of discourse and approximate reasoning rules, whereas PossibleRisk uses predefined universes of discourse (risk, attack, success, loss, and consequence) and rules. Also LEDTools has the capability to model a large number of threat scenarios with a graph and to integrate the scenarios (paths from the graph) into the linguistic evaluation. Example uses of PossibleRisk and LEDTools for the possibilistic evaluation of terrorist risk are provided in this report.

  20. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  1. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Richard A.; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accom...

  2. A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Davenport, Kristen M [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  3. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  4. Television journalism during terror attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on major American networks the first 24 hours...

  5. Television Journalism During Terror Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on the major American networks in the fi rst 24...

  6. A Survey on Terrorist Network Mining: Current Trends and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Tiwari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the modernization and widespread usage of Internet, the security of the mankind has become one of the major issues today. The threat of human society from the terrorists is the challenge faced dominantly. Advancement in the technology has not only helped the common people for the growth but also these inhuman people to adversely affect the society with sophisticated techniques. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed and detected. To achieve this, the law enforcement agencies are using data mining techniques as one of the effective solution. One such technique of data mining is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways foridentifying terrorist activities.

  7. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  8. Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste - internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters......Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters...

  9. Influence of Terrorist Activities on Financial Markets: Evidence from KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of terrorist activities taking place in Pakistan on KSE (Karachi Stock Exchange for the period of 01/2005 to 12/2010 using the GARCH & GARCH- EVT to identify the relationship between these two variables, the study establishes that the terrorist activities adversely affect the financial markets and in case of KSE, it is highly significant relation. Reason for the negative relationship exists because of the foremost increase in number of terrorism attacks in Pakistan.

  10. Terrorist Group Brands: Understanding Terrorist Group Strategies Through Brand Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    in the same 24-hour period, thereby making brand exposure a percentage of the global news market-share. The percentage is important because the... BRANDS : UNDERSTANDING TERRORIST GROUP STRATEGIES THROUGH BRAND EXPOSURE by Bradley S. Greaver June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Camber Warren...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TERRORIST GROUP BRANDS : UNDERSTANDING TERRORIST GROUP STRATEGIES THROUGH BRAND

  11. Understanding the Terrorist Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile

    2016-01-01

    While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today's investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.

  12. Understanding the Terrorist Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Editor’s Note: While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today’s investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.

  13. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  14. Would-Be Warriors: Incidents of Jihadist Terrorist Radicalization in the United States Since September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    sporadic terrorist attacks in the United States, as did remnants of the Ku Klux Klan .2 Some of these groups clearly benefited from the support of...Communist Party or the Ku Klux Klan did not work with the tiny, more- fluid terrorist gangs of the 1970s. Domestic intel- ligence also operated under

  15. Evaluation of an expedient terrorist vehicle barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D; Lewis, P; Wattenburg, B; Mote, P

    2000-02-28

    The threat of terrorist vehicle bombs has become evident in the past few years. The explosive power that can be generated by a ''home made'' bomb carried by a standard van or moderate size truck can generate sufficient blast overpressures to cause major damage or catastrophic collapse to building structures. There are a number of means available to help prevent a successful terrorist attack on a facility. One measure consists of the gathering of intelligence that can be used to thwart an attack before it takes place. The design and retrofit of structures and structural systems which can resist blast loadings and protect occupants is another area which is currently receiving a great deal of attention by the security community. Another measure, which can be used to protect many existing facilities, is to restrict access to the facility. This option consists of keeping unauthorized vehicles as far as possible from the facility so that if a vehicle bomb does approach the facility, the distance at which the bomb is detonated will result in significant reduction in the overpressures by the time the blast wave reaches the protected structure. This paper describes a simple and efficient vehicle barrier concept that can be used to prevent unauthorized vehicle access. The feasibility study described herein consisted of a field experimental program to test the validity of the barrier concept, and demonstrated the ability of the simple barrier to effectively disable speeding vehicles.

  16. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guikema, S.D., E-mail: sguikema@jhu.ed [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway); Aven, T. [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  17. The Terrorist Event

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Bill

    2007-01-01

    In his article "The Terrorist Event," Bill Nichols examines how the US media attempted to make meaning of the events of 9/11. How were news anchors and producers to explain an event that escaped their comprehension? Without context or historical equivalence in the US, news outlets groped for a narrative in which to frame the event even if that meant creating the meaning themselves. In their attempt to create meaning, what sorts of fetishes and fantasies did they draw-on and in turn create? Th...

  18. Malevolent Creativity in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Hunter, Samuel T.; Cushenbery, Lily D.

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a…

  19. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  20. The Need for Situational Awareness in a CBRNE Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Nelms

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six years before the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and eight years before the United States went to war with Saddam Hussein for his alleged concealment of chemical and biological weapons caches, Japan's Tokyo subway was struck by one of the most vicious terror attacks in modern history.  The 1995 Sarin terrorist attack represents an important case study for post-9/11 emergency managers because it highlights the key issues first responders and public health officials face when confronted with a CBRNE ('C'hemical, 'B'iological, 'R'adiological, 'N'uclear, 'E'xplosive mass-casualty attack.

  1. Terrorist Networks, Money Laundering Schemes, and Nation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    2000). He states that people continually “generate and test hypotheses about their worlds.” This innate trait is suggested to be a mechanism that...acts/attacks; pop.: 10,180,000)  From Relative Stability to Instability  Cote d’Ivoire (31; pop.: 18,900,000)  Chad (40; pop.: 10,330,000...state, and subsequent human network system as a whole. Previous points being made, and in light of their functional character traits of terrorist

  2. Radiological Dispersal Device Primer: From A Terrorists Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    This section will review a real life accident that occurred in Goiania , Brazil to help illustrate the damage that could potentially occur if a RDD...occur in Goiania , Brazil in 1987 that highlights the potential effects of radiation contamination. Two scrap metal scavengers broke into an abandoned...terrorist attack, the Goiania incident provides a concrete example of the potential lethality and psychological/economic destruction of a RDD and provides

  3. Coping motives and trait negative affect: testing mediation and moderation models of alcohol problems among American Red Cross disaster workers who responded to the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Jacobs, Gerard A; Meyer, David; Johnson-Jimenez, Erika

    2006-08-01

    This study explored the mechanism by which trait negative affect and alcohol coping motives are associated with alcohol-related problems in a sample of American Red Cross workers who participated in the relief operation following the attacks in New York City, the Pentagon, and the Pennsylvania crash site on Sept. 11th 2001. The results supported the mediation but not moderation model of coping motives. The support for the mediation model was fairly strong, including small to moderate associations between negative affect and alcohol problems, moderate to strong associations between negative affect and coping motives, and evidence of coping motives mediating the negative affect to alcohol problems relationships. The association between negative affect and coping motives was stronger among younger participants.

  4. Intuitive visualization of the intelligence for the run-down of terrorist wire-pullers

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the terrorist attack is a time-critical task. The investigators have a limited time window to diagnose the organizational background of the terrorists, to run down and arrest the wire-pullers, and to take an action to prevent or eradicate the terrorist attack. The intuitive interface to visualize the intelligence data set stimulates the investigators' experience and knowledge, and aids them in decision-making for an immediately effective action. This paper presents a computational method to analyze the intelligence data set on the collective actions of the perpetrators of the attack, and to visualize it into the form of a social network diagram which predicts the positions where the wire-pullers conceals themselves.

  5. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  6. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacher, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.lacher@swp-berlin.org [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik/German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin (Germany); Kumetat, Dennis, E-mail: d.kumetat@lse.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: >Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. >Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. >Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. >Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  7. What makes a terrorist stop being a terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Horgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Feet first”. That’s how one terrorist leader told recruits was the only way out. It makes sense. Allowing members to just walk away wouldn’t be good for the group’s image. And yet – at the same time as Islamic State parades its European jihadis in shocking beheading videos and continues to recruit aggressively around the world – terrorists do disengage all the time. Some quietly disappear. Others go public, telling their stories on TV or in autobiographies. They embrace their new identity as an “ex-“ or “former” to warn others of the dangers of involvement. We have also come to know formers through the rise of so-called de-radicalization programs. For the past decade, I’ve examined how and why terrorists walk away, and I’ve also closely examined programs aimed at helping ease that transition.

  8. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  9. Critical incident stress debriefing following the terrorist bombing at Army Headquarters Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, A P; Cumming, P A; Piper, M E

    1998-02-01

    On the 7 October 1996 the Provisional Irish Republican Army launched a terrorist attack within Northern Ireland. This paper provides a descriptive reflective account of the psychological support and Critical Incident Stress Debriefings (CISD) provided for civilian/military personnel and service families. Between 66 hours and 96 hours following the incident, 407 people were debriefed.

  10. The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    reconnaissance, with a team sent to survey, plan, and prepare for the attack with help from local dissi- ______________ 104“El Silencio de las Armas...Ha’aretz, June 21, 2001. 104 The Dynamic Terrorist Threat “El Silencio de las Armas,” Cambio, August 14, 2000. Sobelman, Daniel, “Hizbullah Lends Its

  11. The philosophy of bombs. The theoretical foundations of terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kreibohm, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es examinar las bases esenciales de la filosofía terrorista; es decir, el núcleo duro de Ia convicción que anima a sus actores y que subyace a sus ideas políticas, a sus demandas, ideologías y doctrinas. Con este propósito, el análisis se ha centrado en Io que hemos denominado los cinco pilares de la filosofía terrorista: la necesidad, la legitimidad, la eficacia, la capacidad para propagar el miedo y el valor propagandístico de sus acciones The goal of this ar...

  12. Are We Doing Enough to Prevent a Nuclear Terrorist Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    time-sensitive interdiction or material snatch activities. The interdiction could be inside the US or anywhere in in the world. The potential...timeline for a snatch and secure operation may be very short and detailed information will need to flow quickly to the right organization leading the

  13. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  14. Paris terrorist attack: early lessons from the intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    During the night of 13-14 November, the city of Paris was exposed, within a few hours, to three bomb explosions, four shooting scenes, and one 3-hour hostage-taking of several hundred people causing at least 130 deaths and more than 250 injured victims. Most unstable patients were transferred to the six trauma centers of the Paris area, all members of the TRAUMABASE Group. A rapid adaptation of the organization of trauma patients' admittance was required in all centers to face the particular needs of the situation. Everything went relatively well in all centers, with overall hospital mortality below 2 %. Nevertheless, most physicians nowadays agree that anticipation, teaching, and training are crucial to appropriately face such events. All of us have learned many additional issues from this experience. Following a meeting of the TRAUMABASE Group, the most relevant issues are detailed in the following.

  15. A Sociospatial Approach to Understanding Terrorist Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist networks operate in hybrid space where activities in social and geographic spaces are necessary for logistics and security. The Islamist terrorist network is analyzed as a sociospatial system using social network analysis, Geographic Information Science (GISc), and novel techniques designed for hybrid space analyses. This research focuses on identifying distance and sociospatial dependencies within the terrorist network. A methodology for analyzing sociospatial systems is developed and results lead to a greater understanding of terrorist network structures and activities. Distance and sociospatial dependencies are shown to exist for the Islamist terrorist network structure. These findings are discordant with recent literature that focuses on terrorist network tendencies toward decentralization in the information age. In this research, the Islamist terrorist network is theorized to use multiple structures of hierarchical and decentralized organization for effectiveness, efficiency, and resilience. Implications for counterterrorism policy and strategies are given.

  16. The Italian Red Brigades and the structure and dynamics of terrorist groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-06-01

    One of the problems in dealing with terrorism is that we have virtually no access to individual terrorists; only their actions are visible. The founders of the Italian terrorist group, the Red Brigades, on the other hand, have written about their experiences and have exhaustively explained their motivations. The author's premise is that these autobiographies and her interviews with several of the group's members give us access to the unconscious processes involved in the formation and operation of the group. After terrorist attacks, it is natural to ask whether the terrorists' capacity for collective violence is an indication of personal pathology. This paper argues that the relevant pathology in the terrorist enterprise is not that of the individual but that of the group. Relying on the theories of groups of Freud (1921), Bion (1961), Anzieu (1984) and Kaes (2007), the author argues that psychoanalytic theory is essential to understanding the motivations and actions of violent groups which otherwise remain obscure. Although the discussion has been confined to one terrorist group, the author hopes that it can also be useful for understanding the unconscious dynamics of other groups structured around an ideology which mandates the destruction of human life.

  17. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  18. Psychological interventions for terroristic trauma: prevention, crisis management, and clinical treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist attacks combine features of a criminal assault, a mass casualty disaster and an act of war Accordingly, this article presents a model for prevention, response and recovery from the psychological impact of a terror attack. The nature of terrorism is delineated and the various psychological effects are described, including diagnostic clinical syndromes, as well as individual reactions. Interventions in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack include on-scene crisis intervention, short-term psychological stabilization, and longer-term psychotherapeutic approaches. Special techniques are described for individuals, families, children, and large groups of survivors and responders. Finally, the ways that mental health clinicians can serve as valuable consultants to community recovery efforts are discussed.

  19. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sir David Omand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining terrorist risks: the actions of greedy market-makers and incompetent bankers in the recent past is doing much more damage to our national welfare and national security than terrorism today.

  20. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  1. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tyson Chatagnier; Alex Mintz; Yair Samban

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizat...

  2. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  3. Understanding the Complexity of Terrorist Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fellman, Philip V

    2009-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes. The following paper explores various aspects of terrorist networks which can be illuminated through applications of non-linear dynamical systems modeling to terrorist network structures. Of particular interest are some of the emergent properties of terrorist networks as typified by the 9-11 hijackers network, properties of centrality, hierarchy and distance, as well as ways in which attempts to disrupt the transmission of information through terrorist networks may be expected to produce greater or lesser levels of fitness in those organizations.

  4. Angry at the unjust, scared of the powerful: emotional responses to terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Maitner, Angela T

    2013-08-01

    The threat of terrorist attacks motivates emotional reactions that elicit functional behavioral responses to characteristics of a threatening group. We argue that the more the group is seen as unjust, the more anger arises, whereas the more it is seen as powerful, the more fear arises. In Experiment 1, British participants read about terrorist groups with varied levels of injustice and power. As expected, the manipulation of injustice increased anger, and power increased fear. Anger and fear predicted offensive and defensive reactions. Experiment 2 used a representative sample of U.S. residents and again found distinct effects of an injustice manipulation on anger, and a power manipulation on fear. Anger was a primary motivator of support for offensive and defensive measures in both experiments. Willingness to negotiate was reduced with more injustice and anger, but increased with more outgroup power and fear. These findings have implications on public reactions to terrorist organizations.

  5. US: PJAK are terrorists - Obama's Iran Overture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Om den amerikanske stats beslutning om at erklære den iransk-kurdiske guerillagruppe PJAK for terrorister. Udgivelsesdato: 5/2......Om den amerikanske stats beslutning om at erklære den iransk-kurdiske guerillagruppe PJAK for terrorister. Udgivelsesdato: 5/2...

  6. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  7. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE....

  8. Schools in the Shadow of Terrorism: Psychosocial Adjustment and Interest in Interventions following Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; Vernberg, Eric M.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Gill, Dodie C.; Schorr, John; Boudreaux, Angela; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Galea, Sandro; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Following terrorist events, teachers and nonteaching school personnel are important in helping children recover, yet little is known about their willingness to assist with this. We surveyed 399 employees from a Washington, D.C.-area school district following terror attacks (September 11, 2001, attacks; sniper shootings) about their exposure,…

  9. Schools in the Shadow of Terrorism: Psychosocial Adjustment and Interest in Interventions following Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; Vernberg, Eric M.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Gill, Dodie C.; Schorr, John; Boudreaux, Angela; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Galea, Sandro; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Following terrorist events, teachers and nonteaching school personnel are important in helping children recover, yet little is known about their willingness to assist with this. We surveyed 399 employees from a Washington, D.C.-area school district following terror attacks (September 11, 2001, attacks; sniper shootings) about their exposure,…

  10. Decomposing violence: terrorist murder in the twentieth century in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of murder in the United States (1900-2004). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, alternation in power, social, and political unrest overseas as wars, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks in the country. The cyclical com...

  11. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    OpenAIRE

    Sir David Omand

    2012-01-01

    The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining te...

  12. Internet Posting of Chemical "Worst Case" Scenarios: A Roadmap for Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-10

    cal personnel into crisis areas. Panic spreads as vaccines and antibiotics run short— and then run out. The killer is a hybrid of smallpox and the...groups, religious fanatics, and assorted crazies eager to launch a major attack on the civilized world—preferably on U.S. territory. Walter Laqueur...terrorists possess political objectives, whether Basque independence, Kash- miri separatism, or Palestinian Marxism. Neither crazy nor stupid, they

  13. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger

    2017-05-01

    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  14. Predicting Suicide Attacks: Integrating Spatial, Temporal, and Social Features of Terrorist Attack Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    geocoded all returnees within the state of California and all mental health, substance abuse, and hospital facilities using GIS . The spatial information...themes. The data were then processed with SAS through regression analysis to identify key areas of concern. She used GIS to geocode and assign...criminal justice fields. She has developed expertise in using geographic information systems ( GIS ), ATLAS.ti, SAS, and GeoClip to perform a combination

  15. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyson Chatagnier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizations. After reviewing the results and insights derived from this analysis, we conclude with implications for policies to counter terrorism.

  16. ABOUT MODELLING OF COMPLEX NETWORKS WITH APPLICATIONS TO TERRORIST GROUP MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Penzar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on available data on various organisations and networks, the article explores some key properties of the structure of a terrorist organisation. Analytical focus is on lower levels of organisational hierarchy, where network structure with exponential distribution of the number of links among network nodes is clearly visible. Such networks tend to grow organically, are very efficient in information diffusion, and are robust regarding stochastic failures and targeted attacks. These network features are illustrated by recent example based on network data about September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington.

  17. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  18. Killing Range: Explaining Lethality Variance within a Terrorist Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Gill, Paul; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level.

  19. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  20. 76 FR 49503 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public..., aircraft piracy, and terrorist activities. The current estimated annual recordkeeping burden is...

  1. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  2. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  3. Shark attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidera, K J; Ogden, J A; Highhouse, K; Pugh, L; Beatty, E

    1991-01-01

    Shark attacks are rare but devastating. This case had major injuries that included an open femoral fracture, massive hemorrhage, sciatic nerve laceration, and significant skin and muscle damage. The patient required 15 operative procedures, extensive physical therapy, and orthotic assistance. A review of the literature pertaining to shark bites is included.

  4. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  5. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism.

  6. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  7. ‘Let the Punishment Match the Offence’: Determining Sentences for Australian Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGarrity

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, 38 men have been charged with terrorism offences in Australia. Twenty-six have been convicted. The article commences with an overview of the factual circumstances leading to these convictions. This provides important background for the following discussion of a largely unexplored issue in Australian anti-terrorism law and policy, namely, the difficulties faced by the Australian courts in adapting traditional sentencing principles to the (for the most part, preparatory terrorism offences enacted by the Commonwealth Parliament after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Of particular interest are how the courts determine the objective seriousness of these offences and the respective weight placed upon deterrence (both specific and general and the rehabilitation of convicted terrorists.

  8. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  9. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  10. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  11. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  12. Simulation of a terrorist attack with intent to a source of Iridium-192 and Radium Sulphate-226: procedures for radiation emergency actions; Simulacao de uma intencao de atentado terrorista com uma fonte de Iridio-192 e Sulfato de Radio-226: procedimentos para acoes de emergencia radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Bruno Dias de

    2013-07-01

    The accomplishment of major public events comprises a previous radiological safety planning network, since both public safety and safeguards criteria are based upon risk factors, to which individuals and even the environment may be exposed to, moreover in radiological, nuclear and/or terrorist threats. Therefore, a preventive and extensive local radiological survey must be performed, aiming the detection of unexpected radioactive material, being it a sealed or unsealed source or even in the dispersed form. Once confirmed its presence, protective actions must be started up, with monitoring and restraint of the source/material, followed by dose and dose rate assessment in environment, as well as contamination in air and in surfaces in general. As a consequence, such measures must be carried out at once, according to specific protocols adopted by the responding team, as soon as the incident is confirmed. Aiming a better qualification in the attendance of major events, a simulated scenario is proposed in this study, comprising an incident with the malicious presence of a radioactive source in the Mario Filho Stadium (Maracana). (author)

  13. Malaysia and Singapore's terrorist rehabilitation programs : learning and adapting to terrorist threats

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this thesis examines how Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore learned and adapted successful terrorist disengagement programs and policies; through their unique and non-military rehabilitation programs. The methodology is a comparative case study analysis of Malaysia and Singapore. In order to understand how the countries of Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore adapted a colonial-era counter-insurgency program to disengage Communist Terrorists into a program that now rehabilitates r...

  14. The War Next Time: Countering Rogue States and Terrorists Armed with Chemical and Biological Weapons. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    case. The second two outbreaks of disease are the 1978-1980 outbreak of anthrax in Zimbabwe and two outbreaks of cholera in Burma in 1993 and 1994...intelligence community and the scientific community. An analysis of the 1993-1994 outbreaks of cholera in Burma based on models and indicators for the...attack on the USS Cole when anchored at port in Yemen . • Financing and planning numerous other terrorist events such as the blowing up of airliners

  15. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...

  16. Gravity Helped Terrorists Destory Twin Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆增

    2002-01-01

    Though terrorists triggered (触发) the collapse (倒塌) of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, much of the energy--calculated by a physicist to have been at least 2 percent that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima(广岛)--was supplied by nature's most ubiquitous(普通存在的)force: gravity.

  17. Definition of Terrorist Act under Eth Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen_D_K

    would have been treated as terrorist under regional and international law. This has a .... The Australian anti-terrorism law, one of the legislation said to have been .... UN Security Council: 1985–2004,' Chinese Journal of International Law, 141, ..... Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, adopted by.

  18. Mitigation of Malicious Attacks on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian M; Andrade, Jose S; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J; 10.1073/pnas.1009440108

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against a malicious attack? We introduce a unique measure for robustness and use it to devise a method to mitigate economically and efficiently this risk. We demonstrate its efficiency on the European electricity system and on the Internet as well as on complex networks models. We show that with small changes in the network structure (low cost) the robustness of diverse networks can be improved dramatically while their functionality remains unchanged. Our results are useful not only for improving significantly with low cost the robustness of existing infrastructures but also for designing economically robust network systems.

  19. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    -technical system, the attack navigator identifies routes to an attacker goal. Specific attacker properties such as skill or resources can be included through attacker profiles. This enables defenders to explore attack scenarios and the effectiveness of defense alternatives under different threat conditions....

  20. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  1. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Terrorist Groups,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    liberation, and American corporations are considered an element oppressing the work - ing class. 54 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING TERRORIST GROUPS...personnel and installations in Guatemala, Iran, and Spain to protest American support of Israel’s invasion of Lebanon. Other factors are also at work ...inferred? D7. Are the goals iealistically obtainable? D8. Do the members envisage a long struggle? Are they milleni - alists (a new world after chaos?) E

  3. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  4. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  5. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S.

  6. Characteristics of Lone-Wolf Violent Offenders: a Comparison of Assassins and School Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark McCauley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the idea that lone-wolf terrorists may have characteristics in common with two other types of lone-actor violent offenders:  assassins and school attackers.  We used data from U.S. Government-sponsored reports to compare the characteristics of these two groups.  Despite obvious demographic differences, results indicate four characteristics common for both school attackers and assassins: perceived grievance, depression, a personal crisis (‘unfreezing’, and history of weapons use outside the military.  These characteristics may be useful in distinguishing lone-wolfs from group-based terrorists.

  7. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted. PMID:27879941

  8. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  9. Hitting a Moving Target: A Strategic Tool for Analyzing Terrorist Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ken; Ishisoko, Noriko; Trounce, Milana; Bernard, Kenneth

    The subject of terrorism risk can be confusing for both the general public and for those responsible for protecting us from attack. Relatively minor terrorist threats are often conflated with much more serious ones, in part because it is hard to quantify either intent or technical ability to carry out an attack. Plotting threats on a "potential mass casualties" versus "ease of obtainment or production" matrix creates some order out of a seemingly endless array of worldwide threats, and it highlights those threats that are in need of more urgent attention. The specific threats on this 2x2 matrix can fall into one or multiple quadrants, which can be qualitatively described as "most dangerous," "dangerous but difficult," "worrisome," and "persistent terror." By placing threats into these quadrants and illustrating movement within and between them, the matrix can help (1) visualize and parse a diverse set of threats, (2) view how threats have changed over time and judge the efficacy of current countermeasures, and (3) evaluate the merit of future actions and investments. Having a dynamic matrix that can visually map the comparative risk of terrorist threat events in toto and that can help us monitor the effectiveness of present and future resource investments can add intellectual rigor to some of the most difficult and daunting decisions pertaining to our nation's safety and security.

  10. iWEDS-An Intelligent Explosive Detection and Terrorist Tracking System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Hariharan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the greatest threats to national security nowadays. Military or police forces are not sufficient to prevent these activities. In the year 2009 India faced one of the biggest terrorist attacks in Mumbai. According to the report published by Times of India, more than 600 people have been killed and several hundreds of people ravaged in various terrorist attacks in India in the last 6 years. The main problem behind this massacre is the group which is acting behind this who already know the ineffectiveness of our security systems. Even now we are following traditional metal detection doors and hand held metal detectors. No autonomous system is being used by any security forces in India till now. The main problem with the traditional systems is their bulkiness so that the intruder can easily bypass the security mechanism by following an alternate path. Here we are proposing a highly effective wireless sensor network solution; intelligent Wireless Explosive Detection System (iWEDS to tackle this problem. The sensors are organized in such a manner that it has been embedded with the road reflectors, so that nobody even knows about the security system and no one can bypass it. Other key advantages are: these systems are low powered, fully automated and can support real-time tracking. Though iWEDS can perform automated operation we are proposing it only for assisting the police and military forces.

  11. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  12. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  13. Short and intermediate economic impacts of a terrorist-initiated loss of electric power: case study of New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.; Mantell, N.; Lahr, M.; Felder, F. [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Edward J. Bloustein School; Zimmerman, R. [New York University (United States). Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service

    2007-01-15

    The economic impacts of potential terrorist attacks on the New Jersey electric power system are examined using a regional econometric model. The magnitude and duration of the effects vary by type of business and income measure. We assume damage is done during in the summer 2005 quarter, a peak period for energy use. The state economy recovers within a year, if we assume that economic activity is restored in the next time period. However, if the attacks prompt an absolute of loss of activity due to firm relocation, closing, and geographical changes in expansion plans, then the economy does not fully recover by the year 2010. Hence, the electrical power system's resiliency to damage is the key to the extent and duration of any economic consequences of a terrorist attack, at least in New Jersey. The policy implication is that the costs and benefits of making the electric power system more resilient to plausible attacks should be weighed and that the restorative capacity of the system should be strengthened. (author)

  14. Can Music Therapy be an answer to the terrorist question? - A Singaporean Music Therapist’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng Ng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the possibility of Music Therapy being one of the creative responses to the terrorist question within the Singapore context. A general background to the Music Therapy scene in Singapore, and a brief overview of Singapore’s multi-ethnic history and response to terrorist threats are presented. Singapore is a multi-religious society with various ethnic groups living together in her short independent history. In 2001, Singapore was the target of planned attacks by Jemaah Islamiyah (JI members who were Singaporeans. (JI is one of several radical militant groups with close ties with Al-Qaeda. The application of Music Therapy in countering terrorism is explored - in terms of increasing community resilience, responding in times of crisis, as well as incorporating Music Therapy in detainee rehabilitation. Challenges relating to the implementation of crisis intervention using Music Therapy, and its implications in detainee rehabilitation are briefly discussed.

  15. Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R E

    2007-05-03

    Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

  16. Disrupting Threat Finances: Using Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    homicides of U.S. citizens overseas, sabotage, and extortion by threatening the use of WMD. 4.6.2.1. Terrorist Financing Operations Section (TFOS... fraudulent travel documents and, to the extent attainable, by enhancing terrorist screening and passenger security procedures—and b) continue

  17. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  18. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a practi

  19. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32 Terrorist...

  20. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597.309 Section 597.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  1. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  2. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  3. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model are developed for modeling the hybrid relational structure and complex operational processes, respectively. To intuitively elucidate this method, the agent based modeling is used to simulate the terrorist network and test the performance in diverse scenarios. Based on the experimental results, we show how the changes of operational environments affect the development of terrorist organization in terms of its recovery and capacity to perform future tasks. The potential strategies are also discussed, which can be used to restrain the activities of terrorists.

  4. What explains the survival of terrorist groups? Alliances and competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Phillips

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do some terrorist groups last longer than others? What does this longevity tell us about the effectiveness of terrorist organisations? This article first examines why organisational survival can be considered to be an element of organisational effectiveness. Second, the article reviews the recent literature on terrorist group longevity,including a systematic examination of ten quantitative studies on the subject. The analysis shows that certain factors are repeatedly associated with longevity, such as group size and participation in terrorist group alliances. Third, given the theoretical interest in interorganisational relationships,consideration is then given to arguments on the likely reasons terrorist group alliances and intergroup competition contribute to group longevity. Finally, some suggestions are made to move research on this topic forward.

  5. Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  6. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  7. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  8. 77 FR 16319 - Proposed Renewal; Comment Request; Anti-Money Laundering Programs for Various Financial Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network Proposed Renewal; Comment Request; Anti-Money Laundering Programs for... develop and implement written anti-money laundering programs reasonably designed to prevent those financial institutions from being used to facilitate money laundering and the financing of terrorist...

  9. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  10. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood ... The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). ...

  11. Social engineering attack framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available link. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by; using various manipulation techniques in order to elicit sensitive; information. The field of social engineering is still in its infancy; stages with regards to formal definitions and attack...

  12. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only difference between a stroke ...

  13. Watermark copy attack

    OpenAIRE

    Kutter, Martin; Voloshynovskyy, Svyatoslav; Herrigel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Research in digital watermarking has progressed along two paths. While new watermarking technologies are being developed, some researchers are also investigating di erent ways of attacking digital watermarks. Common attacks to watermarks usually aim to destroy theembedded watermark or to impair its detection. In this paper we propose a conceptually new attack for digitally watermarked images. The proposed attack doesnot destroy anembedded watermark, but copies it from one image to a di erent ...

  14. The Watermark Template Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Herrigel, Alexander; Voloshynovskyy, Svyatoslav; Rytsar, Yuriy

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new attack, called the watermark template attach, for watermarked images. In contrast to the Stirmark benchmark, this attack does not severely reduce the quality of the image. This attack maintains, therefore, the commercial value of the watermarked image. In contrast to previous approaches, it is not the aim of the attack to change the statistics of embedded watermarks fooling the detection process but to utilize specific concepts that have been recently developed for m...

  15. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  16. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    try to fill these gaps of the terrorist narcotic interactions by providing a model which could offer a reasonable solution for cutting the links...consumption. In addition to undermining economic and social development, the use of these drugs has brought misery to thousands of people and contributed...consists of nine stages: extracting the morphine from raw opium, separating the morphine solution from the water-insoluble opium components, treatment

  17. How Could a Terrorist be De-Radicalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the potential to de-radicalize a terrorist, and if so how could this be achieved? The article also outlines the distinction between de-radicalization, counter-radicalization and disengagement. In order to understand the potential of de-radicalization techniques, research examines the factors that might lead to initial radicalization. The strategy of some state-based de-radicalization programs, particularly the Saudi Arabian de-radicalization program are examined and the importance of unique tailoring in these programs is identified. The relevance of ideology and life skill training within de-radicalization programs is also examined. The extensive impact that information communication technology has had on radicalization is also addressed and following on, the potential for de-radicalization and counter-radicalization through information communication platforms is also discussed. The importance of an accurate and appropriately delivered counter-narrative message is examined and the value of such a counter-narrative is discussed in terms of it possibly planting the seed of question in a terrorist, which may eventually support the terrorist questioning of terrorist group ideology. Highly relevant to the future de-radicalization of an ‘in organisation’ terrorist is the issue of how states might manage the potential return of terrorists who are known to be overseas and whether the best solution is or is not to prevent the terrorist from returning to a home-country, which is examined within. It could be presumed that a terrorist who is returning to a home-country may face some term of incarceration, as an extension of this issue that states must address, the effect that incarceration might have on a terrorist is also examined. The discussions in this article are relevant to policy-makers, de-radicalization program designers and security sector actors.

  18. Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A A

    1998-03-01

    This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

  19. Two Models for Semi-Supervised Terrorist Group Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Fatih; Erdem, Zeki; Bowerman, Chris

    Since discovery of organization structure of offender groups leads the investigation to terrorist cells or organized crime groups, detecting covert networks from crime data are important to crime investigation. Two models, GDM and OGDM, which are based on another representation model - OGRM are developed and tested on nine terrorist groups. GDM, which is basically depending on police arrest data and “caught together” information and OGDM, which uses a feature matching on year-wise offender components from arrest and demographics data, performed well on terrorist groups, but OGDM produced high precision with low recall values. OGDM uses a terror crime modus operandi ontology which enabled matching of similar crimes.

  20. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ismayilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.

  1. Psychological distress and prejudice following terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-03-16

    Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p < 0.02), as were probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (11.9% vs. 14.1%; χ2 (1) = 4.15, p < 0.04). In structural equation analyses, sex, age, geographic proximity, media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony.

  2. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  3. La Mauritanie à l’épreuve de l’islamisme et des menaces terroristes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Choplin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En quelques semaines, la Mauritanie a été confrontée à plusieurs attaques terroristes revendiquées par Al-Qaïda au Maghreb. L’islamisme radical n’est pas nouveau dans ce pays mais le terrorisme et la violence des actes perpétrés sont quant à eux inédits. Si les courants radicaux gagnent en audience, ils ne doivent pour autant être confondus avec le terrorisme qui n’a pas d’ancrage en Mauritanie. La menace vient pour l’instant de l’extérieur.Since a few weeks, Mauritania is in front of several terrorist attacks claimed by Al-Qaïda in Maghreb. Radical Islamism is not new in this country but terrorism and violence of these acts are totally unheard. If radical tendencies grow their audience, they do not must be confused with terrorism which have not any rooting in Mauritania. For this moment, threats are coming from outside.

  4. FACTORS IN STRENGHTNING OF TERRORIST ACTIVITY OF “ISLAMIC STATE” GROUPING ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Aleksandrovich Lobanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available XXI century was marked by the strengthening of globalization and integration processes in whole world. This led to the fact that the international community, especially European countries, faced the number of new threats to the spread of Islamic terrorism, the most urgent of which is the activity of “Islamic State” grouping. In this context it’s important to determine the reasons of intense activity growth of IS and its influence in Europe. The article analyzes the factors, contributing to the spread of terrorism. Also it gives some recommendations, implementation of which, according to the author, could decrease the level of terrorist threat. The purpose of the research is to determine factors of growing influence of “Islamic State” and increasing number of terrorist attacks in European countries. The author concludes that IS problem is a comprehensive threat, to prevent which a number of efforts – both within the European continent and in Middle East – is required. It also requires a systematic approach and a high level of consolidation and coordination within the international community.

  5. Composite Dos Attack Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for potential threats is one of the most important phases ensuring system security. It allows evaluating possible losses, changes in the attack process, the effectiveness of used countermeasures, optimal system settings, etc. In cyber-attack cases, executing real experiments can be difficult for many reasons. However, mathematical or programming models can be used instead of conducting experiments in a real environment. This work proposes a composite denial of service attack model that combines bandwidth exhaustion, filtering and memory depletion models for a more real representation of similar cyber-attacks. On the basis of the introduced model, different experiments were done. They showed the main dependencies of the influence of attacker and victim’s properties on the success probability of denial of service attack. In the future, this model can be used for the denial of service attack or countermeasure optimization.

  6. Survival of the Fittest: Why Terrorist Groups Endure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Young

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.

  7. Suicide Bombers in Israel: Their Motivations, Characteristics, and Prior Activity in Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Sela-Shayovitz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics of suicide bombers as reflected in the Israeli press during the Second Intifada in Israel. The analysis aims to determine whether there were significant differences in the characteristics of suicide bombers with religious motives versus those with nationalist motives. The findings reveal that gender, education level, and organizational affiliation correlated significantly with motives for carrying out suicide attacks. Most of the suicide bombers with religious motives were men with elementary education. In addition, the results show that most of the suicide bombers who were affiliated with the Hamas organization acted out of religious motives. No significant differences were found between suicide bombers with religious and those with nationalist motives with regard to age, marital status, and prior activity in terrorist organizations.

  8. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  9. Reality bytes: cyberterrorism and terrorist 'use' of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Maura

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of cyberterrorism. Fringe activity on the Internet ranges from non-violent 'Use' at one end to 'Cyberterrorism' at the other. Rejecting the idea that cyberterrorism is widespread, the focus here is on terrorist groups' 'use' of the Internet, in particular the content of their Web sites, and their 'misuse' of the medium, as in hacking wars, for example. Terrorist groups' use of the Internet for the purpose of inter-group communication is also surveyed, partly be...

  10. Understanding Why Terrorist Operations Succeed or Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    they can draw when deciding how many members are devoted to a particular attack.13 Large groups (e.g., PIRA, Hezbollah, or the Liberation Tigers of...the food supply: The case of botulinum toxin in milk ,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 28, 2005, pp. 9984–9989.

  11. Return of ambiguity attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott A.

    2002-04-01

    The ambiguity attack, or invertibility attack, was described several years ago as a potential threat to digital watermarking systems. By manipulating the invertibility of watermark embedding, one could negate or subvert the meaning of a copyright mark. These attacks were easily prevented, however, with the appropriate application of one-way functions and cryptographic hashes in watermarking protocols. New research in watermarking, however, has caused the ambiguity attack to resurface as a threat, and this time it will not be as easy averted. Recent work in public-key watermarking create scenarios in which one-way functions may be ineffective against this threat. Furthermore, there are also positive uses for ambiguity attacks, as components in watermarking protocols. This paper provides an overview of the past and possible future of these unusual attacks.

  12. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-04

    coughing, vomiting , and experiencing spasms—according to witnesses, the station entrances seemed like “battlefields, as injured commuters lay gasping...publications/documents/02-06.pdf. Jenkins, Brian Michael, and Larry N. Gersten, “Protecting Public Surface Transportation Against Terrorism and Serious

  13. A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    directed against the Government of the Bahamas for the murder of Cuban nationals. (This Cuban liberation group may be FLNC--Frente de Liberacion ...It appeared likely, however, that the incident was related to the previously stated intention of the FLNC (Frente de Liberacion Nacional Cubana) to

  14. A risk-based approach to setting priorities in protecting bridges against terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maria; Lambert, James H; Mosenthal, Alexander

    2004-08-01

    This article presents an approach to the problem of terrorism risk assessment and management by adapting the framework of the risk filtering, ranking, and management method. The assessment is conducted at two levels: (1) the system level, and (2) the asset-specific level. The system-level risk assessment attempts to identify and prioritize critical infrastructures from an inventory of system assets. The definition of critical infrastructures offered by Presidential Decision Directive 63 was used to determine the set of attributes to identify critical assets--categorized according to national, regional, and local impact. An example application is demonstrated using information from the Federal Highway Administration National Bridge Inventory for the State of Virginia. Conversely, the asset-specific risk assessment performs an in-depth analysis of the threats and vulnerabilities of a specific critical infrastructure. An illustration is presented to offer some insights in risk scenario identification and prioritization, multiobjective evaluation of management options, and extreme-event analysis for critical infrastructure protection.

  15. Data-Based Detection of Potential Terrorist Attacks: Statistical and Graphical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    following categories: Beall, Jeffrey; Kafadar, Karen: "The Proportion of NUC Pre-56 Titles Represented in OCLC WorldCat," College & Research...Resources & Technical Services 48(2): 92–101 (April 2004). • Beall, Jeffrey; Kafadar, Karen: The Proportion of NUC Pre-56 Titles Represented in OCLC ...Kafadar, Karen: The Proportion of NUC Pre-56 Titles Represented in OCLC World- Cat, College & Research Libraries 66(5): 431–435 (2005). Beall

  16. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    cause changes to the threat landscape . Several methods are used to assess the risk to passenger rail systems. A short discussion of these methods...accessibility of passenger rail facilities are attractive to adversaries. This thesis reviews the current approach to risk assessment used by system...14. SUBJECT TERMS passenger rail security, decision making, risk assessment , rail systems, metro, mass transit, subway, risk management, game

  17. The terrorist attacks on the .S in September 2 1 pushed resident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    wished, to turn a blind eye to infractions of the rules by other states or ... international system need proactive measures that would nip their evil plans at ..... Middle East region. As arvis (2 ... est psychology brews, the war created a sharp divide ...

  18. Response to the Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon: Pentagon Family Assistance Center (PFAC) After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    ANSI Std Z39-18 PERSONNEL AND READINESS THE UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 4000 DEFENSE PENTAGON WASHINGTON , DC 20301-4000 FEB 2 0 2003 The...Base, Delaware Port Mortuary. This expert discussed the entire mortuary and identifi cation process, including the importance of DNA specimens and... adolescent counseling, family counseling, consultation services and referral for longer-term follow-up counseling. The staff also attended all special

  19. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events. PMID:25774097

  20. CTC Sentinel. Special Issue, January 2010. AQAP in Yemen and the Christmas Day Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the first issue of its bi-monthly journal Sada al-Malahim (Echo of Battles) and followed it almost 2 The United States reduced its interest in the... Sada al-Malahim, as the anniversary of the early Islamic Battle of Badr. It corresponds to September 17, 2008. The recent attempted assassination of...Peninsula, “Statement of Congratulations,” Sada al-Malahim, No. 9, May 2009. 10 Muhammad al-`Awfi, a former Guantanamo detain- ee, was one of the four

  1. Comparison of expressive writing after the terrorist attacks of September 11th and March 11th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio descriptivo de poblaciones mediante encuesta examina la escritura expresiva tras los atentados terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001 y del 11 de marzo de 2004. Las narraciones de 325 estadounidenses y de 333 españoles fueron analizadas a través del programa lingüístico (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count ¿ LIWC. El propósito de este artículo fue analizar, a través de la escritura expresiva, los pronombres, pensamientos, sentimientos y procesos sociales que se generan tras los atentados terroristas. Los análisis lingüísticos constataron que los españoles escribieron más sobre procesos sociales y que en sus textos reflejaron más pronombres de la segunda y tercera persona, mientras que los estadounidenses utilizaron más pronombres de la primera persona. Los análisis correlacionales indicaron que las emociones se vinculaban con los procesos cognitivos, corroborando la asociación entre los sentimientos y los pensamientos. Los resultados también mostraron que, entre ambas naciones, la dinámica del compartir socio-emocional y pensar sobre los atentados terroristas fue similar, para el periodo comprendido entre la 3ª y 8ª semana tras los atentados. Finalmente, se analizaron y discutieron las diferencias entre las culturas individualista y colectivista.

  2. The Vulnerability of the United States Railroad System to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    such as, closed circuit television , random screening, high visibility police, and specially trained canine teams withstand a deliberate and well...engineer and conductor’s lack of sleep . It was also reported that a contributing factor was the conductor’s consumption of alcohol on the evening...closed circuit television (which is probably being used now for vehicle traffic monitoring) could be used to detect objects on the tracks or crossings

  3. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events.

  4. Framing and Identity: How Mainland and Taiwan Media Represent Terrorist Attacks in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of identity is a leading cause of terrorism and a common bewilderment of Mainland China and Taiwan. Cutting into the research by the news representation of Chinese terrorism incidents, this paper discusses a special identity issue in a special identity history. This paper adopts mixed methods, which are constructed by content analysis, framing discourses and frequency statistics. 111 pieces of related news are selected and doubly-coded into both “identity package” and “news framing”. The results show that the news representations inter-connect with the coexisting identity and confrontation between Mainland China and Taiwan.

  5. The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and narrative structure among adolescent terrorist-attack survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Filkuková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The structure of trauma narratives is considered to be related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology and thus the capacity to make a coherent narrative after stressful events is crucial for mental health. Objective: The aim of this study is to understand more of the relationship between narrative structure and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS. More specifically, we investigated whether internal and external focus, organization, fragmentation, and length differed between two groups of adolescent survivors of a mass shooting, one group with low levels of PTSS and one group with high levels of PTSS. Method: The sample comprised 30 adolescents who survived the shooting at Utøya Island in Norway in 2011. They were interviewed 4–5 months after the shooting and provided a free narrative of the event. PTSS were assessed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (PTSD-RI. Results: We found that survivors with high levels of PTSS described more external events and fewer internal events in their narratives compared with survivors with low levels of symptoms. The analysis also showed that especially narratives containing more descriptions of dialogue and fewer organized thoughts were related to higher levels of PTSS. The groups did not differ in levels of narrative fragmentation or in length of the narratives. Conclusion: Specific attributes of narrative structure proved to be related to the level of PTSS. On the basis of our results, we can recommend that practitioners focus especially on two elements of the trauma narratives, namely, the amount of external events, particularly dialogues, within the narrative and the number of organized thoughts. Participants with high levels of PTSS provided trauma narratives with low amount of organized (explanatory thoughts accompanied by detailed descriptions of dialogues and actions, which is indicative for “here and now” quality of recall and a lack of trauma processing.

  6. The current state of affairs for disaster planning for a nuclear terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents current thinking on the effects of an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view and will argue that current US Federal plans for a nuclear disaster are simply crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and principally relies on martial law as a means of crowd control. The simple physics of a fusion reaction bomb is discussed along with the plans of other countries, apparently "secret"American plans, which show a poor knowledge of the physics of nuclear bombs as well as poor insight into what will be needed to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative plan involving computer modeling and educating the public to the effects of a fission explosion are presented. The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, as the Federal government has dumped medical problems on "the local level."

  7. Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-20

    mustard has been used for cancer chemotherapy. CRS-17 55 The list of chemicals found on the three schedules of the Chemical Weapons Convention can be...straw or decaying animal carcasses. Pulmonary tularemia causes respiratory failure, shock and death. The mortality rate for pulmonic or septicemic cases

  8. Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication Technologies to Modern Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    society’s essential physical assets and natural resources and to enhance the related social assets of safety and security of individuals in transit...relay chat LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MMOG massively multiplayer online game MRTA Movimiento ...Technologies for Networked Terrorists Developing a strategy: Terrorist actions are intended to accomplish political or social goals. To guide its actions, a

  9. Adversary Model: Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack with Timing Attack

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We have introduced a novel adversary model in Chosen-Ciphertext Attack with Timing Attack (CCA2-TA) and it was a practical model because the model incorporates the timing attack. This paper is an extended paper for 'A Secure TFTP Protocol with Security Proofs'. Keywords - Timing Attack, Random Oracle Model, Indistinguishabilit, Chosen Plaintext Attack, CPA, Chosen Ciphertext Attack, IND-CCA1, Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack, IND-CCA2, Trivial File Transfer Protocol, TFTP, Security, Trust, P...

  10. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2017, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  12. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Prowell, Stacy; Borkin, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service War Dialing Penetration "Testing" Protocol Tunneling Spanning Tree At

  13. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  14. Risk Acceptability and Cost-Effectiveness of Protective Measures Against Terrorist Threats to Built Infrastructure Considering Multiple Threat Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEWART Mark G

    2008-01-01

    Decisions are often needed about the need and/or extent of prolective measures against explosive blast lpads on built jnfrastructure.A decision support analysis considers fatality risks and cost-effecfjveness of protective measures expressed in terms of expected cost spenl on risk reduction per life saved for terrorisf threats to infrastructure.The analysis is applicable to any ilem of in frastructure.but in this paper is applied to casualties arising from building facade glazing damage.Risks may be compared with risk acceptance crite ria in the form of quantitative safety goais.The risk acceptability and cost-effectiveness of protective measures includes cost of fhe protective measures,attack probability,reduction in risk due to protective measures,probability of fatality conditional on successful terrorist attack and number of exposed individuals.

  15. Theoretical perspectives of terrorist enemies as networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spulak, Robert George, Jr.; Glicken, Jessica

    2005-08-01

    This perspective of terrorist enemies as networks by two distinguished associate fellows of the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) follows as a result of its recent initiative to support USSOCOM strategic planning for the Global War on Terrorism. The paper is a manifestation of JSOU's goals for contributing products that will advance SOF strategic art and generating strategic outreach to the military, civilian, and academic communities to enrich those products. Dr. Robert Spulak and Dr. Jessica Glicken Turnley presented the findings of this paper to assembled strategic planners from USSOCOM, other combatant commands, and interagency players at the Center for Special Operations plan development conference, September 2005, in Tampa, Florida. At that meeting, the authors put forward a number of helpful planning concepts based on their professional studies in science and the humanities and their experiences in government and business. The JSOU Strategic Studies Department is pleased to facilitate the association of USSOCOM strategic planners with civilian expertise and insights that can broaden military thought and encourage planning decisions directly relevant to the changing global environment. Through JSOU's strategic outreach initiative, experts in many professional disciplines have signaled their willingness to support the Nation's counterterrorism efforts. In that spirit, JSOU is proud to commend this paper to SOF readers and appreciates the support of Dr. Spulak and Dr. Turnley.

  16. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  17. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Ekasawin, Suparat; Chakrabhand, Somchai; Suwanmitri, Soawaluk; Duangchun, Orawan; Chantaluckwong, Thananet

    2011-10-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals.

  18. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRYANT, RICHARD A.; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals. PMID:21991280

  19. Mathematical Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad K. Salah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the most common attacks against Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA cryptosystem are presented. We describe the integer factoring attacks, attacks on the underlying mathematical function, as well as attacks that exploit details in implementations of the algorithm. Algorithms for each type of attacks are developed and analyzed by their complexity, memory requirements and area of usage.

  20. DETERMINANTS OF DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORIST THREAT IN NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our country, like the rest of the world, has been for many years, it is taking all possible measures in order to find an effective response to terrorism, which, sadly aware, has indeed become one of the main threats to all mankind, one of the most burning issues of the day.Theoretical and practical problems of the nature and spread of the modern terrorist threat in the North Caucasus are subject to careful scrutiny and a greater or lesser extent taken into account in the practice of public authorities.In recent years, in the North Caucasus region remains sufficiently high level of terrorist threats. Illegal armed groups, despite the adoption of various measures, including force action on the part of the security services and police forces, still retain the ability to recover its numerical capacity and infrastructure.Terrorist practice under religious banners is the most well-known, very widespread and prolonged in time. Increasingly growing terrorist potential, largely with religious overtones, it is formed and acutely manifested in the present time in connection with a number of negative processes characteristic of globalization.The special features that define the ability to determine the religion as an effective ideological cover acquire certain conditions extremist, including terrorist orientation, include deep rootedness of religion in the minds of the society as a certain unifying symbols as socialization factor for certain people, their ideas and actions. 

  1. METHOD OF FORMING AND ASSESSMENT OF READINESS OF SEAMEN TO COUNTER PIRATES AND TERRORISTS AT SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlamov S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Every year pirates attack hundreds of ships and thousands of sailors. So, by the end of 2014 violent actions of the pirates have undergone more than 5,000 sailors. In 2015, the pirates attacked 246 vessels they had captured 15 ships and 271 of a sailor. While one sailor was killed and 14 wounded. The economic damage from pirates was tens of billions of dollars. For these reasons, the fight against piracy and Maritime terrorism becomes a major concern of the world community. In today's complex for a variety of reasons conditions, convoy of transport ships warships for the passage of areas endangered by pirates is considered the most effective and reliable means of coping with the corsairs of the XXI century, precluding the capture of the ship and its crew. At the same time, the training of personnel to solve specific problems impeding reoperate requires performing the whole complex of preparatory measures, including psychological and physical training of sailors for the upcoming action of a dangerous nature. The article reveals the content of the methodology of forming and evaluating the readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea represents a set of methods, forms and means of pedagogical influence with the purpose of providing soldiers pedagogical assistance in the development of military-professional activities, standards of behavior and support in preparation for military service in the areas endangered by pirates; the development of military-professional competence; the full realization of personal potential of specialist fleet

  2. Treatment of the mangled lower extremity after a terrorist blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworthy, Michael J; Smith, Jeffrey M; Gould, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Terrorist bombings, with resultant blast injuries, have been increasing in frequency during the past 30 years. Injury to the musculoskeletal system is common in victims who survive such attacks. Substantial injury to the limbs may occur through several different mechanisms, each of which may affect prognosis and alter the treatment algorithm. An analysis of the available literature on terrorism and blast events revealed that resource use of the treating medical facility is high during the initial hours after a blast attack, but usually is manageable. A resource management protocol was developed to organize the treatment of limb salvage into four phases. This management protocol may improve the medical facility's ability to manage system resources while treating patients with severe blast injuries. The decision of whether to salvage or proceed with limb amputation is one of the most difficult in orthopaedic trauma. A basic education in the mechanisms of blast damage, a methodical approach to resuscitation, and mangled extremity treatment, likely can improve surgical success.

  3. Nocturnal panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Fabiana L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.

  4. Supply Chain Attack Framework and Attack Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Malware is embedded in a replacement server motherboard (e.g., in the flash memory) in order to alter server functionality from that intended. Attack...Slashdot: Dell Ships Infected Motherboards July 21, 2010(c/o Rick Dove) Threat: An adversary with access to hardware procurement, maintenance, or upgrade...control can embed malware in a critical component server motherboard . Vulnerabilities: The control processes and mechanisms for hardware

  5. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  6. Characteristics of Serious Social Security Incident Microblogging Communication:A Case Study of @ People's Daily on Kunming "3·1" Violent and Terrorist Attack%重大社会安全事件的微博传播特征研究*--以昆明“3·1”暴恐事件中的@人民日报新浪微博为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国华; 陈飞; 曾润喜; 钟声扬; 杨腾飞

    2014-01-01

    Through statistical analysis, this article analyzes the microblogging features and microblog comment features of @ People's Daily on Kunming "3. 1" Violent and Terrorist Incident at different times and by different sorts. We conclude the characteristics of Serious Social Security Incident Microblogging as follows: the Weibo release strategies vary with the incident development stages; the comment sentiment could be divided into outbreak period, diffusion period, interim period, convalescence and fade period, and the netizens' sentiment shows different features in different period; furthermore, the Weibo of the local media reacts faster than provincial or national media, and the Weibo with images and opinions can easily inspire netizens' interaction.%运用统计分析方法,对昆明暴恐事件@人民日报新浪微博及其评论进行分类、分时段分析,总结重大社会安全事件的微博传播特征。研究发现,事件中各类微博内容发布在事件不同阶段各有侧重;网民情绪爆发较快,而衰退相对较慢,其演变过程可以分为情绪爆发期、蔓延期、过渡期、恢复期和消退期,且各时期网民情绪呈现不同特点;事发现场个人往往成为信息的最早发布者,案发当地媒体微博反应速度比省级、国家级媒体微博快;微博附加值高、带有评论观点易引起网民互动。

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  8. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  9. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  10. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  11. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  12. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  13. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  14. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  15. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Attack Stent © 2017, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this library is for educational purposes only, and therefore is not intended to be ...

  16. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  17. Bayesian Watermark Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Shterev, Ivo; Dunson, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an application of statistical machine learning to the field of watermarking. We propose a new attack model on additive spread-spectrum watermarking systems. The proposed attack is based on Bayesian statistics. We consider the scenario in which a watermark signal is repeatedly embedded in specific, possibly chosen based on a secret message bitstream, segments (signals) of the host data. The host signal can represent a patch of pixels from an image or a video frame. We propo...

  18. DNS rebinding attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkinopoulos, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. A Domain Name System (DNS) Rebinding attack compromises the integrity of name resolution in DNS with the goal of controlling the IP address of the host to which the victim ultimately connects. The same origin policy and DNS Pinning techniques were introduced to protect Web browsers from DNS rebinding attacks, but their effectiveness has been undermined by vulnerabilities introduced by plug-ins such as JavaScript and Adobe Flash Play...

  19. Terrorists and Fair Trial: The Right to a Fair Trial for Alleged Terrorists Detained in Guantánamo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ambos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into whether the right to a fair trial can be restricted with regard to alleged terrorists within the framework of the ‘war on terror’. After briefly identifying the relevant sources of this right and its content, possible restrictions are analysed. The paper elaborates, in particular, on international humanitarian law, such as the Third and Fourth Geneva Convention, and international human rights law, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. It further deals with US constitutional law. We conclude that the right to a fair trial fully applies to alleged terrorists irrespective of the context of their detention (armed conflict or peace or the qualification of these terrorists (de facto or unlawful combatants and thus amounts to a general principle of transnational criminal law.

  20. High Order Differential Attack and Trace Attack to Block Ciphers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yupu; CHEN Kai; Xiao Guozhen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a high or-der differential property of power function, then giverespectively high order differential attack and traceattack to block ciphers. These attacks depend onlyon block cipher's algebraic shape on GF(2n) and haveno relation with its designing structure. The condi-tions are given for both effective attacks and strengthagainst attacks.

  1. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  2. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  3. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across nat

  4. Understanding Terrorist Network Topologies and Their Resilience Against Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the structural position of covert (terrorist or criminal) networks. Using the secrecy versus information tradeoff characterization of covert networks it is shown that their network structures are generally not small-worlds, in contradistinction to many overt social networks

  5. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  6. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across nat

  7. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL MECHANISMS TO COUNTER TERRORIST THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Startsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.

  8. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. 594.310 Section 594.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  9. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  10. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code.

  11. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated terrorist. 595.311 Section 595.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially...

  12. Understanding the Dynamic System of Terrorist-Government Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    The most telling key of Al Qaeda’s success was that they were the first terrorist organization to provide financial and military support to their host ...The Studies in Conflict & Terrorism journal, available on the electronic EBSCO research database, is an amazing source of research material for this

  13. Historical and Geographical Features of Terrorist Activity in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprunchuk I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of terrorism as a global security. In a study of terrorism the historical and geographical approach is applied. By the beginning of the 21st century, terrorism has become a global threat to security for all countries, leading to mass casualties, economic damage and political instability. Analysis of the global historical and geographical patterns is one of the most important aspects of the study of the contemporary phenomenon of terrorism. It allows you to better understand the mechanisms of terrorist activities and identify its spatial changes over the long run. The article deals with the historical and geographical features of terrorism in the world and contains the data on the first manifestations of terrorism in various regions of the world. The first premise of terrorism was the emergence of the state, on the one hand, and the presence of a politically active population, on the other hand. The author presents the main factors of such manifestations and the basic historical stages of development of terrorism, since the 18th century. On the basis of the selected stages, the territorial changes of terrorist activities in the world are investigated. Also, the basic directions of terrorist activities, such as a separatist, radical religious, “left” radical and others are described. In compliance with the proposed stages of terrorist activity, the ratio of these directions at different times and in different regions of the world is analyzed.

  14. Suits Against Terrorist States by Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    property as a result of popular movements in the course of the Islamic (continued...) Amendment. However, the application of state tort law has...Nat’l City Bank v. Banco Para El Comercio Exterior de Cuba, 462 U.S. 611 (1983) (“Bancec”) to judgments against designated terrorist States. Bancec held

  15. Life After a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of a heart attack. It presents one woman's real-life experience with heart attack symptoms, which started during her pregnancy. The video also explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, ...

  16. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of a heart attack. It presents one woman's real-life experience with heart attack symptoms, which started during her pregnancy. The video also explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, ...

  17. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of a heart attack. It presents one woman's real-life experience with heart attack symptoms, which started during her pregnancy. The video also explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, ...

  18. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  19. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  20. The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.

  1. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  2. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  3. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  4. Shark attack in Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J A

    1975-02-01

    The injuries in 5 cases of shark attack in Natal during 1973-74 are reviewed. Experience in shark attacks in South Africa during this period is discussed (1965-73), and the value of protecting heavily utilized beaches in Natal with nets is assessed. The surgical applications of elasmobranch research at the Oceanographic Research Institute (Durban) and at the Headquarters of the Natal Anti-Shark Measures Board (Umhlanga Rocks) are described. Modern trends in the training of surf life-guards, the provision of basic equipment for primary resuscitation of casualties on the beaches, and the policy of general and local care of these patients in Natal are discussed.

  5. Análise da Importância da Taxa de Câmbio e do Ataque Terrorista de 11 de Setembro sobre o Desempenho do Transporte Aéreo Internacional de Passageiros no BrasilThe Importance of Exchange Rate Analysis and the Terrorist Attack of September 11 on the Performance of the International Airborne Transportation sector of Passengers in BrazilAnálisis de la Importancia de la Tasa de Cambio y del Ataque Terrorista del 11 de Septiembre sobre el Desempeño del Transporte Aéreo Internacional de Pasajeros en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Wesley Vieira da

    2004-09-01

    coefficient, this work aims to demonstrate September 11th event and dollar exchange rate real influence over International Travels Expenses Account in Brazilian Balance of Payment and airborne passengers stream to USA before and after the terrorists attacks. The outcomes from statistics data reject null hypothesis of averages equality between international travels expenses and averages equality between boarded passengers to USA, before and after the event, with 95% trust level. By other hand, the Pearson linear co relational coefficient between dollar exchange rate and international travels expenses was 77, 83%, being significant in 5%.RESUMENLos ataques terroristas cometidos en los EUA el 11/09/2001, que utilizaron como instrumento de destrucción aeronaves comerciales, provocaron grandes cambios políticos y socioeconómicos en todo el mundo, con reflejos que hasta el momento tienen influencia sobre muchos sectores de la economía brasileña. El sentido común indica que este evento agudizó la crisis que afectaba al sector aéreo brasileño desde 1999, en gran parte debido a las oscilaciones en la tasa de cambio de real para dólar norteamericano. Por medio del test paramétrico de diferencias entre medias poblacionales y del coeficiente de correlación linear de Pearson este trabajo se propone demostrar la real influencia del 11 de Septiembre y de la tasa de cambio, sobre la cuenta Viajes Internacionales del balance de pagos brasileño, como también del flujo de pasajeros de transporte aéreo con destino a los EUA antes y después del ataque terrorista. Los resultados estimados a partir de las estadísticas mencionadas rechazaron la hipótesis nula de igualdad de medias entre los gastos con viajes internacionales antes y después del evento, como también se rechazó la misma hipótesis para la cantidad de pasajeros embarcados hacia los EUA con grado de confianza del 95%. Por otro lado, el coeficiente de correlación linear de Pearson entre la tasa de cambio de real por

  6. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  7. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  8. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  9. Estimating the historical and future probabilities of large terrorist events

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Quantities with right-skewed distributions are ubiquitous in complex social systems, including political conflict, economics and social networks, and these systems sometimes produce extremely large events. For instance, the 9/11 terrorist events produced nearly 3000 fatalities, nearly six times more than the next largest event. But, was this enormous loss of life statistically unlikely given modern terrorism's historical record? Accurately estimating the probability of such an event is complicated by the large fluctuations in the empirical distribution's upper tail. We present a generic statistical algorithm for making such estimates, which combines semi-parametric models of tail behavior and a non-parametric bootstrap. Applied to a global database of terrorist events, we estimate the worldwide historical probability of observing at least one 9/11-sized or larger event since 1968 to be 11-35%. These results are robust to conditioning on global variations in economic development, domestic versus international ...

  10. Precipitating the Decline of Terrorist Groups: A Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    Act on April 30, 1971, signifming the end of the FLQ crisis ."’ 3. Post Critica Error Phase The police lid not want to break up the Viger cell because...36 . The FLQ’s Pre Critical Error Phase . .................... 37 2. The Critical Error Phase: The October Crisis ............... 45 3...organizational crisis ."" These radical innovations are a response by the terrorists to relieve the anxiety Ř|Edgar H. Schein, The Mechanisms of Channe in

  11. Probabilistic Ontology Architecture for a Terrorist Identification Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    participate in multiple organizations (some of which may be associated with terrorism) or have multiple friends and relatives (some of whom may...which captures multiple attributes for each individual. Ontological engineering is performed on this KB to create the Terrorist Identification...certainty of the conclusion (an amputee is Human). isA isComposedOf Probabilistic Ontology Defined A probabilistic ontology is an explicit, formal

  12. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    alleged Al Qaeda operatives offered the first firm indication of a link between the terrorist network and drug trafficking”- Liz Sly, “Opium Cash Fuels... Jensen were convicted for their role in a $25 million dollar weapons-for-drugs deal to provide material support for Autodefensas Unidos de Colombia...organization. Ruiz received a life sentence for his role in the drugs for weapons plot, Puerta and Jensen received 15 and 14 years respectively.40

  13. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  14. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Introduction a la Psychologie Sociale Vol. 1. Paris: Larousse. 6 David W. Brannan, Philip F. Esler, & N.T. Anders Strindberg, “Talking to...St. Andrews, Scotland: Taylor & Francis, January 2001), Vol. 24, No. 1, 9. 6 • Cognitive component – The individual’s knowledge that he or she is a... Cognitive component – An individual is or becomes radicalized and supports the terrorist organization. This is an awareness of being a member of

  15. Illicit Networks: Targeting the Nexus Between Terrorists, Proliferators, and Narcotraffickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    bombings in Jakarta on the Ritz Carlton and Marriott hotels in July 2009. JI has engaged in a wide spectrum of criminal activity across Southeast...ambiguous. In recent years, JI’s most visible terrorist activities—the simultaneous bombings on the Ritz Carlton and Marriott hotels in Jakarta in...JI members comprised the core of his following. Implicated in the Marriott Hotel bombing in Jakarta in August 2003, the Australian Embassy bombing

  16. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  17. Roots and Causes That Created the PKK Terrorist Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    can meet even with [Abdullah] Öcalan.”2 But what kinds of political, military and social policies are likely to be necessary to allow this...but also by the European Union and the United States. Yet despite the prolonged history and scale of its violence, the PKK is still an enigma . The...terrorism. Once more, one can understand that unsolved democratic, social and economic problems in Turkey will create new terrorist organizations or

  18. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    for abusing Central American immigrants traveling through Mexico to get to the U.S. Frequently, they forcefully recruit the migrants to carry drugs...violence between rival drug cartels, street gangs, and the government within Mexico has created concern in both Mexico and the United States. The...literature debating whether the cartels are merely a criminal enterprise or whether the cartels represent a new terrorist insurgency in Mexico

  19. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  20. Criminal Control and Evaluation of Extreme Nationalist Terrorist Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Hui

    2017-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, ter ̄rorist crimes have become more serious. Terrorism has become one of the worst problems of the mod ̄ern world and will continue to be a serious problem in the future. China is also facing the challenge of terrorist crime. Can the present criminal system accomplish the mission of legislative control of these crimes and fulfill the goal of penalising them? It seems that a review and evaluation of the rele ̄vant criminal legislation and policies is necessary. There are different definitions of terrorist crimes. American scholars Alex P. Schmid and Albert J. Jongman gave a review of 109 different definitions that appeared during the period from 1936 to 1983 , and proposed their own opinions in the book Political Terrorism. Chinese scholar Hu Lianhe analyzed 50 definitions that appeared after 1982, and proposed his own idea. On January 1 2016 , the third article of the Zhonghua renmin gongheguo fan kongbu zhuyi fa ( Anti -terrorism Law of the P. R. C) formally defines “terrorism”and “terrorist activities”. Generally speaking, both the academic and legal definitions have gener ̄alized three characteristics of “terrorist crime”from subjective and objective aspects: 1 ) taking social order, public security, personnel and prop ̄erty as the target of the ( terrorist ) behavior; 2 ) hurting the targets described above or threatening the state organs or international organizations by way of violence, destruction or intimidation; 3 ) taking the realization of some certain political or i ̄deological purpose and claims as the ultimate goal of the ( terrorist) behavior. Concerning the relation between extreme na ̄tionalism and terrorism, the general idea is that“there is no pure form of nationalism; it is always combined with some certain political or social pow ̄er, and characterized with social movement or his ̄torical process”. And seeing from the development course of terrorism,“nationalism is one of the most

  1. Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    media and the Internet to compensate for asymmetrical disadvantages has enabled them to keep generating new generations of jihadist terrorists. This...inter- personal media such as mobile phones, iPods , WiFi, etc. and the World Wide Web. The fusion of interpersonal communication and mass...public relations campaign. Their skillful use of the mass media and the Internet to compensate for symmetrical disadvantages has enabled them to

  2. Mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in support of a chemical terrorist event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, J.R.; D' Agostino, P.A.; Chenier, C.L. [Defence R and D Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Chemical warfare (CW) agents are considered to be any chemicals which, through their chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals. In Canada, the probability of a CW terrorist attack is low despite the catastrophic consequences that would result from such an attack. The three levels of government would be responding to such an event. CW agent response training for all levels of government is offered at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Appropriate samples must be collected for analysis in a laboratory, as such an event would lead to a criminal investigation. Research into new methods for the identification of CW agents is being conducted by the analytical laboratory at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are being used extensively to separate and characterize CW agents in organic extracts. In the case of aqueous samples, another method might be more appropriate, since additional sample handling is required before GC-MS analysis can be performed. Minimal sample handling is required when using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) for direct analysis of CW agents. The authors demonstrated the use of LC-ESI-MS for analyzing CW agents and their hydrolysis products in aqueous samples. For the analysis of nerve agents and phosphonic acids in soil, comparable or superior results to organic extraction and GC-MS were obtained for aqueous extractions followed by LC-ESI-MS. The combination of GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS for the analysis of mustard related compounds in soil extracts from a former mustard storage area showed that the two methods are complementary in this situation. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  4. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  5. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  6. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  7. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  8. When women attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart.

  9. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  10. We Bomb, Therefore We Are: The Evolution of Terrorist Group Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1994 Author...Revolutionary Cell and Palestinian PFLP operation that was led by the international terrorist "Carlos." Urbano . 26 terrorist network. but does imply some...violence. In order to retain the media’s and the public’s attention, a terrorist group continually must raise "Interview with Urbano ," in Urban

  11. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-01-01

    Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are ...

  12. A Glance at Terrorist Organizations from the Perspective of Organizational Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Sefer

    2013-01-01

    The problem of conceptualizing terrorist organization is still a controversial issue, even though it has been taken place in the literature heavily. In this essay, terrorist organizations will be approached in the context of organizational theories. Terrorist organizations will be introduced as exceptional structures besides being consistent with most of the organizational theories, departing from them in terms of strategies they adapt and life expectancy they experience. According to some th...

  13. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    terrorists have clearly exhibited psychopathy (see Glossary). For example, in April 1986 Nezar Hindawi, a freelance Syrian-funded Jordanian terrorist and...exhibit signs of psychopathy or other mental illness are deselected in the interest of group survival. Terrorist groups need members whose behavior...appears to be normal and who would not arouse suspicion. A member who exhibits traits of psychopathy or any noticeable degree of mental illness would

  14. Replacement Attack: A New Zero Text Watermarking Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashardoost, Morteza; Mohd Rahim, Mohd Shafry; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of zero watermarking methods that are suggested for the authentication of textual properties is to increase the fragility of produced watermarks against tampering attacks. On the other hand, zero watermarking attacks intend to alter the contents of document without changing the watermark. In this paper, the Replacement attack is proposed, which focuses on maintaining the location of the words in the document. The proposed text watermarking attack is specifically effective on watermarking approaches that exploit words' transition in the document. The evaluation outcomes prove that tested word-based method are unable to detect the existence of replacement attack in the document. Moreover, the comparison results show that the size of Replacement attack is estimated less accurate than other common types of zero text watermarking attacks.

  15. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  16. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  17. State and local levels of preparedness for terrorist incidents : the current and sobering U.S. picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, G. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health; Scott, C.M.; Scott-Dimenna, D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An increasing number of professional organizations and foundations have surveyed components of the United States readiness programs concerning preparedness for terrorist attacks. This paper reviews the results of research conducted in 2002 and compares them with subsequent studies, demonstrating a gap between desired and current states of readiness. Weaknesses at the local, federal and state levels were discussed. Results from local needs and preparedness surveys were examined, including details and summaries of surveys sent to representatives within all states and territories. Significant gaps still remained in protecting the public from biological and chemical attacks. Cut-backs and a lack of resources were identified as contributing to a lack of local preparedness. In addition, emergency responders were not receiving appropriate training. An independent task force reported that less than 10 per cent of fire departments in the United States had the resources, training and equipment needed to respond to a building collapse. It was noted that less than one-quarter of the United States are able to respond 24 hours a day to reports from hospitals of possible victims of biological or chemical attacks. Bioterrorism preparedness still lacks strategic direction, well-defined priorities and appropriate levels of resources to match needs. In addition, although facilities have been identified as risk management program sites, local responders remain unprepared for threats and many local fire and police departments have not been informed of specific plant hazards or information regarding exact chemical hazards. It was concluded that as the United States approaches its fourth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, there is is much yet to be done to improve the level of preparedness in cities and towns across the country. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-Hsun; Lee, Hahn-Ming; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.2

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM) as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model...

  19. Renewable smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  20. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...... per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes...... and educational tools are introduced to allow initial estimates of which chemical processes could be viable. Specifically, fossil and renewables value chains are used to indicate where renewable feedstocks can be optimally valorized. Additionally, C factors are introduced that specify the amount of CO2 produced...

  1. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  2. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  3. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks...... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  4. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  5. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  6. The Terrorist as a Belligerent Under International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    the acccused to the appropriate authorities for disposition. 176 Most countries provide in their penal codes that attacks or attempted attacks... Derecho International, 1962, quoted in Inter-American Juridical Committee, "Statement of Reasons for the Draft Convention on Terrorism and Kidnapping

  7. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made.

  8. Generational Changes in Terrorist Movements: The Turkish Case,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    THE TURKISH CASE * Sabri Sayari * July 1985 DTlC CELECTE AUG 6 1986 LU F Z b -n approved 111 d111d its 44 86 8 5 056 Sabri. Sayar - * ~ % GENERATIONAL...become involved in terrorist groups through family ties, as in the case of Army Captain Orhan Savasci who was Cayan’s brother-in-law. Others, such as...with the TLP, Cayan emerged as one of the central figures of the DEV-GENC. By 1970, Cayan had left b hind his promising student career at the university

  9. Exploring the Development and Dismantling of Equivalence Classes Involving Terrorist Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Zlomke, Kimberly R.; Robinson, Ashton

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes 2 studies that present a conceptual interpretation and experimental findings involving the developing and dismantling of equivalence classes consisting of terrorist stimuli. In the first study, 8 United States citizen participants were trained to match nonterrorist stimuli to American and terrorist images. Afterwards,…

  10. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless... as food, clothing or medicine, may be made to or for the benefit of a specially designated...

  11. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Asiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitative research methods. The study finds that the pattern of interactions between the family of former terrorist convicts and their surrounding communities can be divided into two phases, before and after the arrest. It also maintains that the social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts occurs when they are dealing with people outside the village of Tenggulun, in the form of isolation, token and reserve discrimination. The prejudice and social discrimination on the family of former terrorist convicts impact on their self-worth, self-esteem and well being. Coping behavior by former terrorist convicts and their families are two kinds, namely emotion focused coping and problem-focused coping.

  12. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.105 Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task...

  13. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  14. The Effect of Terrorist Incidents on the Occupational Attitude of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how many terrorist incidents affected the teachers' occupational attitude by the variables of gender, marital status, birthplace, the term of employment and occupational status with "the effect of terrorist incidents on the occupational attitude of the teacher" scale. In this study, "descriptive scanning…

  15. Modeling the Combined Terrorist-Narcotics Trafficker Threat to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    from Corpus Christi , Texas, approached a U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informant. He was seeking the help of a Mexican drug cartel to...2004 Madrid bombers, with decentralized terrorist cells having in-house criminal capabilities, and the Taliban with coalitions between terrorist groups

  16. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  17. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  18. Region 9 Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy production is expected to increase significantly in the next 25 years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Center for Program Analysis (OCPA) has initiated the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative to demonstrate the enormous potential that contaminated land and mining sites provide for developing renewable energy in the U.S.

  19. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  20. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  1. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  2. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  3. Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack

    CERN Document Server

    S., Siti Rahayu; S., Shahrin; A., Faizal M; M, Mohd Zaki; R, Irda

    2009-01-01

    Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. The researchers intended to do a preliminary investigation upon this particular attack so that it can be used for further research in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  4. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  5. Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Shema, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting web applications? Then you need Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to web applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. .. .. Attacks detailed in this book include: ..: ..; Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) ..; Cross-Site Request Fo

  6. Dynamic Forecasting Conditional Probability of Bombing Attacks Based on Time-Series and Intervention Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, various types of terrorist attacks occurred, causing worldwide catastrophes. According to the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), among all attack tactics, bombing attacks happened most frequently, followed by armed assaults. In this article, a model for analyzing and forecasting the conditional probability of bombing attacks (CPBAs) based on time-series methods is developed. In addition, intervention analysis is used to analyze the sudden increase in the time-series process. The results show that the CPBA increased dramatically at the end of 2011. During that time, the CPBA increased by 16.0% in a two-month period to reach the peak value, but still stays 9.0% greater than the predicted level after the temporary effect gradually decays. By contrast, no significant fluctuation can be found in the conditional probability process of armed assault. It can be inferred that some social unrest, such as America's troop withdrawal from Afghanistan and Iraq, could have led to the increase of the CPBA in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan. The integrated time-series and intervention model is used to forecast the monthly CPBA in 2014 and through 2064. The average relative error compared with the real data in 2014 is 3.5%. The model is also applied to the total number of attacks recorded by the GTD between 2004 and 2014. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. A Network Attack Model based on Colored Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The researches have shown that not all the Petri Net machines can be used to describe attack behavior. When Petri Net machines adapted for attack behavior modeling are detecting the network, for some event of current status, if there is matching event in the model, it has only one corresponding transition; otherwise that may cause errors. Since sharing synthesis and synchronization synthesis of traditional machines cannot ensure synthetic model reserves original detection capability, we propose the novel concept for synthesis operation and colored synthetic operation. By the analysis on the relation among these operations, the ability to reserve original detection is verified. Then an improved colored judgement Petri Net machine is adopted for modeling and renewing the knowledge repository. The inductive learning method is used to extend the attack modes. It creates a four-layered concept space, which actually provides a depth-first search path for matching. To solve the problems in multi-pattern matching and incremental learning, various modes are generalized by colored operation. We also adopt the decomposition and synthesis operation to handle the pattern matching of distributed attack behavior and attack information fusion. Finally the actual cases verify that our algorithm is feasible

  8. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  9. Review of Injuries from Terrorist Bombings and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid...These attacks resulted in 1,582 casualties and 117 deaths (Frykberg and Tepas 1988; Hadden et al. 1978). Of the total casualties, the records of...century bronze cannon. The attack resulted in 37 casualties and 1 death as a result of severe brain damage. The records indicate that only 19 victims

  10. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  11. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  12. Region 9 Renewable Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Renewable energy production is expected to increase significantly in the next 25 years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and...

  13. INTEGRATED RENEWAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyono .

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The marginal distribution of integrated renewal process is derived in this paper. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson point processes. The results are presented in the form of Laplace transforms.

  14. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  15. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane

    2017-03-01

    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  17. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  18. Enhancing the NFLs Counter-Terrorism Efforts: Is the Leagues Security Scheme Able to Effectively Thwart Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    people within close proximity to the stadium, tailgating, dining out, drinking in a bar, shopping for NFL apparel in the team store, or employed in...capabilities and available space”; “Economic sensitivity”; “Security versus convenience and cost”; and lastly “Accessibility.”48 Identifying and... Online , last modified November 19, 2015, http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/manchesters-old-trafford-etihad-stadiums-6861450. 188 “English

  19. Israeli Adolescents' Help-Seeking Behaviours in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Students, School Counsellors and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to terror seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. School mental health professionals cope simultaneously with the counselling needs of their clients and with their own fears and doubts. This report is based on two studies. The first study was concerned with the perceptions of Israeli adolescents of the place of…

  20. The Use of Dynamic Stochastic Social Behavior Models to Produce Likelihood Functions for Risk Modeling of Proliferation and Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Jonathan; Thompson, Sandra E.; Brothers, Alan J.; Whitney, Paul D.; Coles, Garill A.; Henderson, Cindy L.; Wolf, Katherine E.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2008-12-01

    The ability to estimate the likelihood of future events based on current and historical data is essential to the decision making process of many government agencies. Successful predictions related to terror events and characterizing the risks will support development of options for countering these events. The predictive tasks involve both technical and social component models. The social components have presented a particularly difficult challenge. This paper outlines some technical considerations of this modeling activity. Both data and predictions associated with the technical and social models will likely be known with differing certainties or accuracies – a critical challenge is linking across these model domains while respecting this fundamental difference in certainty level. This paper will describe the technical approach being taken to develop the social model and identification of the significant interfaces between the technical and social modeling in the context of analysis of diversion of nuclear material.