Renewal of basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories (Ⅺ)——consistency problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Tian-min
2007-01-01
Some consistency problems existing in continuum field theories are briefly reviewed. Three arts of consistency problems are clarified based on the renewed basic laws for polar continua. The first art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for polar continua. The second art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for polar continua and for other nonpolar continua. The third art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for micropolar continuum theories and the dynamical equations for rigid body. The results presented here can help us to get a deeper understanding the structure of the basic laws for various continuum theories and the interrelations between them. In the meantime, these results obtained show clearly that the consistency problems could not be solved in the framework of traditional basic laws for continuum field theories.
Energy Transition to Renewables: Problems
2014-01-01
What will come first ? non-acceptable global warming or extinction of oil reserves? Both processes can bring substantial costs to the mankind, but their order has important economic implications. The answer to this question will either lower oil price in the long run or will lead to its further rise. It is very important for Russian economy. From the global perspective, both dangers should be taken into account, and transition to renewable energies is the only remedy for both. However, the op...
Numerical evaluation of renewal equations: applications to risk theory and financial models
Usábel Rodrigo, Miguel Arturo
1997-01-01
The so-called Renewal Theory is a frequently used methodology in applied mathematics. Renewal Theory is mainly focussed on solving a Volterra integral equation of the second kind known as Renewal Integral EquationAn interesting problem arises when choosing the appropriate numerical tool in order to approximate the solution of the former integral. The decision will be based on the degree of knowledge of function F(x) and some properties of (u). Three methods based in classical methodologies (s...
Renewal theory applied to creep and inelastic behavior of copper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibbons, K.A.; Cook, D.E. [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States); Bearden, K.L. [Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)
1995-12-31
A series of constant load creep tests on C11000 copper are described. The copper microstructure was closely controlled through appropriate heat treatment. Renewal theory was applied to interpret creep test data while developing the parameters of a general inelasticity model suitable for prediction. Creep experiments were predicted using renewal theory. Time varying load and load control stress-strain experiments were also predicted using renewal inelasticity theory. Results show that renewal theory is an efficient and effective approach to modeling creep of copper, needing a limited number of parameters. The simplicity of applying this theory to creep, variable load conditions, and a stress-strain experiment predictions for copper has been demonstrated.
Problems in equilibrium theory
Aliprantis, Charalambos D
1996-01-01
In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.
Renewal Tables: Tables of Functions Arising in Renewal Theory.
1981-09-01
convolution integrals and hence to the renewal function. Implementation of this algorithm is not straight-forward and hence, in this report , we tabulate...of the extended algorithm to cope with mɘ.5 (see Section 5). The upper limit is arbitrary; we know of no case where a value of m>7 has been reported ...atS330~s3i30O.N 4 4 4% % %!3Or00. 4..tr4. ~ ~ r #, , ^ 44% C 4% 04% fla N 0 0 NaCCC %~~~t %~104%0%...4 %4 .t4 %04%0%Ne4 %4 %4 c
Promoting Renewable Energy or Environmental Problems?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raftopoulos, Malayna; Riethof, Marieke
2016-01-01
emissions and their vulnerability to climate change and environmental disasters such as droughts, floods, deforestation, landslides and pollution. In environmental terms, Brazil’s exports to China have led to changes in land use focused on export agriculture, the construction of infrastructure in vulnerable...... areas such as the Amazon region and a growing need for cheap, renewable energy to fuel transport, consumption and industrial development. In the context of these intensifying trade and economic connections between Brazil and China, this article examines the environmental dimensions of this relationship...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole
2014-01-01
We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role.......We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role....
Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Bjørn
2011-01-01
Agnes Horvath, Bjørn Thomassen, & Dr Harald Wydra, editors of the Journal,International Political Anthropology “Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics” This paper argues that anthropology may represent a perspective from where social theory can renew itself. The presen......Agnes Horvath, Bjørn Thomassen, & Dr Harald Wydra, editors of the Journal,International Political Anthropology “Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics” This paper argues that anthropology may represent a perspective from where social theory can renew itself....... The presentation therefore inserts itself within the history of a long conversation between anthropology and social theory. This discussion goes back at least to the Durkhemian school which saw the study of modern and "archaic" cultures as part and parcel of the same project. However, the disciplines of sociology...... with anthropology via the "cultural turn". Yet this elevated status of anthropology and its method has involved almost no engagement with the theoretical luggage found within the discipline of anthropology.Our premise is that the modern world may indeed not be so unique in all its features, and that it therefore...
Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy: A cultural theory approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
West, J., E-mail: jodie.west@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bailey, I., E-mail: ian.bailey@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M., E-mail: d.m.winter@exeter.ac.u [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)
2010-10-15
Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics.
Aging Renewal Theory and Application to Random Walks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johannes H. P. Schulz
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We discuss a renewal process in which successive events are separated by scale-free waiting time periods. Among other ubiquitous long-time properties, this process exhibits aging: events counted initially in a time interval [0,t] statistically strongly differ from those observed at later times [t_{a},t_{a}+t]. The versatility of renewal theory is owed to its abstract formulation. Renewals can be interpreted as steps of a random walk, switching events in two-state models, domain crossings of a random motion, etc. In complex, disordered media, processes with scale-free waiting times play a particularly prominent role. We set up a unified analytical foundation for such anomalous dynamics by discussing in detail the distribution of the aging renewal process. We analyze its half-discrete, half-continuous nature and study its aging time evolution. These results are readily used to discuss a scale-free anomalous diffusion process, the continuous-time random walk. By this, we not only shed light on the profound origins of its characteristic features, such as weak ergodicity breaking, along the way, we also add an extended discussion on aging effects. In particular, we find that the aging behavior of time and ensemble averages is conceptually very distinct, but their time scaling is identical at high ages. Finally, we show how more complex motion models are readily constructed on the basis of aging renewal dynamics.
Some reflections on the Renewal-theory paradox in queueing theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert B. Cooper
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The classical renewal-theory (waiting time, or inspection paradox states that the length of the renewal interval that covers a randomly-selected time epoch tends to be longer than an ordinary renewal interval. This paradox manifests itself in numerous interesting ways in queueing theory, a prime example being the celebrated Pollaczek-Khintchine formula for the mean waiting time in the M/G/1 queue. In this expository paper, we give intuitive arguments that explain why the renewal-theory paradox is ubiquitous in queueing theory, and why it sometimes produces anomalous results. In particular, we use these intuitive arguments to explain decomposition in vacation models, and to derive formulas that describe some recently-discovered counterintuitive results for polling models, such as the reduction of waiting times as a consequence of forcing the server to set up even when no work is waiting.
Can renewables etc. solve the greenhouse problem? The negative case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trainer, Ted [Social Work, University of NSW, Kensington 2052 (Australia)
2010-08-15
Virtually all current discussion of climate change and energy problems proceeds on the assumption that technical solutions are possible within basically affluent-consumer societies. There is however a substantial case that this assumption is mistaken. This case derives from a consideration of the scale of the tasks and of the limits of non-carbon energy sources, focusing especially on the need for redundant capacity in winter. The first line of argument is to do with the extremely high capital cost of the supply system that would be required, and the second is to do with the problems set by the intermittency of renewable sources. It is concluded that the general climate change and energy problem cannot be solved without large scale reductions in rates of economic production and consumption, and therefore without transition to fundamentally different social structures and systems. (author)
Potential Theory Surveys and Problems
Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří
1988-01-01
The volume comprises eleven survey papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference in Prague in July 1987, which covered various facets of potential theory, including its applications in other areas. The survey papers deal with both classical and abstract potential theory and its relations to partial differential equations, stochastic processes and other branches such as numerical analysis and topology. A collection of problems from potential theory, compiled on the occasion of the conference, is included, with additional commentaries, in the second part of this volume.
Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy. A cultural theory approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
West, J.; Bailey, I. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M. [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)
2010-10-15
Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics. (author)
Natural Non-Renewable Resources in Economic Theory
Constantin Alexandra Mihaela
2011-01-01
Non-renewable resources can doubtlessly be regarded as the backbone of our modern society. However, most of economists have ignored the impact of non-renewable resources on the environment by dissociating the economy from the ecological network it is fundamentally linked to. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to highlight a literature overview of the most important opinions regarding non-renewable natural resources.
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
Quintessence Problem and Brans-Dicke Theory
Chakraborty, Subenoy; Chakraborty, N. C.; Debnath, Ujjal
2003-01-01
It has been shown that Brans-Dicke (BD) theory in anisotropic cosmological model can alone solve the quintessence problem and we have accelerated expanding universe without any quintessence matter. Also the flatness problem has been discussed in this context.
A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alam Syed Shah
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.
A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects
Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik
2016-05-01
Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.
Homotopy of extremal problems theory and applications
Korovin, Sergey K; Emelyanov, Stanislav V; Bulatov, Alexander V
2007-01-01
This monograph provides a thorough treatment of parameter-dependent extremal problems with local minimum values that remain unchanged under changes of the parameter. The authors consider the theory as well the practical treatment of those problems, both in finite-dimensional as well as in infinite-dimensional spaces. Various applications are considered, e.g., variational calculus, control theory and bifurcations theory. Thorough treatment of parameter-dependent extremal problems with local minimum values. Includes many applications, e.g., variational calculus, control theory and bifurcations t
Operator approximant problems arising from quantum theory
Maher, Philip J
2017-01-01
This book offers an account of a number of aspects of operator theory, mainly developed since the 1980s, whose problems have their roots in quantum theory. The research presented is in non-commutative operator approximation theory or, to use Halmos' terminology, in operator approximants. Focusing on the concept of approximants, this self-contained book is suitable for graduate courses.
Heterogeneous Catalysis with Renewed Attention: Principles, Theories, and Concepts
Dumeignil, Franck; Paul, Jean-Francois; Paul, Sebastien
2017-01-01
With the development of a strong bioeconomy sector related to the creation of next-generation biorefineries, heterogeneous catalysis is receiving renewed attention. Indeed, catalysis is at the core of biorefinery design, and many new catalysts and catalytic processes are being developed. On the one hand, they are based on knowledge acquired during…
The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital
Perez-Barahona, Agustin
2007-01-01
This paper studies the possibilities of technical progress to deal with the growth limit problem imposed by the usage of non-renewable energy resources, when physical capital production is relatively more energy-intensive than consumption. In particular, this work presents the conditions under which energy-saving technologies can sustain long-run growth, although energy is produced by means of non-renewable energy resources. The mechanism behind that is energy efficiency.
Markov Renewal Methods in Restart Problems in Complex Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, Søren; Lipsky, Lester; Thompson, Stephen
A task with ideal execution time L such as the execution of a computer program or the transmission of a file on a data link may fail, and the task then needs to be restarted. The task is handled by a complex system with features similar to the ones in classical reliability: failures may...... be mitigated by using server redundancy in parallel or k-out-of-n arrangements, standbys may be cold or warm, one or more repairmen may take care of failed components, etc. The total task time X (including restarts and pauses in failed states) is investigated with particular emphasis on the tail P(X > x......). A general alternating Markov renewal model is proposed and an asymptotic exponential form P(X > x) ∼ Ce−γx identified for the case of a deterministic task time L ≡ `. The rate γ is given by equating the spectral radius of a certain matrix to 1, and the asymptotic form of γ = γ(`) as ` → ∞ is derived...
The (Super)String Theories' Problems
Naboulsi, R
2003-01-01
(Super)String theories are theoretical ideas that go beyond the standard model of particle and high energy physics and show promise for unifying all forces in nature including the gravitational one. In this unification a prominent role is played by the duality symmetries which relate different theories. I present a review of these developements and discuss their problems and possible impact in low-energy physics. We explain and discuss some ideas concerning string field theories from noncommutative geometry.
Multiparameter eigenvalue problems Sturm-Liouville theory
Atkinson, FV
2010-01-01
One of the masters in the differential equations community, the late F.V. Atkinson contributed seminal research to multiparameter spectral theory and Sturm-Liouville theory. His ideas and techniques have long inspired researchers and continue to stimulate discussion. With the help of co-author Angelo B. Mingarelli, Multiparameter Eigenvalue Problems: Sturm-Liouville Theory reflects much of Dr. Atkinson's final work.After covering standard multiparameter problems, the book investigates the conditions for eigenvalues to be real and form a discrete set. It gives results on the determinants of fun
Problem Book in Quantum Field Theory
Radovanovič, Voja
2008-01-01
The Problem Book in Quantum Field Theory contains about 200 problems with solutions or hints that help students to improve their understanding and develop skills necessary for pursuing the subject. It deals with the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, classical field theory, canonical quantization of scalar, Dirac and electromagnetic fields, the processes in the lowest order of perturbation theory, renormalization and regularization. The solutions are presented in a systematic and complete manner. The material covered and the level of exposition make the book appropriate for graduate and undergraduate students in physics, as well as for teachers and researchers. The new edition is a corrected paperback edition for students.
Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories
McQueen, Kelvin J
2015-01-01
The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem di...
Theory of the decision/problem state
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
A theory of the decision-problem state was introduced and elaborated. Starting with the basic model of a decision-problem condition, an attempt was made to explain how a major decision-problem may consist of subsets of decision-problem conditions composing different condition sequences. In addition, the basic classical decision-tree model was modified to allow for the introduction of a series of characteristics that may be encountered in an analysis of a decision-problem state. The resulting hierarchical model reflects the unique attributes of the decision-problem state. The basic model of a decision-problem condition was used as a base to evolve a more complex model that is more representative of the decision-problem state and may be used to initiate research on decision-problem states.
Scattering theory some old and new problems
Yafaev, Dmitri R
2000-01-01
Scattering theory is, roughly speaking, perturbation theory of self-adjoint operators on the (absolutely) continuous spectrum. It has its origin in mathematical problems of quantum mechanics and is intimately related to the theory of partial differential equations. Some recently solved problems, such as asymptotic completeness for the Schrödinger operator with long-range and multiparticle potentials, as well as open problems, are discussed. Potentials for which asymptotic completeness is violated are also constructed. This corresponds to a new class of asymptotic solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Special attention is paid to the properties of the scattering matrix, which is the main observable of the theory. The book is addressed to readers interested in a deeper study of the subject.
Mitov, Kosto V
2014-01-01
This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.
Mathematical conversations multicolor problems, problems in the theory of numbers, and random walks
Dynkin, E B
2006-01-01
Comprises Multicolor Problems, dealing with map-coloring problems; Problems in the Theory of Numbers, an elementary introduction to algebraic number theory; Random Walks, addressing basic problems in probability theory. 1963 edition.
Why does renewable energy diffuse so slowly? A review of innovation system problems
Negro, S.O.; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a literature review of studies that have analysed the troublesome trajectory of different renewable energy technologies (RETs) development and diffusion in different, mainly European countries. We present an overview of typical systemic problems in the development of
Why does renewable energy diffuse so slowly? A review of innovation system problems
Negro, S.O.; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a literature review of studies that have analysed the troublesome trajectory of different renewable energy technologies (RETs) development and diffusion in different, mainly European countries. We present an overview of typical systemic problems in the development of innovat
Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories
McQueen, Kelvin J.
2015-02-01
The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.
Electromagnetic Field Theory A Collection of Problems
Mrozynski, Gerd
2013-01-01
After a brief introduction into the theory of electromagnetic fields and the definition of the field quantities the book teaches the analytical solution methods of Maxwell’s equations by means of several characteristic examples. The focus is on static and stationary electric and magnetic fields, quasi stationary fields, and electromagnetic waves. For a deeper understanding, the many depicted field patterns are very helpful. The book offers a collection of problems and solutions which enable the reader to understand and to apply Maxwell’s theory for a broad class of problems including classical static problems right up to waveguide eigenvalue problems. Content Maxwell’s Equations - Electrostatic Fields - Stationary Current Distributions – Magnetic Field of Stationary Currents – Quasi Stationary Fields: Eddy Currents - Electromagnetic Waves Target Groups Advanced Graduate Students in Electrical Engineering, Physics, and related Courses Engineers and Physicists Authors Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerd Mrozynski...
A Theory of Continuous Socialization for Organizational Renewal
Danielson, Monica Marie
2004-01-01
Current literature suggests that for sustained competitive success, organizations must have processes in place for continuous learning and adaptation. Any process, then, that appears to hinder agility should come under scrutiny. Examination of socialization theories revealed an intended outcome of perpetuating the organization's way of life, its…
Two problems in thermal field theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
François Gelis
2000-07-01
In this talk, I review recent progress made in two areas of thermal ﬁeld theory. In particular, I discuss various approaches for the calculation of the quark gluon plasma thermodynamical properties, and the problem of its photon production rate.
Lectures on mathematical theory of extremum problems
1972-01-01
The author of this book, Igor' Vladimirovich Girsanov, was one of the first mathematicians to study general extremum problems and to realize the feasibility and desirability of a unified theory of extremal problems, based on a functional analytic approach. He actively advocated this view, and his special course, given at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Moscow State University in 1963 and 1964, was apparently the first systematic exposition of a unified approach to the theory of extremal problems. This approach was based on the ideas of Dubovitskii and Milyutin [1]. The general theory of extremal problems has developed so intensely during the past few years that its basic concepts may now be considered finalized. Nevertheless, as yet the basic results of this new field of mathematics have not been presented in a form accessible to a wide range of readers. (The profound paper of Dubovitskii and Milyutin [2] can hardly be recommended for a first study of the theory, since, in particular, it doe...
The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications
Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto
2012-01-01
The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.
The Shortest Path Problems in Battery-Electric Vehicle Dispatching with Battery Renewal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minfang Huang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Electric vehicles play a key role for developing an eco-sustainable transport system. One critical component of an electric vehicle is its battery, which can be quickly charged or exchanged before it runs out. The problem of electric vehicle dispatching falls into the category of the shortest path problem with resource renewal. In this paper, we study the shortest path problems in (1 electric transit bus scheduling and (2 electric truck routing with time windows. In these applications, a fully-charged battery allows running a limited operational distance, and the battery before depletion needs to be quickly charged or exchanged with a fully-charged one at a battery management facility. The limited distance and battery renewal result in a shortest path problem with resource renewal. We develop a label-correcting algorithm with state space relaxation to find optimal solutions. In the computational experiments, real-world road geometry data are used to generate realistic travel distances, and other types of data are obtained from the real world or randomly generated. The computational results show that the label-correcting algorithm performs very well.
Renewal theory for perturbed random walks and similar processes
Iksanov, Alexander
2016-01-01
This book offers a detailed review of perturbed random walks, perpetuities, and random processes with immigration. Being of major importance in modern probability theory, both theoretical and applied, these objects have been used to model various phenomena in the natural sciences as well as in insurance and finance. The book also presents the many significant results and efficient techniques and methods that have been worked out in the last decade. The first chapter is devoted to perturbed random walks and discusses their asymptotic behavior and various functionals pertaining to them, including supremum and first-passage time. The second chapter examines perpetuities, presenting results on continuity of their distributions and the existence of moments, as well as weak convergence of divergent perpetuities. Focusing on random processes with immigration, the third chapter investigates the existence of moments, describes long-time behavior and discusses limit theorems, both with and without scaling. Chapters fou...
Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick
2015-04-01
In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies.
Translation Theory and the Problem of Equivalence
García-Landa, Mariano
2000-01-01
El presente artículo se ocupa de estudiar el problema de la equivalencia desde la perspectiva de la teoría de la traducción, y las posibles soluciones que puede dársele a esta cuestión This article is devoted to the study of the problem of equivalence in translation theory, and to the different possibilities available to find a solution
Maximum process problems in optimal control theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goran Peskir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.
Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem
Kohler, Susanna
2017-02-01
How did our universe come into being? The Big Bang theory is a widely accepted and highly successful cosmological model of the universe, but it does introduce one puzzle: the cosmological lithium problem. Have scientists now found a solution?Too Much LithiumIn the Big Bang theory, the universe expanded rapidly from a very high-density and high-temperature state dominated by radiation. This theory has been validated again and again: the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale structure of the universe both beautifully support the Big Bang theory, for instance. But one pesky trouble-spot remains: the abundance of lithium.The arrows show the primary reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and their flux ratios, as predicted by the authors model, are given on the right. Synthesizing primordial elements is complicated! [Hou et al. 2017]According to Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory, primordial nucleosynthesis ran wild during the first half hour of the universes existence. This produced most of the universes helium and small amounts of other light nuclides, including deuterium and lithium.But while predictions match the observed primordial deuterium and helium abundances, Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory overpredicts the abundance of primordial lithium by about a factor of three. This inconsistency is known as the cosmological lithium problem and attempts to resolve it using conventional astrophysics and nuclear physics over the past few decades have not been successful.In a recent publicationled by Suqing Hou (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and advisorJianjun He (Institute of Modern Physics National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences), however, a team of scientists has proposed an elegant solution to this problem.Time and temperature evolution of the abundances of primordial light elements during the beginning of the universe. The authors model (dotted lines
Continuum mechanics concise theory and problems
Chadwick, P
1998-01-01
Written in response to the dearth of practical and meaningful textbooks in the field of fundamental continuum mechanics, this comprehensive treatment offers students and instructors an immensely useful tool. Its 115 solved problems and exercises not only provide essential practice but also systematically advance the understanding of vector and tensor theory, basic kinematics, balance laws, field equations, jump conditions, and constitutive equations.Readers follow clear, formally precise steps through the central ideas of classical and modern continuum mechanics, expressed in a common, effici
Mathematical problems in wave propagation theory
1970-01-01
The papers comprising this collection are directly or indirectly related to an important branch of mathematical physics - the mathematical theory of wave propagation and diffraction. The paper by V. M. Babich is concerned with the application of the parabolic-equation method (of Academician V. A. Fok and M. A, Leontovich) to the problem of the asymptotic behavior of eigenfunc tions concentrated in a neighborhood of a closed geodesie in a Riemannian space. The techniques used in this paper have been föund useful in solving certain problems in the theory of open resonators. The topic of G. P. Astrakhantsev's paper is similar to that of the paper by V. M. Babich. Here also the parabolic-equation method is used to find the asymptotic solution of the elasticity equations which describes Love waves concentrated in a neighborhood of some surface ray. The paper of T. F. Pankratova is concerned with finding the asymptotic behavior of th~ eigenfunc tions of the Laplace operator from the exact solution for the surf...
Information theory and coding solved problems
Ivaniš, Predrag
2017-01-01
This book is offers a comprehensive overview of information theory and error control coding, using a different approach then in existed literature. The chapters are organized according to the Shannon system model, where one block affects the others. A relatively brief theoretical introduction is provided at the beginning of every chapter, including a few additional examples and explanations, but without any proofs. And a short overview of some aspects of abstract algebra is given at the end of the corresponding chapters. The characteristic complex examples with a lot of illustrations and tables are chosen to provide detailed insights into the nature of the problem. Some limiting cases are presented to illustrate the connections with the theoretical bounds. The numerical values are carefully selected to provide in-depth explanations of the described algorithms. Although the examples in the different chapters can be considered separately, they are mutually connected and the conclusions for one considered proble...
Projective geometry solved problems and theory review
Fortuna, Elisabetta; Pardini, Rita
2016-01-01
This book starts with a concise but rigorous overview of the basic notions of projective geometry, using straightforward and modern language. The goal is not only to establish the notation and terminology used, but also to offer the reader a quick survey of the subject matter. In the second part, the book presents more than 200 solved problems, for many of which several alternative solutions are provided. The level of difficulty of the exercises varies considerably: they range from computations to harder problems of a more theoretical nature, up to some actual complements of the theory. The structure of the text allows the reader to use the solutions of the exercises both to master the basic notions and techniques and to further their knowledge of the subject, thus learning some classical results not covered in the first part of the book. The book addresses the needs of undergraduate and graduate students in the theoretical and applied sciences, and will especially benefit those readers with a solid grasp of ...
String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size
Sahoo, S.
2009-01-01
String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…
String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size
Sahoo, S.
2009-01-01
String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…
Theory and applications of the problem of Euler elastica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zelikin, Mikhail I [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-04-30
The paper is devoted to the theory of extremal problems on Euler elastica. The Riccati equation method is used to study sufficient optimality conditions for the associated problem of minimization of the energy of a physical pendulum. Numerous applications are described for the problem of Euler elastica, and its connections with the theory of completely integrable Hamiltonian systems are discussed. Bibliography: 10 titles.
Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.
Jonassen, David H.
2000-01-01
Proposes a metatheory of problem solving. Describes differences among problems in terms of their structured ness, domain specificity (abstractness), and complexity; describes individual differences that affect problem solving; and presents a typology of problems, each of which engages different cognitive, affective, and conative process and…
The problem of applying information theory to efficient image transmission.
Sakrison, D. J.
1973-01-01
The main ideas of Shannon's (1948, 1960) theory of source encoding with a fidelity constraint, more commonly known as rate distortion theory, are summarized. The theory was specifically intended to provide a theoretical basis for efficient transmission of information such as images. What the theory has to contribute to the problem is demonstrated. Difficulties that impeded application of the theory to image transmission, and current efforts to solve these difficulties are discussed.
Renormalization problem in a class of nonrenormalizable theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Symanzik, K.
1975-08-01
A possible way to approach a certain class of nonrenormalizable theories is described. The simplest theory of this class with a probability of existence is chosen, the massless phi$sup 4$ theory in more than four space-time dimensions. The problem of extension to other nonrenormalizable theories in the class considered, and the conclusons reached thus far are compared with the corresponding ones for renormalizable theories. (JFP)
[Social anomie and the renewed increase of mental health problems at the work place].
Carpentier-Roy, M C
1995-01-01
Several studies on mental health in the workplace show a renewed increase of mental health problems. These problems, related to workplace relations, present social causes of a much larger degree; for instance, the social anomy afflicting Québec is rippling through the workplace, much like what many other industrialized societies are experiencing during this end of century. The sensitive social balance, in principle under the responsibility of social institutions and government, has given business the opportunity to occupy a central position and become the major forum for an individual's search for identity. This centrality carries with it a certain number of strong contradictions and disappointments because, in spite of the rhetoric and its illusions, corporations are loyal to economic logic and take a perverse ownership of one of the individual's most important values, namely the quest and desire to be defined as a person and to be acknowledged as such. As a result, individuals often find themselves in a fragile state, at times even left with deconstructed psyches.
Renewed roles for librarians in problem-based learning in the medical curriculum.
Mi, Misa
2011-01-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching-learning process or method of instruction that is widely used in medical education curricula. Librarians play important roles as facilitators for PBL as well as guides for information resources. Involvement in PBL activities presents unique opportunities to incorporate library resources and instruction into the medical curriculum. This article reviews the problem-based learning method within the conceptual framework of the learning theory of constructivism. It describes how a medical librarian at a U.S. medical school used emerging technologies to facilitate PBL small group case discussions, guide students to quality information resources, and enhance the learning environment for the PBL process.
Problems of linear electron (polaron) transport theory in semiconductors
Klinger, M I
1979-01-01
Problems of Linear Electron (Polaron) Transport Theory in Semiconductors summarizes and discusses the development of areas in electron transport theory in semiconductors, with emphasis on the fundamental aspects of the theory and the essential physical nature of the transport processes. The book is organized into three parts. Part I focuses on some general topics in the theory of transport phenomena: the general dynamical theory of linear transport in dissipative systems (Kubo formulae) and the phenomenological theory. Part II deals with the theory of polaron transport in a crystalline semicon
Riemann-Hilbert problems from Donaldson-Thomas theory
Bridgeland, Tom
2016-01-01
We study a class of Riemann-Hilbert problems arising naturally in Donaldson-Thomas theory. In certain special cases we show that these problems have unique solutions which can be written explicitly as products of gamma functions. We briefly explain connections with Gromov-Witten theory and exact WKB analysis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.
Open problems in Gaussian fluid queueing theory
Dȩbicki, K.; Mandjes, M.
2011-01-01
We present three challenging open problems that originate from the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of Gaussian fluid queueing models. In particular, we address the problem of characterizing the correlation structure of the stationary buffer content process, the speed of convergence to
Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb
2007-01-01
Because learned associations are quickly renewed following extinction, the extinction process must include processes other than unlearning. However, reinforcement learning models, such as the temporal difference reinforcement learning (TDRL) model, treat extinction as an unlearning of associated value and are thus unable to capture renewal. TDRL…
Ethics problems and theories in public relations
Grunig, James E.
2015-01-01
Public relations professionals encounter ethical problems as individuals who make decisions about their professional lives. They also serve as ethical counselors to organizations, a role in which they help organizations behave in ethical, responsible, and sustainable ways. This introduction defines ethics and social responsibility and discusses the possibilities and obstacles that public relations professionals face in the role of ethical counselor. Seven research problems in public relations...
Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.
2016-03-01
An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.
Applying Graph Theory to Problems in Air Traffic Management
Farrahi, Amir Hossein; Goldbert, Alan; Bagasol, Leonard Neil; Jung, Jaewoo
2017-01-01
Graph theory is used to investigate three different problems arising in air traffic management. First, using a polynomial reduction from a graph partitioning problem, it is shown that both the airspace sectorization problem and its incremental counterpart, the sector combination problem are NP-hard, in general, under several simple workload models. Second, using a polynomial time reduction from maximum independent set in graphs, it is shown that for any fixed e, the problem of finding a solution to the minimum delay scheduling problem in traffic flow management that is guaranteed to be within n1-e of the optimal, where n is the number of aircraft in the problem instance, is NP-hard. Finally, a problem arising in precision arrival scheduling is formulated and solved using graph reachability. These results demonstrate that graph theory provides a powerful framework for modeling, reasoning about, and devising algorithmic solutions to diverse problems arising in air traffic management.
A Successful Senior Seminar: Unsolved Problems in Number Theory
Styer, Robert
2014-01-01
The "Unsolved Problems in Number Theory" book by Richard Guy provides nice problems suitable for a typical math major. We give examples of problems that have worked well in our senior seminar course and some nice results that senior math majors can obtain.
Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E Oset; D Cabrera; H C Chiang; C Garcia Recio; S Hirenzaki; S S Kamalov; J Nieves; Y Okumura; A Ramos; H Toki; M J Vicente Vacas
2001-08-01
In this talk we brieﬂy describe some basic elements of chiral perturbation theory, , and how the implementation of unitarity and other novel elements lead to a better expansion of the -matrix for meson–meson and meson–baryon interactions. Applications are then done to the interaction in nuclear matter in the scalar and vector channels, antikaons in nuclei and - atoms, and how the meson properties are changed in a nuclear medium.
The black hole information problem beyond quantum theory
Mueller, Markus P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O
2012-01-01
The origin of black hole entropy and the black hole information problem provide important clues for trying to piece together a quantum theory of gravity. Thus far, discussions on this topic have mostly assumed that in a consistent theory of gravity and quantum mechanics, quantum theory will be unmodified. Here, we examine the black hole information problem in the context of generalisations of quantum theory. In particular, we examine black holes in the setting of generalised probabilistic theories, in which quantum theory and classical probability theory are special cases. We compute the time it takes information to escape a black hole, assuming that information is preserved. We find that under some very general assumptions, the arguments of Page (that information should escape the black hole after half the Hawking photons have been emitted), and the black-hole mirror result of Hayden and Preskill (that information can escape quickly) need to be modified. The modification is determined entirely by what we cal...
Finite Theories and the SUSY Flavor Problem
Babu, K S; Kubo, J; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kubo, Jisuke
2003-01-01
We study a finite SU(5) grand unified model based on the non-Abelian discrete symmetry A_4. This model leads to the democratic structure of the mass matrices for the quarks and leptons. In the soft supersymmetry breaking sector, the scalar trilinear couplings are aligned and the soft scalar masses are degenerate, thus solving the SUSY flavor problem.
Multiple Population Theory: Extreme helium population problem
Yi, Sukyoung K.
2009-01-01
The spreads in chemical abundances inferred by recent precision observations suggest that some or possibly all globular clusters can no longer be considered as simple stellar populations. The most striking case is omega Cen in the sense that its bluest main-sequence despite its high metallicity demands an extreme helium abundance of Y > 0.4. I focus on this issue of "the extreme helium population problem" in this review.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balzannikov Mikhail
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays hydraulic and power installations can be defined as power installations that are well-designed in terms of construction and technology and working on renewable energy resources (RER. However wide use of such power stations is interfered by their low performance in comparison with thermal stations, using organic fuel. The purpose of the conducted research in this article is – search of ways to increase the competitiveness of power stations, using RER, in comparison with traditional power stations. In order to achieve the specified purpose the authors solved the following tasks: they analyzed and developed new constructive solutions of the power stations using RER; they developed the power-economic viability method for the choice of key parameters of the power stations working on RER. The researchers also gained the set objectives, using theoretical and experimental methods of calculation connected with physical modeling, the theoretical analysis and use of an economic case of the made decisions. Thus, carried-out analysis of designs of the power stations, based on RER allowed to develop a method of efficiency enhancement of these installations and to solve a problem of wider use of power stations as a part of the installations working on RER. The provided technical solutions of power stations that give the chance to develop new suggestions for improvement of designs of power stations, based on RER and to promote development of recommendations about their competitive recovery. As a result it will allow to create conditions for production of the effective national power stations, based on RER, and cumulative scientific and technical potential, that can be used for further development of nonconventional wind power and hydropower both in Russia, and abroad.
Three Problems from the Theory of Right Processes
Salisbury, Thomas S.
1987-01-01
Using the continuum hypothesis, we produce an example answering three problems from the theory of right processes. In particular, we give a nontrivial example of a strong Markov process which is not a right process.
String theory and the dark glueball problem
Halverson, James; Nelson, Brent D.; Ruehle, Fabian
2017-02-01
We study cosmological constraints on dark pure Yang-Mills sectors. Dark glueballs are overproduced for large regions of ultraviolet parameter space. The problem may be alleviated in two ways: via a large preferential reheating into the visible sector, motivating certain inflation or modulus decay models, or via decays into axions or moduli, which are strongly constrained by nucleosynthesis and Δ Neff bounds. String models frequently have multiple hidden Yang-Mills sectors, which are subject to even stronger constraints due to the existence of multiple dark glueballs.
String Theory and the Dark Glueball Problem
Halverson, James; Ruehle, Fabian
2016-01-01
We study cosmological constraints on dark pure Yang-Mills sectors. Dark glueballs are overproduced for large regions of ultraviolet parameter space. The problem may be alleviated in two ways: via a large preferential reheating into the visible sector, motivating certain inflation or modulus decay models, or via decays into axions or moduli, which are strongly constrained by nucleosynthesis and $\\Delta N_{\\text{eff}}$ bounds. String models frequently have multiple hidden Yang-Mills sectors, which are subject to even stronger constraints due to the existence of multiple dark glueballs.
Problems in the theory of modular forms
Murty, M Ram; Graves, Hester
2016-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the fascinating world of modular forms through a problem-solving approach. As such, besides researchers, the book can be used by the undergraduate and graduate students for self-instruction. The topics covered include q-series, the modular group, the upper half-plane, modular forms of level one and higher level, the Ramanujan τ-function, the Petersson inner product, Hecke operators, Dirichlet series attached to modular forms and further special topics. It can be viewed as a gentle introduction for a deeper study of the subject. Thus, it is ideal for non-experts seeking an entry into the field. .
Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
2007-01-01
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes
Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
2007-01-01
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes
Unified characteristics line theory of spacial axisymmetric plastic problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
俞茂宏; 李建春; 张永强
2001-01-01
The unified strength theory proposed by Yu in 1991 is extended to spacial axisymmetric problem. A unified spacial axismymmetric characteristics line theory based on the unified strength theory is proposed. This theory takes account of different effects of intermediate principal stress on yielding or failure and the SD effect (tensile-compression strength difference) of materials. Various conventional axisymmetric characteristics line theories, whihc are based on the Haar-von Karman plastic condition, Szczepinski hypothesis, Tresca criterion, von Mises criterion and Mohr-Coulomb theory, are special cases of the new theory. Besides, a series of new spacial axisymmetric characteristics fields for different materials can be introduced. It forms a unified spacial axisymmetric characteristics theory. Two examples are calculated with the new theory, the results are compared with those obtained by the finite element program UEPP and those based on the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory. It is shown that the new theory is reliable and feasible. The economic benefit can be obtained from the engineering application of the new theory.
Approaches to the sign problem in lattice field theory
Gattringer, Christof
2016-01-01
Quantum field theories (QFTs) at finite densities of matter generically involve complex actions. Standard Monte-Carlo simulations based upon importance sampling, which have been producing quantitative first principle results in particle physics for almost fourty years, cannot be applied in this case. Various strategies to overcome this so-called Sign Problem or Complex Action Problem were proposed during the last thirty years. We here review the sign problem in lattice field theories, focussing on two more recent methods: Dualization to world-line type of representations and the density-of-states approach.
Approaches to the sign problem in lattice field theory
Gattringer, Christof; Langfeld, Kurt
2016-08-01
Quantum field theories (QFTs) at finite densities of matter generically involve complex actions. Standard Monte Carlo simulations based upon importance sampling, which have been producing quantitative first principle results in particle physics for almost forty years, cannot be applied in this case. Various strategies to overcome this so-called sign problem or complex action problem were proposed during the last thirty years. We here review the sign problem in lattice field theories, focusing on two more recent methods: dualization to worldline type of representations and the density-of-states approach.
Philosophical and Methodological Problem of Consistency of Mathematical Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michailova N. V.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Increased abstraction of modern mathematical theories has revived interest in traditional philosophical and methodological problem of internally consistent system of axioms where the contradicting each other statements can’t be deduced. If we are talking about axioms describing a well-known area of mathematical objects from the standpoint of local consistency this problem does not appear to be as relevant. But these problems are associated with the various attempts of formalists to explain the mathematical existence through consistency. But, for example, with regard to the problem of establishing of consistency of mathematical analysis the solution of which would clarify the fate of Hilbert's proof theory it has not solved yet so as the problem of the consistency of axiomatic set theory. Therefore it can be assumed that the criterion of consistency despite its essential role in axiomatic systems both formal and substantive nature is the same auxiliary logical criterion as well as mathematical provability. An adequate solution of the problem of consistency of mathematics can be achieved in the area of methodological and substantive arguments revealing the mechanism of appearance of contradictions in the mathematical theory. The paper shows that from a systemic point of view in the context of philosophical and methodological synthesis of various directions of justification of modern mathematics it can’t insist on only the rationale for consistency of mathematical theories.
Partial differential equations theory and completely solved problems
Hillen, Thomas; van Roessel, Henry
2014-01-01
Uniquely provides fully solved problems for linear partial differential equations and boundary value problems Partial Differential Equations: Theory and Completely Solved Problems utilizes real-world physical models alongside essential theoretical concepts. With extensive examples, the book guides readers through the use of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) for successfully solving and modeling phenomena in engineering, biology, and the applied sciences. The book focuses exclusively on linear PDEs and how they can be solved using the separation of variables technique. The authors begin
A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2016-01-01
This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces. An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch. The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Bent Erik
Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlueter, Fabian
2015-11-01
This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.
A General Theory of Markovian Time Inconsistent Stochastic Control Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Björk, Tomas; Murgochi, Agatha
We develop a theory for stochastic control problems which, in various ways, are time inconsistent in the sense that they do not admit a Bellman optimality principle. We attach these problems by viewing them within a game theoretic framework, and we look for Nash subgame perfect equilibrium points...... examples of time inconsistency in the literature are easily seen to be special cases of the present theory. We also prove that for every time inconsistent problem, there exists an associated time consistent problem such that the optimal control and the optimal value function for the consistent problem....... For a general controlled Markov process and a fairly general objective functional we derive an extension of the standard Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, in the form of a system of on-linear equations, for the determination for the equilibrium strategy as well as the equilibrium value function. All known...
Square matrices of order 2 theory, applications, and problems
Pop, Vasile
2017-01-01
This unique and innovative book presents an exciting and complete detail of all the important topics related to the theory of square matrices of order 2. The readers exploring every detailed aspect of matrix theory are gently led toward understanding advanced topics. They will follow every notion of matrix theory with ease, accumulating a thorough understanding of algebraic and geometric aspects of matrices of order 2. The prime jewel of this book is its offering of an unusual collection of problems, theoretically motivated, most of which are new, original, and seeing the light of publication for the first time in the literature. Nearly all of the exercises are presented with detailed solutions and vary in difficulty from easy to more advanced. Many problems are particularly challenging. These, and not only these, invite the reader to unleash their creativity and research capabilities and to discover their own methods of attacking a problem. Matrices have a vast practical importance to mathematics, science, a...
A field theory approach to the Rabi problem
Baldiotti, M C
2016-01-01
In the present work the Rabi Problem, involving the response of a spin 1/2 particle subjected to a magnetic field, is considered in a field theory approach. In this concrete physical scenario, we show that the second quantization procedure can be applied directly in a non-covariant theory. The proposed development explicits not only the relation between the full quantum treatment of the problem and the semiclassical Rabi model, but also the connection of these approaches with the Jaynes-Cummings model. The treatment is then extended to the matter component of the Rabi problem so that the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation is directly quantized. The generalized theory is consistent, strictly quantum and non-relativistic.
Problems in probability theory, mathematical statistics and theory of random functions
Sveshnikov, A A
1979-01-01
Problem solving is the main thrust of this excellent, well-organized workbook. Suitable for students at all levels in probability theory and statistics, the book presents over 1,000 problems and their solutions, illustrating fundamental theory and representative applications in the following fields: Random Events; Distribution Laws; Correlation Theory; Random Variables; Entropy & Information; Markov Processes; Systems of Random Variables; Limit Theorems; Data Processing; and more.The coverage of topics is both broad and deep, ranging from the most elementary combinatorial problems through lim
Numerical methods for the sign problem in Lattice Field Theory
Bongiovanni, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
The great majority of algorithms employed in the study of lattice field theory are based on Monte Carlo's importance sampling method, i.e. on probability interpretation of the Boltzmann weight. Unfortunately in many theories of interest one cannot associated a real and positive weight to every configuration, that is because their action is explicitly complex or because the weight is multiplied by some non positive term. In this cases one says that the theory on the lattice is affected by the sign problem. An outstanding example of sign problem preventing a quantum field theory to be studied, is QCD at finite chemical potential. Whenever the sign problem is present, standard Monte Carlo methods are problematic to apply and, in general, new approaches are needed to explore the phase diagram of the complex theory. Here we will review three of the main candidate methods to deal with the sign problem, namely complex Langevin dynamics, Lefschetz thimbles and density of states method. We will first study complex Lan...
On the microeconomic problems studied by portfolio theory
Nikonov, Oleg; Medvedeva, Marina
2012-09-01
In the paper we consider economically motivated problems, which are treated with the help of methods of portfolio theory that goes back to the papers by H. Markowitz [1] and J. Tobin [2]. We show that the portfolio theory initially developed for risky securities (stocks) could be applied to other objects. In the present paper we consider several situations where such an application is reasonable and seems to be fruitful. Namely, we consider the problems of constructing the efficient portfolio of banking services and the portfolio of counteragents of a firm.
Statistical Gauge Theory for Relativistic Finite Density Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YING Shu-Qian
2001-01-01
A relativistic quantum field theory is presented for finite density problems based on the principle of locality. It is shown that, in addition to the conventional ones, a local approach to the relativistic quantum field theories at both zero and finite densities consistent with the violation of Bell-like inequalities should contain and provide solutions to at least three additional problems, namely, i) the statistical gauge invariance; ii) the dark components of the local observables; and iii) the fermion statistical blocking effects, based upon an asymptotic nonthermal ensemble. An application to models is presented to show the importance of the discussions.
The finite section method and problems in frame theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Strohmer, T.
2005-01-01
solves related computational problems in frame theory. In the case of a frame which is localized w.r.t. an orthonormal basis we are able to estimate the rate of approximation. The results are applied to the reproducing kernel frame appearing in the theory for shift-invariant spaces generated by a Riesz......The finite section method is a convenient tool for approximation of the inverse of certain operators using finite-dimensional matrix techniques. In this paper we demonstrate that the method is very useful in frame theory: it leads to an efficient approximation of the inverse frame operator and also...
Diagrammatics lectures on selected problems in condensed matter theory
Sadovskii, Michael V
2006-01-01
The introduction of quantum field theory methods has led to a kind of "revolution" in condensed matter theory. This resulted in the increased importance of Feynman diagrams or diagram technique. It has now become imperative for professionals in condensed matter theory to have a thorough knowledge of this method.There are many good books that cover the general aspects of diagrammatic methods. At the same time, there has been a rising need for books that describe calculations and methodical "know how" of specific problems for beginners in graduate and postgraduate courses. This unique collection
Several basic problems in plastic theory of geomaterials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuanxue LIU; Jiawu ZHOU; Zhongyou LI; Chen CHEN; Yingren ZHENG
2009-01-01
Based on the basic mechanical properties of geomaterials, it was proven that the Drucker Postulate and the classical theory of plasticity can not be applied to geomaterials. Moreover, several basic problems of plastic theory of geomaterials were discussed. Based on the strict theoretical analysis, the following have been proven: the single yield surface model based on the classical theory of plasticity is unsuitable for geomaterials whether the rule of associated flow is applied or not; the yield surface of geomaterials is not unique, and its number is the same as the freedoms of plastic strain increment; the yield surface is not convex; and the rule of associated flow is unsuitable for geomaterials.
A Cp-theory problem book compactness in function spaces
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2015-01-01
This third volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory problems applies all modern methods of Cp-theory to study compactness-like properties in function spaces and introduces the reader to the theory of compact spaces widely used in Functional Analysis. The text is designed to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research covering a wide variety of topics in Cp-theory and general topology at the professional level. The first volume, Topological and Function Spaces © 2011, provided an introduction from scratch to Cp-theory and general topology, preparing the reader for a professional understanding of Cp-theory in the last section of its main text. The second volume, Special Features of Function Spaces © 2014, continued from the first, giving reasonably complete coverage of Cp-theory, systematically introducing each of the major topics and providing 500 carefully selected problems and exercises with complete solutions. This third volume is self-contained...
Extended variational theory of complex rays in heterogeneous Helmholtz problem
Li, Hao; Ladeveze, Pierre; Riou, Hervé
2017-02-01
In the past years, a numerical technique method called Variational Theory of Complex Rays (VTCR) has been developed for vibration problems in medium frequency. It is a Trefftz Discontinuous Galerkin method which uses plane wave functions as shape functions. However this method is only well developed in homogeneous case. In this paper, VTCR is extended to the heterogeneous Helmholtz problem by creating a new base of shape functions. Numerical examples give a scope of the performances of such an extension of VTCR.
Some open problems in random matrix theory and the theory of integrable systems
Deift, Percy
2007-01-01
We describe a list of open problems in random matrix theory and integrable systems which was presented at the conference ``Integrable Systems, Random Matrices, and Applications'' at the Courant Institute in May 2006.
Some open problems in random matrix theory and the theory of integrable systems
Deift, Percy
2007-01-01
We describe a list of open problems in random matrix theory and integrable systems which was presented at the conference ``Integrable Systems, Random Matrices, and Applications'' at the Courant Institute in May 2006.
RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅸ)-THERMOMECHANICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Tian-min
2005-01-01
The existing fundamental laws of thermodynamics for micropolar continuum field theories are restudied and their incompleteness is pointed out. New first and second fundamental laws for thermostatics and thermodynamics for micropolar continua are postulated. From them all equilibrium equations and the entropy inequality of thermostatics as well as all balance equations and the entropy rate inequalities are naturally and simultaneously deduced. The comparisons between the new results presented here and the corresponding results demonstrated in existing monographs and textbooks concerning micropolar continuum mechanics are made at any time. It should be emphasized to note that, the problem of why the local balance equation of energy and the local entropy inequality could not be obtained from the existing fundamental laws of thermodynamics for micropolar continua, is believed to be clarified.
Pinsky, Ross G
2014-01-01
The primary intent of the book is to introduce an array of beautiful problems in a variety of subjects quickly, pithily and completely rigorously to graduate students and advanced undergraduates. The book takes a number of specific problems and solves them, the needed tools developed along the way in the context of the particular problems. It treats a mélange of topics from combinatorial probability theory, number theory, random graph theory and combinatorics. The problems in this book involve the asymptotic analysis of a discrete construct as some natural parameter of the system tends to infinity. Besides bridging discrete mathematics and mathematical analysis, the book makes a modest attempt at bridging disciplines. The problems were selected with an eye toward accessibility to a wide audience, including advanced undergraduate students. The book could be used for a seminar course in which students present the lectures.
The Problem of Agency: Posthumanist Theory and English Teaching
Misson, Ray
2013-01-01
Many of the major movements in English teaching over the last 25 years have drawn on poststructuralist/posthumanist theory, filtered through work in cultural studies predicated on the social construction of identity. While this has been enormously productive in many ways, there has been a nagging problem with the question of agency. How can…
Major open problems in chaos theory and nonlinear dynamics
Li, Y Charles
2013-01-01
Nowadays, chaos theory and nonlinear dynamics lack research focuses. Here we mention a few major open problems: 1. an effective description of chaos and turbulence, 2. rough dependence on initial data, 3. arrow of time, 4. the paradox of enrichment, 5. the paradox of pesticides, 6. the paradox of plankton.
Turnpike theory of continuous-time linear optimal control problems
Zaslavski, Alexander J
2015-01-01
Individual turnpike results are of great interest due to their numerous applications in engineering and in economic theory; in this book the study is focused on new results of turnpike phenomenon in linear optimal control problems. The book is intended for engineers as well as for mathematicians interested in the calculus of variations, optimal control, and in applied functional analysis. Two large classes of problems are studied in more depth. The first class studied in Chapter 2 consists of linear control problems with periodic nonsmooth convex integrands. Chapters 3-5 consist of linear control problems with autonomous nonconvex and nonsmooth integrands. Chapter 6 discusses a turnpike property for dynamic zero-sum games with linear constraints. Chapter 7 examines genericity results. In Chapter 8, the description of structure of variational problems with extended-valued integrands is obtained. Chapter 9 ends the exposition with a study of turnpike phenomenon for dynamic games with extended value integran...
Problems in particle theory. Technical report 1991--1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adler, S.L.; Wilczek, F.
1992-11-01
Members of the Institute have worked on a number of problems including the following: acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field, and gauge and spin theories, based on changes of variables specific to lattices of dimension 2{sup {ell}}; construction of quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory; wave functions for paired Hall states; black hole quantum mechanics; generalized target-space duality in curved string backgrounds; gauge symnmetry algebra of the N = 2 string; two-dimensional quantum gravity and associated string theories; organizing principles from which the signal processing of neural networks in the retina and cortex can be deduced; integrable systems of KdV type; and a theory for Kondo insulators.
Promoting Number Theory in High Schools or Birthday Problem and Number Theory
Srinivasan, V. K.
2010-01-01
The author introduces the birthday problem in this article. This can amuse willing members of any birthday party. This problem can also be used as the motivational first day lecture in number theory for the gifted students in high schools or in community colleges or in undergraduate classes in colleges.
Promoting number theory in high schools or birthday problem and number theory
Srinivasan, V. K.
2010-04-01
The author introduces the birthday problem in this article. This can amuse willing members of any birthday party. This problem can also be used as the motivational first day lecture in number theory for the gifted students in high schools or in community colleges or in undergraduate classes in colleges.
The initial value problem in Lagrangian drift kinetic theory
Burby, J. W.
2016-06-01
> Existing high-order variational drift kinetic theories contain unphysical rapidly varying modes that are not seen at low orders. These unphysical modes, which may be rapidly oscillating, damped or growing, are ushered in by a failure of conventional high-order drift kinetic theory to preserve the structure of its parent model's initial value problem. In short, the (infinite dimensional) system phase space is unphysically enlarged in conventional high-order variational drift kinetic theory. I present an alternative, `renormalized' variational approach to drift kinetic theory that manifestly respects the parent model's initial value problem. The basic philosophy underlying this alternate approach is that high-order drift kinetic theory ought to be derived by truncating the all-orders system phase-space Lagrangian instead of the usual `field particle' Lagrangian. For the sake of clarity, this story is told first through the lens of a finite-dimensional toy model of high-order variational drift kinetics; the analogous full-on drift kinetic story is discussed subsequently. The renormalized drift kinetic system, while variational and just as formally accurate as conventional formulations, does not support the troublesome rapidly varying modes.
The initial value problem in Lagrangian drift kinetic theory
Burby, J W
2015-01-01
Existing high-order variational drift kinetic theories contain unphysical rapidly varying modes that are not seen at low-orders. These unphysical modes, which may be rapidly oscillating, damped, or growing, are ushered in by a failure of conventional high-order drift kinetic theory to preserve the structure of its parent model's initial value problem (Vlasov-Poisson for electrostatics, Vlasov-Darwin or Vlasov-Maxwell for electromagnetics.) In short, the system phase space is unphysically enlarged in conventional high-order variational drift kinetic theory. I present an alternative, "renormalized" variational approach to drift kinetic theory that manifestly respects the parent model's initial value problem. The basic philosophy underlying this alternate approach is that high-order drift kinetic theory ought to be derived by truncating the all-orders system phase space Lagrangian instead of the usual "field+particle" Lagrangian. For the sake of clarity, this story is told first through the lens of a finite-dime...
Sensitivity theory for reactor thermal-hydraulics problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oblow, E. M.
1978-07-01
A sensitivity theory based on reactor physics experience was successfully developed for a reactor thermal-hydraulics problem. The new theory is derived for the case of non-linear, transient heat and mass transfer in a typical reactor subassembly. Suitable adjoint equations for heat and fluid flow are presented along with methods for deriving the sources and boundary and final conditions for these equations. Expressions for the sensitivity of any integral temperature response to problem input data are also presented. The theory is applied to a sample problem describing the steady-state thermal-hydraulic conditions in a CRBR fuel channel. For this case, sensitivity coefficients are derived for several thermal response functions (i.e., peak clad and peak fuel temperature) for all physical input data (i.e., the heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivities, etc.). A typical uncertainty analysis for peak clad and peak fuel temperature was also performed using uncertainty information about the physical data. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of this approach to more general problems and the procedures for its implementation in conjunction with large safety or thermal-hydraulics codes are outlined. The method is also compared with currently used response surface techniques.
Complex space multipole theory for scattering and diffraction problems
Lindell, Ismo V.; Nikoskinen, Keijo I.
1987-01-01
Classical multipole theory can be extended to multipoles located in complex space and applied in scattering and diffraction problems with the advantage that, if the point of the multipole is correctly chosen, the first term may give an order of magnitude better approximation to the source than when the multipole is in real space. The basic theory, given elsewhere, is presented here in a more straightforward manner and the improvement in radiation pattern is demonstrated for sources of constant polarization. Applications on scattering by spheroidal dielectric bodies and diffraction by a dielectric half-space are discussed.
Asymptotic Solution of the Theory of Shells Boundary Value Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Andrianov
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of asymptotic methods in the theory of plates and shells. Asymptotic methods of solving problems related to theory of plates and shells have been developed by many authors. The main features of our paper are: (i it is devoted to the fundamental principles of asymptotic approaches, and (ii it deals with both traditional approaches, and less widely used, new approaches. The authors have paid special attention to examples and discussion of results rather than to burying the ideas in formalism, notation, and technical details.
Regularization theory for ill-posed problems selected topics
Lu, Shuai
2013-01-01
Thismonograph is a valuable contribution to thehighly topical and extremly productive field ofregularisationmethods for inverse and ill-posed problems. The author is an internationally outstanding and acceptedmathematicianin this field. In his book he offers a well-balanced mixtureof basic and innovative aspects.He demonstrates new,differentiatedviewpoints, and important examples for applications. The bookdemontrates thecurrent developments inthe field of regularization theory,such as multiparameter regularization and regularization in learning theory. The book is written for graduate and PhDs
Varying-$\\alpha $ Theories and Solutions to the Cosmological Problems
Barrow, John D; Barrow, John D.; Magueijo, Joao
1998-01-01
If the fine structure constant $\\alpha =e^2/(\\hbar c)$ were to change, then a number of interpretations would be possible, attributing this change either to variations in the electron charge, the dielectric constant of the vacuum, the speed of light, or Planck's constant. All these variations should be operationally equivalent and can be related by changes of standard units. We show how the varying speed of light cosmology recently proposed can be rephrased as a dielectric vacuum theory, similar to the one proposed by Bekenstein. The cosmological problems will therefore also be solved in such a theory.
General theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the linear transport theory.
Kanal, M.
1972-01-01
A general theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the one-speed neutron transport theory is presented. The formulation is also applicable to the 'gray' problems of radiative transfer. The Green's function for the purely absorbing medium is utilized in obtaining the normal mode expansion of the angular densities for both interior and exterior problems. As the integral equations for unknown coefficients are regular, a general class of reduction operators is introduced to reduce such regular integral equations to singular ones with a Cauchy-type kernel. Such operators then permit one to solve the singular integral equations by the standard techniques due to Muskhelishvili. We discuss several spherically symmetric problems. However, the treatment is kept sufficiently general to deal with problems lacking azimuthal symmetry. In particular the procedure seems to work for regions whose boundary coincides with one of the coordinate surfaces for which the Helmholtz equation is separable.
A convergence theory for a class of nonlinear programming problems.
Rauch, S. W.
1973-01-01
A recent convergence theory of Elkin concerning methods for unconstrained minimization is extended to a certain class of nonlinear programming problems. As in Elkin's original approach, the analysis of a variety of step-length algorithms is treated entirely separately from that of several direction algorithms. This allows for their combination into many different methods for solving the constrained problem. These include some of the methods of Rosen and Zoutendijk. We also extend the results of Topkis and Veinott to nonconvex sets and drop their requirement of the uniform feasibility of a subsequence of the search directions.
8th International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems : Theory, Numerics, Applications
Warnecke, Gerald
2001-01-01
The Eighth International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems - Theory, Nu merics, Applications, was held in Magdeburg, Germany, from February 27 to March 3, 2000. It was attended by over 220 participants from many European countries as well as Brazil, Canada, China, Georgia, India, Israel, Japan, Taiwan, und the USA. There were 12 plenary lectures, 22 further invited talks, and around 150 con tributed talks in parallel sessions as well as posters. The speakers in the parallel sessions were invited to provide a poster in order to enhance the dissemination of information. Hyperbolic partial differential equations describe phenomena of material or wave transport in physics, biology and engineering, especially in the field of fluid mechanics. Despite considerable progress, the mathematical theory is still strug gling with fundamental open problems concerning systems of such equations in multiple space dimensions. For various applications the development of accurate and efficient numerical schemes for computat...
Workshop on Control Theory Applied to Renewable Resource Management and Ecology
Skowronski, Janislaw
1981-01-01
As society becomes stressed by economic and population pressures, in turn, nature's renewable resources become stressed by harvesting pressures. For our own survival and euphoria, it is paramount that such resources remain as their name implies and not be driven to extinction through short term programs of over exploitation. Consideration of the harvesting of renewable resources leads to a simple question that was the theme of the workshop and is the focus of these proceedings: SUPPoRe you are assigned the role of manager for a specific renewable resource eco system. How would you decide on harvesting policies so that the system can be exploited economically yet at the same time maintain the integrity of the system? This, of course, is a loaded question. First of all, it is not clear that there is ever anyone single decision maker who is able to set the rules for all of the harvesters in an exploited ecosystem. The political process is complicated and to some extent unpredictable. This aspect of the questio...
Engineering surveying theory and examination problems for students
Schofield, W
2013-01-01
Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control
Guiasu, Silviu
1979-01-01
Coalition and Connection in Games: Problems of Modern Game Theory using Methods Belonging to Systems Theory and Information Theory focuses on coalition formation and on connections occurring in games, noting the use of mathematical models in the evaluation of processes involved in games. The book first takes a look at the process of strategy in playing games in which the conditional choices of players are noted. The sequence of decisions during the playing of games and observance of the rules are emphasized. The text also ponders on the mathematical tool of game theory in which the differences
Transversality problems in symplectic field theory and a new Fredholm theory
Fabert, Oliver
2010-01-01
This survey wants to give a short introduction to the transversality problem in symplectic field theory and motivate to approach it using the new Fredholm theory by Hofer, Wysocki and Zehnder. With this it should serve as a lead-in for the user's guide to polyfolds, which will appear soon and is the result of a working group organized by J. Fish, R. Golovko and the author at MSRI Berkeley in fall 2009.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)
2009-12-15
Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)
Solution to the ghost problem in fourth order derivative theories
Mannheim, P D
2006-01-01
We present a solution to the ghost problem in fourth order derivative theories. In particular we study the Pais-Uhlenbeck fourth order oscillator model, a model which serves as a prototype for theories which are based on second plus fourth order derivative actions. Via a Dirac constraint method quantization we construct the appropriate quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian and Hilbert space for the system. We find that while the second-quantized Fock space of the general Pais-Uhlenbeck model does indeed contain the negative norm energy eigenstates which are characteristic of higher derivative theories, in the limit in which we switch off the second order action, such ghost states are found to move off shell, with the spectrum of asymptotic in and out S-matrix states of the pure fourth order theory which results being found to be completely devoid of states with either negative energy or negative norm. We provide additional insight into the structure of the Pais-Uhlenbeck theory by quantizing it via path integration ...
Application of Neutrosophic Set Theory in Generalized Assignment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Kar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Neutrosophic Set Theory (NST in solving Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP. GAP has been solved earlier under fuzzy environment. NST is a generalization of the concept of classical set, fuzzy set, interval-valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set. Elements of Neutrosophic set are characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity and also indeterminacy which is a more realistic way of expressing the parameters in real life problem. Here the elements of the cost matrix for the GAP are considered as neutrosophic elements which have not been considered earlier by any other author. The problem has been solved by evaluating score function matrix and then solving it by Extremum Difference Method (EDM [1] to get the optimal assignment. The method has been demonstrated by a suitable numerical example.
Fixed Orientation Interconnection Problems: Theory, Algorithms and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zachariasen, Martin
that electrically independent nets do not intersect each other. Traditional manufacturing technology limits the orientations of the wires to be either horizontal or vertical — and is known as Manhattan architecture. Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in general architectures, where more than two...... perpendicular orientations can be used for routing. This development has made fixed orientation interconnection problems (where an arbitrary set of fixed orientations can be used) interesting from a research point of view. In particular, the problem of computing minimum length networks with fixed orientations...... a significant step forward, both concerning theory and algorithms, for the fixed orientation Steiner tree problem. In addition, the work maintains a close link to applications and generalizations motivated by chip design....
Fifth international conference on hyperbolic problems -- theory, numerics, applications: Abstracts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-12-31
The conference demonstrated that hyperbolic problems and conservation laws play an important role in many areas including industrial applications and the studying of elasto-plastic materials. Among the various topics covered in the conference, the authors mention: the big bang theory, general relativity, critical phenomena, deformation and fracture of solids, shock wave interactions, numerical simulation in three dimensions, the level set method, multidimensional Riemann problem, application of the front tracking in petroleum reservoir simulations, global solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in high dimensions, recent progress in granular flow, and the study of elastic plastic materials. The authors believe that the new ideas, tools, methods, problems, theoretical results, numerical solutions and computational algorithms presented or discussed at the conference will benefit the participants in their current and future research.
On some problems of descriptive set theory in topological spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choban, M M [Tiraspol State University, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)
2005-08-31
Problems concerning the structure of Borel sets, their classification, and invariance of certain properties of sets under maps of given types arose in the first half of the previous century in the works of A. Lebesgue, R. Baire, N. N. Luzin, P. S. Alexandroff, P. S. Urysohn, P. S. Novikov, L. V. Keldysh, and A. A. Lyapunov and gave rise to many investigations. In this paper some results related to questions of F. Hausdorff, Luzin, Alexandroff, Urysohn, M. Katetov, and A. H. Stone are obtained. In 1934 Hausdorff posed the problem of invariance of the property of being an absolute B-set (that is, a Borel set in some complete separable metric space) under open continuous maps. By a theorem of Keldysh, the answer to this question is negative in general. The present paper gives additional conditions under which the answer to Hausdorff's question is positive. Some general problems of the theory of operations on sets are also treated.
On some problems of descriptive set theory in topological spaces
Choban, M. M.
2005-08-01
Problems concerning the structure of Borel sets, their classification, and invariance of certain properties of sets under maps of given types arose in the first half of the previous century in the works of A. Lebesgue, R. Baire, N. N. Luzin, P. S. Alexandroff, P. S. Urysohn, P. S. Novikov, L. V. Keldysh, and A. A. Lyapunov and gave rise to many investigations. In this paper some results related to questions of F. Hausdorff, Luzin, Alexandroff, Urysohn, M. Katětov, and A. H. Stone are obtained. In 1934 Hausdorff posed the problem of invariance of the property of being an absolute B-set (that is, a Borel set in some complete separable metric space) under open continuous maps. By a theorem of Keldysh, the answer to this question is negative in general. The present paper gives additional conditions under which the answer to Hausdorff's question is positive. Some general problems of the theory of operations on sets are also treated.
Time-dependent density functional theory: Causality and other problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruggenthaler, Michael; Bauer, Dieter [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)
2007-07-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a reformulation of the time dependent many-body problem in quantum mechanics which is capable of reducing the computational cost to calculate, e.g., strongly driven many-electron systems enormously. Recent developments were able to overcome fundamental problems associated with ionization processes. Still vital issues have to be clarified. Besides the construction of the underlying functionals we investigate the causality problem of TDDFT by general considerations and by studying a exactly solvable system of two correlated electrons in an intense laser-pulse. For the latter system, the two alternative approaches to the construction of the action functional or a constrained functional derivative by van Leeuwen and Gal, respectively, are explored.
System, subsystem, hive: boundary problems in computational theories of consciousness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomer Fekete
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some – perhaps most – of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e.g., the original system augmented with physical appendages that contribute nothing to the properties supposedly supporting consciousness, and for aggregates of individually conscious systems (e.g., groups of people. This problem suggests that the properties that are being measured are epiphenomenal to consciousness, or else it implies a bizarre proliferation of minds. We propose that a solution to the boundary problem can be found by identifying properties that are intrinsic or systemic: properties that clearly differentiate between systems whose existence is a matter of fact, as opposed to those whose existence is a matter of interpretation (in the eye of the beholder. We argue that if a putative MoC can be shown to be systemic, this ipso facto resolves any associated boundary issues. As test cases, we analyze two recent theories of consciousness in light of our definitions: the Integrated Information Theory and the Geometric Theory of consciousness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phaneendra Venkat Gatta
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The wind energy conversion system Wind Farms (WF are employ squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG. The injection of wind power into an electric grid causes the power quality problems such as variation of voltage, flicker, harmonics etc, and these are measured according to national/international guidelines. To solve these problems Custom Power Devices (CUPS are used. This paper has proposed a compensation strategy based on a particular cups device for Unified Power Quality Compensator (UPQC with an application of PI and Fuzzy Logic Controllers. The proposed strategy controls both active and reactive power in the converters of UPQC. This paper presents the comparison between without UPQC, UPQC with PI controller and UPQC with Fuzzy Logic Controller. By using MATLAB/SIMULINK software the control strategies are designed. The simulation results are shown for comparison of different control strategies and by performing FFT analysis Total Harmonic Distortions (THD are calculated.
Fixed Orientation Interconnection Problems: Theory, Algorithms and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zachariasen, Martin
Interconnection problems have natural applications in the design of integrated circuits (or chips). A modern chip consists of billions of transistors that are connected by metal wires on the surface of the chip. These metal wires are routed on a (fairly small) number of layers in such a way that ...... a significant step forward, both concerning theory and algorithms, for the fixed orientation Steiner tree problem. In addition, the work maintains a close link to applications and generalizations motivated by chip design....... paradigm for routing a chip using a general architecture is implemented and tested on a set of benchmark instances; the approach documents the advantages of using more than two fixed orientations in chip design. The last part of the dissertation is concerned with generalizations that are motivated by chip...
Numerical and analytic study of problems of photonic crystals theory
Kunyansky, Leonid Arkadievich
1998-11-01
Theory of classical waves in periodic high contrast photonic and acoustic media leads to the following spectral problem:-/Delta u = /lambda/varepsilon u,where ɛ(x) is a periodic function (dielectric constant) which assumes a large value ɛ near a periodic graph Σ in IR2 and is equal to 1 otherwise. In this thesis we conduct numerical and analytical study of this problem. The high contrast asymptotics for the second problem naturally leads to pseudo-differential operators of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann type on graphs and on more general structures. We have discovered several new spectral effects for these operators. Among them 'almost discreteness' of the spectrum in the case of a disconnected graph and existence of 'almost localized' waves in some connected purely periodic structures. Numerical results of the above problems is carried out in this work using an algorithm closely related to the family of the indirect boundary element methods. The results of this research were presented at AMS Meetings in Columbia, MO (November, 1996), Corvallis, OR (April, 1997), Albuquerque, NM (November, 1997), Louisville, KY (March, 1998), and Conference on Applied Mathematics, Edmond, OK (February, 1998). They are also partially described in the forthcoming publication (34).
Renewal and Completion Problems in Geographical Databases in Turkey and a Proposal Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Erdi
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Defence, security, public works, and many other branches of government require small-scale, current geographical databases. With this aim, small-scale geographical databases in Turkey were produced in the past and are still in use today. There are, however, problems in using the available geographical databases. These problems in forming, sharing, updating, and meeting requirements necessitate the reconfiguration of the present system. Classical approaches are preferred when updating the present geographical databases. Many errors and difficulties in recording new objects have occurred in the field, in scanning and collecting data from related institutions, and in recording and controlling nonstandard completion data. Thus it is difficult to achieve the desired high quality data with the present method. In this study, we introduce and discuss updating and completing small-scale maps of geographical bases. The Geographical Information System formation studies in Turkey are summarized, and a model is proposed for the formation, updating, and completion of systems of small-scale maps of significant databases.
Graph theory favorite conjectures and open problems 1
Hedetniemi, Stephen; Larson, Craig
2016-01-01
This is the first in a series of volumes, which provide an extensive overview of conjectures and open problems in graph theory. The readership of each volume is geared toward graduate students who may be searching for research ideas. However, the well-established mathematician will find the overall exposition engaging and enlightening. Each chapter, presented in a story-telling style, includes more than a simple collection of results on a particular topic. Each contribution conveys the history, evolution, and techniques used to solve the authors’ favorite conjectures and open problems, enhancing the reader’s overall comprehension and enthusiasm. The editors were inspired to create these volumes by the popular and well attended special sessions, entitled “My Favorite Graph Theory Conjectures," which were held at the winter AMS/MAA Joint Meeting in Boston (January, 2012), the SIAM Conference on Discrete Mathematics in Halifax (June,2012) and the winter AMS/MAA Joint meeting in Baltimore(January, 2014). In...
Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro F. Bendassolli
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of induction refers to the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions. More specifically, inductive reasoning assumes a leap from singular observational statements to general theoretical statements. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. In the philosophy of science, the validity of inductive reasoning has been severely questioned since at least the writings of David HUME. At the same time, induction has been lauded as one of the main pillars of qualitative research methods, and its identity as such has consolidated to the detriment of hypothetical-deductive methods. This article proposes reviving discussion on the problem of induction in qualitative research. It is argued that qualitative methods inherit many of the tensions intrinsic to inductive reasoning, such as those between the demands of empiricism and of formal scientific explanation, suggesting the need to reconsider the role of theory in qualitative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1301258
TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The phenomenological theory of world population growth
Kapitza, Sergei P.
1996-01-01
Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant. Demographic data describe this process in a concise and quantitative way in its past and present. Analysing this development it is possible by applying the concepts of systems analysis and synergetics, to work out a mathematical model for a phenomenological description of the global demographic process and to project its trends into the future. Assuming self-similarity as the dynamic principle of development, growth can be described practically over the whole of human history, assuming the growth rate to be proportional to the square of the number of people. The large parameter of the theory and the effective size of a coherent population group is of the order of 105 and the microscopic parameter of the phenomenology is the human lifespan. The demographic transition — a transition to a stabilised world population of some 14 billion in a foreseeable future — is a systemic singularity and is determined by the inherent pattern of growth of an open system, rather than by the lack of resources. The development of a quantitative nonlinear theory of the world population is of interest for interdisciplinary research in anthropology and demography, history and sociology, for population genetics and epidemiology, for studies in evolution of humankind and the origin of man. The model also provides insight into the stability of growth and the present predicament of humankind, and provides a setting for discussing the main global problems.
Reducibility and Gribov problem in topological quantum field theory
Zucchini, R
1997-01-01
In spite of its simplicity and beauty, the Mathai-Quillen formulation of cohomological topological quantum field theory with gauge symmetry suffers two basic problems: i) the existence of reducible field configurations on which the action of the gauge group is not free and ii) the Gribov ambiguity associated with gauge fixing, i. e. the lack of global definition on the space of gauge orbits of gauge fixed functional integrals. In this paper, we show that such problems are in fact related and we propose a general completely geometrical recipe for their treatment. The space of field configurations is augmented in such a way to render the action of the gauge group free and localization is suitably modified. In this way, the standard Mathai--Quillen formalism can be rigorously applied. The resulting topological action contains the ordinary action as a subsector and can be shown to yield a local quantum field theory, which is argued to be renormalizable as well. The salient feature of our method is that the Gribov...
Poincaré's Variational Problem in Potential Theory
Khavinson, Dmitry; Putinar, Mihai; Shapiro, Harold S.
2007-07-01
One of the earliest attempts to rigorously prove the solvability of Dirichlet’s boundary value problem was based on seeking the solution in the form of a “potential of double layer”, and this leads to an integral equation whose kernel is (in general) both singular and non-symmetric. C. Neumann succeeded with this approach for smoothly bounded convex domains, and H. Poincaré, by a tremendous tour de force, showed how to push through the analysis for domains with sufficiently smooth boundaries but no hypothesis of convexity. In this work he was (according to his own account) guided by consideration of a variational problem involving the partition of energy of an electrostatic field induced by charges placed on the boundary of a domain, more precisely the charge distributions which render stationary the energy of the field inside the domain divided by the energy of the field outside the domain. Unfortunately, a rigorous treatment of this problem was not possible with the tools available at that time (as Poincaré was well aware). So far as we know, the only one to propose a rigorous treatment of Poincaré’s problem was T. Carleman (in the two-dimensional case) in his doctoral dissertation. Thanks to later developments (especially concerning Sobolev spaces, and spectral theory of operators on Hilbert space) we can now give a complete, general and rigorous account of Poincaré’s variational problem, and that is the main object of the present paper. As a by-product, we refine some technical aspects in the theory of symmetrizable operators and prove in any number of dimensions the basic properties of the analogue of the planar Bergman-Schiffer singular integral equation. We interpret Poincaré’s variational principle as a non-selfadjoint eigenvalue problem for the angle operator between two distinct pairs of subspaces of potentials. We also prove a series of novel spectral analysis facts (some of them conjectured by Poincaré) related to the Poincar
Ciocirlan, Cristina E.
The environmental economics literature consistently suggests that properly designed and implemented economic incentives are superior to command-and-control regulation in reducing pollution. Economic incentives, such as green taxes, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives, are able to reduce pollution in a cost-effective manner, provide flexibility to industry and stimulate innovation in cleaner technologies. In the past few decades, both federal and state governments have shown increased use of economic incentives in environmental policy. Some states have embraced them in an active manner, while others have failed to do so. This research uses a three-step analysis. First, it asks why some states employ more economic incentives than others to stimulate consumption of renewable energy by the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Second, it asks why some states employ stronger incentives than others. And third, it asks why certain states employ certain instruments, such as electricity surcharges, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives or grants, while others do not. The first two analyses were conducted using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, while the third analysis employed logistic regression models to analyze the data. Data for all three analyses were obtained from a combination of primary and secondary sources. To address these questions, a theory of instrument choice at the state level, which includes both internal and external determinants of policy-making, was developed and tested. The state level of analysis was chosen. States have proven to be pioneers in designing policies to address greenhouse gases (see, for instance, the recent cap-and-trade legislation passed in California). The theory was operationalized with the help of four models: needs/responsiveness, interest group influence, professionalism/capacity and innovation-and-diffusion. The needs/responsiveness model suggests that states tend to choose more and stronger economic
Moment theory and some inverse problems in potential theory and heat conduction
Ang, Dang Dinh; Le, Vy Khoi; Trong, Dang Duc
2002-01-01
Moment Theory is not a new subject; however, in classical treatments, the ill-posedness of the problem is not taken into account - hence this monograph. Assuming a "true" solution to be uniquely determined by a sequence of moments (given as integrals) of which only finitely many are inaccurately given, the authors describe and analyze several regularization methods and derive stability estimates. Mathematically, the task often consists in the reconstruction of an analytic or harmonic function, as is natural from concrete applications discussed (e.g. inverse heat conduction problems, Cauchy's problem for the Laplace equation, gravimetry). The book can be used in a graduate or upper undergraduate course in Inverse Problems, or as supplementary reading for a course on Applied Partial Differential Equations.
Problem-based learning for technical students on the base TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babenko Oksana
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The basis of modern educational technology in teaching is problem-based learning through the use of educational technologies Powerful Thinking - Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ, including a systematic approach to the complex organization of independent work of search and research character. Developed by systemic administration of the physical features workshops on the basis TRIZ in the cycle of the natural sciences with the implementation of all aspects of the educational activities - substantive, procedural and motivational. A new model of the physical design of the workshop and its form of organization, which is based on problem-based learning with the use of TRIZ Interactive form of organization of the workshop allows you to get high-quality substantive and personality of the students who have a significant role in the formation of professional competencies and affect the quality of produce practice-oriented specialists.
SOLVING PROBLEMS OF STATISTICS WITH THE METHODS OF INFORMATION THEORY
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Lutsenko Y. V.
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical substantiation, methods of numerical calculations and software implementation of the decision of problems of statistics, in particular the study of statistical distributions, methods of information theory. On the basis of empirical data by calculation we have determined the number of observations used for the analysis of statistical distributions. The proposed method of calculating the amount of information is not based on assumptions about the independence of observations and the normal distribution, i.e., is non-parametric and ensures the correct modeling of nonlinear systems, and also allows comparable to process heterogeneous (measured in scales of different types data numeric and non-numeric nature that are measured in different units. Thus, ASC-analysis and "Eidos" system is a modern innovation (ready for implementation technology solving problems of statistical methods of information theory. This article can be used as a description of the laboratory work in the disciplines of: intelligent systems; knowledge engineering and intelligent systems; intelligent technologies and knowledge representation; knowledge representation in intelligent systems; foundations of intelligent systems; introduction to neuromaturation and methods neural networks; fundamentals of artificial intelligence; intelligent technologies in science and education; knowledge management; automated system-cognitive analysis and "Eidos" intelligent system which the author is developing currently, but also in other disciplines associated with the transformation of data into information, and its transformation into knowledge and application of this knowledge to solve problems of identification, forecasting, decision making and research of the simulated subject area (which is virtually all subjects in all fields of science
RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅰ)-MICROPOLAR CONTINUA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
Based on the restudies of existing polar continuum theories rather completesystems of basic balance laws and equations for micropolar continuum theory are presented.In these new systems not only the additional angular momentum, surface moment and bodymoment produced by the linear momentum, surface force and body force, respectively, butalso the additional velocity produced by the angular velocity are considered. The newcoupled balance laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy arereestablished. From them the new coupled local and nonlocal balance equatiors arenaturally derived. Via contrast it can be clearly seen that the new results are believed to berather general and complete.
Estimation and asymptotic theory for transition probabilities in Markov Renewal Multi–state models
Spitoni, C.; Verduijn, M.; Putter, H.
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss estimation of transition probabilities for semi–Markov multi–state models. Non–parametric and semi–parametric estimators of the transition probabilities for a large class of models (forward going models) are proposed. Large sample theory is derived using the functional delta
Unified characteristics line theory of spacial axisymmetric plastic problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU; Maohong; (
2001-01-01
［1］Johnson, W., Sowerby, R., Venter, R. D., Plane Strain Slip Line Fields for Metal Deformation Processes——A Source Book and Bibliography, New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.［2］Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.［3］Sokolovsky, V. V., Theory of Plasticity(in Russia), Moskow: Nat. Tech. Press, 1950.［4］Kachanov, L. M., Foundations Theory of Plasticity, London: North-Holland, 1975.［5］Shield, R. T., On the plastic flow of metal condition of axial symmetry, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1955, 233A: 267.［6］Lippmann, H., IUTAM Symposium on Metal Forming Plasticity, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1979.［7］Spencer, A. J. M., The approximate solution of certain problem of axially-symmetric plastic flow, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1964, 12: 231.［8］Wang, R., Xiong, Z. H., Wang, W. B., Foundation of Plasticity (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1982.［9］Collins, I. E., Dewhurst, P., A slip line field analysis of asymmetrical hot rolling, International Journal of Mechanical Science, 1975, 17: 643.［10］Collins, I. F., Slip line field analysis of forming processes in plane strain and axial symmetry, Advanced Technology of Plasticity, 1984, 11: 1074.［11］Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y., Liu, C. Y. et al., Unified plane-strain slip line field theory system, J. Civil Engineering (in Chinese), 1997, 30(2): 14［12］Simmons, J. A., Hauser, F., Dorn, E., Mathematical Theories of Plastic Deformation Under Impulsive Loading, Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962.［13］Lin, C. C., On a perturbation theory based on the method of characteristies, J. Math. Phys., 1954, 33: 117—134.［14］Hopkins, H. G., The method of characteristics and its applications to the theory of stress waver in solids, in Engineering Plasticity, Combridge: Combridge University Press, 1968, 277—315.［15］Shield, R. T., The plastic indentation of a layer by a flat punch, Quart. Appl. Math., 1955, 13: 27.［16］Haar, A., von
RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅲ)-NOETHER'S THEOREM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
The existing various couple stress theories have been carefully restudied. Thepurpose is to propose a coupled Noether's theorem and to reestablish rather completeconservation laws and balance equations for couple stress elastodynamics. The new concreteforms of various conservation laws of couple stress elasticity are derived. The precise natureof these conservation laws which result from the given invariance requirements areestablished. Various special cases are reduced and the results of micropolar continua may benaturally transited from the results presented in this paper.
The Cauchy problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, Marcelo [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-543 Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)
2006-07-21
The 3 + 1 formulation of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (STT) is obtained in the physical (Jordan) frame departing from the 4 + 0 covariant field equations. Contrary to common belief (folklore), the new system of ADM-like equations shows that the Cauchy problem of STT is well formulated (in the sense that the whole system of evolution equations is of first order in the time derivative). This is the first step towards a full first-order (in time and space) formulation from which a subsequent hyperbolicity analysis (a well-posedness determination) can be performed. Several gauge (lapse and shift) conditions are considered and implemented for STT. In particular, a generalization of the harmonic gauge for STT allows us to prove the well posedness of the STT using a second-order analysis which is very similar to the one employed in general relativity. Several appendices complement the ideas of the main part of the paper.
Statistical Mechanics of the Community Detection Problem: Theory and Application
Hu, Dandan
We study phase transitions in spin glass type systems and in related computational problems. In the current work, we focus on the "community detection" problem when cast in terms of a general Potts spin glass type problem. We report on phase transitions between solvable and unsolvable regimes. Solvable region may further split into easy and hard phases. Spin glass type phase transitions appear at both low and high temperatures. Low temperature transitions correspond to an order by disorder type effect wherein fluctuations render the system ordered or solvable. Separate transitions appear at higher temperatures into a disordered (or an unsolvable) phases. Different sorts of randomness lead to disparate behaviors. We illustrate the spin glass character of both transitions and report on memory effects. We further relate Potts type spin systems to mechanical analogs and suggest how chaotic-type behavior in general thermodynamic systems can indeed naturally arise in hard-computational problems and spin-glasses. In this work, we also examine large networks (with a power law distribution in cluster size) that have a large number of communities. We infer that large systems at a constant ratio of q to the number of nodes N asymptotically tend toward insolvability in the limit of large N for any positive temperature. We further employ multivariate Tutte polynomials to show that increasing q emulates increasing T for a general Potts model, leading to a similar stability region at low T. We further apply the replica inference based Potts model method to unsupervised image segmentation on multiple scales. This approach was inspired by the statistical mechanics problem of "community detection" and its phase diagram. The problem is cast as identifying tightly bound clusters against a background. Within our multiresolution approach, we compute information theory based correlations among multiple solutions of the same graph over a range of resolutions. Significant multiresolution
The corona problem connections between operator theory, function theory, and geometry
Krantz, Steven; Sawyer, Eric; Treil, Sergei; Wick, Brett
2014-01-01
The purpose of the corona workshop was to consider the corona problem in both one and several complex variables, both in the context of function theory and harmonic analysis as well as the context of operator theory and functional analysis. It was held in June 2012 at the Fields Institute in Toronto, and attended by about fifty mathematicians. This volume validates and commemorates the workshop, and records some of the ideas that were developed within. The corona problem dates back to 1941. It has exerted a powerful influence over mathematical analysis for nearly 75 years. There is material to help bring people up to speed in the latest ideas of the subject, as well as historical material to provide background. Particularly noteworthy is a history of the corona problem, authored by the five organizers, that provides a unique glimpse at how the problem and its many different solutions have developed. There has never been a meeting of this kind, and there has never been a volume of this kind. Mathematicians—...
Technical fine-tuning problem in renormalized perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.E.
1983-01-01
The technical - as opposed to physical - fine tuning problem, i.e. the stability of tree-level gauge hierarchies at higher orders in renormalized perturbation theory, in a number of different models is studied. These include softly-broken supersymmetric models, and non-supersymmetric ones with a hierarchy of spontaneously-broken gauge symmetries. The models are renormalized using the BPHZ prescription, with momentum subtractions. Explicit calculations indicate that the tree-level hierarchy is not upset by the radiative corrections, and consequently no further fine-tuning is required to maintain it. Furthermore, this result is shown to run counter to that obtained via Dimensional Renormalization, (the only scheme used in previous literature on the subject). The discrepancy originates in the inherent local ambiguity in the finite parts of subtracted Feynman integrals. Within fully-renormalized perturbation theory the answer to the technical fine-tuning question (in the sense of whether the radiative corrections will ''readily'' respect the tree level gauge hierarchy or not) is contingent on the renormalization scheme used to define the model at the quantum level, rather than on the model itself. In other words, the need for fine-tuning, when it arises, is an artifact of the application of a certain class of renormalization schemes.
Nuclear theory group. Progress report and renewal proposal. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, G. E.; Jackson, A. D.; Kuo, T. T.S.; Feingold, Arnold M.; Yang, C. N.
1979-01-01
The work discussed covers a broad range of topics in theoretical nuclear and intermediate-energy physics and nuclear astrophysics. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the underlying nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon interactions. The research is categorized as follows: fundamental interactions; intermediate-energy physics; effective interactions, nuclear models and many-body theory; structure of finite nuclei; nuclear astrophysics; heavy-ion physics; and numerical analysis. Page-length summaries of the work are given; completed work has been or will be published. Staff vitas, recent publications, and a proposed budget complete the report. (RWR)
On the flavor problem in strongly coupled theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Martin
2012-11-28
This thesis is on the flavor problem of Randall Sundrum models and their strongly coupled dual theories. These models are particularly well motivated extensions of the Standard Model, because they simultaneously address the gauge hierarchy problem and the hierarchies in the quark masses and mixings. In order to put this into context, special attention is given to concepts underlying the theories which can explain the hierarchy problem and the flavor structure of the Standard Model (SM). The AdS/CFT duality is introduced and its implications for the Randall Sundrum model with fermions in the bulk and general bulk gauge groups is investigated. It is shown that the different terms in the general 5D propagator of a bulk gauge field can be related to the corresponding diagrams of the strongly coupled dual, which allows for a deeper understanding of the origin of flavor changing neutral currents generated by the exchange of the Kaluza Klein excitations of these bulk fields. In the numerical analysis, different observables which are sensitive to corrections from the tree-level exchange of these resonances will be presented on the basis of updated experimental data from the Tevatron and LHC experiments. This includes electroweak precision observables, namely corrections to the S and T parameters followed by corrections to the Zb anti b vertex, flavor changing observables with flavor changes at one vertex, viz. B(B{sub d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and B(B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}), and two vertices, viz. S{sub {psi}{phi}} and vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, as well as bounds from direct detection experiments. The analysis will show that all of these bounds can be brought in agreement with a new physics scale {Lambda}{sub NP} in the TeV range, except for the CP violating quantity vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, which requires {Lambda}{sub NP}=O(10) TeV in the absence of fine-tuning. The numerous modifications of the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
The purpose is to reestablish rather complete basic balance equations and boundary conditions for polar thermomechanical continua based on the restudy of the traditional theories of micropolar thermoelasticity and thermopiezoelectricity. The equations of motion and the local balance equation of energy rate for micropolar thermoelasticity are derived from the rather complete principle of virtual power. The equations of motion, the balance equation of entropy and all boundary conditions are derived from the rather complete Hamilton principle. The new balance equations of momentum and energy rate which are essentially different from the existing results are presented. The corresponding results of micromorphic thermoelasticity and couple stress elastodynamics may be naturally obtained by the transition and the reduction from the micropolar case, respectively. Finally, the results of micropolar thermopiezoelectricity are directly given.
Solution of the dilaton problem in open bosonic string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bern, Z. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Dunbar, D.C. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom))
1991-01-01
One of the most remarkable features of string theories is that they seem to provide a framework for a consistent theory of quantum gravity which is unified with all other forces. String theories fall into the two basic, a priori equally interesting, categories of open and closed string theories. For the past five years virtually all attention has been focused on purely closed string theories even though the reincarnation of string theory began with the discovery of anomaly cancellation and finiteness in the Green-Schwarz open superstring. It is the authors' purpose in this essay to rekindle interest in open string theories as potential theories of nature, including gravity. All string theories naively contain a massless dilaton which couples with the strength of gravity in direct violation of experiment. They present a simple mechanism for giving the dilaton a mass in unoriented open bosonic string theories.
Political Discourse Analysis Through Solving Problems of Graph Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Patrut
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this article, we show how, using graph theory, we can make a content analysis of political discourse. Assumptions of this analysis are:
- we have a corpus of speech of each party or candidate;
- we consider that speech conveys economic, political, socio-cultural values, these taking the form of words or word families;
- we consider that there are interdependences between the values of a political discourse; they are given by the co-occurrence of two values, as words in the text, within a well defined fragment, or they are determined by the internal logic of political discourse;
- established links between values in a political speech have associated positive numbers indicating the "power" of those links; these "powers" are defined according to both the number of co-occurrences of values, and the internal logic of the discourse where they occur.
In this context we intend to highlight the following:
a which is the dominant value in a political speech;
b which groups of values have ties between them and have no connection with the rest;
c which is the order in which political values should be set in order to obtain an equivalent but more synthetic speech compared to the already given one;
d which are the links between values that form the "core" political speech.
To solve these problems, we shall use the Political Analyst program. After that, we shall present the concepts necessary to the understanding of the introductory graph theory, useful in understanding the analysis of the software and then the operation of the program. This paper extends the previous paper [6].
Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model
Helie, Sebastien; Sun, Ron
2010-01-01
This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit-implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of…
The Cauchy Problem of Scalar Tensor Theories of Gravity
Salgado, M
2006-01-01
The 3+1 formulation of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (STT) is obtained in the physical (Jordan) frame departing from the 4+0 covariant field equations. Contrary to the common believe (folklore), the new system of ADM-like equations shows that the Cauchy problem of STT is well formulated (in the sense that the whole system is of first order in the time-derivative). This is the first step towards a full first order (in time and space) formulation from which a subsequent hyperbolicity analysis (a well-posedness determination) can be performed. Several gauge (lapse and shift) conditions are considered and implemented for STT. In particular, a generalization of the harmonic gauge for STT allows to prove the well posedness of the STT using a second order analysis which is very similar to the one used in general relativity. Some spacetimes of astrophysical and cosmological interest are considered as specific applications. Several appendices complement the ideas of the main part of the paper.
Problems in particle theory. Technical report, 1992--1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adler, S.L.; Wilczek, F.
1993-11-01
Areas of emphasis include acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, application of the renormalization group to the QCD phase transition, the quantum Hall effect, and black holes. Other work involved string theory, statistical properties of energy levels in integrable quantum systems, baryon asymmetry and the electroweak phase transition, anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, and theory of superconductors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suyono .
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The marginal distribution of integrated renewal process is derived in this paper. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson point processes. The results are presented in the form of Laplace transforms.
Lattice Field Theory with the Sign Problem and the Maximum Entropy Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masahiro Imachi
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Although numerical simulation in lattice field theory is one of the most effective tools to study non-perturbative properties of field theories, it faces serious obstacles coming from the sign problem in some theories such as finite density QCD and lattice field theory with the θ term. We reconsider this problem from the point of view of the maximum entropy method.
Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods
Eom, Hyo J
2004-01-01
Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.
The coherence problem with the Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity.
Clark, James S
2012-04-01
The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity (UNTB), proposed as an alternative to niche theory, has been viewed as a theory that species coexist without niche differences, without fitness differences, or with equal probability of success. Support is claimed when models lacking species differences predict highly aggregated metrics, such as species abundance distributions (SADs) or species area distributions (SARs). Here, I summarize why UNTB generates confusion, and is not actually relevant to niche theory (i.e. an explanation for why and how many species coexist). Equal probability is not a theory, but lack of one; it does not include or exclude any process relevant to coexistence of competitors. Models lacking explicit species can make useful predictions, but this does not support neutral theory. I provide s suggestions that could help reduce confusion generated by the debate.
Using Theory Integration to Explore Complex Health Problems.
Quinn, Brenna L
2016-01-01
Although nursing leaders call for theory utilization in research, use remains low within the discipline. The purpose of this article is to explore the application of interdisciplinary integration of models and theories to nursing research. An example of theory integration for the purposes of guiding a study relevant to school nursing is described. A conceptual-theoretical-empirical structure based on the Neuman's systems model, a nursing theory, integrated with the social communication model of pain, a psychology model, was developed to guide the study to examine pain assessment for schoolchildren with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
Boundary value problems on the half line in the theory of colloids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravi P. Agarwal
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We present existence results for some boundary value problems defined on infinite intervals. In particular our discussion includes a problem which arises in the theory of colloids.
Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.
Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.
This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem…
General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application
Peery, Newman S., Jr.
1975-01-01
Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…
Problems with Feminist Standpoint Theory in Science Education
Landau, Iddo
2008-01-01
Feminist standpoint theory has important implications for science education. The paper focuses on difficulties in standpoint theory, mostly regarding the assumptions that different social positions produce different types of knowledge, and that epistemic advantages that women might enjoy are always effective and significant. I conclude that the…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ekardt, Felix [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik, Leipzig (Germany); Rostock Univ. (Germany). Oeffentliches Recht und Rechtsphilosophie
2014-08-15
The 2014 amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) which is currently in the process of enactment aims to limit the scope of what has been one of the most successful climate protection instruments in the history of German law. In essence this instrument has established an obligation of acceptance of and remuneration for electricity generated from renewable resources. The present article analyses the most important regulatory objects of the 2014 EEG for their compatibility with German constitutional law as well as primary and secondary EU law.
PROBLEMS IN TOPOLOGICAL GRAPH THEORY : QUESTIONS I CAN'T ANSWER
Archdeacon, Dan
1999-01-01
This paper describes my Problems in Topological Graph Theory, which can be accessed through the world-wide-web at http: //www.emba .uvm.edu/~arcceack/problems/problems.html This list of problems is constantly being revised; the interested reader is encouraged to submit additions and updates.
Generalized information theory: aims, results, and open problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klir, George J
2004-09-01
The principal purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of generalized information theory (GIT): a research program whose objective is to develop a broad treatment of uncertainty-based information, not restricted to classical notions of uncertainty. After a brief overview of classical information theories, a broad framework for formalizing uncertainty and the associated uncertainty-based information of a great spectrum of conceivable types is sketched. The various theories of imprecise probabilities that have already been developed within this framework are then surveyed, focusing primarily on some important unifying principles applying to all these theories. This is followed by introducing two higher levels of the theories of imprecise probabilities: (i) the level of measuring the amount of relevant uncertainty (predictive, retrodictive, prescriptive, diagnostic, etc.) in any situation formalizable in each given theory, and (ii) the level of some methodological principles of uncertainty, which are contingent upon the capability to measure uncertainty and the associated uncertainty-based information. Various issues regarding both the measurement of uncertainty and the uncertainty principles are discussed. Again, the focus is on unifying principles applicable to all the theories. Finally, the current status of GIT is assessed and future research in the area is discussed.
Order, disorder, and criticality advanced problems of phase transition theory
Holovatch, Yurij
2004-01-01
This book reviews some of the classic aspects in the theory of phasetransitions and critical phenomena, which has a longhistory. Recently, these aspects are attracting much attention due toessential new contributions. The topics presented in this bookinclude: mathematical theory of the Ising model; equilibrium andnon-equilibrium criticality of one-dimensional quantum spin chains;influence of structural disorder on the critical behaviour of thePotts model; criticality, fractality and multifractality of linkedpolymers; field-theoretical approaches in the superconducting phasetransitions.
Narcissism, hypochondria and the problem of alternative theories.
Hanly, Charles
2011-06-01
This paper is an experiment in conceptual integration and clinical theory testing. Its argument is that narcissism and sexual object love develop from a single source and continue to interact during childhood development and adult life (Freud) and that drives in their oedipal and other formations are not merely disintegration products of narcissism (Kohut). Material from two analyses, supplemented by material from two others, indicate that narcissistic injury was a significant factor in the neuroses of these patients but that aggressive and libidinal conflicts were also decisive such that their hypochondriac symptoms were compositions of their interacting causality. As a result these neuroses are negative instances of Kohut's theory of narcissism. The hypochondriac symptoms as they emerged could not have had the structure and dynamics they actually had nor could the analytic process these patients underwent have achieved the far-reaching and durable amelioration of these symptoms that occurred. On the positive side, these analyses are but two inductive instances that support Freud's theory. However, one major difficulty of the faddishness of psychoanalytic theorizing is that much of worth is lost from general theories that turn out not to be supportable. The clinical material from these two cases which disprove basic elements of self-psychology metapsychology also require adjustments to classical theory that integrate the contributions of self-psychology to psychoanalytic clinical theory.
Muskhelishvili, N I
2011-01-01
Singular integral equations play important roles in physics and theoretical mechanics, particularly in the areas of elasticity, aerodynamics, and unsteady aerofoil theory. They are highly effective in solving boundary problems occurring in the theory of functions of a complex variable, potential theory, the theory of elasticity, and the theory of fluid mechanics.This high-level treatment by a noted mathematician considers one-dimensional singular integral equations involving Cauchy principal values. Its coverage includes such topics as the Hölder condition, Hilbert and Riemann-Hilbert problem
Supersymmetric gauge theories on the lattice: Pfaffian phases and the Neuberger 0/0 problem
Mehta, Dhagash; Galvez, Richard; Joseph, Anosh
2011-01-01
Recently a class of supersymmetric gauge theories have been successfully implemented on the lattice. However, there has been an ongoing debate on whether lattice versions of some of these theories suffer from a sign problem, with independent simulations for the ${\\cal N} = (2, 2)$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in two dimensions yielding seemingly contradictory results. Here, we address this issue from an interesting theoretical point of view. We conjecture that the sign problem observed in some of the simulations is related to the so called Neuberger 0/0 problem, which arises in ordinary non-supersymmetric lattice gauge theories, and prevents the realization of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry on the lattice. After discussing why we expect a sign problem in certain classes of supersymmetric lattice gauge theories far from the continuum limit, we argue that these problems can be evaded by use of a non-compact parametrization of the gauge link fields.
A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies
Shour, Robert
2009-01-01
A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.
Bilevel programming problems theory, algorithms and applications to energy networks
Dempe, Stephan; Pérez-Valdés, Gerardo A; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; Kalashnikova, Nataliya
2015-01-01
This book describes recent theoretical findings relevant to bilevel programming in general, and in mixed-integer bilevel programming in particular. It describes recent applications in energy problems, such as the stochastic bilevel optimization approaches used in the natural gas industry. New algorithms for solving linear and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems are presented and explained.
Einstein's theory of gravity and the problem of missing mass.
Ferreira, Pedro G; Starkman, Glenn D
2009-11-01
The observed matter in the universe accounts for just 5% of the observed gravity. A possible explanation is that Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity fail where gravity is either weak or enhanced. The modified theory of Newtonian dynamics (MOND) reproduces, without dark matter, spiral-galaxy orbital motions and the relation between luminosity and rotation in galaxies, although not in clusters. Recent extensions of Einstein's theory are theoretically more complete. They inevitably include dark fields that seed structure growth, and they may explain recent weak lensing data. However, the presence of dark fields reduces calculability and comes at the expense of the original MOND premise, that the matter we see is the sole source of gravity. Observational tests of the relic radiation, weak lensing, and the growth of structure may distinguish modified gravity from dark matter.
Theory of periodically specified problems: Complexity and approximability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Rosenkrantz, D.J. [Univ. at Albany - SUNY, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science
1997-12-05
We study the complexity and the efficient approximability of graph and satisfiability problems when specified using various kinds of periodic specifications studied. The general results obtained include the following: (1) We characterize the complexities of several basic generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S) [Sc78], when instances are specified using various kinds of 1- and 2-dimensional periodic specifications. We outline how this characterization can be used to prove a number of new hardness results for the complexity classes DSPACE(n), NSPACE(n), DEXPTIME, NEXPTIME, EXPSPACE etc. These results can be used to prove in a unified way the hardness of a number of combinatorial problems when instances are specified succinctly using various succient specifications considered in the literature. As one corollary, we show that a number of basic NP-hard problems because EXPSPACE-hard when inputs are represented using 1-dimensional infinite periodic wide specifications. This answers a long standing open question posed by Orlin. (2) We outline a simple yet a general technique to devise approximation algorithms with provable worst case performance guarantees for a number of combinatorial problems specified periodically. Our efficient approximation algorithms and schemes are based on extensions of the ideas and represent the first non-trivial characterization of a class of problems having an {epsilon}-approximation (or PTAS) for periodically specified NEXPTIME-hard problems. Two of properties of our results are: (i) For the first time, efficient approximation algorithms and schemes have been developed for natural NEXPTIME-complete problems. (ii) Our results are the first polynomial time approximation algorithms with good performance guarantees for hard problems specified using various kinds of periodic specifications considered in this paper.
Minimax theory for a class of nonlinear statistical inverse problems
Ray, Kolyan; Schmidt-Hieber, Johannes
2016-06-01
We study a class of statistical inverse problems with nonlinear pointwise operators motivated by concrete statistical applications. A two-step procedure is proposed, where the first step smoothes the data and inverts the nonlinearity. This reduces the initial nonlinear problem to a linear inverse problem with deterministic noise, which is then solved in a second step. The noise reduction step is based on wavelet thresholding and is shown to be minimax optimal (up to logarithmic factors) in a pointwise function-dependent sense. Our analysis is based on a modified notion of Hölder smoothness scales that are natural in this setting.
Surveying problem solution with theory and objective type questions
Chandra, AM
2005-01-01
The book provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of the various principles and methods for solving problems in land surveying. Each chapter starts with basic concepts and definitions, then solution of typical field problems and ends with objective type questions. The book explains errors in survey measurements and their propagation. Survey measurements are detailed next. These include horizontal and vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Measurement using stadia tacheometry and EDM are then highlighted, followed by various types of levelling problems. Traversing is then explained, followed by a detailed discussion on adjustment of survey observations and then triangulation and trilateration.
Radiative Transfer Reconsidered as a Quantum Kinetic Theory Problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. Rosato
2015-12-01
We revisit the radiative transfer theory from first principles approach, inspired from quantum kinetic theory. The radiation field is described within the second quantization formalism. A master equation for the radiation density operator is derived and transformed into a balance relation in the phase space, which involves nonlocal terms owing to radiation coherence. In a perturbative framework, we focus on the lowest order term in $\\hbar$-expansion and show that the radiation coherence results in an alteration of the photon group velocity. An application to the formation of hydrogen lines in stellar atmospheres is performed as an illustration.
Zu-Tong Wang; Jian-Sheng Guo; Ming-Fa Zheng; Ying Wang
2014-01-01
Based on the credibility theory, this paper is devoted to the fuzzy multiobjective programming problem. Firstly, the expected-value model of fuzzy multiobjective programming problem is provided based on credibility theory; then two new approaches for obtaining efficient solutions are proposed on the basis of the expected-value model, whose validity has been proven. For solving the fuzzy MOP problem efficiently, Latin hypercube sampling, fuzzy simulation, support vector machine, an...
Problems in classical potential theory with applications to mathematical physics
Lundberg, Erik
In this thesis we are interested in some problems regarding harmonic functions. The topics are divided into three chapters. Chapter 2 concerns singularities developed by solutions of the Cauchy problem for a holomorphic elliptic equation, especially Laplace's equation. The principal motivation is to locate the singularities of the Schwarz potential. The results have direct applications to Laplacian growth (or the Hele-Shaw problem). Chapter 3 concerns the Dirichlet problem when the boundary is an algebraic set and the data is a polynomial or a real-analytic function. We pursue some questions related to the Khavinson-Shapiro conjecture. A main topic of interest is analytic continuability of the solution outside its natural domain. Chapter 4 concerns certain complex-valued harmonic functions and their zeros. The special cases we consider apply directly in astrophysics to the study of multiple-image gravitational lenses.
Inverse problems basics, theory and applications in geophysics
Richter, Mathias
2016-01-01
The overall goal of the book is to provide access to the regularized solution of inverse problems relevant in geophysics without requiring more mathematical knowledge than is taught in undergraduate math courses for scientists and engineers. From abstract analysis only the concept of functions as vectors is needed. Function spaces are introduced informally in the course of the text, when needed. Additionally, a more detailed, but still condensed introduction is given in Appendix B. A second goal is to elaborate the single steps to be taken when solving an inverse problem: discretization, regularization and practical solution of the regularized optimization problem. These steps are shown in detail for model problems from the fields of inverse gravimetry and seismic tomography. The intended audience is mathematicians, physicists and engineers having a good working knowledge of linear algebra and analysis at the upper undergraduate level.
The {mu}-problem, the NMSSM and string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos-Sanchez, Saul
2010-04-04
We discuss recent developments on the solution of the so-called supersymmetric {mu}-problem in the context of heterotic orbifolds. In particular, an approximate R symmetry can induce an admissible {mu}-term in Minkowski vacua of orbifold models with the MSSM spectrum. A natural solution to the {mu}-problem is also offered by explicit string-derived NMSSMs. These setups help avoid the fine-tuning of the MSSM. (orig.)
Organic unity theory: the mind-body problem revisited.
Goodman, A
1991-05-01
The purpose of this essay is to delineate the conceptual framework for psychiatry as an integrated and integrative science that unites the mental and the physical. Four basic philosophical perspectives concerning the relationship between mind and body are introduced. The biopsychosocial model, at this time the preeminent model in medical science that addresses this relationship, is examined and found to be flawed. Mental-physical identity theory is presented as the most valid philosophical approach to understanding the relationship between mind and body. Organic unity theory is then proposed as a synthesis of the biopsychosocial model and mental-physical identity theory in which the difficulties of the biopsychosocial model are resolved. Finally, some implications of organic unity theory for psychiatry are considered. 1) The conventional dichotomy between physical (organic) and mental (functional) is linguistic/conceptual rather than inherent in nature, and all events and processes involved in the etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatic manifestation, and treatment of psychiatric disorders are simultaneously biological and psychological. 2) Neuroscience requires new conceptual models to comprehend the integrated and emergent physiological processes to which psychological phenomena correspond. 3) Introspective awareness provides data that are valid for scientific inquiry and is the most direct method of knowing psychophysical events. 4) Energy currently being expended in disputes between biological and psychological psychiatry would be more productively invested in attempting to formulate the conditions under which each approach is maximally effective.
On the Finite Line Source Problem in Diffusion Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben; Troen, Ib; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1982-01-01
A simple formula for calculating dispersion from a continuous finite line source, placed at right angles to the mean wind direction, is derived on the basis of statistical theory. Comparison is made with the virtual source concept usually used and this is shown to be correct only in the limit where...
Faculty Forum: Applying Motivation Theory to Real-World Problems
Harpine, Elaine Clanton
2007-01-01
This article examines the effectiveness of incorporating an applied learning experience in an upper level undergraduate motivation theory class. In this 3-part course requirement, students (a) participated in a 2-hr field experience, (b) completed a homework assignment based on their participation, and (c) worked in groups to develop a deeper…
Vector theory of gravity: solution of dark energy problem
Svidzinsky, Anatoly A
2015-01-01
We propose an alternative classical theory of gravity which assumes that background geometry of the Universe is fixed four dimensional Euclidean space and gravity is a vector field $A_{k}$ in this space which breaks the Euclidean symmetry. Direction of $A_{k}$ gives the time coordinate, while perpendicular directions are spatial coordinates. Vector gravitational field is coupled to matter universally and minimally through the equivalent metric $f_{ik}$ which is a functional of $A_{k}$. We show that such assumptions yield a unique theory of gravity, it is free of black holes and to the best of our knowledge it passes all available tests. For cosmology our theory predicts the same evolution of the Universe as general relativity with cosmological constant and zero spatial curvature. However, the present theory provides explanation of the dark energy as energy of gravitational field induced by the Universe expansion and yields, with no free parameters, the value of $\\Omega _{\\Lambda }=2/3\\approx 0.67$ which agree...
Faculty Forum: Applying Motivation Theory to Real-World Problems
Harpine, Elaine Clanton
2007-01-01
This article examines the effectiveness of incorporating an applied learning experience in an upper level undergraduate motivation theory class. In this 3-part course requirement, students (a) participated in a 2-hr field experience, (b) completed a homework assignment based on their participation, and (c) worked in groups to develop a deeper…
7th International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems Theory, Numerics, Applications
Jeltsch, Rolf
1999-01-01
These proceedings contain, in two volumes, approximately one hundred papers presented at the conference on hyperbolic problems, which has focused to a large extent on the laws of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation. Two-fifths of the papers are devoted to mathematical aspects such as global existence, uniqueness, asymptotic behavior such as large time stability, stability and instabilities of waves and structures, various limits of the solution, the Riemann problem and so on. Roughly the same number of articles are devoted to numerical analysis, for example stability and convergence of numerical schemes, as well as schemes with special desired properties such as shock capturing, interface fitting and high-order approximations to multidimensional systems. The results in these contributions, both theoretical and numerical, encompass a wide range of applications such as nonlinear waves in solids, various computational fluid dynamics from small-scale combustion to relativistic astrophysical problems, multiphase phe...
The theory of seduction and the problem of the other.
Laplanche, J
1997-08-01
The author offers a survey of his general theory of seduction, elaborated in order to give an account of the origin of the psychic apparatus and the drives, starting from the adult-infant relation. This theory supposes that, in the sexual domain, such a relation is asymmetrical, the sexual message originating in the adult other. The author develops here the consequences of such an originary primacy of the other, especially for the notion of sublimation and the process of the analytic treatment. The analytic situation and method, as invented by Freud, implies a radical change of perspective in the philosophical and anthropological conception of the human being, in forcing us to move from a self-centred, 'Ptolemaic' vision, belonging to the old philosophy of the subject, to an other-centred, 'Copernican' vision.
Relativistic field theories have no `sign problem' with DMRG
Weir, David J
2010-01-01
The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is applied to a relativistic complex scalar field at finite chemical potential. The two-point function and various bulk quantities are studied. It is seen that bulk quantities do not change with the chemical potential until it is larger than the minimum excitation energy. The technical limitations of DMRG for treating bosons in relativistic field theories are discussed. Applications to other relativistic models and to non-topological solitons are also suggested.
Shayesteh, E.
2015-01-01
Electrical energy is one of the most common forms of energy these days. Consequently, electric power system is an indispensable part of any society. However, due to the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth in the share of power generation by uncontrollable renewable energies such as wi
Phase optimization problems applications in wave field theory
Bulatsyk, Olena O; Topolyuk, Yury P; Bulatsyk, Olena; Voitovich, Nikolai N
2010-01-01
This is the only book available in English language to consider inverse and optimization problems in which phase field distributions are used as optimizing functions. The mathematical technique used relates to nonlinear integral equations, with numerical methods developed and applied to concrete problems. Written by a team of outstanding and renowned experts in the field, this monograph will appeal to all those dealing with the investigation, design, and optimization of electromagnetic and acoustic radiating and transmitting devices and systems, while also being of interest to mathematicians w
Schaum's outline of theory and problems of differential equations
Bronson, Richard
1994-01-01
If you want top grades and thorough understanding of differential equations, this powerful study tool is the best tutor you can have! It takes you step-by-step through the subject and gives you 563 accompanying problems with fully worked solutions. You also get plenty of practice problems to do on your own, working at your own speed. (Answers at the back show you how you're doing.) Famous for their clarity, wealth of illustrations and examples, and lack of dreary minutiae, Schaum’s Outlines have sold more than 30 million copies worldwide—and this guide will show you why!
Problems with Feminist Standpoint Theory in Science Education
Landau, Iddo
2008-11-01
Feminist standpoint theory has important implications for science education. The paper focuses on difficulties in standpoint theory, mostly regarding the assumptions that different social positions produce different types of knowledge, and that epistemic advantages that women might enjoy are always effective and significant. I conclude that the difficulties in standpoint theory render it too problematic to accept. Various implications for science education are indicated: we should return to the kind of science education that instructs students to examine whether arguments, experiments, etc. are successful, rather than ask who presented them; when considering researchers and students for science education programs we should examine their scholarly achievements, rather than the group to which they belong; women should not be discouraged from engaging in “mainstream” science research and education (or other spheres of knowledge considered as “men’s topics”) and men should not be discouraged from engaging in what are considered “women’s topics” in science (or outside it); we should not assume that there are different types of science for women and for men, nor different ways for women and men to study science or conduct scientific research.
Exact quantum algorithms for promise problems in automata theory
Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer
2011-01-01
In this note, we show that quantum finite automata can be polynomially more succinct than their classical counterparts for promise problems in case of exact computation. Additionally, in terms of language recognition, the same result is shown to be valid up to a constant factor depending on how bigger the size of the alphabet is.
How some infinities cause problems in classical physical theories
Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne; Allo, P.; van Kerhove, B.
2014-01-01
In this paper we review a 1992 excursion of Jean Paul Van Bendegem into physics, ‘How Infinities Cause Problems in Classical Physical Theories’, in the light of two later models concerning colliding balls, of Pérez Laraudogoitia and of Alper and Bridger, respectively. We show that Van Bendegem antic
"Theory repositories" via the web for problem-based learning
van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Jones, Valerie M.; Collis, Betty
2000-01-01
This paper describes a series of experiments conducted at the School of Management Studies at the University of Twente designed to improve students' concentration on the theoretical study materials in a particular course. In 1997 a problem-based learning approach was introduced into a course on orga
Several applications of the theory of random conjugate spaces to measurability problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
The central purpose of this paper is to illustrate that combining the recently developed theory of random conjugate spaces and the deep theory of Banach spaces can, indeed, solve some difficult measurability problems which occur in the recent study of the Lebesgue (or more general, Orlicz)-Bochner function spaces as well as in a slightly different way in the study of the random functional analysis but for which the measurable selection theorems currently available are not applicable. It is important that this paper provides a new method of studying a large class of the measurability problems, namely first converting the measurability problems to the abstract existence problems in the random metric theory and then combining the random metric theory and the relative theory of classical spaces so that the measurability problems can be eventually solved. The new method is based on the deep development of the random metric theory as well as on the subtle combination of the random metric theory with classical space theory.
Index Theory-Based Algorithm for the Gradiometer Inverse Problem
2015-03-28
field generated by the positive eigenvector of the gradiometer tensor to the closeness of fit of the proposed inverse solution to the mass and...line field generated by the positive eigenvector of the gradiometer tensor to the closeness of fit of the proposed inverse solution to the mass and...2015). The inverse source problem for the gradiometer tensor can be stated generally as follows: given a gradiometer tensor field, extract
Schaum's outline of theory and problems of linear algebra
Lipschutz, Seymour
2001-01-01
This third edition of the successful outline in linear algebra--which sold more than 400,000 copies in its past two editions--has been thoroughly updated to increase its applicability to the fields in which linear algebra is now essential: computer science, engineering, mathematics, physics, and quantitative analysis. Revised coverage includes new problems relevant to computer science and a revised chapter on linear equations.
The application of bifurcation theory to physical problems
Joseph, D. D.
Reference is made to an observation by Lighthill (Thompson, 1982) of the one great complicating feature that introduces major difficulties into mechanics, physics, chemistry, engineering, astronomy, and biology. This is that an equilibrium can be stable but may become unstable and that a process can take place continuously but may become discontinuous. It is argued here that the complications noted by Lighthill occur even in the simplest problems. It is pointed out that a given physical system may have available many modes of operation and that the mathematical model of this system can have many solutions corresponding to the same prescribed data. In physical problems of even moderate complexity, the selection rules by which the actual realized solutions are determined are elusive. To illustrate this point, consideration is given to a simple scalar ordinary differential equation whose solution set is fully defined. It is shown that even in the simplest of problems, it is possible to have the highest degree of degeneracy with many solutions and many discontinuous changes as the control parameter is varied. Also discussed is the bifurcation of a periodic solution.
Proper time and conformal problem in Kaluza-Klein theory
Minguzzi, E
2015-01-01
In the traditional Kaluza-Klein theory, the cylinder condition and the constancy of the extra-dimensional radius (scalar field) imply that timelike geodesics on the 5-dimensional bundle project to solutions of the Lorentz force equation on spacetime. This property is lost for non constant scalar fields, in fact there appear new terms that have been interpreted mainly as new forces or as due to a variable inertial mass and/or charge. Here we prove that the additional terms can be removed if we assume that charged particles are coupled with the same spacetime conformal structure of neutral particles but through a different conformal factor. As a consequence, in Kaluza-Klein theory the proper time of the charged particle might depend on the charge-to-mass ratio and the scalar field. Then we show that the compatibility between the equation of the projected geodesic and the classical limit of the Klein-Gordon equation fixes unambiguously the conformal factor of the coupling metric solving the `conformal ambiguity ...
Stamovlasis, Dimitrios
2011-04-01
In this study, an attempt is made to integrate Nonlinear Dynamical Systems theory and neo-Piagetian theories applied to creative mental processes, such as problem solving. A catastrophe theory model is proposed, which implements three neo-Piagetian constructs as controls: the functional M-capacity as asymmetry and logical thinking and the degree of field dependence independence as bifurcation. Data from achievement scores of students in tenth grade physics were analyzed using dynamic difference equations and statistical regression techniques. The cusp catastrophe model proved superior comparing to the pre-post linear counterpart and demonstrated nonlinearity at the behavioral level. The nonlinear phenomenology, such as hysteresis effects and bifurcation, is explained by an analysis, which provides a causal interpretation via the mathematical theory of self-organization and thus building bridges between NDS-theory concepts and neo-Piagetian theories. The contribution to theory building is made, by also addressing the emerging philosophical, - ontological and epistemological- questions about the processes of problem solving and creativity.
SYMBOLIC ALGEBRAIC MANIPULATION BY DIGITAL COMPUTER IN PROBLEMS OF CONTROL THEORY.
shown, using a FORMAC program. The advantages over the conventional root locus method are discussed. Areas of possible future use of FORMAC in algebraic problems of control theory are discussed. (Author)
The Metric and the Threshold Problem for Theories of Health Justice: A Comment on Venkatapuram.
Schramme, Thomas
2016-01-01
Any theory of health justice requires an account of what areas of social life are important enough to be of public concern. What are the goods that ought to be provided as a matter of justice? This is what I will call the metric problem. The capabilities approach puts forward a particular solution to this problem. In this article I will discuss some issues of such an approach in relation to Sridhar Venkatapuram's well-known theory. Another problem I examine is how to determine a threshold of provision within a theory of justice. What is enough in terms of health justice? I argue that we need such a threshold to avoid healthism, the expansion of the pursuit of health over and above the treatment and prevention of disease. This is an especially pertinent problem in public health, which is also the context of Venkatapuram's theory.
A NUMERICAL EMBEDDING METHOD FOR SOLVING THE NONLINEAR COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEM(Ⅰ)--THEORY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-jun Zhang; De-ren Wang
2002-01-01
In this paper, we extend the numerical embedding method for solving the smooth equations to the nonlinear complementarity problem. By using the nonsmooth theory,we prove the existence and the continuation of the following path for the corresponding homotopy equations. Therefore the basic theory of the numerical embedding method for solving the nonlinear complementarity problem is established. In part Ⅱ of this paper, we will further study the implementation of the method and give some numerical exapmles.
On unified modeling, theory, and method for solving multi-scale global optimization problems
Gao, David Yang
2016-10-01
A unified model is proposed for general optimization problems in multi-scale complex systems. Based on this model and necessary assumptions in physics, the canonical duality theory is presented in a precise way to include traditional duality theories and popular methods as special applications. Two conjectures on NP-hardness are proposed, which should play important roles for correctly understanding and efficiently solving challenging real-world problems. Applications are illustrated for both nonconvex continuous optimization and mixed integer nonlinear programming.
K. Schwarzschild's problem in radiation transfer theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rutily, B. [Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (UMR 5574 du CNRS), Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, 69561 Saint-Genis-Laval Cedex (France)]. E-mail: rutily@obs.univ-lyon1.fr; Chevallier, L. [Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (UMR 5574 du CNRS), Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, 69561 Saint-Genis-Laval Cedex (France); Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Robert Mayer Strasse 1, D-60325 Frankfurt (Germany)
2006-03-15
We solve exactly the problem of a finite slab receiving an isotropic radiation on one side and no radiation on the other side. This problem-to be more precise the calculation of the source function within the slab-was first formulated by K. Schwarzschild in 1914. We first solve it for unspecified albedos and optical thicknesses of the atmosphere, in particular for an albedo very close to 1 and a very large optical thickness in view of some astrophysical applications. Then we focus on the conservative case (albedo=1), which is of great interest for the modeling of grey atmospheres in radiative equilibrium. Ten-figure tables of the conservative source function are given. From the analytical expression of this function, we deduce (1) a simple relation between the effective temperature of a grey atmosphere in radiative equilibrium and the temperature of the black body that irradiates it (2) the temperature at any point of the atmosphere when it is in local thermodynamical equilibrium. This temperature distribution is the counterpart, for a finite slab, of Hopf's distribution in a half-space. Its graphical representation is given for various optical thicknesses of the atmosphere.
The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.
Di Maio, A J
1980-04-01
Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.
THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF GOING CONCERN AUDITING: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shvyreva O. I.
2016-04-01
Full Text Available For many consecutive years, one of the main violations on the results of external quality auditing control is the improper validation of the going concern. Our studies have shown that this problem is caused by two reasons. First, this is the normative regulation lack of signs of going concern’s violation. Secondly, this is the unreasonably high role of professional judgment of auditor in identifying and assessing the significance of features of possible liquidation (bankruptcy. The article summarizes the relevant aspects of legislative regulation of going conсern, based on the innovations of recent years. There is substantiated the assessment of the non-compliance with legislation on the net assets and share capital formation, with payment discipline, violations of other regulations influence the probability of forced entity liquidation. To solve the second problem key inadequate identification and assessment of the significance of the going concern features risks have been highlighted. The main directions of internal standardization of going concern’s auditing are suggested and substantiated. The implementation of these proposals will ensure the auditing principles of objectivity, due diligence and sustainability
Implicit theories and youth mental health problems: a random-effects meta-analysis.
Schleider, Jessica L; Abel, Madelaine R; Weisz, John R
2015-02-01
Compared to youths who believe that personal traits are malleable, those who believe that personal traits are fixed experience more academic and self-regulatory distress. Recently, studies have begun to explore relations between beliefs about the malleability of personal traits, or implicit theories, and youth mental health problems. We synthesized this emerging body of research in youths (ages 4-19) across 45 effect sizes from 17 research reports. Studies were included if they assessed youth mental health and implicit theories and did not manipulate implicit theory or affective/behavioral states prior to measuring these variables. Our random-effects meta-analysis using clustered data analysis techniques (i.e., effect sizes nested within samples) revealed that youths holding entity theories-the belief that personal traits are fixed-showed more pronounced mental health problems. This association between entity theories and mental health problems was evident across methodological factors and problem types (internalizing versus externalizing; psychopathology versus general distress). Limitations include the small number of eligible studies, insufficient data to test further demographic moderators, and few longitudinal studies on this topic. Overall, findings support the value of parsing the implicit theory-mental health link in youths. Implicit theories may prove to be promising targets for treatment and prevention of youth mental health problems.
Gauge theory on twisted kappa-Minkowski: old problems and possible solutions
Dimitrijevic, Marija; Pachol, Anna
2014-01-01
We review the application of twist deformation formalism and the construction of noncommutative gauge theory on kappa-Minkowski space-time. We compare two different types of twists: the Abelian and the Jordanian one. In each case we provide the twisted differential calculus and consider U(1) gauge theory. Different methods of obtaining a gauge invariant action and related problems are thoroughly discussed.
Gauge Theory on Twisted kappa-Minkowski: Old Problems and Possible Solutions
Dimitrijević, Marija; Jonke, Larisa; Pachoł, Anna
2014-06-01
We review the application of twist deformation formalism and the construction of noncommutative gauge theory on κ-Minkowski space-time. We compare two different types of twists: the Abelian and the Jordanian one. In each case we provide the twisted differential calculus and consider {U}(1) gauge theory. Different methods of obtaining a gauge invariant action and related problems are thoroughly discussed.
The Problems and Intentions of Structuralist Theory: The Mathematics of Mahur Beste
nesrin aydin satar
2015-01-01
The Problems and Intentions of Structuralist Theory: The Mathematics of Mahur Beste Abstract Berna Moran points out that structuralism is not only a literary theory but also a method which can be applied to various disciplines like anthropology, psychology and sociology. (Moran, 2008, p.185) Actually, this theory has gained importance with the publication of notes of the lecture by Ferdinand de Saussure and their effects on radical changes in the field of linguistics. On the other ha...
Efficient Parallel Algorithms for Some Graph Theory Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马军; 马绍汉
1993-01-01
In this paper,a sequential algorithm computing the aww vertex pair distance matrix D and the path matrix Pis given.On a PRAM EREW model with p,1≤p≤n2,processors,a parallel version of the sequential algorithm is shown.This method can also be used to get a parallel algorithm to compute transitive closure array A* of an undirected graph.The time complexity of the parallel algorithm is O(n3/p).If D,P and A* are known,it is shown that the problems to find all connected components,to compute the diameter of an undirected graph,to determine the center of a directed graph and to search for a directed cycle with the minimum(maximum)length in a directed graph can all be solved in O(n2/p+logp)time.
Second-order perturbation theory: Problems on large scales
Pound, Adam
2015-11-01
In general-relativistic perturbation theory, a point mass accelerates away from geodesic motion due to its gravitational self-force. Because the self-force is small, one can often approximate the motion as geodesic. However, it is well known that self-force effects accumulate over time, making the geodesic approximation fail on long time scales. It is less well known that this failure at large times translates to a failure at large distances as well. At second perturbative order, two large-distance pathologies arise: spurious secular growth and infrared-divergent retarded integrals. Both stand in the way of practical computations of second-order self-force effects. Utilizing a simple flat-space scalar toy model, I develop methods to overcome these obstacles. The secular growth is tamed with a multiscale expansion that captures the system's slow evolution. The divergent integrals are eliminated by matching to the correct retarded solution at large distances. I also show how to extract conservative self-force effects by taking local-in-time "snapshots" of the global solution. These methods are readily adaptable to the physically relevant case of a point mass orbiting a black hole.
Second-order perturbation theory: problems on large scales
Pound, Adam
2015-01-01
In general-relativistic perturbation theory, a point mass accelerates away from geodesic motion due to its gravitational self-force. Because the self-force is small, one can often approximate the motion as geodesic. However, it is well known that self-force effects accumulate over time, making the geodesic approximation fail on long timescales. It is less well known that this failure at large times translates to a failure at large distances as well. At second perturbative order, two large-distance pathologies arise: spurious secular growth and infrared-divergent retarded integrals. Both stand in the way of practical computations of second-order self-force effects. Utilizing a simple flat-space scalar toy model, I develop methods to overcome these obstacles. The secular growth is tamed with a multiscale expansion that captures the system's slow evolution. The divergent integrals are eliminated by matching to the correct retarded solution at large distances. I also show how to extract conservative self-force ef...
Modelling Problem-Solving Situations into Number Theory Tasks: The Route towards Generalisation
Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria
2010-01-01
This paper examines the way two 10th graders cope with a non-standard generalisation problem that involves elementary concepts of number theory (more specifically linear Diophantine equations) in the geometrical context of a rectangle's area. Emphasis is given on how the students' past experience of problem solving (expressed through interplay…
A phenomenological theory of world population growth and global problems
Kapitza, Sergei P
1996-01-01
Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant one. To describe this process in its past and project it into the future a mathematical model is worked out. It treats the world population as an entity, seen as an open and evolv The approach is phenomenological and growth over very many generations is assumed to be selfsimilar and described by scaling. In terms of kinetics, the growth rate is proportional to the square of the total number of people and the nonlinear hyperbol of all mechanisms that contribute to our development in a collective interactive process. The model gives an estimate of the beginning of human evolution c.a. 4.4 million years ago and of the total number of people who ever lived c.a. 100 billion. In the scope of the model large scale cycles defined by history and anthropology are shown to be uniformly spaced in time on a logarithmic scale, expressing and inherent periodicity. As we approach the present, this progression of cycles is now termo transition. This is a s...
Leider, Richard J.
1976-01-01
Since "life/career renewal issues will be among the most discussed of society's problems in the next five years and one of the hottest problems business and industry will be faced with," the author reviews work ethic history and recommends approaches individuals may take in view of the probable future. (Author/BP)
Inverse problem theory methods for data fitting and model parameter estimation
Tarantola, A
2002-01-01
Inverse Problem Theory is written for physicists, geophysicists and all scientists facing the problem of quantitative interpretation of experimental data. Although it contains a lot of mathematics, it is not intended as a mathematical book, but rather tries to explain how a method of acquisition of information can be applied to the actual world.The book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date description of the methods to be used for fitting experimental data, or to estimate model parameters, and to unify these methods into the Inverse Problem Theory. The first part of the book deals wi
Worked problems in heat, thermodynamics and kinetic theory for physics students
Pincherle, L; Green, L L
2013-01-01
Worked Problems in Heat, Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory for Physics Students is a complementary to textbooks in physics. This book is a collection of exercise problems that have been part of tutorial classes in heat and thermodynamics at the University of London. This collection of exercise problems, with answers that are fully worked out, deals with various topics. This book poses problems covering the definition of temperature such as calculating the assigned value of the temperature of boiling water under specific conditions. This text also gives example of problems dealing with the fir
A Cp-theory problem book special features of function spaces
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2014-01-01
The books in Vladimir Tkachuk’s A Cp-Theory Problem Book series will be the ‘go to’ texts for basic reference to Cp-theory. This second volume, Special Features of Function Spaces, gives a reasonably complete coverage of Cp-theory, systematically introducing each of the major topics and providing 500 carefully selected problems and exercises with complete solutions. Bonus results and open problems are also given. The text is designed to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research covering a wide variety of topics in Cp-theory and general topology at the professional level. The first volume, Topological and Function Spaces © 2011, provided an introduction from scratch to Cp-theory and general topology, preparing the reader for a professional understanding of Cp-theory in the last section of its main text. This second volume continues from the first, and can be used as a textbook for courses in both Cp-theory and general topology as well as a referenc...
ASYMPTOTIC THEORY OF INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR NONLINEAR PERTURBED KLEIN-GORDON EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAN Zai-hui; ZHANG Jian
2005-01-01
The asymptotic theory of initial value problems for a class of nonlinear perturbed Klein-Gordon equations in two space dimensions is considered. Firstly, using the contraction mapping principle, combining some priori estimates and the convergence of Bessel function, the well-posedness of solutions of the initial value problem in twice continuous differentiable space was obtained according to the equivalent integral equation of initial value problem for the Klein-Gordon equations. Next, formal approximations of initial value problem was constructed by perturbation method and the asymptotic validity of the formal approximation is got. Finally, an application of the asymptotic theory was given, the asymptotic approximation degree of solutions for the initial value problem of a specific nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation was analyzed by using the asymptotic approximation theorem.
Renewable Energy in European Regions
Krozer, Y.
2012-01-01
The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging
Solution of the radiative transfer theory problems by the Monte Carlo method
Marchuk, G. I.; Mikhailov, G. A.
1974-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is used for two types of problems. First, there are interpretation problems of optical observations from meteorological satellites in the short wave part of the spectrum. The sphericity of the atmosphere, the propagation function, and light polarization are considered. Second, problems dealt with the theory of spreading narrow light beams. Direct simulation of light scattering and the mathematical form of medium radiation model representation are discussed, and general integral transfer equations are calculated. The dependent tests method, derivative estimates, and solution to the inverse problem are also considered.
Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K
2007-02-01
In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.
The Communicative Multiagent Team Decision Problem: Analyzing Teamwork Theories and Models
Pynadath, D V; 10.1613/jair.1024
2011-01-01
Despite the significant progress in multiagent teamwork, existing research does not address the optimality of its prescriptions nor the complexity of the teamwork problem. Without a characterization of the optimality-complexity tradeoffs, it is impossible to determine whether the assumptions and approximations made by a particular theory gain enough efficiency to justify the losses in overall performance. To provide a tool for use by multiagent researchers in evaluating this tradeoff, we present a unified framework, the COMmunicative Multiagent Team Decision Problem (COM-MTDP). The COM-MTDP model combines and extends existing multiagent theories, such as decentralized partially observable Markov decision processes and economic team theory. In addition to their generality of representation, COM-MTDPs also support the analysis of both the optimality of team performance and the computational complexity of the agents' decision problem. In analyzing complexity, we present a breakdown of the computational complexit...
论高职英语教师教学理念的更新%Using The MI Theory to Renew the Teacher＇s Concepts in ELT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛文
2011-01-01
文章在学习多元智能理论内涵特征和实质的基础上，探讨了在追求有智慧的教育，倡导个性化的学习等五个方面来更新英语教师的教育理念。%The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which advanced by Prof. Howard Gardner from Harvard University, brings out a new knowledge of man＇s intelligences. This paper introduces that there are at least eight types of intelligence in the human brains and also discusses its practical sense and principles in English language teaching（ELT）in order to renew the teacher＇s concepts in ELT.
The problem of interaction in a dynamical theory of particles (general questions). 2
Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S S
2002-01-01
We continue the consideration of the interaction problem in the frame of a new field particle theory. Here a new correspondence principle and the connection between bilocal and usual local fields are discussed. The method of second quantization of bilocal fields is formulated and a scattering matrix is built. Explicit form of smearing operators and formfactors is found. Comparison of a new particle field theory with the old (local) axiomatic approach is given.
The group theory for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with geometric symmetric structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱峰; 杨海川; 任朗
1997-01-01
It is a very important issue to reduce computer storage and calculation time for matrix in solving scattering field by making use of geometric and physical symmetric features of a scattering body. A general definition for the symmetric and anti-symmetric structure is given by applying the group theory in mathematics and a general method for treating the electromagnetic scattering problems with symmetry is proposed. An example for applying the theory mentioned above is also given.
The Second Stokes Problem with Specular - Diffusive Boundary Conditions in Kinetic Theory
Akimova, V A; Yushkanov, A A
2012-01-01
The second Stokes problem with specular - diffusive boundary conditions of the kinetic theory is considered. The new method of the decision of the boundary problems of the kinetic theory is applied. The method allows to receive the decision with any degree of accuracy. At the basis of a method lays the idea of representation of a boundary condition on distribution function in the form of a source in the kinetic equation. By means of integrals Fourier the kinetic equation with a source is reduced to the integral equation of Fredholm type of the second kind. The decision is received in the form of Neumann's series.
Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas—Part I: Theory of relaxed problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias
2008-01-01
. The main issue of the paper and of the approach lies in the fact that the relaxed nonlinear optimization problem can be formulated as a quadratic program (QP). Here the paper generalizes and extends the available theory from the literature. Although the Hessian of this QP is indefinite, it is possible...... to circumvent the non-convexity and to calculate global optimizers. Moreover, the QPs to be treated in the branch-and-bound search tree differ from each other just in the objective function. In Part I we give an introduction to the problem and collect all theory and related proofs for the treatment...
日本教师执照更新制度的问题与动向%Problem and Tendency in Teacher License Renewal System in Japan
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李昱辉
2015-01-01
At the background of the implementation of Expenditure Reform, an accomplishment-driven state budget, the Teaching License Renewal System, devised by the Ministry of Education, is aiming to ensure the budget for compulsory education. The new system promotes the improvement of ability by periodically renewing their license. The opinion has also been expressed that this new system is necessary to eliminate incompetent teachers so as to maintain quality at a certain level and to achieve a university-centered teacher training pattern. Faced with various current problems, the system is of vital importance, and is indeed an inevitable trend to create a multi-stage license issuing system, simplify administrative training and develop a collaborative training mode.%教师执照更新制度是日本文部省在成果重视型预算编制背景下,旨在确保义务教育预算而推行的改革方案.新制度打破传统执照的终身有效性,把执照管理建立在更新研修基础上,强调以外部控制督促教师专业发展,实现以高校为中心的开放型教师研修格局.打造多阶执照体系、精简行政研修以及开发合作型研修模式是今后改革的主要趋势.
AP Theory III: Cone-like Graded SUSY, Dynamic Dark Energy and the YM Millenium Problem
Winkelnkemper, H E
2010-01-01
Artin Presentation Theory, (AP Theory), is a new, direct infusion, via pure braid theory, of discrete group theory, (i.e., symmetry in its purest form), into the theory of {\\it smooth} 4-manifolds, (i.e.,$(3+1)$-Quantum Gravity in its purest topological form), thus exhibiting the most basic, rigorous, universal, model-free intrinsic {\\it gauge-gravity} duality in a non-infinitesimal, cone-like graded, as holographic as possible, model-independent, non-perturbative, background-independent, parameter-free manner. {\\it In AP Theory even smooth topology change becomes gauge-theoretic, setting the stage for a rigorous smooth topological $(3+1)$-QFT of Dynamic Dark Energy.} In this theory, the rigid $\\infty$ of the dimension of classical Hilbert space is substituted by the dynamic $\\infty$ of the $\\infty$ generation at each stage of a cone-like graded subgroup of topology-changing transitions/interactions. As a corollary, the Cosmological Constant problem and the YM Millenium Mass Gap problem, two of the most perpl...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korelkin, G.; Knyazev, A.
2003-07-01
From 1990 up to now, the rate of renewal of the main power generating capacities in Russia as well as in the Ural region decreased considerably. Accordingly, the problems of physical depreciation and obsolescence of equipment installed at TPS, heating and electric networks have become acute during the past few years. This resulted in deterioration of boiler performance and gradual reduction of general effectiveness of power generating facilities. Sverdlovskenergo faces the problems too. Over the past 15 years intense convection transfer surfaces (ribbed, membrane-, band-spiral and combined type) were introduced at 17 boilers. This retrofit gave fuel saving up to 3000 t of conventional fuel annually per one boiler. A wide range of works is being executed to ensure ecological safety of combustion processes. Twenty one boilers of IE-14 type at Serovskaya and Verkhnetagilskaya TPS, equipped with coal handling systems with direct blow , simplified two- and three-stage solid fuel combustion schemes were introduced. Staged combustion of ekibastuz coal was realized via the formation of oxygen-deficient and oxygen-excess zones by pulverized coal redistribution between the burners. Centrifugal coal powder distributor directing air/fuel mixture to two burners located in two rows was designed. 5 figs.
Error estimations of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear problems of shallow shell theory
Karchevsky, M.
2016-11-01
The variational formulations of problems of equilibrium of a shallow shell in the framework of the geometrically and physically nonlinear theory by boundary conditions of different main types, including non-classical, are considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for their solvability are derived. Mixed finite element methods for the approximate solutions to these problems based on the use of second derivatives of the bending as auxiliary variables are proposed. Estimations of accuracy of approximate solutions are established.
2015-09-24
19. Colloquium lecture at College of Management , National Chiao Tung University, June 22, 2012. Title: Unified Framework in Global Supply Chain and...the well-known logistic equation in population dynamical systems can be reformulated as a global optimization problem, which could have at most 2n...making, supply chain , scheduling problems, and computational mechanics, etc. Impacts to the communities: The canonical duality theory is now
Special function related to the concave-convex boundary problem of the diffraction theory
Kazakov, A Y
2003-01-01
The concave-convex boundary problem of the diffraction theory is studied. It corresponds to the scattering of a whispering gallery mode on the point of inflection of the boundary. A new special function related to this boundary problem is introduced and its particular properties are discussed. This special function is defined as a contour integral on the complex plane and its behaviour in different domains of parameters is considered.
Iryna Sidanich
2016-01-01
In the article were analyzed the modern tendencies and problems of the theory of spiritual-moral processes management in the higher school. There were defined the node tasks of reformation of higher education: ensuring its quality, construction of effective educational system of the higher school institutions with effective economy and management. There was characterized the problem of ensuring axiological direction of spiritual-humanitarian component of educational process in the system of h...
Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry
2010-01-01
The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.
Arutyunov, V. S.; Lisichkin, G. V.
2017-08-01
The state of the art and the major trends of development of world energy engineering are analyzed. It is concluded that throughout the 21st century the role of alternative sources will remain rather modest. Fossil fuel will still be the major source of energy until the end of the century. Because of depletion of accessible oil resources, the proportion of crude oil in the world energy balance will constantly decline, while the proportion of natural gas will grow. It is shown that energy production from any source, including alternative sources, cannot be environmentally benign if the scale of production is large. In the long term, humanity has no sources other than fusion energy, but transition to this source would not solve the problem of the planet's heat balance. The bibliography includes 70 references.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan
2008-09-15
natural gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan
2008-09-15
natural gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental
The Problems and Intentions of Structuralist Theory: The Mathematics of Mahur Beste
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
nesrin aydin satar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Problems and Intentions of Structuralist Theory: The Mathematics of Mahur Beste Abstract Berna Moran points out that structuralism is not only a literary theory but also a method which can be applied to various disciplines like anthropology, psychology and sociology. (Moran, 2008, p.185 Actually, this theory has gained importance with the publication of notes of the lecture by Ferdinand de Saussure and their effects on radical changes in the field of linguistics. On the other hand, because the theory aims to search out deep structure of the elements of communication that we experience any time in everyday life, the application of this theory in social sciences is not surprising. It is possible to think that using structuralist theory in literary texts means to ignore the literary side of the text. It is because, the literary text is usually written with feelings, not mathematical reasoning. On the other hand, it might be described as a problem that structuralist theory focuses on only a text, and it neglects the writer and the social, cultural or economic conditions that create a text. Nevertheless, the structuralist theory offers many data about deep/basic structure of the text. This paper examines the troubles and utility of structuralism leaded by linguists and literature theorists such as Ferdinand de Saussure, Viktor Shklovsky and Roman Jakobson. After this examination, Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar’s novel, Mahur Beste is analyzed with the theory and the mathematical side of novel is found out. By this way, it is shown how the structuralism is used to reach the deep structure of literary text.
Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios
2012-01-01
In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…
Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios
2012-01-01
In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…
Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.
2016-01-01
Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…
Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.
2016-01-01
Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…
Some relations between duality theory for extremum problems and variational inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giandomenico Mastroeni
1994-11-01
Full Text Available After revisiting the well-known relationship with the minimax theory, some duality results for constrained extremum problems are related to variational inequalities. In particular, the connection with saddle point conditions and gap functions associated to the variational inequality are analysed.
Open Problems in Applying Random-Matrix Theory to Nuclear Reactions
Weidenmueller, H A
2014-01-01
Problems in applying random-matrix theory (RMT) to nuclear reactions arise in two domains. To justify the approach, statistical properties of isolated resonances observed experimentally must agree with RMT predictions. That agreement is less striking than would be desirable. In the implementation of the approach, the range of theoretically predicted observables is too narrow.
Open problems in applying random-matrix theory to nuclear reactions
Weidenmüller, H. A.
2014-09-01
Problems in applying random-matrix theory (RMT) to nuclear reactions arise in two domains. To justify the approach, statistical properties of isolated resonances observed experimentally must agree with RMT predictions. That agreement is less striking than would be desirable. In the implementation of the approach, the range of theoretically predicted observables is too narrow.
Walter, Sara Meghan; Lambie, Glenn W.; Ngazimbi, Evadne E.
2008-01-01
The purpose of this article is to provide middle level educators with an orientation to the theoretical constructs and tenets of Choice Theory (Glasser, 1998) as both a preventive and remedial framework for supporting the development of students exhibiting school disciplinary behavioral problems. The following three topics are addressed: (1)…
Phase transitions in number theory: from the birthday problem to Sidon sets.
Luque, Bartolo; Torre, Iván G; Lacasa, Lucas
2013-11-01
In this work, we show how number theoretical problems can be fruitfully approached with the tools of statistical physics. We focus on g-Sidon sets, which describe sequences of integers whose pairwise sums are different, and propose a random decision problem which addresses the probability of a random set of k integers to be g-Sidon. First, we provide numerical evidence showing that there is a crossover between satisfiable and unsatisfiable phases which converts to an abrupt phase transition in a properly defined thermodynamic limit. Initially assuming independence, we then develop a mean-field theory for the g-Sidon decision problem. We further improve the mean-field theory, which is only qualitatively correct, by incorporating deviations from independence, yielding results in good quantitative agreement with the numerics for both finite systems and in the thermodynamic limit. Connections between the generalized birthday problem in probability theory, the number theory of Sidon sets and the properties of q-Potts models in condensed matter physics are briefly discussed.
The FN method for anisotropic scattering in neutron transport theory: the critical slab problem.
Gülecyüz, M. C.; Tezcan, C.
1996-08-01
The FN method which has been applied to many physical problems for isotropic and anisotropic scattering in neutron transport theory is extended for problems for extremely anisotropic scattering. This method depends on the Placzek lemma and the use of the infinite medium Green's function. Here the Green's function for extremely anisotropic scattering which was expressed as a combination of the Green's functions for isotropic scattering is used to solve the critical slab problem. It is shown that the criticality condition is in agreement with the one obtained previously by reducing the transport equation for anisotropic scattering to isotropic scattering and solving using the FN method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mello, P.A.; Pereyra, P.; Seligman, T.H.
1985-05-01
Ensembles of scattering S-matrices have been used in the past to describe the statistical fluctuations exhibited by many nuclear-reaction cross sections as a function of energy. In recent years, there have been attempts to construct these ensembles explicitly in terms of S, by directly proposinng a statistical law for S. In the present paper, it is shown that, for an arbitrary number of channels, one can incorporate, in the ensemble of S-matrices, the conditions of flux conservation, time-reversal invariance, causality, ergodicity, and the requirement that the ensemble average coincide with the optical scattering matrix. Since these conditions do not specify the ensemble uniquely, the ensemble that has maximum information-entropy is dealt with among those that satisfy the above requirements. Some applications to few-channel problems and comparisons to Monte-Carlo calculations are presented.
Liveness Problem of Petri Nets Supervisory Control Theory for Discrete Event Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong-Ye SU; Wei-Min WU; Jian CHU
2005-01-01
A quite great progress of the supervisory control theory for discrete event systems (DES)has been made in the past nearly twenty years, and now, automata, formal language and Petri nets become the main research tools. This paper focus on the Petri nets based supervisory control theory of DES. Firstly, we review the research results in this field, and claim that there generally exists a problem in Petri nets based supervisory control theory of DES, that is, the deadlock caused by the controller introduced to enforce the given specification occurs in the closed-loop systems, especially the deadlock occurs in the closed-loop system in which the original plant is live. Finally, a possible research direction is presented for the solution of this problem.
Some Problems in Nonlinear Dynamic Instability and Bifurcation Theory for Engineering Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭妙娟; 程玉民
2005-01-01
In civil engineering, the nonlinear dynamic instability of structures occurs at a bifurcation point or a limit point. The instability at a bifurcation point can be analyzed with the theory of nonlinear dynamics, and that at a limit point can be discussed with the theory of elastoplasticity. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic instability of structures was treated with mathematical and mechanical theories. The research methods for the problems of structural nonlinear dynamic stability were discussed first, and then the criterion of stability or instability of structures, the method to obtain the bifurcation point and the limit point, and the formulae of the directions of the branch solutions at a bifurcation point were elucidated. These methods can be applied to the problems of nonlinear dynamic instability of structures such as reticulated shells, space grid structures, and so on.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Sciberras de Carvalho
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴安民
2003-01-01
The purpose is to reestablish the coupled conservation laws, the local conservation equations and the jump conditions of mass and inertia for polar continuum theories. In this connection the new material derivatives of the deformation gradient, the line element, the surface element and the volume element were derived and the generalized Reynolds transport theorem was presented. Combining these conservation laws of mass and inertia with the balance laws of momentum, angular momentum and energy derived in our previous papers of this series, a rather complete system of coupled basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories is constituted on the whole. From this system the coupled nonlocal balance equations of mass, inertia, momentum, angular momentum and energy may be obtained by the usual localization.
OPTIMAL THICKNESS OF A CYLINDRICAL SHELL - AN OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM IN LINEAR ELASTICITY THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Nestler
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss optimization problems for cylindrical tubeswhich are loaded by an applied force. This is a problem of optimal control in linear elasticity theory (shape optimization. We are looking for an optimal thickness minimizing the deflection (deformation of the tube under the influence of an external force. From basic equations of mechanics, we derive the equation of deformation. We apply the displacement approach from shell theory and make use of the hypotheses of Mindlin and Reissner. A corresponding optimal control problem is formulated and first order necessary conditions for the optimal solution (optimal thickness are derived. We present numerical examples which were solved by the finite element method.
Loop theory and applications to some key problems of kinematic structure of kinematic chains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huafeng DING; Zhen HUANG
2009-01-01
Structure synthesis of mechanisms is a pivotal issue in the field of mechanical innovation and mechanical conceptual design. In this paper, a new loop theory of kinematic chains is proposed. Based on this theory, some key problems that hamper computer-based automatic synthesis of mechanisms are solved. 1) The open problem of isomorphism of kinematic chains that has lasted for more than four decades is successfully solved. 2) A new rigid sub-chain detection method that is especially suitable for complex chains is proposed. 3) The characteristic representation code remains the same even if the drawing modes and labeling ways of a chain are changed, and an atlas database of kinematic chains is established. The multi-value problem for the representation of kinematic chains is solved. The results in this paper will benefit the digitization and computerization of mechanical conceptual design.
More on dimension-4 proton decay problem in F-theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Hirotaka, E-mail: hirotakahayashi@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawano, Teruhiko; Tsuchiya, Yoichi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Watari, Taizan [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)
2010-11-21
Factorized spectral surface scenario has been considered as one of solutions to the dimension-4 proton decay problem in supersymmetric compactifications of F-theory. It has been formulated in language of gauge theory on 7+1 dimensions, but the gauge theory descriptions can capture physics of geometry of F-theory compactification only approximately at best. Given the severe constraint on the renormalizable couplings that lead to proton decay, it is worth studying without an approximation whether or not the proton decay operators are removed completely in this scenario. We clarify how the behavior of spectral surface and discriminant locus are related, study monodromy of 2-cycles in a Calabi-Yau 4-fold geometry, and find that the proton decay operators are likely to be generated in a simple factorization limit of the spectral surface. A list of loopholes in this study, and hence a list of chances to save the factorized spectral surface scenario, is also presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krystel K. Castillo-Villar
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Bioenergy is a new source of energy that accounts for a substantial portion of the renewable energy production in many countries. The production of bioenergy is expected to increase due to its unique advantages, such as no harmful emissions and abundance. Supply-related problems are the main obstacles precluding the increase of use of biomass (which is bulky and has low energy density to produce bioenergy. To overcome this challenge, large-scale optimization models are needed to be solved to enable decision makers to plan, design, and manage bioenergy supply chains. Therefore, the use of effective optimization approaches is of great importance. The traditional mathematical methods (such as linear, integer, and mixed-integer programming frequently fail to find optimal solutions for non-convex and/or large-scale models whereas metaheuristics are efficient approaches for finding near-optimal solutions that use less computational resources. This paper presents a comprehensive review by studying and analyzing the application of metaheuristics to solve bioenergy supply chain models as well as the exclusive challenges of the mathematical problems applied in the bioenergy supply chain field. The reviewed metaheuristics include: (1 population approaches, such as ant colony optimization (ACO, the genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and bee colony algorithm (BCA; and (2 trajectory approaches, such as the tabu search (TS and simulated annealing (SA. Based on the outcomes of this literature review, the integrated design and planning of bioenergy supply chains problem has been solved primarily by implementing the GA. The production process optimization was addressed primarily by using both the GA and PSO. The supply chain network design problem was treated by utilizing the GA and ACO. The truck and task scheduling problem was solved using the SA and the TS, where the trajectory-based methods proved to outperform the population
Extension Theory and Krein-type Resolvent Formulas for Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abels, Helmut; Grubb, Gerd; Wood, Ian Geoffrey
2014-01-01
The theory of selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators, and more generally the theory of extensions of dual pairs, was implemented some years ago for boundary value problems for elliptic operators on smooth bounded domains. Recently, the questions have been taken up again for nonsmooth domains....... In the present work we show that pseudodifferential methods can be used to obtain a full characterization, including Kreĭn resolvent formulas, of the realizations of nonselfadjoint second-order operators on
A first look at quasi-Monte Carlo for lattice field theory problems
Jansen, K; Nube, A; Griewank, A; Mueller-Preussker, M
2012-01-01
In this project we initiate an investigation of the applicability of Quasi-Monte Carlo methods to lattice field theories in order to improve the asymptotic error behavior of observables for such theories. In most cases the error of an observable calculated by averaging over random observations generated from an ordinary Monte Carlo simulation behaves like 1/sqrt(N), where N is the number of observations. By means of Quasi-Monte Carlo methods it is possible to improve this behavior for certain problems to up to 1/N. We adapted and applied this approach to simple systems like the quantum harmonic and anharmonic oscillator and verified an improved error scaling.
The Approximate Solution of Some Plane Boundary Value Problems of the Moment Theory of Elasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman Janjgava
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a two-dimensional system of differential equations of the moment theory of elasticity. The general solution of this system is represented by two arbitrary harmonic functions and solution of the Helmholtz equation. Based on the general solution, an algorithm of constructing approximate solutions of boundary value problems is developed. Using the proposed method, the approximate solutions of some problems on stress concentration on the contours of holes are constructed. The values of stress concentration coefficients obtained in the case of moment elasticity and for the classical elastic medium are compared. In the final part of the paper, we construct the approximate solution of a nonlocal problem whose exact solution is already known and compare our approximate solution with the exact one. Supposedly, the proposed method makes it possible to construct approximate solutions of quite a wide class of boundary value problems.
Probabilistic sampling of finite renewal processes
Antunes, Nelson; 10.3150/10-BEJ321
2012-01-01
Consider a finite renewal process in the sense that interrenewal times are positive i.i.d. variables and the total number of renewals is a random variable, independent of interrenewal times. A finite point process can be obtained by probabilistic sampling of the finite renewal process, where each renewal is sampled with a fixed probability and independently of other renewals. The problem addressed in this work concerns statistical inference of the original distributions of the total number of renewals and interrenewal times from a sample of i.i.d. finite point processes obtained by sampling finite renewal processes. This problem is motivated by traffic measurements in the Internet in order to characterize flows of packets (which can be seen as finite renewal processes) and where the use of packet sampling is becoming prevalent due to increasing link speeds and limited storage and processing capacities.
Boyle, Godfrey
2004-05-01
Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.
The Gauge Hierarchy Problem and High Dimensional Yang-Mills Theories
Hatanaka, H; Lim, C S
1998-01-01
We report on an attempt to solve the gauge hierarchy problem in the framework of higher dimensional gauge theories. Both classical Higgs mass and quadratically divergent quantum correction to the mass are argued to vanish. Hence the hierarchy problem in its original sense is solved. The remaining finite mass correction is shown to depend crucially on the choice of boundary condition for matter fields, and a way to fix it dynamically is presented. We also point out that on the simply-connected space $S^2$ even the finite mass correction vanishes.
A selection of problems in the theory of numbers popular lectures in mathematics
Sierpinski, Waclaw; Stark, M
1964-01-01
A Selection of Problems in the Theory of Numbers focuses on mathematical problems within the boundaries of geometry and arithmetic, including an introduction to prime numbers. This book discusses the conjecture of Goldbach; hypothesis of Gilbreath; decomposition of a natural number into prime factors; simple theorem of Fermat; and Lagrange's theorem. The decomposition of a prime number into the sum of two squares; quadratic residues; Mersenne numbers; solution of equations in prime numbers; and magic squares formed from prime numbers are also elaborated in this text. This publication is a good
Potential function methods for approximately solving linear programming problems theory and practice
Bienstock, Daniel
2002-01-01
Potential Function Methods For Approximately Solving Linear Programming Problems breaks new ground in linear programming theory. The book draws on the research developments in three broad areas: linear and integer programming, numerical analysis, and the computational architectures which enable speedy, high-level algorithm design. During the last ten years, a new body of research within the field of optimization research has emerged, which seeks to develop good approximation algorithms for classes of linear programming problems. This work both has roots in fundamental areas of mathematical programming and is also framed in the context of the modern theory of algorithms. The result of this work, in which Daniel Bienstock has been very much involved, has been a family of algorithms with solid theoretical foundations and with growing experimental success. This book will examine these algorithms, starting with some of the very earliest examples, and through the latest theoretical and computational developments.
Motion in classical field theories and the foundations of the self-force problem
Harte, Abraham I
2014-01-01
This article serves as a pedagogical introduction to the problem of motion in classical field theories. The primary focus is on self-interaction: How does an object's own field affect its motion? General laws governing the self-force and self-torque are derived using simple, non-perturbative arguments. The relevant concepts are developed gradually by considering motion in a series of increasingly complicated theories. Newtonian gravity is discussed first, then Klein-Gordon theory, electromagnetism, and finally general relativity. Linear and angular momenta as well as centers of mass are defined in each of these cases. Multipole expansions for the force and torque are then derived to all orders for arbitrarily self-interacting extended objects. These expansions are found to be structurally identical to the laws of motion satisfied by extended test bodies, except that all relevant fields are replaced by effective versions which exclude the self-fields in a particular sense. Regularization methods traditionally ...
Some applications of W. Rudin's inequality to problems of combinatorial number theory
Shkredov, I D
2010-01-01
In the paper we obtain some new applications of well--known W. Rudin's theorem concerning lacunary series to problems of combinatorial number theory. We generalize a result of M.-C. Chang on L_2 (L)-norm of Fourier coefficients of a set (here L is a dissociated set), and prove a dual version of the theorem. Our main instrument is computing of eigenvalues of some operators.
Derivational Analogy: A Theory of Reconstructive Problem Solving and Expertise Acquisition.,
2014-09-26
Failed attempts, and members of other clusters provide the negative exemplars to an induction engine. DERIVATIONAL ANALOGY 1. Introduction: The Role of...transformational analogy , has been successfully implemented in ARIES (An:logical Reasoning and Inductive Experimentation System) [9]. The second approach, called...RD-ARi5 917 DERIYATIONAL ANALOGY A THEORY OF RECONSTRUCTIVE 1/1 PROBLEM SOLVING RND EXPE..(U) CRRNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PR DEPT OF COMPUTER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakhno, V. D., E-mail: lak@impb.psn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology (Russian Federation)
2013-06-15
A physical interpretation of translation-invariant polarons and bipolarons is presented, some results of their existence are discussed. Consideration is given to the problem of quantization in the vicinity of the classical solution in the quantum field theory. The lowest variational estimate is obtained for the bipolaron energy E({eta}) with E(0) = -0.440636{alpha}{sup 2}, where {alpha} is a constant of electron-phonon coupling, {eta} is a parameter of ion binding.
Inverse problems with Poisson data: statistical regularization theory, applications and algorithms
Hohage, Thorsten; Werner, Frank
2016-09-01
Inverse problems with Poisson data arise in many photonic imaging modalities in medicine, engineering and astronomy. The design of regularization methods and estimators for such problems has been studied intensively over the last two decades. In this review we give an overview of statistical regularization theory for such problems, the most important applications, and the most widely used algorithms. The focus is on variational regularization methods in the form of penalized maximum likelihood estimators, which can be analyzed in a general setup. Complementing a number of recent convergence rate results we will establish consistency results. Moreover, we discuss estimators based on a wavelet-vaguelette decomposition of the (necessarily linear) forward operator. As most prominent applications we briefly introduce Positron emission tomography, inverse problems in fluorescence microscopy, and phase retrieval problems. The computation of a penalized maximum likelihood estimator involves the solution of a (typically convex) minimization problem. We also review several efficient algorithms which have been proposed for such problems over the last five years.
Stamovlasis, Dimitrios
2006-01-01
The current study tests the nonlinear dynamical hypothesis in science education problem solving by applying catastrophe theory. Within the neo-Piagetian framework a cusp catastrophe model is proposed, which accounts for discontinuities in students' performance as a function of two controls: the functional M-capacity as asymmetry and the degree of field dependence/independence as bifurcation. The two controls have functional relation with two opponent processes, the processing of relevant information and the inhibitory process of dis-embedding irrelevant information respectively. Data from achievement scores of freshmen at a technological college were measured at two points in time, and were analyzed using dynamic difference equations and statistical regression techniques. The cusp catastrophe model proved superior (R(2)=0.77) comparing to the pre-post linear counterpart (R(2)=0.46). Besides the empirical evidence, theoretical analyses are provided, which attempt to build bridges between NDS-theory concepts and science education problem solving and to neo-Piagetian theories as well. This study sets a framework for the application of catastrophe theory in education.
The cosmological constant problem in heterotic-M-theory and the orbifold of time
Zanzi, Andrea
2016-01-01
Chameleon fields are quantum fields with an increasing mass as a function of the matter density of the environment. Recently chameleon fields have been exploited to solve the cosmological constant problem in the Modified Fujii's Model - MFM [Phys Rev D82 (2010) 044006]. However, gravity has been treated basically at a semiclassical level in that paper. In this article the stringy origin of the MFM is further discussed: as we will see, the MFM can be obtained from heterotic-M-theory. Consequently, a quantum description of gravity is obtained and the theory is finite because we choose the string mass as our UV cut-off. This stringy origin of the MFM creates stronger theoretical grounds for our solution to the cosmological constant problem. In our analysis, time will be compactified on a $S^1/Z_2$ orbifold and this peculiar compactification of time has a number of consequences. For example, as we will see, quantum gravity and a quantum gauge theory are actually the same theory in the sense that gravity is the ti...
Limitations in direct and indirect methods for solving optimal control problems in growth theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ratković Kruna
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on a comprehensive analysis of different methods and mathematical techniques used for solving optimal control problems (OCP in growth theory. Most important methods for solving dynamic non-linear infinite-horizon growth models using optimal control theory are presented and a critical view of the limitations of different methods is given. The main problem is to determine the optimal rate of growth over time in a way that maximizes the welfare function over an infinite horizon. The welfare function depends on capital-labor ratio, the state variable, and the per-capita consumption, the control variable. Numerical methods for solving OCP are divided into two classes: direct and indirect approach. How the indirect approach can be used is given in the example of the neo-classical growth model. In order to present the indirect and the direct approach simultaneously, two endogenous growth models, one written by Romer and another by Lucas and Uzawa, are studied. Advantages and efficiency of these different approaches will be discussed. Although the indirect methods for solving OCP are still the most expanded in growth theory, it will be seen that using direct methods can also be very efficient and help to overcome problems that can occur by using the indirect approach.
Park, Chandeok
This dissertation presents a general methodology for solving the optimal feedback control problem in the context of Hamiltonian system theory. It is first formulated as a two point boundary value problem for a standard Hamiltonian system, and the associated phase flow is viewed as a canonical transformation. Then relying on the Hamilton-Jacobi theory, we employ generating functions to develop a unified methodology for solving a variety of optimal feedback control formulations with general types of boundary conditions. The major accomplishment is to establish a theoretical connection between the optimal cost function and a special kind of generating function. Guided by this recognition, we are ultimately led to a new flexible representation of the optimal feedback control law for a given system, which is adjustable to various types of boundary conditions by algebraic conversions and partial differentiations. This adaptive property provides a substantial advantage over the classical dynamic programming method in the sense that we do not need to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation repetitively for varying types of boundary conditions. Furthermore for a special type of boundary condition, it also enables us to work around an inherent singularity of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation by a special algebraic transformation. Taking full advantage of these theoretical insights, we develop a systematic algorithm for solving a class of optimal feedback control problems represented by smooth analytic Hamiltonians, and apply it to problems with different characteristics. Then, broadening the practical utility of generating functions for problems where the relevant Hamiltonian is non-smooth, we construct a pair of Cauchy problems from the associated Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This alternative formulation is justified by solving problems with control constraints which usually feature non-smoothness in the control logic. The main result of this research establishes that
Application of fuzzy theories to formulation of multi-objective design problems. [for helicopters
Dhingra, A. K.; Rao, S. S.; Miura, H.
1988-01-01
Much of the decision making in real world takes place in an environment in which the goals, the constraints, and the consequences of possible actions are not known precisely. In order to deal with imprecision quantitatively, the tools of fuzzy set theory can by used. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of fuzzy theories in the formulation and solution of two types of helicopter design problems involving multiple objectives. The first problem deals with the determination of optimal flight parameters to accomplish a specified mission in the presence of three competing objectives. The second problem addresses the optimal design of the main rotor of a helicopter involving eight objective functions. A method of solving these multi-objective problems using nonlinear programming techniques is presented. Results obtained using fuzzy formulation are compared with those obtained using crisp optimization techniques. The outlined procedures are expected to be useful in situations where doubt arises about the exactness of permissible values, degree of credibility, and correctness of statements and judgements.
Salekin, Randall T; Lester, Whitney S; Sellers, Mary-Kate
2012-08-01
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a motivational intervention on conduct problem youth with psychopathic features. Specifically, the current study examined conduct problem youths' mental set (or theory) regarding intelligence (entity vs. incremental) upon task performance. We assessed 36 juvenile offenders with psychopathic features and tested whether providing them with two different messages regarding intelligence would affect their functioning on a task related to academic performance. The study employed a MANOVA design with two motivational conditions and three outcomes including fluency, flexibility, and originality. Results showed that youth with psychopathic features who were given a message that intelligence grows over time, were more fluent and flexible than youth who were informed that intelligence is static. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of originality. The implications of these findings are discussed including the possible benefits of interventions for adolescent offenders with conduct problems and psychopathic features.
A review of the decoherent histories approach to the arrival time problem in quantum theory
Yearsley, James M
2010-01-01
We review recent progress in understanding the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, from the point of view of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory. We begin by discussing the arrival time problem, focussing in particular on the role of the probability current in the expected classical solution. After a brief introduction to decoherent histories we review the use of complex potentials in the construction of appropriate class operators. We then discuss the arrival time problem for a particle coupled to an environment, and review how the arrival time probability can be expressed in terms of a POVM in this case. We turn finally to the question of decoherence of the corresponding histories, and we show that this can be achieved for simple states in the case of a free particle, and for general states for a particle coupled to an environment.
Integration of axiomatic design and theory of inventive problem solving for conceptual design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Qi-hua; XIAO Ren-bin; ZHONG Yi-fang; DU Yi-xian; YANG Hong-mei
2009-01-01
Axiomatic design (AD) and theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) are widely used in conceptual design. Both of them have limitations, however. We presented an integrated model of these two methods to increase the efficiency and quality of the problem solving process for conceptual design. AD is used for systematically defining and structuring a problem into a hierarchy. Sometimes, the design matrix is coupled in AD which indicates the functional requirements are coupled. TRIZ separation principles can be used to separate non-independent design parameters, which provide innovative solutions at each hierarchical level. We applied the integrated model to the heating and drying equipment of bitumen reproduction device. The result verifies that the integrated model can work very well in conceptual design.
GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND GAME THEORY FOR HIGH LIFT DESIGN PROBLEMS IN AERODYNAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PériauxJacques; WangJiangfeng; WuYizhao
2002-01-01
A multi-objective evolutionary optimization method (combining genetic algorithms(GAs)and game theory(GT))is presented for high lift multi-airfoil systems in aerospace engineering.Due to large dimension global op-timization problems and the increasing importance of low cost distributed parallel environments,it is a natural idea to replace a globar optimization by decentralized local sub-optimizations using GT which introduces the notion of games associated to an optimization problem.The GT/GAs combined optimization method is used for recon-struction and optimization problems by high lift multi-air-foil desing.Numerical results are favorably compared with single global GAs.The method shows teh promising robustness and efficient parallel properties of coupled GAs with different game scenarios for future advanced multi-disciplinary aerospace techmologies.
Piest, Jürgen
1989-06-01
This is the first of a series of three papers which report on an theoretical turbulence investigation. In the present part, the Reynolds equation for the mean velocity field in turbulent shear flow is derived in a systematic way starting from established physical knowledge. A basic problem of contemporary turbulence theory is that, at the hydrodynamic level, there seems to be no way presently to derive systematically the initial probability distribution of the fluctuating momentum density. For this reason, N-particle statistical mechanics is employed in this investigation. The closure problem of continuum turbulence theory is avoided by this method. The technique of deriving transport equations from the Liouville equation by projection operator methods is used for the derivation. Stationary constant density/temperature processes are considered only. The dissipative term of the momemtum transport equation is analyzed in order to obtain the formulas for the laminar and turbulent friction forces. The latter is obtained as a second-order convolution in the mean velocity field. The kernel function is a time integral of an equilibrium triple correlation function; it constitutes a physical “constant” of the fluid which is needed in addition to the viscosity constant. Its calculation has been the object of a separate investigation which will be reported in the second paper. The third paper describes the numerical evaluation and comparison with experiment for the spherical case of the circular jet. In the present state, the theoretical formula does not reproduce the experimental data. This is considered a preliminary result which, in view of the systematic nature of the derivation, offers the possibility to trace it back to the spots where the theoretical structure is still not adequate.
The problem-solving approach in the teaching of number theory
Toh, Pee Choon; Hoong Leong, Yew; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Guan Tay, Eng; Him Ho, Foo
2014-02-01
Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to adopt a Pólya-style approach in learning mathematics. The Practical Worksheet is an instructional scaffold we adopted to help our pre-service mathematics teachers develop problem-solving dispositions alongside the learning of the subject matter. The Worksheet was initially used in a design experiment aimed at teaching problem solving in a secondary school. In this paper, we describe an application and adaptation of the MProSE (Mathematical Problem Solving for Everyone) design experiment to a university level number theory course for pre-service mathematics teachers. The goal of the enterprise was to help the pre-service mathematics teachers develop problem-solving dispositions alongside the learning of the subject matter. Our analysis of the pre-service mathematics teachers' work shows that the MProSE design holds promise for mathematics courses at the tertiary level.
2016-01-01
A review of studies performed using the R-functions theory to solve problems of nonlinear dynamics of plates and shallow shells is presented. The systematization of results and studies for the problems of free and parametric vibrations and for problems of static and dynamic stability is fulfilled. Expansion of the developed original method of discretization for nonlinear movement equations on new classes of nonlinear problems is shown. These problems include researches of vibratio...
Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik
This addition to the ISOR series addresses the analytics of the operations of electric energy systems with increasing penetration of stochastic renewable production facilities, such as wind- and solar-based generation units. As stochastic renewable production units become ubiquitous throughout...... electric energy systems, an increasing level of flexible backup provided by non-stochastic units and other system agents is needed if supply security and quality are to be maintained. Within the context above, this book provides up-to-date analytical tools to address challenging operational problems...... such as: • The modeling and forecasting of stochastic renewable power production. • The characterization of the impact of renewable production on market outcomes. • The clearing of electricity markets with high penetration of stochastic renewable units. • The development of mechanisms to counteract...
"Emergence" vs. "Forcing" of Empirical Data? A Crucial Problem of "Grounded Theory" Reconsidered
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Udo Kelle
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Since the late 1960s Barney GLASER and Anselm STRAUSS, developers of the methodology of "Grounded Theory" have made several attempts to explicate, clarify and reconceptualise some of the basic tenets of their methodological approach. Diverging concepts and understandings of Grounded Theory have arisen from these attempts which have led to a split between its founders. Much of the explication and reworking of Grounded Theory surrounds the relation between data and theory and the role of previous theoretical assumptions. The book which initially established the popularity of GLASER's and STRAUSS' methodological ideas, "The Discovery of Grounded Theory", contains two conflicting understandings of the relation between data and theory—the concept of "emergence" on the one hand and the concept of "theoretical sensitivity" on the other hand. Much of the later developments of Grounded Theory can be seen as attempts to reconcile these prima facie diverging concepts. Thereby GLASER recommends to draw on a variety of "coding families" while STRAUSS proposes the use of a general theory of action to build an axis for an emerging theory. This paper first summarises the most important developments within "Grounded Theory" concerning the understanding of the relation between empirical data and theoretical statements. Thereby special emphasis will be laid on differences between GLASER's and STRAUSS' concepts and on GLASER's current critique that the concepts of "coding paradigm" and "axial coding" described by STRAUSS and Juliet CORBIN lead to the "forcing" of data. It will be argued that GLASER's critique points out some existing weaknesses of STRAUSS' concepts but vastly exaggerates the risks of the STRAUSSian approach. A main argument of this paper is that basic problems of empirically grounded theory construction can be treated much more effectively if one draws on certain results of contemporary philosophical and epistemological discussions and on widely
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape
Borthwick, Alistair G. L.
2015-01-01
Marine renewable energy has a major part to play in closing the world’s energy gap and lowering carbon emissions. Key global challenges relate to technology, grid infrastructure, cost and investment, environmental impact, and marine governance. Offshore wind turbines typically consist of three blades rotating about a hub. Although offshore wind technology is rapidly being implemented, there remain many fascinating engineering problems to overcome. These include: offshore foundations and float...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E Gericke
2011-04-01
Full Text Available In South Africa, the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (LRA regulates and protects the position of the employee who reasonably expects that a fixed-term contract will be renewed on the same or similar terms while the employer only offered to renew the contract on less favourable terms or in some instances was not prepared torenew the fixed-term contract at all. The LRA regards the latter conduct as a dismissal, as long as the employee can prove that the employer was responsible for creating the reasonable expectation of contractual renewal. In contrast to this position, the LRA does not regulate or protect the position of the employee whose fixed-term contract was repeatedly renewed on the same, similar or even improved terms, while the employer was in a position to offer the employee indefinite employment. The employer may even have created a reasonable expectation that repeated renewals would result in permanent employment. The exploitation and abuse of the fixed-term contract to the extent that an employee is deprived of employment security and the benefits linked to an employment relationship of indefinite duration have prompted a comparative investigation into this particular field of law.
Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara
2012-10-01
of concrete instances with special properties. The aim of this special section is to provide a forum for highly topical ongoing work in the area of regularization in Banach spaces, its numerics and its applications. Indeed, we have been lucky enough to obtain a number of excellent papers both from colleagues who have previously been contributing to this topic and from researchers entering the field due to its relevance in practical inverse problems. We would like to thank all contributers for enabling us to present a high quality collection of papers on topics ranging from various aspects of regularization via efficient numerical solution to applications in PDE models. We give a brief overview of the contributions included in this issue (here ordered alphabetically by first author). In their paper, Iterative regularization with general penalty term—theory and application to L1 and TV regularization, Radu Bot and Torsten Hein provide an extension of the Landweber iteration for linear operator equations in Banach space to general operators in place of the inverse duality mapping, which corresponds to the use of general regularization functionals in variational regularization. The L∞ topology in data space corresponds to the frequently occuring situation of uniformly distributed data noise. A numerically efficient solution of the resulting Tikhonov regularization problem via a Moreau-Yosida appriximation and a semismooth Newton method, along with a δ-free regularization parameter choice rule, is the topic of the paper L∞ fitting for inverse problems with uniform noise by Christian Clason. Extension of convergence rates results from classical source conditions to their generalization via variational inequalities with a priori and a posteriori stopping rules is the main contribution of the paper Regularization of linear ill-posed problems by the augmented Lagrangian method and variational inequalities by Klaus Frick and Markus Grasmair, again in the context of some
Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel
2016-03-01
How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem.
Dekorvin, Andre
1989-01-01
The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.
Are green hopes too rosy? Employment and welfare impacts of renewable energy promotion
Bohringer, C.; Keller, A.; Werf, van der E.
2013-01-01
In view of pressing unemployment problems, policy makers across all parties jump on the prospects of renewable energy promotion as a job creation engine which can boost economic well-being. Our analytical model shows that initial labor market rigidities in theory provide some scope for such a double
The agency problem and medical acting: an example of applying economic theory to medical ethics.
Langer, Andreas; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Brink, Alexander; Eurich, Johannes
2009-03-01
In this article, the authors attempt to build a bridge between economic theory and medical ethics to offer a new perspective to tackle ethical challenges in the physician-patient encounter. They apply elements of new institutional economics to the ethically relevant dimensions of the physician-patient relationship in a descriptive heuristic sense. The principal-agent theory can be used to analytically grasp existing action problems in the physician-patient relationship and as a basis for shaping recommendations at the institutional level. Furthermore, the patients' increased self-determination and modern opportunities for the medical laity to inform themselves lead to a less asymmetrical distribution of information between physician and patient and therefore require new interaction models. Based on the analysis presented here, the authors recommend that, apart from the physician's necessary individual ethics, greater consideration should be given to approaches of institutional ethics and hence to incentive systems within medical ethics.
C*-Algebra approach to the index theory of boundary value problems
Melo, Severino; Schick, Thomas
2012-01-01
Boutet de Monvel's calculus provides a pseudodifferential framework which encompasses the classical differential boundary value problems. In an extension of the concept of Lopatinski and Shapiro, it associates to each operator two symbols: a pseudodifferential principal symbol, which is a bundle homomorphism, and an operator-valued boundary symbol. Ellipticity requires the invertibility of both. If the underlying manifold is compact, elliptic elements define Fredholm operators. Boutet de Monvel showed how then the index can be computed in topological terms. The crucial observation is that elliptic operators can be mapped to compactly supported $K$-theory classes on the cotangent bundle over the interior of the manifold. The Atiyah-Singer topological index map, applied to this class, then furnishes the index of the operator. Based on this result, Fedosov, Rempel-Schulze and Grubb have given index formulas in terms of the symbols. In this paper we survey previous work how C*-algebra K-theory can be used to give...
A unified theory of electrodynamic coupling in coronal magnetic loops - The coronal heating problem
Ionson, J. A.
1984-01-01
The coronal heating problem is studied, and it is demonstrated that Ionson's (1982) LRC approach results in a unified theory of coronal heating which unveils a variety of new heating mechanisms and which links together previously proposed mechanisms. Ionson's LRC equation is rederived, focusing on various aspects that were not clarified in the original article and incorporating new processes that were neglected. A parameterized heating rate is obtained. It is shown that Alfvenic surface wave heating, stochastic magnetic pumping, resonant electrodynamic heating, and dynamical dissipation emerge as special cases of a much more general formalism. This generalized theory is applied to solar coronal loops and it is found that active region and large scale loops are underdamped systems. Young active region loops and (possibly) bright points are found to be overdamped systems.
A first look at Quasi-Monte Carlo for lattice field theory problems
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Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Leovey, H.; Griewank, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Nube, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Mueller-Preussker, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2012-11-15
In this project we initiate an investigation of the applicability of Quasi-Monte Carlo methods to lattice field theories in order to improve the asymptotic error behavior of observables for such theories. In most cases the error of an observable calculated by averaging over random observations generated from an ordinary Monte Carlo simulation behaves like N{sup -1/2}, where N is the number of observations. By means of Quasi-Monte Carlo methods it is possible to improve this behavior for certain problems to up to N{sup -1}. We adapted and applied this approach to simple systems like the quantum harmonic and anharmonic oscillator and verified an improved error scaling.
Problems and Urgent Tasks of Development of the Theory of the Production Strategy of an Enterprise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omelianenko Tetiana V.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of problem aspects and setting urgent tasks of development of the theory of production strategy of an enterprise. It shows that formation of the foundations of the theory of productiuon strategy started in the end of 60s and beginning of 70s of the twentieth century due to efforts of a number of researchers from western industrially developed countries. It establishes that today the theory of production strategy of an enterprise has a number of paradigmal provisions, generalisation of which shows that the production strategy is a component of the general strategy of an organisation, its goal is to provide the enterprise with strategically important competitive advantages, it refers to the category of functional strategies and is specified in the set of production and strategic decisions that cover the technological, resource, organisational and other aspects of the production activity of the enterprise, the subordinate character is inherent in it since it is developed for support of the general corporate and business strategy of the enterprise. Understanding the idea of the modern production and strategic paradigm made it possible to identify problem planes and set urgent tasks of further development of the theory of production strategy of an enterprise. These tasks are: development of methodological grounds of the study of production strategies of enterprises, systematisation of factors and specification of principles of formation of the production strategy, typologisation of traditional production strategies and specification of characteristic features of the newest, just forming and establishing in realities of the post-industrial environment, strategies.
Hamiltonian formulations of Yang-Mills quantum theory and the Gribov problem
Heinzl, T
1996-01-01
We review the status of quantising (non-abelian) gauge theories using different versions of a Hamiltonian formulation corresponding to Dirac's instant and front form of dynamics, respectively. In order to control infrared divergences we work in a finite spatial volume, chosing a torus geometry for convenience. We focus on the determination of the physical configuration space of gauge invariant variables via gauge fixing. This naturally leads us to the issue of the Gribov problem. We discuss it for different gauge choices, in particular finite volume modifications of the axial gauge. Conventional and light-front quantisation are compared and the differences pointed out.
Brans-Dicke theory of gravity with torsion: A possible solution of $\\omega$-problem
Wu, Yu-Huei
2012-01-01
We study Brans-Dicke theory of gravity in Riemann-Cartan space-times, and obtain general torsion solutions, which are completely determined by Brans-Dicke scalar field $\\Phi$, in the false vacuum energy dominated epoch. The substitution of the torsion solutions back to our action gives the original Brans-Dicke action with $\\Phi$-dependent Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega(\\Phi)$. The evolution of $\\omega(\\Phi)$ during inflation is studied and it yields that $\\omega$ approaches to infinity at the end of inflation. It may solve the $\\omega$-problem in the extended inflation model.
The initial value problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Salgado, Marcelo
2007-01-01
The initial value problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (STT) is analyzed in the physical (Jordan) frame using a 3+1 decomposition of spacetime. A first order strongly hyperbolic system is obtained for which the well posedness of the Cauchy problem can be established. We provide two simple applications of the 3+1 system of equations: one for static and spherically symmetric spacetimes which allows the construction of unstable initial data (compact objects) for which a further black hole formation and scalar gravitational wave emission can be analyzed, and another application is for homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes that permits to study the dynamics of the Universe in the framework of STT.
Effective field theory analysis on {mu} problem in low-scale gauge mediation
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Zheng Sibo, E-mail: sibozheng.zju@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China)
2012-02-11
Supersymmetric models based on the scenario of gauge mediation often suffer from the well-known {mu} problem. In this paper, we reconsider this problem in low-scale gauge mediation in terms of effective field theory analysis. In this paradigm, all high energy input soft mass can be expressed via loop expansions. If the corrections coming from messenger thresholds are small, as we assume in this letter, then all RG evaluations can be taken as linearly approximation for low-scale supersymmetric breaking. Due to these observations, the parameter space can be systematically classified and studied after constraints coming from electro-weak symmetry breaking are imposed. We find that some old proposals in the literature are reproduced, and two new classes are uncovered. We refer to a microscopic model, where the specific relations among coefficients in one of the new classes are well motivated. Also, we discuss some primary phenomenologies.
The initial value problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
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Salgado, Marcelo; Martinez del Rio, David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Apdo. Postal 70-543 Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico)
2007-11-15
The initial value problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (STT) is analyzed in the physical (Jordan) frame using a 3+1 decomposition of spacetime. A first order strongly hyperbolic system is obtained for which the well posedness of the Cauchy problem can be established. We provide two simple applications of the 3+1 system of equations: one for static and spherically symmetric spacetimes which allows the construction of unstable initial data (compact objects) for which a further black hole formation and scalar gravitational wave emission can be analyzed, and another application is for homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes that permits to study the dynamics of the Universe in the framework of STT.
Custers, Eugène J F M
2013-08-01
Recently, human reasoning, problem solving, and decision making have been viewed as products of two separate systems: "System 1," the unconscious, intuitive, or nonanalytic system, and "System 2," the conscious, analytic, or reflective system. This view has penetrated the medical education literature, yet the idea of two independent dichotomous cognitive systems is not entirely without problems.This article outlines the difficulties of this "two-system view" and presents an alternative, developed by K.R. Hammond and colleagues, called cognitive continuum theory (CCT). CCT is featured by three key assumptions. First, human reasoning, problem solving, and decision making can be arranged on a cognitive continuum, with pure intuition at one end, pure analysis at the other, and a large middle ground called "quasirationality." Second, the nature and requirements of the cognitive task, as perceived by the person performing the task, determine to a large extent whether a task will be approached more intuitively or more analytically. Third, for optimal task performance, this approach needs to match the cognitive properties and requirements of the task. Finally, the author makes a case that CCT is better able than a two-system view to describe medical problem solving and clinical reasoning and that it provides clear clues for how to organize training in clinical reasoning.
Inverse problem theory in the optical depth profilometry of thin films
Power, J. F.
2002-12-01
The problem of nondestructive measurement of composition with depth on the scale of ˜0.1-500 μm, in polymers and related materials, has many applications in traditional and recent areas of thin film processing. This article reviews the optical depth profilometry techniques operating on this scale based on optical absorption, photoluminescence, elastic, and inelastic scattering. These methods include photoacoustic and photothermal imaging (including pulsed laser opto-acoustic profiling), attenuated total reflectance infrared, integrated optical spectroscopy methods (based on excitation of planar waveguide structures), confocal scanning microscopy, and the recent technique of light profile microscopy. The profiling of planar structures is emphasized. A common element of all of these methods is that depth mapping requires the solution of a linear inverse problem, where a map of the sample properties is mathematically reconstructed from a set of experimental measurements. This problem is to some extent ill conditioned in some or all regimes of measurement, with the result that depth maps may show sensitivity to data errors. A method is presented for assessing performance of the above experimental depth profilometry techniques in terms of ill conditioning as indicated by: spatial resolution, sensitivity to data errors, and apparent multiplicity of solutions. This method is applied a priori given a knowledge of the linear response theory and measurement parameters Application is made to individual profiling techniques, the performance of each in applications is reviewed, and an inter-comparison is made based on the conditioning of the inverse problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sitar
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.
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Hyman, J.; Beyer, W.; Louck, J.; Metropolis, N.
1996-07-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Group theoretical methods are a powerful tool both in their applications to mathematics and to physics. The broad goal of this project was to use such methods to develop the implications of group (symmetry) structures underlying models of physical systems, as well as to broaden the understanding of simple models of chaotic systems. The main thrust was to develop further the complex mathematics that enters into many-particle quantum systems with special emphasis on the new directions in applied mathematics that have emerged and continue to surface in these studies. In this area, significant advances in understanding the role of SU(2) 3nj-coefficients in SU(3) theory have been made and in using combinatoric techniques in the study of generalized Schur functions, discovered during this project. In the context of chaos, the study of maps of the interval and the associated theory of words has led to significant discoveries in Galois group theory, to the classification of fixed points, and to the solution of a problem in the classification of DNA sequences.
An analysis of the demarcation problem in science and its application to therapeutic touch theory.
Newbold, David; Roberts, Julia
2007-12-01
This paper analyses the demarcation problem from the perspective of four philosophers: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend. To Popper, pseudoscience uses induction to generate theories, and only performs experiments to seek to verify them. To Popper, falsifiability is what determines the scientific status of a theory. Taking a historical approach, Kuhn observed that scientists did not follow Popper's rule, and might ignore falsifying data, unless overwhelming. To Kuhn, puzzle-solving within a paradigm is science. Lakatos attempted to resolve this debate, by suggesting history shows that science occurs in research programmes, competing according to how progressive they are. The leading idea of a programme could evolve, driven by its heuristic to make predictions that can be supported by evidence. Feyerabend claimed that Lakatos was selective in his examples, and the whole history of science shows there is no universal rule of scientific method, and imposing one on the scientific community impedes progress. These positions are used in turn, to examine the scientific status of therapeutic touch theory. The paper concludes that imposing a single rule of method can impede progress, in the face of multiple epistemologies, and the choice of scientific approach should be a pragmatic one based on the aims of the programme.
Addressing complex healthcare problems in diverse settings: insights from activity theory.
Greig, Gail; Entwistle, Vikki A; Beech, Nic
2012-02-01
In the U.K., approaches to policy implementation, service improvement and quality assurance treat policy, management and clinical care as separate, hierarchical domains. They are often based on the central knowledge transfer (KT) theory idea that best practice solutions to complex problems can be identified and 'rolled out' across organisations. When the designated 'best practice' is not implemented, this is interpreted as local--particularly management--failure. Remedial actions include reiterating policy aims and tightening performance management of solution implementation, frequently to no avail. We propose activity theory (AT) as an alternative approach to identifying and understanding the challenges of addressing complex healthcare problems across diverse settings. AT challenges the KT conceptual separations between levels of policy, management and clinical care. It does not regard knowledge and practice as separable, and does not understand them in the commodified way that has typified some versions of KT theory. Instead, AT focuses on "objects of activity" which can be contested. It sees new practice as emerging from contradiction and understands knowledge and practice as fundamentally entwined, not separate. From an AT perspective, there can be no single best practice. The contributions of AT are that it enables us to understand the dynamics of knowledge-practice in activities rather than between levels. It shows how efforts to reduce variation from best practice may paradoxically remove a key source of practice improvement. After explaining the principles of AT we illustrate its explanatory potential through an ethnographic study of primary healthcare teams responding to a policy aim of reducing inappropriate hospital admissions of older people by the 'best practice' of rapid response teams.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iryna Sidanich
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In the article were analyzed the modern tendencies and problems of the theory of spiritual-moral processes management in the higher school. There were defined the node tasks of reformation of higher education: ensuring its quality, construction of effective educational system of the higher school institutions with effective economy and management. There was characterized the problem of ensuring axiological direction of spiritual-humanitarian component of educational process in the system of higher education. There were defined priorities of national interests in spiritual-moral education of junior generation in the state educational activity: national self-consciousness, spiritual-cultural unity of nation, patriotism, humanism, tolerance, responsibility.There was analyzed the system of higher education in the aspect of interaction of spiritual and secular components in coordinates of moral sanitation and spiritual enlightenment of nation, elaboration of democratic principles of society and construction of the modern theory of spiritual-moral processes management in higher school.There were defined the new directions of the theory of spiritual-moral processes management in higher school in the aspect of development of innovations and commercialization, attraction of employers to collaboration with scientists in separate work groups for creation of the new educational programs and modernization of existing ones, mentor support and training of students for job placement and development of enterprising skills and also for support of the programs of probation or practical participation of students in the “real social projects”.There were characterized prospects of research in the aspect of elaboration of the main functions that must establish the main claims to production tasks in professional activity of holder of the master’s degree on speciality “Christian pedagogics in the high education”
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henrik
2014-01-01
are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David
2014-01-01
This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...
Babourova, O V; Kudlaev, P E
2016-01-01
On the basis of the Poincare-Weyl gauge theory of gravitation, a new conformal Weyl-Dirac theory of gravitation is proposed, which is a gravitational theory in Cartan-Weyl spacetime with the Dirac scalar field representing the dark matter model. A static approximate axially symmetric solution of the field equations in vacuum is obtained. On the base of this solution in the Newtonian approximation one considers the problem of rotation velocities in spiral components of galaxies.
Burnand, Gordon
2012-07-01
A logical relationship exists among six general problems that people face in life. Using hope about something for its subjective probability, its expected likelihood, the problems form a series where the method of assessing hope changes in a simple manner from one problem to the next. The central hypothesis is that human beings exploit this. Brain structures and predispositions have evolved accordingly, leading to the hemispheres having different predispositions. The hemispheres are effectively joined at 5 months. Infants will then find that they engage in two unrelated activities. Typical infants label the activities in detail, using visual images, as part of gaining control over them. Hypotheses are: (a) autistic children fail labelling at the start, and hence they encounter uncontrolled competition between the hemispheres; (b) with some, serotonin abnormality impairs sensory information processing and hence the labelling; (c) with some, a delay in myelination from autoimmune effects disrupts labelling; (d) the likelihood of this 'delay autism' is reduced by long chain omega oils; (e) self-pressuring, which underlies taking on challenges and play like Hide and Seek, brings relief from the competition by raising the influence of one side; (f) the same left-right competition occurs in confused episodes and schizophrenia in vulnerable people who encounter pressures to use both hemispheres at the same time; (g) some symptoms raise the influence on one side ideationally. This leads to coherent theories of autism and schizophrenia. In both competition between the hemispheres is relieved primarily by self-pressuring, which raises influence on one side.
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Denny Nurkertamanda
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Swimmingpool starting block is one of swimming equiptment that must be used in swimming sport competition.It used not only by senior athlete but also the beginner. In addition, it used not only in one swimmingpool butalso another pool which has different height of watersurface and swimmingpoll wallside.Now, the condition of starting block only fit with some of athlete. The other athlete had difficulties when use it.Because of that, design improvement need to be done for starting block to be adaptable for all athlete in anyage and adaptable for the condition of watersurface.Adaptability fitur improvement for starting block makes fitur stabilition of product composition getting worse,and those things is unwanted. So that Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ method is needed to solvethe problem technical contradiction so the ideal final output can be reached.Adaptable starting block design can be reached after solve the technical contradiction happened when solvingthe problems used TRIZ. Reducing the parameters which had disadvantages for the ideal final product suchas: weight of the moving object, quantity of the material used, dangerous factor of the object, and dangerousfactors from environtment.
St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
2015-12-01
Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.
Decision theory for computing variable and value ordering decisions for scheduling problems
Linden, Theodore A.
1993-01-01
Heuristics that guide search are critical when solving large planning and scheduling problems, but most variable and value ordering heuristics are sensitive to only one feature of the search state. One wants to combine evidence from all features of the search state into a subjective probability that a value choice is best, but there has been no solid semantics for merging evidence when it is conceived in these terms. Instead, variable and value ordering decisions should be viewed as problems in decision theory. This led to two key insights: (1) The fundamental concept that allows heuristic evidence to be merged is the net incremental utility that will be achieved by assigning a value to a variable. Probability distributions about net incremental utility can merge evidence from the utility function, binary constraints, resource constraints, and other problem features. The subjective probability that a value is the best choice is then derived from probability distributions about net incremental utility. (2) The methods used for rumor control in Bayesian Networks are the primary way to prevent cycling in the computation of probable net incremental utility. These insights lead to semantically justifiable ways to compute heuristic variable and value ordering decisions that merge evidence from all available features of the search state.
Dentoni, D.; Ross, R.
2013-01-01
Part Two of our Special Issue on wicked problems in agribusiness, “Towards a Theory of Managing Wicked Problems through Multi-Stakeholder Engagements: Evidence from the Agribusiness Sector,” will contribute to four open questions in the broader fields of management and policy: why, when, which and h
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Omer Kelesoglu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to linear nonhomogeneous boundary value problem arising from the beam-column theory. The obtained results are expressed in tables and graphs. We obtain rapidly converging results to exact solution by using the ADM. This situation indicates that the method is appropriate and reliable for such problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, G E; Jackson, A D; Kuo, T T.S.
1979-12-01
The proposed work covers a broad range of topics in theoretical nuclear and intermediate-energy physics and in nuclear astrophysics. With free nucleon--nucleon interactions as a basis, effective forces in nuclei are constructed through a chain of field-theoretic, dispersions and many-body techniques. Dynamical theories of nuclear excitations are constructed. Infinite nuclear systems at a variety of densities are studied in order to determine reliable equations of state for nuclear and neutron matter. These equations of state are applied in astrophysical problems, such as the gravitational collapse of stars, as well as in standard nuclear contexts. Brief summaries of individual projects completed and planned are given. Completed research is reported in the appropriate places.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holevo, A S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)
2006-04-30
The additivity problem is one of the most profound mathematical problems of quantum information theory. From an analytical point of view it is closely related to the multiplicative property, with respect to tensor products, of norms of maps on operator spaces equipped with the Schatten norms (non-commutative analogue of l{sub p}-norms). In this paper we survey the current state of the problem.
The troublesome birth of hydrodynamic stability theory: Sommerfeld and the turbulence problem
Eckert, M.
2010-07-01
More than a hundred years ago William McFadden Orr and Arnold Sommerfeld conceived an approach to account for the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in terms of hydrodynamic stability theory. But the “turbulence problem”, as this challenge became notoriously famous, could not be solved by this method. By 1920, it was widely recognized as an outstanding riddle. Although famous theoretical physicists like Werner Heisenberg dedicated a considerable effort to this problem, the “Orr-Sommerfeld method” has never found the attention of historians of science. This article describes its early perception and development in Germany, and how the “turbulence problem” reached center stage after the First World war as a major challenge for theorists with different perspectives.
An application of hypergeometric functions to a problem in function theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel S. Moak
1984-01-01
Full Text Available In some recent work in univalent function theory, Aharonov, Friedland, and Brannan studied the series (1+xtα(1−tβ=∑n=0∞An(α,β(xtn. Brannan posed the problem of determining S={(α,β:|An(α,β(eiθ|0, β>0, n=1,2,3,…}. Brannan showed that if β≥α≥0, and α+β≥2, then (α,β∈S. He also proved that (α,1∈S for α≥1. Brannan showed that for 0|A2k(α,1(1| for k any integer. In this paper, we show that (α,β∈S for α≥1 and β≥1.
Problems with change in R2 as applied to theory of reasoned action research.
Trafimow, David
2004-12-01
The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.
Applications of Quantum Theory of Atomic and Molecular Scattering to Problems in Hypersonic Flow
Malik, F. Bary
1995-01-01
The general status of a grant to investigate the applications of quantum theory in atomic and molecular scattering problems in hypersonic flow is summarized. Abstracts of five articles and eleven full-length articles published or submitted for publication are included as attachments. The following topics are addressed in these articles: fragmentation of heavy ions (HZE particles); parameterization of absorption cross sections; light ion transport; emission of light fragments as an indicator of equilibrated populations; quantum mechanical, optical model methods for calculating cross sections for particle fragmentation by hydrogen; evaluation of NUCFRG2, the semi-empirical nuclear fragmentation database; investigation of the single- and double-ionization of He by proton and anti-proton collisions; Bose-Einstein condensation of nuclei; and a liquid drop model in HZE particle fragmentation by hydrogen.
Excited state surfaces in density functional theory: a new twist on an old problem.
Wiggins, Paul; Williams, J A Gareth; Tozer, David J
2009-09-07
Excited state surfaces in density functional theory and the problem of charge transfer are considered from an orbital overlap perspective. For common density functional approximations, the accuracy of the surface will not be uniform if the spatial overlap between the occupied and virtual orbitals involved in the excitation has a strong conformational dependence; the excited state surface will collapse toward the ground state in regions where the overlap is very low. This characteristic is used to predict and to provide insight into the breakdown of excited state surfaces in the classic push-pull 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile molecule, as a function of twist angle. The breakdown is eliminated using a Coulomb-attenuated functional. Analogous situations will arise in many molecules.
A generalized number theory problem applied to ideal liquids and to terminological lexis
Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.
2017-01-01
We consider the notion of number of degrees of freedom in number theory and thermodynamics. This notion is applied to notions of terminology such as terms, slogans, themes, rules, and regulations. Prohibitions are interpreted as restrictions on the number of degrees of freedom. We present a theorem on the small number of degrees of freedom as a consequence of the generalized partitio numerorum problem. We analyze the relationship between thermodynamically ideal liquids with the lexical background that a term acquires in the process of communication. Examples showing how this background may be enhanced are considered. We discuss the question of the coagulation of drops in connection with the forecast of analogs of the gas-ideal liquid phase transition in social-political processes.
Graph theory approach to the eigenvalue problem of large space structures
Reddy, A. S. S. R.; Bainum, P. M.
1981-01-01
Graph theory is used to obtain numerical solutions to eigenvalue problems of large space structures (LSS) characterized by a state vector of large dimensions. The LSS are considered as large, flexible systems requiring both orientation and surface shape control. Graphic interpretation of the determinant of a matrix is employed to reduce a higher dimensional matrix into combinations of smaller dimensional sub-matrices. The reduction is implemented by means of a Boolean equivalent of the original matrices formulated to obtain smaller dimensional equivalents of the original numerical matrix. Computation time becomes less and more accurate solutions are possible. An example is provided in the form of a free-free square plate. Linearized system equations and numerical values of a stiffness matrix are presented, featuring a state vector with 16 components.
Solving the self-interaction problem in Kohn-Sham density functional theory: Application to atoms
Däne, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.
2015-04-01
In previous work, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In this paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. We present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.
EFFECTS OF EXAMPLE-PROBLEM BASED LEARNING ON TRANSFER PERFORMANCE IN CIRCUIT THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor Hisham Jalani
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to test a hypothesis that Example-Problem-Based Learning (EPBL would lead to better transfer performance compared Traditional Learning (TL approach. The participants were vocational diploma-level students and the learning domain was Circuit Theory. As a means of data collection, 10-items open-ended test (five items each for assessing near-transfer and far-transfer was administered as a pre-test and post-test. A sufficient reliability estimate was obtained, a= 0.74, based on the Cronbach Alpha method. A statistically significant difference on the post test score was observed between the EPBL and the TL group where the EPBL group scored higher than the TL group on both near and far-transfer. In conclusion, EPBL approaches produces greater learning compared to TL approach, for both near and distant-transfer.
Ma, Yanfang; Xu, Jiuping
2015-06-01
This article puts forward a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) algorithm for solving a variant of the vehicle routing problem, namely a multiple decision maker vehicle routing problem with fuzzy random time windows (MDVRPFRTW). A new mathematical model is developed for the proposed problem in which fuzzy random theory is used to describe the time windows and bi-level programming is applied to describe the relationship between the multiple decision makers. To solve the problem, a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) is proposed. More specifically, this approach makes improvements in initialization, inertia weight and particle updates to overcome the shortcomings of the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO). Parameter tests and results analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, and comparison of the algorithm with the basic PSO and the genetic algorithm demonstrates its efficiency.
Exploring new horizons of the Gribov problem in Yang-Mills theories
Pereira, A D
2016-01-01
The understanding of the non-perturbative regime of YM theories remains a challenging open problem in theoretical physics. Notably, a satisfactory description of the confinement of gluons is not at our disposal so far. In this thesis, the RGZ framework, designed to provide a proper quantization of YM theories by taking into account the existence of the so-called Gribov copies is explored. Successfully introduced in the Landau gauge, the RGZ set up does not extend easily to different gauges. The main reason is that a clear formulation of the analogue of the Gribov horizon in the Landau gauge is obstructed by technical difficulties when more sophisticated gauges are chosen. Moreover, the RGZ action breaks BRST symmetry explicitly, making the task of extracting gauge invariant results even more difficult. The main goal of the present thesis is precisely to provide a consistent framework to extend the RGZ action to gauges that are connected to Landau gauge via a gauge parameter. Our main result is the reformulati...
An application of prospect theory to a SHM-based decision problem
Bolognani, Denise; Verzobio, Andrea; Tonelli, Daniel; Cappello, Carlo; Glisic, Branko; Zonta, Daniele
2017-04-01
Decision making investigates choices that have uncertain consequences and that cannot be completely predicted. Rational behavior may be described by the so-called expected utility theory (EUT), whose aim is to help choosing among several solutions to maximize the expectation of the consequences. However, Kahneman and Tversky developed an alternative model, called prospect theory (PT), showing that the basic axioms of EUT are violated in several instances. In respect of EUT, PT takes into account irrational behaviors and heuristic biases. It suggests an alternative approach, in which probabilities are replaced by decision weights, which are strictly related to the decision maker's preferences and may change for different individuals. In particular, people underestimate the utility of uncertain scenarios compared to outcomes obtained with certainty, and show inconsistent preferences when the same choice is presented in different forms. The goal of this paper is precisely to analyze a real case study involving a decision problem regarding the Streicker Bridge, a pedestrian bridge on Princeton University campus. By modelling the manager of the bridge with the EUT first, and with PT later, we want to verify the differences between the two approaches and to investigate how the two models are sensitive to unpacking probabilities, which represent a common cognitive bias in irrational behaviors.
Dynamical systems game theory II. A new approach to the problem of the social dilemma
Akiyama, Eizo; Kaneko, Kunihiko
2002-07-01
The “social dilemma” is a problem inherent in forming and maintaining cooperation among selfish individuals, and is of fundamental importance in the biological and social sciences. From the viewpoint of traditional game theory, the existence of the social dilemma necessarily implies degeneration into selfish behavior as the numbers of members in a community increases, unless there exists some external power. In the real world, however, cooperation is often formed and maintained merely through mutual interactions, without the influence of an external power. To answer questions concerning appearance and maintenance of cooperative behavior in societies, we study what we call the “Lumberjacks’ Dilemma (LD) game”, as an application of the dynamical systems (DS) game theory presented in [Physica D 147 (2000) 221], which can naturally deal with the dynamic aspects of games. Dynamical processes that lead to the formation and maintenance of cooperation, which is often observed in the real communities, are realized in our model. The mechanism underlying this formation and maintenance is explained from the DS game point of view, by analyzing the functional dependence of the attractor of the game dynamics on a parameter characterizing the strategy. It is demonstrated that norms for cooperation are formed as strategies that are manifested as specific attractors of game dynamics. The change in the stability of this cooperative behavior as the number of members increases is also discussed. Finally, the relevance of our study to cooperation seen in the real world is discussed.
Brane realization of q-theory and the cosmological constant problem
Klinkhamer, F R
2016-01-01
We discuss the cosmological constant problem using the properties of a freely-suspended two-dimensional condensed-matter film, i.e., an explicit realization of a 2D brane. The large contributions of vacuum fluctuations to the surface tension of this film are cancelled in equilibrium by the thermodynamic potential arising from the conservation law for particle number. In short, the surface tension of the film vanishes in equilibrium due to a thermodynamic identity. This 2D brane can be generalized to a 4D brane with gravity. For the 4D brane, the analogue of the 2D surface tension is the 4D cosmological constant, which is also nullified in full equilibrium. The 4D brane theory provides an alternative description of the phenomenological $q$-theory of the quantum vacuum. As for other realizations of the vacuum variable $q$, such as the 4-form field-strength realization, the main ingredient is the conservation law for the variable $q$, which makes the vacuum a self-sustained system. For a vacuum within this class...
Seven ways of causing the less developed countries' population problem to disappear -- in theory.
Keyfitz, N
1992-01-01
7 ways in which excessive population growth does not harm development are critically examined. 1) Population growth rates are declining; ignore the absolute numbers. If objectivity is relevant, then rates are for cross-country comparisons and numbers are for impact. 2) Twice as many people has resulted in taking better care of trees and soils. The context is important where less populated countries may be more environmentally concerned, and one can ignore that twice as many people may mean twice as much food and fuel use. There is no convincing empirical evidence even with intermediate variables. 3) Land and materials no longer set limits; the more people, the more brains, the more ideas, and the more technology to circumvent environmental limits. Land has been superseded by productivity advances due to technology. Capital accounts for maybe 10% of economic progress. Technology has transformed but also produced the ozone layer, the greenhouse effect, and the extinction of species. Those in less developed countries want few people and more land and capital. 4) Ignoring nonlinearities and discontinuities, countries with controlled population and rapid population growth have experienced similar patterns of slow income growth. 16% of economic growth is accounted for by lower population growth. However, economic growth may be due to other factors, such as economic riches in oil. A critical point is reached where renewable resources eventually decline. 5) The market will produce an optimum of people, if parents get all the benefits and pay all the costs of having children. Fertility reduction leads to loss of utility. The impact of this decision to bear children without social limits on others must be considered. Net externalities may occur within the nuclear family where the husband plans family size and the wife raises the child; within the community where couples plan the child and the community educates the child; and between the present and future generations where
Bohr's Electron was Problematic for Einstein: String Theory Solved the Problem
Webb, William
2013-04-01
Neils Bohr's 1913 model of the hydrogen electron was problematic for Albert Einstein. Bohr's electron rotates with positive kinetic energies +K but has addition negative potential energies - 2K. The total net energy is thus always negative with value - K. Einstein's special relativity requires energies to be positive. There's a Bohr negative energy conflict with Einstein's positive energy requirement. The two men debated the problem. Both would have preferred a different electron model having only positive energies. Bohr and Einstein couldn't find such a model. But Murray Gell-Mann did! In the 1960's, Gell-Mann introduced his loop-shaped string-like electron. Now, analysis with string theory shows that the hydrogen electron is a loop of string-like material with a length equal to the circumference of the circular orbit it occupies. It rotates like a lariat around its centered proton. This loop-shape has no negative potential energies: only positive +K relativistic kinetic energies. Waves induced on loop-shaped electrons propagate their energy at a speed matching the tangential speed of rotation. With matching wave speed and only positive kinetic energies, this loop-shaped electron model is uniquely suited to be governed by the Einstein relativistic equation for total mass-energy. Its calculated photon emissions are all in excellent agreement with experimental data and, of course, in agreement with those -K calculations by Neils Bohr 100 years ago. Problem solved!
Does this computational theory solve the right problem? Marr, Gibson, and the goal of vision.
Warren, William H
2012-01-01
David Marr's book Vision attempted to formulate athoroughgoing formal theory of perception. Marr borrowed much of the "computational" level from James Gibson: a proper understanding of the goal of vision, the natural constraints, and the available information are prerequisite to describing the processes and mechanisms by which the goal is achieved. Yet, as a research program leading to a computational model of human vision, Marr's program did not succeed. This article asks why, using the perception of 3D shape as a morality tale. Marr presumed that the goal of vision is to recover a general-purpose Euclidean description of the world, which can be deployed for any task or action. On this formulation, vision is underdetermined by information, which in turn necessitates auxiliary assumptions to solve the problem. But Marr's assumptions did not actually reflect natural constraints, and consequently the solutions were not robust. We now know that humans do not in fact recover Euclidean structure--rather, they reliably perceive qualitative shape (hills, dales, courses, ridges), which is specified by the second-order differential structure of images. By recasting the goals of vision in terms of our perceptual competencies, and doing the hard work of analyzing the information available under ecological constraints, we can reformulate the problem so that perception is determined by information and prior knowledge is unnecessary.
Measuring the self-esteem of adolescents with mental health problems: theory meets practice.
Willoughby, C; Polatajko, H; Currado, C; Harris, K; King, G
2000-10-01
Occupational therapists frequently address the self-esteem of young clients despite little empirical evidence that the clients have low self-esteem to begin with, and that occupational therapy intervention is effective in addressing self-esteem. This article examines the self-esteem of 39 adolescents with mental health problems referred to a pre-vocational programme in an effort to compare clinical practice with empirical findings. The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents and the Importance Rating Scale for Adolescents are employed to compare the self-esteem of the adolescents with mental health problems with the normative sample, prior to (n = 39) and upon completion of the pre-vocational programme (n = 14). Results indicate no difference between the two groups' self-esteem and no change in self-esteem scores following participation in the pre-vocational programme. Global self-esteem is significantly correlated with physical appearance and behavioural conduct (n = 39). Competence-importance discrepancy scores are significantly related to global self-esteem (n = 14). This finding supports the theory that it is the domain of self-concept which is low and important to the adolescent which will influence his/her self-esteem. These results are consistent with previous studies. Possible explanations for the discrepancy between clinical perceptions and objective findings are discussed. Implications for practice are presented.
The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flávio Issao Kubota
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salvaderi, Luigi [IEEE Fellow (Italy)
2008-05-15
The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This document serves as a supporting paper. Sections include: features of Italian energy and electricity; the evolution of liberalisation; support mechanism for renewables; connection to wind farm transmission network; wind source integration into power system; and, final comments.
Discussion on the Problem of Urban Renewal of Historic Districts in Taiwan%台湾地区历史地段城市更新经验及其启示
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张乔棻
2015-01-01
台湾地区自1895年实施城市规划至今已百余年,随着时代的变迁,许多旧市中心区及老旧衰败地区问题也逐渐浮现. 城市历史地段的更新横跨了城市更新及文化遗产保护2个研究领域,与一般旧市中心区的更新相比情况也相对复杂. 历史地段是城市之中最为老旧的区域,但在兼顾文化遗产保护的同时,仍须顺应时代的变迁及居民现代化生活的需要. 首先,梳理了国际上与台湾地区的历史地段更新思潮演进,其次,对台湾地区目前历史地段更新规划的相关法令、实施方式及更新理念进行介绍. 以台南总爷老街为案例,说明历史地段的更新是如何整合城市更新与文化遗产保护理念于物质环境改造手法之中,借由整建维护的更新方式达成促进城市整体发展的综合性目标. 透过检讨台湾地区近40年的城市更新政策实践的经验,从文化遗产保护的视角出发,为中国大陆城市更新政策制定与执行提供更多借鉴.%Since the implementation of urban renewal in Taiwan, many issues faced by historic districts con-tinue to emerge, many aged urban centers and deteriorated areas now require to renewal.The fact that both the ur-ban renewal and cultural property preservation aspects must be considered in the regeneration of historic districts make urban renewal projects highly complex.It is a difficult yet essential task to consider the necessary changes to fulfill the requirements of modern cities whilst bearing in mind cultural property preservation.The author reviews the conservation and renewal of the experience of various countries to find the commonalities between the two, and reviews the current problems in Taiwan.The paper put forward that renewal and cultural heritage protection of the historic districts should be regarded as the concept of one of the two sides.By the way of rehabilitation and conser-vation, we can achieve the comprehensive goal of promoting the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1981-01-01
Topics covered include: symmetric gauge theories; infinite lie algebras in physics; the mechanism for confinement in massive quark QCD; a search for possible composite models of quarks and leptons; the radiative structure of Fermion masses; fractional electric charge in QCD; heavy particle effects; Fermion mass heirarchies in theories of technicolor; statistical notions applied in the early universe; grand unification and cosmology - an environmental impact statement; first order phase transition in the early universe; the electric dipole moment of the neutron; cosmological constraints on Grand Unified Theories; and the consequences for CP invariance of instanton angles THETA in dynamically broken gauge theories. Individual items from this workshop were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)
Lohiya, D; Lohiya, Daksh; Sethi, Meetu
1999-01-01
A search for a problem free cosmology within the framework of a finite range theory of gravitation is suggested. We profile a toy model that uses a multicomponent non-minimally coupled scalar tensor theory to achieve this objective. In an SO(2) invariant theory for example, we outline a program that can accommodate a coasting Milne universe with a distribution of non - topological soliton solutions [NTS's]. The interior of these solutions would be domains where effective gravitational effects would be indistinguishable from those expected in standard Einstein theory. For a large class of non - minimal coupling terms and the scalar effective potential, the effective cosmological constant identically vanishes in the region exterior to the NTS's and dynamically approaches a small value in the interior region. We describe features of a problem free cosmology that follows.
van Aalsvoort, Joke
In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kh. Lotfy
2012-01-01
In the present paper,we introduce the coupled theory (CD),Lord Schulman (LS) theory,and Green-Lindsay (GL) theory to study the influences of a magnetic field and rotation on a two-dimensional problem of fibre-reinforced thermoelasticity.The material is a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space.The method applied here is to use normal mode analysis to solve a thermal shock problem.Some particular cases are also discussed in the context of the problem.Deformation of a body depends on the nature of the force applied as well as the type of boundary conditions.Numerical results for the temperature,displacement,and thermal stress components are given and illustrated graphically in the absence and the presence of the magnetic field and rotation.
Heliodromus: Renewable energy from space
Kuiper, J.M.
2010-01-01
Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates po
Feng, S X
1982-05-29
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the development of the population theory has experienced some setbacks. It is important to learn lessons from the past and establish a socialist population theory based on science. During the 1st 30 years of the People's Republic of China, the development of a population theory can be divided into 3 stages: 1) stage one was from 1949 to 1957 -- belief in population control on the basis of sociology; 2) stage two was from the late 1950s to early 1960s -- represented by Mr. Ma Yinchu's "New Population Theory" and the theory of the opposing side; and 3) stage Three began after the 1960s. Throughout the 1960s, studies of population theory remained stagnant, and no progress in this field was possible. In the 1970s, especially since the downfall of the "Gang of Four," the development of a population theory has entered a new stage. 3 problems with the development of the population theory discussed by the author are: 1) an evaluation of Comrade Mao Zedong's thoughts on population, 2) the division of different schools in population theory, 3) the different periods in the development of the population theory since 1949. Mao Zedong did change his thoughts on population control, but he was in favor of family planning and supported studies in population theory. Besides Ma Yinchu, Chin Da, Fei Xiaotong, Wu Jingchao and others also had their own population theories. The author emphasizes the contributions made by Mao Zedong and the Communist Party in the development of a population theory. New accomplishments and experience are expected with the downfall of the "Gang of Four."
Bender, Carl
2017-01-01
The theory of complex variables is extremely useful because it helps to explain the mathematical behavior of functions of a real variable. Complex variable theory also provides insight into the nature of physical theories. For example, it provides a simple and beautiful picture of quantization and it explains the underlying reason for the divergence of perturbation theory. By using complex-variable methods one can generalize conventional Hermitian quantum theories into the complex domain. The result is a new class of parity-time-symmetric (PT-symmetric) theories whose remarkable physical properties have been studied and verified in many recent laboratory experiments.
Lattice-Gas Automata for the Problem Of Kinetic Theory of Gas During Free Expansion
Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Arif, Idam; Liong, The Houw
The lattice-gas method has been applied to solve the problem of kinetic theory of gas in the Gay-Lussac-Joule experiment. Numerical experiments for a two-dimensional gas were carried out to determine the number of molecules in one vessel (Nr), the ratio between the mean square values of the components of molecule velocity (/line{vx2}//line{v_y^2}), and the change in internal energy (ΔU) as a function of time during free expansion. These experiments were repeated for different sizes of an aperture in the partition between the two vessels. After puncturing the partition, the curve for the particle number in one vessel shows a damped oscillation for about half of the total number. The oscillations do not vanish after a sampling over different initial configurations. The system is in nonequilibrium due to the pressure equilibration, and here the flow is actually compressible. The equilibration time (in time steps) decreases with decreased size of aperture in the partition. For very small apertures (equal or less than 9{√{3}}/{2} lattice units), the number of molecules in one vessel changes with time in a smooth way until it reaches half of the total number; their curves obey the analytical solution for quasi-static processes. The calculations on /line{vx2}//line{v_y^2} and ΔU also support the results that the equilibration time decreases with decreased size of aperture in the partition.
Waitzkin, H; Britt, T
1989-01-01
Criticism of social context does not generally appear in medical encounters. When contextual issues arise in medical discourse, messages of ideology and social control may become apparent, usually without the conscious awareness of the participants. By easing the physical or psychological impact of contextual difficulties, or by encouraging patients' conformity to mainstream expectations of desirable behavior, encounters with doctors can help win patients' consent to troubling social conditions. Seen in this light, doctor-patient encounters become micropolitical situations that do not typically encourage explicit statements or actions by health professionals to change contextual sources of their patients' difficulties. A critical theory influenced by structuralism suggests that the surface meanings of signs in medical discourse prove less important than their structural relationships. In addition, a theoretical approach adopting elements of post-structuralism and Marxist literary criticism emphasizes the marginal, absent, or excluded elements of medical discourse. Contextual features that shape a text include social class, sex, age, and race. Through the underlying structure of medical discourse, contextual problems are expressed, marginalized, and managed.
Software design as a problem in learning theory (a research overview)
Fass, Leona F.
1992-01-01
Our interest in automating software design has come out of our research in automated reasoning, inductive inference, learnability, and algebraic machine theory. We have investigated these areas extensively, in connection with specific problems of language representation, acquisition, processing, and design. In the case of formal context-free (CF) languages we established existence of finite learnable models ('behavioral realizations') and procedures for constructing them effectively. We also determined techniques for automatic construction of the models, inductively inferring them from finite examples of how they should 'behave'. These results were obtainable due to appropriate representation of domain knowledge, and constraints on the domain that the representation defined. It was when we sought to generalize our results, and adapt or apply them, that we began investigating the possibility of determining similar procedures for constructing correct software. Discussions with other researchers led us to examine testing and verification processes, as they are related to inference, and due to their considerable importance in correct software design. Motivating papers by other researchers, led us to examine these processes in some depth. Here we present our approach to those software design issues raised by other researchers, within our own theoretical context. We describe our results, relative to those of the other researchers, and conclude that they do not compare unfavorably.
Nabar, Rahul
Recent advances in theoretical techniques and computational hardware have made it possible to apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods to realistic problems in heterogeneous catalysis. Hydrocarbon processing is economically, and strategically, a very important industrial sector in today's world. In this thesis, we employ DFT methods to examine several important problems in hydrocarbon processing. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is a mature technology to convert synthesis gas derived from coal, natural-gas or biomass into liquid fuels, specifically diesel. Iron is an active FTS catalyst, but the absence of detailed reaction mechanisms make it difficult to maximize activity and optimize product distribution. We evaluate thermochemistry, kinetics and Rate Determining Steps (RDS) for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis on several models of Fe catalysts: Fe(110), Fe(211) and Pt promoted Fe(110). Our studies indicated that CO-dissociation is likely to be the RDS under most reaction conditions, but the DFT-calculated activation energy ( Ea) for direct CO dissociation was too large to explain the observed catalyst activity. Consequently we demonstrate that H-assisted CO-dissociation pathways are competitive with direct CO dissociation on both Co and Fe catalysts and could be responsible for a major fraction of the reaction flux (especially at high CO coverages). We then extend this alternative mechanistic model to closed-packed facets of nine transition metal catalysts (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt). H-assisted CO dissociation offers a kinetically easier route on each of the metals studied. DFT methods are also applied to another problem from the petroleum industry: discovery of poison-resistant, bimetallic, alloy catalysts (poisons: C, S, CI, P). Our systematic screening studies identify several Near Surface Alloys (NSAs) that are expected to be highly poison-resistant yet stable and avoiding adsorbate induced reconstruction. Adsorption trends are also correlated with
Solving Problems in Library and Information Science Using Fuzzy Set Theory.
Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.
2002-01-01
Discussion of the use of mathematical tools in library and information science focuses on information retrieval applications of fuzzy set theory. Topics include fuzzy set theory in informetrics and bibliometrics; and the literature of fuzzy set theory. (Contains 87 references.) (LRW)
Wickwire, Emerson M., Jr.; McCausland, Claudia; Whelan, James P.; Luellen, Jason; Meyers, Andrew W.; Studaway, Adrienne
2008-01-01
This study explored the relation between gambling behavior among college students and the perceived environment, the component of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977) that assesses the ways that youth perceive their parents and peers. Two hundred and thirty-three ethnically diverse undergraduates at a large urban public university…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Lara
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Frozen orbits of the Hill problem are determined in the double-averaged problem, where short and long-period terms are removed by means of Lie transforms. Due to the perturbation method we use, the initial conditions of corresponding quasi-periodic solutions in the nonaveraged problem are computed straightforwardly. Moreover, the method provides the explicit equations of the transformation that connects the averaged and nonaveraged models. A fourth-order analytical theory is necessary for the accurate computation of quasi-periodic frozen orbits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高承华
2014-01-01
In this paper, we consider the existence of three nontrivial solutions for a discrete non-linear multiparameter periodic problem involving the p-Laplacian. By using the similar method for the Dirichlet boundary value problems in [G. Bonanno and P. Candito, Appl. Anal., 88(4) (2009), pp. 605-616], we construct two new strong maximum principles and obtain that the boundary value problem has three positive solutions for λ and µ in some suitable intervals. The approaches we use are the critical point theory.
Renewable Energy Certificate Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gwendolyn S. Andersen
2012-07-17
This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.
The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.
Bulut, Umit
2017-06-01
As a result of great increases in CO2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.
Finite-temperature perturbation theory for the random directed polymer problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korshunov, S. E., E-mail: dimagesh@phys.ethz.ch [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Geshkenbein, V. B.; Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik (Switzerland)
2013-09-15
We study the random directed polymer problem-the short-scale behavior of an elastic string (or polymer) in one transverse dimension subject to a disorder potential and finite temperature fluctuations. We are interested in the polymer short-scale wandering expressed through the displacement correlator Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , with {delta}u(X) being the difference in the displacements at two points separated by a distance X. While this object can be calculated at short scales using the perturbation theory in higher dimensions d > 2, this approach becomes ill-defined and the problem turns out to be nonperturbative in the lower dimensions and for an infinite-length polymer. In order to make progress, we redefine the task and analyze the wandering of a string of a finite length L. At zero temperature, we find that the displacement fluctuations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} LX{sup 2} depend on L and scale with the square of the segment length X, which differs from a straightforward Larkin-type scaling. The result is best understood in terms of a typical squared angle Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} L, where {alpha} = {partial_derivative}{sub x}u, from which the displacement scaling for the segment X follows naturally, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket X{sup 2}. At high temperatures, thermal fluctuations smear the disorder potential and the lowest-order results for disorder-induced fluctuations in both the displacement field and the angle vanish in the thermodynamic limit L {yields} {infinity}. The calculation up to the second order allows us to identify the regime of validity of the perturbative approach and provides a finite expression for the displacement
Renewal Agenda in Istanbul: Urbanisation vs. Urbicide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeynep Günay
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The paper claims that the renewal schemes, which have been employed as an evolving model in resolving the urbanisation problem, are turned into the instruments of “urbicide” in Istanbul as a political “evolving” model of urban destruction. The concerns arising out of this change of emphasis encompass conflicts between theory and practice, as well as conflicts between marketing and planning, process and action, authenticity and diversity, users and owners, opportunities and threats. Within this scope, by constructing an urban renewal framework through the exploration of Law on the Protection and the Revitalisation of Deteriorated Historical and Cultural Immovable Assets (2005 and Law on the Transformation of Areas under Disaster Risk (2012, the paper intents to discuss the evolving and declining urbanisation patterns in Istanbul by relating them with up-to-date political, economic, technological and socio-economic inferences. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of examples in Historic Peninsula to illustrate and critically analyze meanings, inputs, outputs and impacts. The paper concludes by addressing in what ways the planning as a profession can manage these evolving and declining models in resolving contradictions stemming from the dichotomy of urbanisation and urbicide in Istanbul.
Discussion on Rural Finanical Problems From the Perspective of Theory of Constaint
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
Inadequate rural financial services and low service efficiency lead to the situation that a large sum of money flows from rural areas to urban areas through commercial banks. The situation goes against the development of rural production and causes the extreme lack of rural capital, the difficuties in loaning and the prevalence of uaurious loan. In view of the problems exsited in rural financial system, the rural financial developmental trend, rural gross production, rural financial scale and rural financial efficiency from 1983 to 2008 are empirically analyzed by using the Pagano model in endogenous growth theory. The research assumes that, rural financial scale has positive relation with rural economic output, that is to say, the expansion of rural fiancial scale can facilitate the development of rural economy; the rural financial efficiency has negative relation with rural economic development. In Chinese rural areas, the economic development still relies on the expansion of rural fianance. However, at the same time of increasing the financial scale, the efficiency of rural finance is deceasing gradually. Thus, the support of rural finance on rural economic growth lies at the low level. Therefore, in view of the basic rerequisite of rural economic development, two solutions are adopted and Japanese and Kereaon experince are used. The measures are as follows. First, conducting organization innovation through promoting new village construction and gathering dispersed farmers to form rural cooperative organization to reduce trasaction cost. Second, transforming financial support from exogeneity to endogenity and marketizing rural finance so as to effectively solve the efficiency of rural finance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dizendorf A. V.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article considers the main types of wind and solar electric installations, and provides a comparative analysis of the renewable energy potential of the Krasnodar region. Currently, humankind cannot live without electricity. Production and consumption of electricity is constantly increasing and the cost of it is constantly becoming more expensive. The cost of oil production (to get oil out of the ground increases. The cost of electricity is going up because the cost of basic materials such as copper is at an unprecedented high. Such alternatives energy sources such as solar and wind are real solutions to these problems, moreover, the cost of "traditional" energy sources will only increase. To date, the most popular and invest renewable energy sources are the solar energy and the wind. The solar energy in the Krasnodar region is more profitable than wind, despite the fact that the production of solar installations is more expensive. But every year, the price of solar energy is being reduced and soon will be equal to the price of wind energy, and science and technology do not stand still, and considering the abundance of sunlight in the Krasnodar region, the solar installation will pay off much faster
On the problem of representability and the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knoerr, Hans Konrad
2013-11-22
well-known that the generalized one-particle density matrix of a pure quasifree fermion state is a projection, and uniquely determines this pure quasifree state. We show that for fermions only pure quasifree states have a generalized one-particle density matrix which is a projection, and a similar statement for bosons which is the third main result. Chapter 4 is concerned with fermion representability conditions and a relation to the fermion correlation inequalities. After two introductory sections specifying the problem and notation, we derive the representability conditions up to second order for fermions. We explain that these basic conditions on the one- and two-particle density matrices, namely the admissibility and the G-, P-, and Q-conditions, arise from certain expectation values of polynomials of degree two in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Furthermore we verify that there are no further independent conditions that can be obtained that way. The main result proven in Chapter 4 is the theorem stating that the admissibility, and the G- and P-conditions imply the fermion correlation inequality which was used to derive a lower bound to the ground state energy. This lower bound is equal to the Hartree-Fock energy minus an error term which is small in the limit of large particle numbers. Thus a similar lower bound can already been obtained if one just requires the representability conditions mentioned above. In the last chapter we study representability conditions for fermions. There are several different versions of representability conditions, but to our knowledge all of them use the Fock representation of the canonical anticommutation relations. In Chapter 5 we reformulate the representability conditions up to third order using Grassmann integrals. While Grassmann integration is a very common method in quantum field theory, representability conditions from quantum chemistry have not been studied within this framework. This transcription in another
Dressing the Post-Newtonian two-body problem and Classical Effective Field Theory
Kol, Barak
2009-01-01
We apply a dressed perturbation theory to better organize and economize the computation of high orders of the 2-body effective action of an inspiralling Post-Newtonian gravitating binary. We use the effective field theory approach with the non-relativistic field decomposition (NRG fields). For that purpose we develop quite generally the dressing theory of a non-linear classical field theory coupled to point-like sources. We introduce dressed charges and propagators, but unlike the quantum theory there are no dressed bulk vertices. The dressed quantities are found to obey recursive integral equations which succinctly encode parts of the diagrammatic expansion, and are the classical version of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. Actually, the classical equations are somewhat stronger since they involve only finitely many quantities, unlike the quantum theory. Classical diagrams are shown to factorize exactly when they contain non-linear world-line vertices, and we classify all the possible topologies of irreducible ...
25th Johns Hopkins Workshop on Current Problems in Particle Theory
Dominici, Daniele; Lusanna, L
2001-01-01
This volume offers a comprehensive overview of our understanding of gravity at both the experimental and the theoretical level. Critical reviews by experts cover topics ranging from astrophysics (anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, gamma ray bursts, neutron stars and astroparticles), cosmology, the status of gravitational wave sources and detectors, verification of Newton's law at short distances, the equivalence principle, gravito-magnetism, measurement theory, time machines and the foundations of Einstein's theory, to string theory and loop quantum gravity.
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Gonzalez
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Through statistics published by the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC, the paper explores why oilfield sabotage from 2009 to 2015 remains a problem in the Niger Delta, despite the 2009 amnesty programme. It explains why some of these incidents are a direct result of the failure to implement socio-economic development in successive state agencies due to corruption, a consequence of the natural resource curse. The article then explores why and how a Nigerian Non-Renewable Revenue Special Fund overseen by the United Nations Development Programme should be established which would not only manage a portion of oil revenue funds from the Niger Delta but also initiate valid social and economic projects in order to help reduce the prevalence of sabotage and instability in the region.
De Leo, Joseph Anthony; Wulfert, Edelgard
2013-03-01
Given the widespread use of the Internet, researchers have begun to examine the personal and social consequences associated with excessive online involvement. The present study examined college students' problematic Internet use (PIU) behaviors within the framework of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) problem-behavior theory. Its specific aim was to investigate the links between PIU with both internalizing (depression, social anxiety) and externalizing (substance use and other risky behaviors) problems. Relevant variables from the perceived environmental system, the personality system, and the behavioral system were entered in a canonical correlation analysis. The analysis yielded two distinct functions: the first function, titled traditional problem-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are impulsive, hold socially deviant attitudes and show a propensity to use tobacco and illicit drugs. The second function, titled problematic Internet-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are socially anxious, depressed, report conflictive family relations, and show a propensity toward PIU. Thus, PIU did not share the characteristics typically associated with the traditional problem-behavior syndrome consistent with problem-behavior theory, but showed correlates more consistent with internalizing rather than externalizing problems.
Hampshire, Kate; Hamill, Heather; Mariwah, Simon; Mwanga, Joseph; Amoako-Sakyi, Daniel
2017-09-01
In contexts where healthcare regulation is weak and levels of uncertainty high, how do patients decide whom and what to trust? In this paper, we explore the potential for using Signalling Theory (ST, a form of Behavioural Game Theory) to investigate health-related trust problems under conditions of uncertainty, using the empirical example of 'herbal clinics' in Ghana and Tanzania. Qualitative, ethnographic fieldwork was conducted over an eight-month period (2015-2016) in eight herbal clinics in Ghana and ten in Tanzania, including semi-structured interviews with herbalists (N = 18) and patients (N = 68), plus detailed ethnographic observations and twenty additional key informant interviews. The data were used to explore four ST-derived predictions, relating to herbalists' strategic communication ('signalling') of their trustworthiness to patients, and patients' interpretation of those signals. Signalling Theory is shown to provide a useful analytical framework, allowing us to go beyond the primary trust problem addressed by other researchers - cataloguing observable indicators of trustworthiness - and providing tools for tackling the trickier secondary trust problem, where the trustworthiness of those indicators must be ascertained. Signalling Theory also enables a basis for comparative work between different empirical contexts that share the underlying condition of uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Self-Renewal for Self-Preservation.
Sistrunk, Walter E.
This speech explores the concept of professional self-renewal. The presenter seeks to understand why some professionals always seem fresh, energetic, and ready for new challenges, whereas others are perpetually tired, bored, and irritated with the demands of their work. Referring to McGregor's management theories, the paper infers that Theory X…
Linking Places to Problems: Geospatial Theories of Neighborhoods, Alcohol and Crime.
Gorman, Dennis M; Gruenewald, Paul J; Waller, Lance A
2013-06-01
This paper provides a critical review of two broad categories of social ecological theories of crime, social integration and place-based theories, and their relationships to spatial assessments of crime patterns. Social integration theories emphasize the role of neighborhood disorganization on crime, while place theories stress the social interactions within and between places as a source of crime. We provide an analysis of the extent to which these two types of theorizing describe processes and mechanisms that are truly ecologic (identify specific interactions between individuals and their environments) and truly spatial (identify specific movement and interaction patterns of individuals and groups) as they endeavor to explain crime outcomes. We suggest that social integration theories do not provide spatial signatures of sufficient specificity to justify the application of spatial statistical techniques as quantitative arbiters of the theory. On the other hand, place based theories go some way toward addressing these issues because the emphasis is placed on understanding the exact physical and social characteristics of place and the activities that occur around locations as sources of crime. Routine activities and crime potential theories attempt to explain clustering or "hot spots" of crime in ways that give clear spatial dimension by looking at micro-spatial interactions between offenders and targets of crime. These theories have strong ecological implications as well, since they contain specific statements about how people use the space around them and how these patterns of use are related to patterns of criminal activity. We conclude by identifying a set of requirements for successful empirical tests of geospatial theories, including the development of valid measures of key theoretical constructs and the formulation of critical empirical assessments of geospatial hypotheses derived from motivating theory.
On the problem of representability and the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knoerr, Hans Konrad
2013-11-22
well-known that the generalized one-particle density matrix of a pure quasifree fermion state is a projection, and uniquely determines this pure quasifree state. We show that for fermions only pure quasifree states have a generalized one-particle density matrix which is a projection, and a similar statement for bosons which is the third main result. Chapter 4 is concerned with fermion representability conditions and a relation to the fermion correlation inequalities. After two introductory sections specifying the problem and notation, we derive the representability conditions up to second order for fermions. We explain that these basic conditions on the one- and two-particle density matrices, namely the admissibility and the G-, P-, and Q-conditions, arise from certain expectation values of polynomials of degree two in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Furthermore we verify that there are no further independent conditions that can be obtained that way. The main result proven in Chapter 4 is the theorem stating that the admissibility, and the G- and P-conditions imply the fermion correlation inequality which was used to derive a lower bound to the ground state energy. This lower bound is equal to the Hartree-Fock energy minus an error term which is small in the limit of large particle numbers. Thus a similar lower bound can already been obtained if one just requires the representability conditions mentioned above. In the last chapter we study representability conditions for fermions. There are several different versions of representability conditions, but to our knowledge all of them use the Fock representation of the canonical anticommutation relations. In Chapter 5 we reformulate the representability conditions up to third order using Grassmann integrals. While Grassmann integration is a very common method in quantum field theory, representability conditions from quantum chemistry have not been studied within this framework. This transcription in another
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yekini Shehu
2010-01-01
real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alistair G.L. Borthwick
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.
Wood, Phil
2017-01-01
In this article, I begin by outlining some of the barriers which constrain sustainable organizational change in schools and universities. I then go on to introduce a theory which has already started to help explain complex change and innovation processes in health and care contexts, Normalization Process Theory. Finally, I consider what this…
Wood, Phil
2017-01-01
In this article, I begin by outlining some of the barriers which constrain sustainable organizational change in schools and universities. I then go on to introduce a theory which has already started to help explain complex change and innovation processes in health and care contexts, Normalization Process Theory. Finally, I consider what this…
Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory
Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.
2004-01-01
Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…
Golding, Clinton
2017-01-01
In Philosophy of Education we frequently argue for or against different educational theories. Yet, as I illustrate in this analysis of two articles, in order to maintain the abstract theoretical distinctions, we are liable to ignore the concrete details of practice, caricature the theories we reject and make false distinctions. The two articles…
Balder, E.J.
1980-01-01
By employing fundamental results from “geometric” functional analysis and the theory of multifunctions we formulate a general model for (nonsequential) statistical decision theory, which extends Wald's classical model. From central results that hold for the model we derive a general theorem on the e
Modified equations in the theory of induced gravity. Solution to the cosmological constant problem
Zaripov, Farkhat
2013-01-01
This research is an extension of the author's article \\cite{zar}, in which conformally invariant generalization of string theory was suggested to higher-dimensional objects. Special cases of the proposed theory are Einstein's theory of gravity and string theory. This work is devoted to the formation of self-consistent equations of the theory of induced gravity \\cite{zar}, \\cite{zari} in the presence of matter in the form of a perfect fluid that interacts with scalar fields. The study is done to solve these equations for the case of the cosmological model. In this model time-evolving gravitational and cosmological "constants" take place which are determined by the square of scalar fields. The values of which can be matched with the observational data. The equations that describe the theory have solutions that can both match with the solutions of the standard theory of gravity as well as it can differ from it. This is due to the fact that the fundamental "constants" of the theory, such as gravitational and cosm...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩乐; 李铌; 张弓; 覃永晖
2012-01-01
The traditional blocks of Wudian are living fossils of evolutional history in the city of Jinjiang , with its architectures fairly- well preserved and with a larger proportion, but the rapid business development of surrounding areas and concentration of population make this area difficult to meet the functional requirements brought about by economic development of the city center zone and the people's quality demands for living. So we adopt the "organic renewal" theory to get the measures and ways of renewal and reconstruction by having a deeper analysis of the present situation .%五店市传统街区是晋江城市演变历史的活化石,建筑风貌保存较好且比重较大,但由于该区周边的商业快速发展和人口的集聚,使得该区难以满足城市中心区经济发展所带来的功能需求以及人们对居住品质的要求.所以我们采用“有机更新”理论对现状进行深层次的剖析之后得出更新与改造的措施与方式.
Renewal of radiological equipment.
2014-10-01
In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a
Grabner, Peter
2017-01-01
This volume is dedicated to Robert F. Tichy on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Presenting 22 research and survey papers written by leading experts in their respective fields, it focuses on areas that align with Tichy’s research interests and which he significantly shaped, including Diophantine problems, asymptotic counting, uniform distribution and discrepancy of sequences (in theory and application), dynamical systems, prime numbers, and actuarial mathematics. Offering valuable insights into recent developments in these areas, the book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students engaged in number theory and its applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan M. Stefanov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the data fitting problem, that is, the problem of approximating a function of several variables, given by tabulated data, and the corresponding problem for inconsistent (overdetermined systems of linear algebraic equations. Such problems, connected with measurement of physical quantities, arise, for example, in physics, engineering, and so forth. A traditional approach for solving these two problems is the discrete least squares data fitting method, which is based on discrete l2-norm. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed: with each of these problems, we associate a nondifferentiable (nonsmooth unconstrained minimization problem with an objective function, based on discrete l1- and/or l∞-norm, respectively; that is, these two norms are used as proximity criteria. In other words, the problems under consideration are solved by minimizing the residual using these two norms. Respective subgradients are calculated, and a subgradient method is used for solving these two problems. The emphasis is on implementation of the proposed approach. Some computational results, obtained by an appropriate iterative method, are given at the end of the paper. These results are compared with the results, obtained by the iterative gradient method for the corresponding “differentiable” discrete least squares problems, that is, approximation problems based on discrete l2-norm.
Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Bin Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. S. Raghuram
1963-07-01
Full Text Available Information theory, which originated in Tele-communication studies, is a branch of Mathematical statistics with many applications of statistical inference. The three fundamental problems are: (i Development of statistical measures of information capacity in a Communication system, (ii the transmission problem of information in a system, and (iii analytical study of reception from a statistical decision point of view. This paper is an attempt to present a comprehensive study of all three aspects. In addition, application of sequential analysis, specially with reference to radar signal detection and range estimation has been briefly discussed. Finally from the point of view of signal reception in the case of a radar, the problem has been considered as a statistical decision study. In conclusion, the computational problems as well as certain comparative studies have been briefly touched upon. Illustrative examples are given and graphs are shown wherever necessary.
Innovative policies to promote renewable energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harvey, H. [Energy Foundation, San Francisco, CA (United States)
1993-11-01
The subject of this paper is innovative policies to promote renewable energy. The renewable energy industry has made great progress in the last decade. Prices have dropped four-fold or more, and reliability has increased dramatically. By most measures, then, the renewable energy industry should be poised to become a mainstream success. But upon closer examination, it appears instead that society may snatch defeat from the jaws of victory. Unless something changes, and soon, dozens of promising renewable technologies may stumble and fall. An exploding population, a build-up of CO{sub 2} threatening to cause global warming, extensive oil spills and oil fires, and acid rain make it imperative to preserve this option. The author looks at what drives this situation, where on the one hand renewable energy technologies are more cost-effective than ever, and on the other society is not ready to purchase them in sufficient quantities to overcome these problems.
Analysis of renewable energy projects' implementation in Russia
Ratner, S. V.; Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.
2017-06-01
With the enactment in 2013 of a renewable energy scheme by contracting qualified power generation facilities working on renewable energy sources (RES), the process of construction and connection of such facilities to the Federal Grid Company has intensified in Russia. In 2013-2015, 93 projects of solar, wind, and small hydropower energy were selected on the basis of competitive bidding in the country with the purpose of subsequent support. Despite some technical and organizational problems and a time delay of some RES projects, in 2014-2015 five solar generating facilities with total capacity of 50 MW were commissioned, including 30 MW in Orenburg oblast. However, the proportion of successful projects is low and amounts to approximately 30% of the total number of announced projects. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the experience of implementation of renewable energy projects that passed through a competitive selection and gained the right to get a partial compensation for the construction and commissioning costs of RES generating facilities in the electric power wholesale market zone. The informational background for the study is corporate reports of project promoters, analytical and information materials of the Association NP Market Council, and legal documents for the development of renewable energy. The methodological base of the study is a theory of learning curves that assumes that cost savings in the production of high-tech products depends on the production growth rate (economy of scale) and gaining manufacturing experience (learning by doing). The study has identified factors that have a positive and a negative impact on the implementation of RES projects. Improvement of promotion measures in the renewable energy development in Russia corresponding to the current socio-economic situation is proposed.
Styopin, Nikita E; Vershinin, Anatoly V; Zingerman, Konstantin M; Levin, Vladimir A
2016-09-01
Different variants of the Uzawa algorithm are compared with one another. The comparison is performed for the case in which this algorithm is applied to large-scale systems of linear algebraic equations. These systems arise in the finite-element solution of the problems of elasticity theory for incompressible materials. A modification of the Uzawa algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments show that this modification improves the convergence of the Uzawa algorithm for the problems of solid mechanics. The results of computational experiments show that each variant of the Uzawa algorithm considered has its advantages and disadvantages and may be convenient in one case or another.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikita E. Styopin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Different variants of the Uzawa algorithm are compared with one another. The comparison is performed for the case in which this algorithm is applied to large-scale systems of linear algebraic equations. These systems arise in the finite-element solution of the problems of elasticity theory for incompressible materials. A modification of the Uzawa algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments show that this modification improves the convergence of the Uzawa algorithm for the problems of solid mechanics. The results of computational experiments show that each variant of the Uzawa algorithm considered has its advantages and disadvantages and may be convenient in one case or another.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-01
The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.
Using "The Japanese Problem" as a Corrective to the Ethnocentricity of Western Theory.
Tobin, Joseph
2000-01-01
Focuses on how knowledge about Japanese psychological development and culture can serve as a corrective to the ethnocentrism of Western theory. Highlights the Japanese cultural concepts of "amae" and "kejime." (Author/KB)
PULSE cube: Paradigms and theories for creating opportunities and solving problems
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Meissner, Richard
2015-05-01
Full Text Available with on a daily basis. • We develop and use theories to assess an issue or situation. - Theories are part of the never ending cognitive processes. Rationale and Definitions • People Understanding and Living in a Sustained Environment. • Cube.... • Analytic eclecticism: that includes both social and natural sciences, different research methods in both disciplines. • Rationale is to avoid paradigmatic compartmentalisation. - Arguing from one paradigm can become an obstacle in understanding...
Finite Element Formulation for a Poroelasticity Problem Stemming from Mixture Theory
Costanzo, Francesco
2016-01-01
A finite element formulation is developed for a poroelastic medium consisting of an incompressible hyperelastic skeleton saturated by an incompressible fluid. The governing equations stem from mixture theory and the application is motivated by the study of interstitial fluid flow in brain tissue. The formulation is based on the adoption of an ALE perspective. We focus on a flow regime in which inertia forces are negligible. The stability and convergence of the formulation is discussed, and numerical results demonstrate agreement with the theory.
VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...
Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2011-07-01
This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.H. Babloyan
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the solution of a symmetric problem of elasticity theory for an elastic half-plane weakened by a round opening and a rectilinear internal crack, the latter being perpendicular to the edge of the half-plane. Symmetrically distributed normal loadings are given at the edges of the opening, the half-plane and banks of the split. On the infinity the half-plane spreads by equally distributed loadings with p intensity (fig.1.
Singular layers for transmission problems in thin shallow shell theory: Rigid junction case
Merabet, Ismail; Chacha, D. A.; Nicaise, S.
2010-02-01
In this Note we study two-dimensional transmission problems for the linear Koiter's model of an elastic multi-structure composed of two thin shallow shells. This work enters in the framework of singular perturbation of problems depending on a small parameter ɛ. The formal limit problem fails to give a solution satisfying all boundary and transmission conditions; it gives only the outer solution. Both in the case of regular or singular loadings, we derive a limit problem which allows us to determine the inner solution explicitly.
Dressing the post-Newtonian two-body problem and classical effective field theory
Kol, Barak; Smolkin, Michael
2009-12-01
We apply a dressed perturbation theory to better organize and economize the computation of high orders of the 2-body effective action of an inspiralling post-Newtonian (PN) gravitating binary. We use the effective field theory approach with the nonrelativistic field decomposition (NRG fields). For that purpose we develop quite generally the dressing theory of a nonlinear classical field theory coupled to pointlike sources. We introduce dressed charges and propagators, but unlike the quantum theory there are no dressed bulk vertices. The dressed quantities are found to obey recursive integral equations which succinctly encode parts of the diagrammatic expansion, and are the classical version of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. Actually, the classical equations are somewhat stronger since they involve only finitely many quantities, unlike the quantum theory. Classical diagrams are shown to factorize exactly when they contain nonlinear worldline vertices, and we classify all the possible topologies of irreducible diagrams for low loop numbers. We apply the dressing program to our post-Newtonian case of interest. The dressed charges consist of the dressed energy-momentum tensor after a nonrelativistic decomposition, and we compute all dressed charges (in the harmonic gauge) appearing up to 2PN in the 2-body effective action (and more). We determine the irreducible skeleton diagrams up to 3PN and we employ the dressed charges to compute several terms beyond 2PN.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ravi P. AGARWAL; Donal O'REGAN; Svatoslav STAN(E)K
2006-01-01
A new upper and lower solution theory is presented for the second order problem (G'(y))' + f(t,y) = 0 on finite and infinite intervals. The theory on finite intervals is based on a Leray-Schauder alternative, whereas the theory on infinite intervals is based on results on the finite interval and a diagonalization process.
Serafino, Kathleen; Cicchelli, Terry
2003-01-01
Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models--structured problem solving and guided generation (GG)--on mathematical problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous…
The Problem-Solving Approach in the Teaching of Number Theory
Toh, Pee Choon; Leong, Yew Hoong; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Ho, Foo Him
2014-01-01
Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to…
Taufik, Ahmad
2007-10-01
This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.
An introduction to fuzzy linear programming problems theory, methods and applications
Kaur, Jagdeep
2016-01-01
The book presents a snapshot of the state of the art in the field of fully fuzzy linear programming. The main focus is on showing current methods for finding the fuzzy optimal solution of fully fuzzy linear programming problems in which all the parameters and decision variables are represented by non-negative fuzzy numbers. It presents new methods developed by the authors, as well as existing methods developed by others, and their application to real-world problems, including fuzzy transportation problems. Moreover, it compares the outcomes of the different methods and discusses their advantages/disadvantages. As the first work to collect at one place the most important methods for solving fuzzy linear programming problems, the book represents a useful reference guide for students and researchers, providing them with the necessary theoretical and practical knowledge to deal with linear programming problems under uncertainty.
Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henrik
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy...... on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements...
How Do You Solve a Problem Like Modified Gravity? Challenges in Connecting Theory and Observations
Linder, Eric V
2016-01-01
Cosmic acceleration may be due to modifications of cosmic gravity. To test this we need robust connections between theory and observations. However, in a model independent approach like effective field theory or a broad class like Horndeski gravity, several free functions of time enter the theory. We demonstrate that no simple parametrizations of these functions are valid, with first approximations such as $\\alpha_i(t)\\propto\\Omega_{\\rm de}(t)$ drastically misestimating the observables. Quantifying the bias, we find that even a few percent inaccuracy on the property functions $\\alpha_i(t)$ give many expected-sigma bias on cosmic survey observables (often missing the signature of modified gravity). We also address the challenge of generally valid consistency relations and the role of tensor (gravitational wave) perturbations.
YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Dubovik
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.
The numerical analysis of eigenvalue problem solutions in the multigroup neutron diffusion theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woznicki, Z.I. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1994-12-31
The main goal of this paper is to present a general iteration strategy for solving the discrete form of multidimensional neutron diffusion equations equivalent mathematically to an eigenvalue problem. Usually a solution method is based on different levels of iterations. The presented matrix formalism allows us to visualize explicitly how the used matrix splitting influences the matrix structure in an eigenvalue problem to be solved as well as the interdependence between inner and outer iteration within global iterations. Particular interactive strategies are illustrated by numerical results obtained for several reactor problems. (author). 21 refs, 32 figs, 15 tabs.
The numerical analysis of eigenvalue problem solutions in multigroup neutron diffusion theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woznicki, Z.I. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1995-12-31
The main goal of this paper is to present a general iteration strategy for solving the discrete form of multidimensional neutron diffusion equations equivalent mathematically to an eigenvalue problem. Usually a solution method is based on different levels of iterations. The presented matrix formalism allows us to visualize explicitly how the used matrix splitting influences the matrix structure in an eigenvalue problem to be solved as well as the interdependence between inner and outer iterations within global iterations. Particular iterative strategies are illustrated by numerical results obtained for several reactor problems. (author). 21 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs.
New approach to the sign problem in quantum field theories: High density QCD on a Lefschetz thimble
Cristoforetti, Marco; Di Renzo, Francesco; Scorzato, Luigi
2012-10-01
It is sometimes speculated that the sign problem that afflicts many quantum field theories might be reduced or even eliminated by choosing an alternative domain of integration within a complexified extension of the path integral (in the spirit of the stationary phase integration method). In this paper we start to explore this possibility somewhat systematically. A first inspection reveals the presence of many difficulties but—quite surprisingly—most of them have an interesting solution. In particular, it is possible to regularize the lattice theory on a Lefschetz thimble, where the imaginary part of the action is constant and disappears from all observables. This regularization can be justified in terms of symmetries and perturbation theory. Moreover, it is possible to design a Monte Carlo algorithm that samples the configurations in the thimble. This is done by simulating, effectively, a five-dimensional system. We describe the algorithm in detail and analyze its expected cost and stability. Unfortunately, the measure term also produces a phase which is not constant and it is currently very expensive to compute. This residual sign problem is expected to be much milder, as the dominant part of the integral is not affected, but we have still no convincing evidence of this. However, the main goal of this paper is to introduce a new approach to the sign problem, that seems to offer much room for improvements. An appealing feature of this approach is its generality. It is illustrated first in the simple case of a scalar field theory with chemical potential, and then extended to the more challenging case of QCD at finite baryonic density.
SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part 1. Problem Formulation in Nonlinear Solid Mechancis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.
1998-08-01
This report gives an introduction to the basic concepts and principles involved in the formulation of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics. By way of motivation, the discussion begins with a survey of some of the important sources of nonlinearity in solid mechanics applications, using wherever possible simple one dimensional idealizations to demonstrate the physical concepts. This discussion is then generalized by presenting generic statements of initial/boundary value problems in solid mechanics, using linear elasticity as a template and encompassing such ideas as strong and weak forms of boundary value problems, boundary and initial conditions, and dynamic and quasistatic idealizations. The notational framework used for the linearized problem is then extended to account for finite deformation of possibly inelastic solids, providing the context for the descriptions of nonlinear continuum mechanics, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology given in three companion reports.
A Theory of Distributed Anonymous Mobile Robots Formation and Agreement Problems.
1994-07-15
unit distance, (5) agreement on direction, and (6) leader election . We develop algorithms for solving some of these problems under various conditions. Some impossibility results are also presented. (AN)
AN INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM FOR PARABOLIC MONGE-AMPERE EQUATION FROM INVESTMENT THEORY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王光烈; 廉松哲
2003-01-01
@@ The author of [1] raised an optimal investment problem in time interval [0, T], in which the financial market is characterized by the parameters r, b, σ, the attitude of the investor to the risk versus the gain at the final time is described by a utility function g(y), the purpose is to find out an optimal portfolio to maximize the profit of the investor. To this end, in [1] the following initial value problem is derived:
Goldratt’s Theory Applied to the Problems Associated with an Emergency Department at a Hospital
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soumya Nayak
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Healthcare costs continue to increase dramatically, while quality remains a significant problem. Reform measures initiated by the government will drive expansion of these costs, further stressing taxpayers and employers, and forcing hospitals to adopt fundamental changes as they try to adjust to increased demands for services and to lessening reimbursements from all payers. This struggle is best seen at the point of entry for many at a hospital: the emergency department (ED. It is at the emergency department that patients’ expectations regarding staff communication with patients, wait times, the triage process, capacity and payment will determine a significant part of a hospital’s revenue. Using Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt’s Thinking Process, we will determine what core problem(s are causing a 362-bed regional West Texas hospital emergency department to lose revenue. Evaluation of the current emergency department will determine the Undesirable Effects (UDE. Using that information will lead to the construction of the Current Reality Tree (CRT, which will bring focus to the core problem(s. To break the constraints, which are the core problem(s, an Evaporative Cloud (EC is generated. And, the end result will be to construct a Future Reality Tree (FRT, which will validate the idea(s generated in the EC. It was determined that there are ten major UDE’s that affected this hospital’s emergency department. They were focused around staff communication, wait times, triage process, information management, service provided and bill collections. A conclusion was made that the core problem dealt with triaging patients and utilization of the services provided by the hospital. Since the reimbursement rate is affected by the patient’s satisfaction, the areas to focus on would be: triage, education, communication and retention. Although it may be neither feasible nor desirable to meet all the patient’s expectations, increased focus on those areas may
Reminiscences on science at IHES A problem on homoclinic theory and a brief review
Gallavotti, G
1998-01-01
On the occasion of the 40-th anniversary of IHES I present a few scientific reminiscences: most of my scientific life has been marked by my visits and I run through them concluding with the analysis of a problem that originated during my last visit. The problem is to develop a convergent perturbative algorithm for the construction of the ``Eliasson's potential'' for the stable and unstable manifolds of an invariant torus: and to study its properties. A brief review follows.
Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan
2016-07-01
The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.
The renewable chemicals industry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare
2008-01-01
The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...... per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes...... and educational tools are introduced to allow initial estimates of which chemical processes could be viable. Specifically, fossil and renewables value chains are used to indicate where renewable feedstocks can be optimally valorized. Additionally, C factors are introduced that specify the amount of CO2 produced...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2012-07-01
This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.
Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.
Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J
2003-01-01
Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).
Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan
2010-01-01
A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found...
Energy and Momentum Localization: An Important Problem in the Theory of Gravitation
Korunur, M; Salti, M; Aydogdu, O
2005-01-01
Using the Einstein, Bergmann-Thomson and Landau-Lifshitz's energy and momentum complexes and theirs teleparallel gravity versions, we compute the energy and momentum of the universe in inhomogeneous cosmological models and show that energy-momentum complexes give same results in both of gravitation theories in inhomogeneous spacetime.
Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology
Snieder, R.K.
1987-01-01
Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory to s
Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pantuso, Giovanni; Fagerholt, Kjetil; Wallace, Stein W.
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the fleet renewal problem and particularly the treatment of uncertainty in the maritime case. A stochastic programming model for the maritime fleet renewal problem is presented. The main contribution is that of assessing whether or not better decisions can be achieved by usin...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢涤湘; 常江
2015-01-01
文化经济是20世纪中后期以来伴随着符号消费、大众文化的兴起和后工业社会的到来而涌现出的一种新兴产业类型。随着文化经济规模的日渐壮大，其对城市发展和城市更新都产生了重要影响。本文研究了文化经济的发展机制及其对城市更新的意义、我国文化经济导向的城市更新的主要模式与存在问题。研究认为城市更新进程中既要高度重视文化经济的发展，以因应老城区产业的转型与空间的再利用，但又不能纯粹地将历史文化遗产视为谋取经济利益的工具，也应兼顾文化传承与公平正义，延续城市历史文脉与集体记忆，处理好经济发展与历史保护的关系，打破政府权力垄断，如此才能真正打造出全球化时代富有地方文化特色的城市。%The cultural economy is a new industrial type with the rise of mass culture and the arrival of post-industrial society since the late 20th century.With the growing scale,the cultural economy is playing a more and more important role in urban development and urban renewal.This paper studied the cultural economy de-velopment mechanism as well as its significance for urban renewal,and the main modes and problems of cultural economy oriented urban renewal.The study suggested that it is necessary to pay greater attention to cultural e-conomy development to comply with the transformation of old urban industry and the reuse of space,but we can not purely regard historical cultural heritage as a tool to reap the economic benefits.Urban renewal should be combined with economic development,cultural inheritance and social justice to fully embody the humane care, and continue the city’s historic and cultural context and collective memory.Only in this way can a city be crea-ted with rich local culture in the era of globalization.
Twidell, John
2015-01-01
Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey S. Tsyganenko
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.
Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chien Taichen [Chung-Hua Institute for Economic Research, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tcchien@hotmail.com; Hu Jinli [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan (China)
2008-08-15
This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the 'expenditure approach'. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance.
Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chien, Taichen [Chung-Hua Institute for Economic Research, Taipei (China); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)
2008-08-15
This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the ''expenditure approach''. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Yidong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-08-01
This document presents the theoretical background for a hybrid finite-element / finite-volume fluid flow solver, namely BIGHORN, based on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) computational framework developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An overview of the numerical methods used in BIGHORN are discussed and followed by a presentation of the formulation details. The document begins with the governing equations for the compressible fluid flow, with an outline of the requisite constitutive relations. A second-order finite volume method used for solving the compressible fluid flow problems is presented next. A Pressure-Corrected Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (PCICE) formulation for time integration is also presented. The multi-fluid formulation is being developed. Although multi-fluid is not fully-developed, BIGHORN has been designed to handle multi-fluid problems. Due to the flexibility in the underlying MOOSE framework, BIGHORN is quite extensible, and can accommodate both multi-species and multi-phase formulations. This document also presents a suite of verification & validation benchmark test problems for BIGHORN. The intent for this suite of problems is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the BIGHORN solution methods on problems that vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. Wherever possible, some form of solution verification has been attempted to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and suggest best practices when using BIGHORN.
Stress at work? Build resilience, renew your mind, be transformed.
Mace, Karen
2012-01-01
Workplace stress, including bullying and horizontal violence, is a common problem in nursing. Christians have unique resources to build resilience, renew the mind, and be transformed in dealing with these problems.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL APPROXIMATION OF EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS IN SHELL THEORY: FLEXURAL SHELLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The eigenvalue problem for a thin linearly elastic shell, of thickness 2e, clamped along its lateral surface is considered. Under the geometric assumption on the middle surface of the shell that the space of inextensional displacements is non-trivial, the authors obtain, as ε→0,the eigenvalue problem for the two-dimensional"flexural shell"model if the dimension of the space is infinite. If the space is finite dimensional, the limits of the eigenvalues could belong to the spectra of both flexural and membrane shells. The method consists of rescaling the variables and studying the problem over a fixed domain. The principal difficulty lies in obtaining suitable a priori estimates for the scaled eigenvalues.
Singular layers for transmission problems in thin shallow shell theory: Elastic junction case
Merabet, Ismail; Chacha, D. A.; Nicaise, Serge
2010-05-01
In this Note we study two-dimensional transmission problems for the linear Koiter's model of an elastic multi-structure composed of two thin shallow shells with the same thickness ɛ≪1, in the elastic junction case. We suppose that the loading is singular, that the elastic coefficients are of different order on each part ( O(ɛ) and O(1) respectively) and that the elastic stiffness coefficient of the hinge is k=O(ɛ). The formal limit problem fails to give a solution satisfying all boundary and transmission conditions; it gives only the outer solution. We derive the inner limit problem which allows us to describe the transmission layer.
Fine-tuning problems in quantum field theory and Lorentz invariance
Cortes, J L
2016-01-01
A model with a scalar and a fermion field is used to show how a Lorentz invariance violating high momentum scale, which eliminates all the divergences of the quantum field theory, can be made compatible with a suppression of Lorentz invariance violations at low momenta. The fine tuning required to get this suppression and to have a light scalar particle in the spectrum is determined at one loop.
The Two Fluid Drop Snap-off Problem: Experiments and Theory
1999-01-01
We address the dynamics of a drop with viscosity $\\lambda \\eta$ breaking up inside another fluid of viscosity $\\eta$. For $\\lambda=1$, a scaling theory predicts the time evolution of the drop shape near the point of snap-off which is in excellent agreement with experiment and previous simulations of Lister and Stone. We also investigate the $\\lambda$ dependence of the shape and breaking rate.
The Two Fluid Drop Snap-off Problem Experiments and Theory
Cohen, I; Eggers, J; Nagel, S R; Cohen, Itai; Brenner, Michael P.; Eggers, Jens; Nagel, Sidney R.
1999-01-01
We address the dynamics of a drop with viscosity $\\lambda \\eta$ breaking up inside another fluid of viscosity $\\eta$. For $\\lambda=1$, a scaling theory predicts the time evolution of the drop shape near the point of snap-off which is in excellent agreement with experiment and previous simulations of Lister and Stone. We also investigate the $\\lambda$ dependence of the shape and breaking rate.
Modified Gravity Theories: Alternatives To The Missing Mass And Missing Energy Problems
Soussa, M E
2005-01-01
Modified theories of gravity are examined and shown to be alternative possibilities to the standard paradigms of dark matter and dark energy in explaining the currently observed cosmological phenomenology. Special consideration is given to the relativistic extension of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) in supplanting the need for dark matter. A specific modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action (whereby an inverse power of the Ricci scalar is added) is shown to serve as an alternative to dark energy.
Information-theory-based solution of the inverse problem in classical statistical mechanics.
D'Alessandro, Marco; Cilloco, Francesco
2010-08-01
We present a procedure for the determination of the interaction potential from the knowledge of the radial pair distribution function. The method, realized inside an inverse Monte Carlo simulation scheme, is based on the application of the maximum entropy principle of information theory and the interaction potential emerges as the asymptotic expression of the transition probability. Results obtained for high density monoatomic fluids are very satisfactory and provide an accurate extraction of the potential, despite a modest computational effort.
Phi/sup 4/ field theory in dimension 4: a modern introduction to its unsolved problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallavotti, G. (University of Minneapolis, MN (USA)): Rivasseau, V. (Institute for advanced study, Princeton, N.J. (USA))
1984-01-01
We introduce the notion of renormalization scheme for regularized phi/sub 4//sup 4/ theories in order to investigate the continuum limit. We point out simple phenomena which suggest the interest of generalized cut-off actions containing ''antiferromagnetic'' terms for the construction of non trivial (non-gaussian) limits. Parts of this paper are expository and may serve as an introduction to phi/sub 4//sup 4/.
Introduction to the theory of stochastic processes and Brownian motion problems
Garcia-Palacios, J L
2007-01-01
These notes are an introduction to the theory of stochastic processes based on several sources. The presentation mainly follows the books of van Kampen and Wio, except for the introduction, which is taken from the book of Gardiner and the parts devoted to the Langevin equation and the methods for solving Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, which are based on the book of Risken.
Solution of the NP-hard total tardiness minimization problem in scheduling theory
Lazarev, A. A.
2007-06-01
The classical NP-hard (in the ordinary sense) problem of scheduling jobs in order to minimize the total tardiness for a single machine 1‖Σ T j is considered. An NP-hard instance of the problem is completely analyzed. A procedure for partitioning the initial set of jobs into subsets is proposed. Algorithms are constructed for finding an optimal schedule depending on the number of subsets. The complexity of the algorithms is O( n 2Σ p j ), where n is the number of jobs and p j is the processing time of the jth job ( j = 1, 2, …, n).
THE NAVIER – STOKES EQUATIONS. FROM THEORY FORWARD TO SOLUTION OF PRACTICAL PROBLEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koptev, A.V.
2016-07-01
Full Text Available On the paper under consideration we propose an approach to the solution of practical problems of fluid mechanics based on the Navier – Stokes equations for viscous incompressible fluid flow. As a result, the solution of the governing equations is reduced to the solution of five simple tasks. Each of these separate tasks is considered using known methods of mathematical physics and differential equations. As a result, the application of the proposed method provides the ability for analytical and approximate analytical solutions 2D and 3D Navier - Stokes equations and constructing solutions for specific practical problems.
The problem of theory and practice in the medical profession1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacques R. Kriel
1994-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific knowledge is a symbolic system consisting of hypotheses, models and theories generated by means of a paradigm-mediated interaction between a scientific community and a research domain. Such a knowledge generating paradigm consists of already existing theories, as well as methodological and ontological beliefs or assumptions. In this article it is argued that the meaning ascribed to the central concepts of medical science(such as patient, disease, causality and therapy are fundamentally determined by the 19th century logical positivist scientific paradigm. The ontological and methodological implications of the postmodern natural sciences (e.g. quantum physics have not been applied to medical science. The 19th century ‘natural science paradigm’ therefore acts as a metatheory for both medical science and medical practice. However, the theoretical knowledge system generated by medical science acts as the theory for the practice of scientific clinical medicine which therefore functions with the same understanding of the central concepts such as patient, disease and disease causality, therapy etc. The limitations of this paradigmatic monism are illustrated by an analysis of the medical and societal response to the AIDS epidemic and it is concluded that medical science and practice, because of the complexity o f its research and practice domain, must accept in principle the possibility of paradigmatic pluralism (as in the social sciences or should attempt to develop a holistic paradigm that will cope more adequately with its fields of research and practice.
Evolutionary theory of ageing and the problem of correlated Gompertz parameters.
Burger, Oskar; Missov, Trifon I
2016-11-07
The Gompertz mortality model is often used to evaluate evolutionary theories of ageing, such as the Medawar-Williams' hypothesis that high extrinsic mortality leads to faster ageing. However, fits of the Gompertz mortality model to data often find the opposite result that mortality is negatively correlated with the rate of ageing. This negative correlation has been independently discovered in several taxa and is known in actuarial studies of ageing as the Strehler-Mildvan correlation. We examine the role of mortality selection in determining late-life variation in susceptibility to death, which has been suggested to be the cause of this negative correlation. We demonstrate that fixed-frailty models that account for heterogeneity in frailty do not remove the correlation and that the correlation is an inherent statistical property of the Gompertz distribution. Linking actuarial and biological rates of ageing will continue to be a pressing challenge, but the Strehler-Mildvan correlation itself should not be used to diagnose any biological, physiological, or evolutionary process. These findings resolve some key tensions between theory and data that affect evolutionary and biological studies of ageing and mortality. Tests of evolutionary theories of ageing should include direct measures of physiological performance or condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Learner Perspectives of Online Problem-Based Learning and Applications from Cognitive Load Theory
Chen, Ruth
2016-01-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) courses have historically been situated in physical classrooms involving in-person interactions. As online learning is embraced in higher education, programs that use PBL can integrate online platforms to support curriculum delivery and facilitate student engagement. This report describes student perspectives of the…
KOK, LP; BOON, ME; SMID, HM
1993-01-01
Electron microscopists who wants to use a microwave (MW) oven to stimulate preparatory processes are sooner or later confronted with the problem of hot spots. It soon becomes clear to the user of any MW oven that the energy distribution-thus the speed of absorbing energy, and hence warming up-varies
KOK, LP; BOON, ME; SMID, HM
1993-01-01
Electron microscopists who wants to use a microwave (MW) oven to stimulate preparatory processes are sooner or later confronted with the problem of hot spots. It soon becomes clear to the user of any MW oven that the energy distribution-thus the speed of absorbing energy, and hence warming up-varies
Measuring the Self-Esteem of Adolescents with Mental Health Problems: Theory Meets Practice.
Willoughby, Colleen; Polatajko, Helene; Currado, Catherine; Harris, Kathryn; King, Gillian
2000-01-01
Comparison of the self-esteem of 39 adolescents with mental health problems to that of a normative sample for the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results indicate no difference between the two groups' self-esteem following participation in a prevocational program. Dimensions of self-concept that are most important to the adolescent will…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENGYan
2003-01-01
In this paper,the fixed-point theorem is used to estimated an asymptotic solution of intial val-ue problems for a class of third nonlinear differential equations which has double initial-layer properties.We obtain the uniformly valid asymptotic expansion of any orders including boundary layers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fajstrup, Lisbeth
2005-01-01
, it is preferable that many processors work concurrently. On the other hand, the non-determinism introduced by various processors with their own local time and pace is problematic in verification that executions will do what they are expected to. Another problem introduced is the vast number of states...
Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.
2005-01-01
To develop more accurate explanatory and predictive models of child and adolescent conduct problems, interest has grown in examining psychopathic traits in youth. The presence or absence of these traits may help to identify unique etiological pathways in the development of antisocial behavior. The current review provides a detailed summary and…
Simple circuit theory and the solution of two electricity problems from the Victorian Age
Tort, Alexandre C
2008-01-01
Two problems from the Victorian Age, the subdivision of light and the determination of the leakage point in an undersea telegraphic cable are discussed and suggested as a concrete illustrations of the relationships between textbook physics and the real world. Ohm's law and simple algebra are the only tools we need to discuss them in the classroom.
PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice
Bonnet, Marc
2008-07-01
The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isaev Veniamin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Calculation of compressed footings settlement is one of the most vital tasks of soil mechanics. The calculation method of layer-by-layer addition, which recommended by current regulations and used in structural engineering practice, is most suitable for determining the settlement of foundations with an area of less than 50 m2. The authors prove that it’s possible to apply the one-dimensional problem of soils compression seal theory to the calculation of the settlement of large foundation plates. The proposed method of determining the settlement of large foundation plates makes the calculations simpler. There are examples of comparable calculations using the existing and proposed methods.
The science of renewable energy
Spellman, Frank R
2012-01-01
Post-Oil EnergyThe Gathering StormPeak OilA Malthusian Catastrophe?Weathering the StormAlternative and Renewable EnergyThe Bottom Line: The Need for InnovationDiscussion QuestionsReferences and Recommended ReadingEnergy BasicsEnergyPrinciples of Basic ElectricityBattery-Supplied ElectricityDC CircuitsOhm's LawElectric PowerElectric EnergySeries DC Circuit CharacteristicsParallel DC CircuitsSeries-Parallel CircuitsConductorsElectromagnetismAC TheoryCharacteristic Values of AC Voltage and CurrentResistance in AC CircuitsInductanceCapacitanceInductive and Capacitive ReactanceCapacitive Reactance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2013-03-01
This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego
2013-01-01
Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...
Renewable energy production is expected to increase significantly in the next 25 years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Center for Program Analysis (OCPA) has initiated the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative to demonstrate the enormous potential that contaminated land and mining sites provide for developing renewable energy in the U.S.
Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.
2010-01-01
In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…
Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.
2010-01-01
In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…
The Virial Theorem and the Ground State Problem in Polaron Theory
2013-01-01
The virial theorem for the translation-invariant theory of a polaron [3] is discussed. It is shown that, in [3], Tulub made a nonoptimal choice of variational parameters in the strong-coupling limit, which led to the violation of the virial relations. The introduction of an additional variational parameter to the test function reduces the polaron energy and makes it possible to satisfy the relations of the virial theorem for a strong-coupling polaron (the Pekar 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 theorem).
The virial theorem and the ground state problem in polaron theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kashirina, N. I., E-mail: n_kashirina@mail.ru [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine); Lakhno, V. D., E-mail: lak@impb.psn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology (Russian Federation); Tulub, A. V., E-mail: tulub@NK7099.Spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2012-05-15
The virial theorem for the translation-invariant theory of a polaron [3] is discussed. It is shown that, in [3], Tulub made a nonoptimal choice of variational parameters in the strong-coupling limit, which led to the violation of the virial relations. The introduction of an additional variational parameter to the test function reduces the polaron energy and makes it possible to satisfy the relations of the virial theorem for a strong-coupling polaron (the Pekar 1: 2: 3: 4 theorem).
THE PROBLEM OF THE THEORY OF ORIGIN OF BRITISH CHANCELLOR OF THE COURT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya V. STRIZHAKOV
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The history of the English law and its legal institutions is quite confusing and full of controversial, sometimes even contradictory theories. The origin of the jurisdiction of the Court of the Chancellor of the Institute, greatly influenced the legal system of England, is currently the subject of scientific discussions. Among researchers of the legal aspects of medieval English Chancellor of the Kingdom there is no consensus about the reason for her appearance. At the moment, there are two main theories of the origin of the jurisdiction of the Chancellor. One of them links the emergence of judicial functions by delegating certain authority to the Chancellor of the Royal Council, the other, administrative work undertaken by the Office. To show the validity of, any of them, this article will examine the arguments used by adherents of each theory. The author notes that for the Post, the main distinguishing feature of Chancellor lies not in its justice, and its administrative functions. Disputes in the community could be resolved by the Lord of the manor, hundred, or County on the basis of considerations of reason and justice. According to the Post, the Chancellor surpassed them only in power because the decisions they had "all the authority of government". Some supporters of the theory of the origin of the judicial jurisdiction of the Chancellor also argue that initially, the Chancellor dealt with cases related to work of their clerks, their offences, serves, thus, a means to control them. But this inner court was the Treasury, however, its judicial powers were concerned mostly with issues related to the revenue of the crown, and not developed subsequently in a more extensive competence. According to the results in this article, the author concludes that the probability of origin of judicial powers of the Chancellor of its internal judicial activities is extremely small. We believe that this played some role, but a much more significant factor was
Fine-tuning problem in renormalized perturbation theory: Spontaneously-broken gauge models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.E. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1983-04-28
We study the stability of tree-level gauge hierarchies at higher orders in renormalized perturbation theory, in a model with spontaneously-broken gauge symmetries. We confirm previous results indicating that if the model is renormalized using BPHZ, then the tree-level hierarchy is not upset by the radiative corrections. Consequently, no fine-tuning of the initial parameters is required to maintain it, in contrast to the result obtained using Dimensional Renormalization. This verifies the conclusion that the need for fine-tuning, when it arises, is an artifact of the application of a certain class of renormalization schemes.
Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carruth, Susan
2014-01-01
, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing......Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable...
Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carruth, Susan
2014-01-01
Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...
Renewable Energies: A Fix that Can Backfire?
Madani, K.
2016-12-01
Renewable energies are recognized as the main remedy for global warming and energy insecurity issues. While considerable efforts are being put into increasing the share of renewable energies to decarbonize the global energy supply portfolio, the unintended consequences of increased renewable energy production have been overlooked. Using a system of systems (SoS) approach that considers the water-land-energy-economy nexus, this presentation discusses the trade-offs between the sustainability of water, land, energy and economic resources that must not be overlooked in developing sustainable solutions to global warming. It is shown how considering these trade-offs can make some of the renewable energies less attractive. A portfolio risk balancing approach is proposed to develop regional energy supply mixes that balance the overall effects of the energy mix on various resources while taking into account the regional limitations in resource availability. Such energy mixes would include both renewable and non-renewable energies, but would not solve one problem (i.e. global warming) by worsening other problems (e.g., water scarcity, food shortage, economic instability).
Second-order perturbation theory: The problem of infinite mode coupling
Miller, Jeremy; Wardell, Barry; Pound, Adam
2016-11-01
Second-order self-force computations, which will be essential in modeling extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, involve two major new difficulties that were not present at first order. One is the problem of large scales, discussed in Pound [Phys. Rev. D 92, 104047 (2015)]. Here we discuss the second difficulty, which occurs instead on small scales: if we expand the field equations in spherical harmonics, then because the first-order field contains a singularity, we require an arbitrarily large number of first-order modes to accurately compute even a single second-order mode. This is a generic feature of nonlinear field equations containing singularities, allowing us to study it in the simple context of a scalar toy model in flat space. Using that model, we illustrate the problem and demonstrate a robust strategy for overcoming it.
Second-order perturbation theory: the problem of infinite mode coupling
Miller, Jeremy; Pound, Adam
2016-01-01
Second-order self-force computations, which will be essential in modeling extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, involve two major new difficulties that were not present at first order. One is the problem of large scales, discussed in [Phys. Rev. D 92, 104047 (2015)]. Here we discuss the second difficulty, which occurs instead on small scales: if we expand the field equations in spherical harmonics, then because the first-order field contains a singularity, we require an arbitrarily large number of first-order modes to accurately compute even a single second-order mode. This is a generic feature of nonlinear field equations containing singularities, allowing us to study it in the simple context of a scalar toy model in flat space. Using that model, we illustrate the problem and demonstrate a robust strategy for overcoming it.
A modal analysis for the acoustic radiation problems,I.Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Zhe
2004-01-01
For the acoustic radiation problems from a complex vibrating body surface, a modal analysis approach is put forward. All the normal vibration velocities on a vibrating surface form the Hilbert space. In the Hilbert space, an operator is defined, which includes the radiation property of the vibrating surface and is linear, self-adjoint and positive. Using the operator, a set of basis functions in the Hilbert space are obtained, which describe the radiation patterns and are called the radiation modes. Based on the radiation modes, a set of basis functions of the radiation field are obtained by the Helmholtz simple layer potentials,which describe the distribution patterns of the radiation field and are called the field distribution modes. The radiation behavior can be expressed by expansions of the radiation modes and the field distribution modes. The modal analysis approach is introduced into the acoustic radiation problems.
Goldratt’s Theory Applied to the Problems Associated with an Emergency Department at a Hospital
Soumya Nayak; Lloyd J. Taylor
2012-01-01
Healthcare costs continue to increase dramatically, while quality remains a significant problem. Reform measures initiated by the government will drive expansion of these costs, further stressing taxpayers and employers, and forcing hospitals to adopt fundamental changes as they try to adjust to increased demands for services and to lessening reimbursements from all payers. This struggle is best seen at the point of entry for many at a hospital: the emergency department (ED). It is at the eme...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Werby, M.F. [Naval Research Lab. Detachment, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)
1993-10-01
The Helmholtz-Poincare Wave Equation (H-PWE) arises in many areas of classical wave scattering theory. In particular it can be found for the cases of acoustical scattering from submerged bounded objects and electromagnetic scattering from objects. The extended boundary integral equations (EBIE) method is derived from considering both the exterior and interior solutions of the H-PWE`s. This coupled set of expressions has the advantage of not only offering a prescription for obtaining a solution for the exterior scattering problem, but it also obviates the problem of irregular values corresponding to fictitious interior eigenvalues. Once the coupled equations are derived, they can by obtained in matrix form be expanding all relevant terms in partial wave expansions, including a biorthogonal expansion of the Green function. However some freedom of choice in the choice of the surface expansion is available since the unknown surface quantities may be expanded in a variety of ways to long as closure is obtained. Out of many possible choices, we develop an optimal method to obtain such expansions which is based on the optimum eigenfunctions related to the surface of the object. In effect, we convert part of the problem (that associated with the Fredholms integral equation of the first kind) an eigenvalue problem of a related Hermition operator. The methodology will be explained in detail and examples will be presented.
The quantum theory of measurement
Busch, Paul; Mittelstaedt, Peter
1996-01-01
The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. In this book the authors give within the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the quantum theory of measurement. Their approach includes the concepts of unsharp objectification and of nonunitary transformations needed for a unifying description of various detailed investigations. The book addresses advanced students and researchers in physics and philosophy of science. In this second edition Chaps. II-IV have been substantially rewritten. In particular, an insolubility theorem for the objectification problem has been formulated in full generality, which includes unsharp object observables and unsharp pointers.
[The problem of health state assessment from the point of view of adaptational reactions theory].
Radchenko, O M
2004-01-01
Human health condition can be estimated only using adaptive responses theory. We include overactivation responses and incomplete adaptation in addition to stress reactions in the distress-group. Quiet and raised activation reactions were included into the eustress-group. All health spectrum should be divided in three groups. For health persons: 1) physiologic standard = safe health level = eustress reactions of high reactivity level 2) prenosological conditions = eustress reactions of low reactivity level, orientation, 3) premorbid conditions = adaptation mechanism breaking = distress reaction. For patients: 1) auspicious course of the disease = complete remission = eustress reactions of high reactivity level, 2) indefinite course of the disease = partial remission = eustress reactions of low reactivity level, orientation, 3) severe course of the disease = absence of remission = unfavorable prognosis = distress reaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman F. Nalewajski
2002-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Recent studies on applications of the information theoretic concepts to molecular systems are reviewed. This survey covers the information theory basis of the Hirshfeld partitioning of molecular electron densities, its generalization to many electron probabilities, the local information distance analysis of molecular charge distributions, the charge transfer descriptors of the donor-acceptor reactive systems, the elements of a Ã¢Â€ÂœthermodynamicÃ¢Â€Â description of molecular charge displacements, both Ã¢Â€ÂœverticalÃ¢Â€Â (between molecular fragments for the fixed overall density and Ã¢Â€ÂœhorizontalÃ¢Â€Â (involving different molecular densities, with the entropic representation description provided by the information theory. The average uncertainty measures of bond multiplicities in molecular Ã¢Â€ÂœcommunicationÃ¢Â€Â systems are also briefly summarized. After an overview of alternative indicators of the information distance (entropy deficiency, missing information between probability distributions the properties of the Ã¢Â€ÂœstockholderÃ¢Â€Â densities, which minimize the entropy deficiency relative to the promolecule reference, are summarized. In particular, the surprisal analysis of molecular densities is advocated as an attractive information-theoretic tool in the electronic structure theory, supplementary to the familiar density difference diagrams. The subsystem information density equalization rules satisfied by the Hirshfeld molecular fragments are emphasized: the local values of alternative information distance densities of subsystems are equal to the corresponding global value, characterizing the molecule as a whole. These local measures of the information content are semi-quantitatively related to the molecular density difference function. In the density functional theory the effective external potentials of molecular fragments are defined, for which
Chu, Yi-Zen
2008-01-01
Motivated by experimental probes of general relativity, we adopt methods from perturbative (quantum) field theory to compute, up to certain integrals, the effective lagrangian for its n-body problem. Perturbation theory is performed about a background Minkowski spacetime to O[(v/c)^4] beyond Newtonian gravity, where v is the typical speed of these n particles in their center of energy frame. For the specific case of the 2 body problem, the major efforts underway to measure gravitational waves produced by in-spiraling compact astrophysical binaries require their gravitational interactions to be computed beyond the currently known O[(v/c)^7]. We argue that such higher order post-Newtonian calculations must be automated for these field theoretic methods to be applied successfully to achieve this goal. In view of this, we outline an algorithm that would in principle generate the relevant Feynman diagrams to an arbitrary order in v/c and take steps to develop the necessary software. The Feynman diagrams contributi...
Problem of the Landau Poles in Quantum Field Theory: from N. N. Bogolyubov to the Present Day
Jafarov, R. G.; Agham-Alieva, L. A.; Agha-Kishieva, P. É.; Rahim-zade, S. G.; Mamedova, S. N.; Mutallimov, M. M.
2017-03-01
A review of problems associated with the unphysical Landau pole in propagators of quantum particles is given. Approaches to eliminating this pole within the framework of electrodynamics and effective theories of strongly interacting particles are investigated. The asymptotic behavior at large momenta in the scalar theory ϕ4 in the two-particle (bubble) approximation is investigated. To formulate a calculational model in the two-particle approximation, we use an iterative scheme for solving the Schwinger-Dyson equation in the formalism of a bilocal field source. The main problem is to develop a recipe for numerical analysis of the solutions of the obtained nonlinear equation for the amplitude at small interaction distances (large values of the momentum) for different values of the constant. The nontrivial behavior of the amplitude in the deeply inelastic region of momenta is determined. The positions of the unphysical poles (the Landau poles) in the expression for the amplitude in the deeply inelastic region of momenta are identified.
Efficient method for scattering problems in open billiards: Theory and applications
Akguc, Gursoy B.; Seligman, Thomas H.
2006-12-01
We present an efficient method to solve scattering problems in two-dimensional open billiards with two leads and a complicated scattering region. The basic idea is to transform the scattering region to a rectangle, which will lead to complicated dynamics in the interior, but simple boundary conditions. The method can be specialized to closed billiards, and it allows the treatment of interacting particles in the billiard. We apply this method to quantum echoes measured recently in a microwave cavity, and indicate how it can be used for interacting particles.
An efficient method for scattering problems in open billiards: Theory and applications
Akguc, G B; Akguc, Gursoy B.; Seligman, Thomas H.
2006-01-01
We present an efficient method to solve scattering problems in two-dimensional open billiards with two leads and a complicated scattering region. The basic idea is to transform the scattering region to a rectangle, which will lead to complicated dynamics in the interior, but simple boundary conditions. The method can be specialized to closed billiards, and it allows the treatment of interacting particles in the billiard. We apply this method to quantum echoes measured recently in a microwave cavity, and indicate, how it can be used for interacting particles.
Synchronization Patterns and Related Problems in Combinatorial Analysis and Graph Theory
1981-06-01
Costas type when n is 1 or 2 less than a power of a prime . It is still an open problem to prove that an nxn pattern with n dots exists for all n...nodeset - F, with an edge between nodes X and Y iff IX r) YI - 1. 54 For a proof of the above fact, please refer to P. Erdos and A. Hajnal, "On...whenever p is prime and m is any positive integer, and in certain other cases as well. On the other hand, we do not have any construction method
Jesse, D Elizabeth; Alligood, Martha Raile
2002-01-01
The purpose of this study was to test the Holistic Obstetrical Problem Evaluation (HOPE) theory by determining the effects of prenatal factors from the biophysical, psychosocial, spiritual, and perceptual domains of the HOPE theory with infant birth outcomes. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using standard and reliable questionnaires with a convenience sample of 120 pregnant women between the ages of 14 and 44 years and 16-28 weeks gestation, and attending three prenatal clinics in East Tennessee. Based on the multiple regression analysis, absence of maternal partner support during pregnancy and African-American race predicted variance for infant birth weight (p self-esteem, use of drugs and alcohol, and active religiosity predicted shorter length of gestation at birth (p self-esteem and a woman's negative perception of her pregnancy, were significant predictors for preterm birth (p <.05). Although there was preliminary support for this holistic theory, further research with a larger and more diverse population of women is needed.
An Infrared Divergence Problem in the cosmological measure theory and the anthropic reasoning
Yurov, Artyom V; Astashyonok, Artyom V
2011-01-01
An anthropic principle has made it possible to answer the difficult question of why the observable value of cosmological constant ($\\Lambda\\sim 10^{-47}$ GeV${}^4$) is so disconcertingly tiny compared to predicted value of vacuum energy density $\\rho_{SUSY}\\sim 10^{12}$ GeV${}^4$. Unfortunately, there is a darker side to this argument, as it consequently leads to another absurd prediction: that the probability to observe the value $\\Lambda=0$ for randomly selected observer exactly equals to 1. We'll call this controversy an infrared divergence problem. It is shown that the IRD prediction can be avoided with the help of a Linde-Vanchurin {\\em singular runaway measure} coupled with the calculation of relative Bayesian probabilities by the means of the {\\em doomsday argument}. Moreover, it is shown that while the IRD problem occurs for the {\\em prediction stage} of value of $\\Lambda$, it disappears at the {\\em explanatory stage} when $\\Lambda$ has already been measured by the observer.
Extended theory of the Taylor problem in the plasmoid-unstable regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Comisso, L., E-mail: luca.comisso@polito.it; Grasso, D. [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi - CNR, Via dei Taurini 19, 00185 Roma (Italy); Waelbroeck, F. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1203 (United States)
2015-04-15
A fundamental problem of forced magnetic reconnection has been solved taking into account the plasmoid instability of thin reconnecting current sheets. In this problem, the reconnection is driven by a small amplitude boundary perturbation in a tearing-stable slab plasma equilibrium. It is shown that the evolution of the magnetic reconnection process depends on the external source perturbation and the microscopic plasma parameters. Small perturbations lead to a slow nonlinear Rutherford evolution, whereas larger perturbations can lead to either a stable Sweet-Parker-like phase or a plasmoid phase. An expression for the threshold perturbation amplitude required to trigger the plasmoid phase is derived, as well as an analytical expression for the reconnection rate in the plasmoid-dominated regime. Visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations complement the analytical calculations. The plasmoid formation plays a crucial role in allowing fast reconnection in a magnetohydrodynamical plasma, and the presented results suggest that it may occur and have profound consequences even if the plasma is tearing-stable.
Variational solution about over-determined geodetic boundary value problem and its related theories
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
A new solving method for Laplace equation with over-determined geodetic boundary conditions is pro- posed in the paper, with the help of minimizing some kinds of quadratic functional in calculus of variation. At first, the so-called variational solution for over-determined geodetic boundary value problem is defined in terms of principles in calculus of variation. Then theoretical properties related with the solution are derived, especially for its existence, uniqueness and optimal approximation. And then the computational method of the solution is discussed, and its expression is exhibited under the case that all boundaries are spheres. Finally an arithmetic example about EGM96 gravity field model is given, and the computational results show that the proposed method can efficiently raise accuracy to deal with gravity data. In all, the variational solution of over-determined geodetic boundary value problem can not only fit to deal with many kinds of gravity data in a united form, but also has strict mathematical basements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamet, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
This report gives a general presentation of barrier theory for finite difference operators, with its applications to some boundary value problems. (author) [French] Ce rapport est un expose synthetique de la theorie des barrieres pour les operateurs aux differences finies et ses applications a certaines classes de problemes lineaires elliptiques du 'type de Dirichlet'. (auteur)
Prospects for renewable energy in South Africa. Mobilizing the private sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pegels, Anna
2009-07-01
The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous, especially if a country is as fossil- fuel-based and emission-intensive as South Africa. However, as it is already facing climate change impacts in an increasingly carbon-constrained world, South Africa must drastically reduce its greenhouse gas emission intensity soon. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emission problem. Transforming this sector is therefore urgently needed, but will be difficult. First steps have been taken to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, but they have failed to have any large-scale effects. The two major barriers to investments in renewable energy technologies are based in the South African energy innovation system and its inherent power structures and in the economics of renewable energy technologies. The innovation system is dominated by the state-owned Eskom (electricity) and Sasol (fuel) enterprises. Both companies have their core competencies in fossil fuel technologies. Capacity in renewable energy is lacking at every stage of the technology cycle, from research and development to installation and maintenance. The obstacles inherent in the economics of renewable energy technologies are cost and risk, two of the main factors in investment planning. As most technologies are in early stages of development, they have not yet realized their full cost degression potential and continue to entail a higher risk than established technologies. To overcome these barriers, the South African government has introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a renewable energy feed-in tariff (REFIT). While a promising scheme in theory, the South African REFIT has a crucial flaw: Eskom is the monopsonistic buyer of electricity produced from renewable energy and is responsible for distributing it to consumers. However, Eskom is not obliged to buy that electricity. This runs counter to
Promoting Renewable Energy or Environmental Problems?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raftopoulos, Malayna; Riethof, Marieke
2016-01-01
China is now Brazil’s largest trade and investment partner, with Brazil’s exports dominated by primary products such as iron ore, soy and crude oil. China and Brazil have also become major players in international environmental debates as emerging powers, reflecting their contribution to carbon...
Renewable Energy: An Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Course
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan H Mcgowan
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a new intermediate course given in the Environmental Studies Program at The New School. It incorporates research activities by the class as a whole, in the process of which the class learns a great deal about the science and technology of non-fossil fuels, their promises and difficulties. Since ameliorating human influenced global climate change, educating and training students in the skills necessary to accomplish the necessary transition is essential. The course embodies a class project on which everyone works, entitled "Fueling America," whose purpose is to determine what technologies deployed in what manner and in what quantities can eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the United States by a date certain. Knowing that it was impossible, we nevertheless chose an early date, 2030, so that it seemed reachable for the students. The project resulted in a technical paper, which included an economic analysis. In addition to alternative energy technologies, the technologies of energy efficiencies were also included.