WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable resource assessment

  1. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  2. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  3. 1976 Inter-university symposium on renewable resource assessment and programming: executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy G. Pemberton

    1977-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 directs the Secretary of Agriculture to prepare an assessment of the nation's renewable resources and a program that will assure an adequate future supply of these resources. Responsibility for this work is assigned to the Forest Service. An inter-university symposium was held in 1976 to evaluate...

  4. Canada's renewable energy resources. An assessment of potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, P; Argue, R; Burrell, T; Hathaway, G

    1976-04-01

    Rising costs of conventional, frontier and nuclear energy production and the prospect of future shortages have prompted a resurgence of interest in alternative, renewable energy technologies. This study constituted a preliminary step in determining which sources, technologies and applications may be appropriate in Canada, and when and under what conditions they might be technically and economically viable. Principal sources of renewable energy (solar radiation, wind and biomass), as well as waves, thermal gradients and sensible heat sources are reviewed to establish, in general terms, their significance in the Canadian context. Next, the technical characteristics, efficiency, costs, impacts and state-of-the-art of sixteen harnessing or conversion technologies are presented as an information base upon which to build an assessment of potential. A method of comparing the life cost of a renewable energy system to that of the likely conventional alternative is proposed and applied in cases where adequate technical and economic data are available. A variety of different economic assumptions are also outlined under which the renewable systems would be cost competitive. This costing methodology is applied in detail to four case studies: residential solar space and water heating, photovoltaics, residential, a 200 kW wind generator, and anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes. Finally, the potential for renewable energy approaches in Canada is explored and evaluated from three perspectives: technical viability, economic viability and implementation. 319 refs., 18 figs., 94 tabs.

  5. Canada's renewable energy resources: an assessment of potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, P; Argue, R; Argue, R; Burrell, T; Hathaway, G

    1976-04-01

    Rising costs of conventional, frontier, and nuclear energy production and the prospect of future shortages have prompted a resurgence of interest in alternative, renewable energy technologies. This study constitutes a preliminary step in determining which sources, technologies, and applications may be appropriate in Canada and when and under what conditions they might be technically and economically viable. Principal sources of renewable energy (solar radiation, wind, and biomass), as well as waves, thermal gradients and, sensible heat sources are reviewed to establish, in general terms, their significance in the Canadian context. Next, the technical characteristics, efficiency, costs, impacts, and state of the art of sixteen harnessing or conversion technologies are presented as an information base upon which to build an assessment of potential. A method of comparing the life cost of a renewable energy system to that of the likely conventional alternative is proposed and applied in cases where adequate technical and economic data are available. A variety of different economic assumptions are also outlined under which the renewable systems would be cost competitive. This costing methodology is applied in detail to four Case Studies: solar space and water heating--residential; photovoltaics--residential; wind generator--200 kW; and anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes. Finally, the potential for renewable energy approaches in Canada is explored and evaluated from three perspectives: technical viability, economic viability, and implementation.

  6. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ravi; Campbell, Daniel; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm sh...

  7. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  8. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  9. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. A regional-scale assessment of local renewable energy resources in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormally, A.M.; Whyatt, J.D.; Timmis, R.J.; Pooley, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the role small-scale decentralised renewable energy developments could play in helping the UK meet its target of over 15% renewable energy by the year 2020 and alter energy behaviours through active community engagement. Upland areas are considered key areas where such community-based developments could occur due to their natural resources and range of community scales. This study uses GIS-based techniques to develop a methodology that assesses the regional-scale potential for community-based renewable electricity across Cumbria and whether a combination of these developments at the community-scale could make a significant contribution to local electricity consumption. This methodology looks at a range of technologies including hydro-power, wind-power, solar PV and bioenergy. The results suggest there is ample resource available for small communities by combining a mix of localised renewable electricity developments, which is highlighted through energy scenarios for a selected community. Further work will investigate whether this potential can be realised in reality by looking at resource resilience and community-level acceptability. - Highlights: ► A mix of wind, solar, bioenergy and hydro-power options are presented for Cumbria, UK. ► High resolution spatial analysis is conducted focussing on localised developments. ► Locations with sufficient renewable electricity potential were identified. ► Renewable options are explored further through a town case study. ► Scenarios consider different scales, mixes and contributions to local energy demand.

  11. Resource use efficiency and renewability. Assessment of low-input agricultural production using eMergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    by reducing dependency on external input. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of twolow-input innovative farms while distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources aswell as local and global origin of resources. This study is a part of the SOLIBAM (www.......solibam.eu) projectfunded by the European commission under the Seventh Framework Programme.We apply an approach where we include efficiency in resource use to produce food energy joules soldwhile distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources as well as on-site, local andnon-local resources. Result...... shows that the large farm (75 ha) had an input of renewable resources of 32%while the small (6 ha) had a renewable fraction of 26%. The latter is based on assuming that the firewoodused is 50% renewable. If this percentage is increased to 100% then both farms have a renewable fractionof resource use...

  12. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  13. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  14. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  15. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  16. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  17. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  18. The Use of Reanalysis Data for Wind Resource Assessment at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.

    1999-01-01

    An important component of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory wind resource assessment methodology is the use of available upper-air data to construct detailed vertical profiles for a study region. Currently, the most useful upper-air data for this type of analysis are archived observations from approximately 1800 rawinsonde and pilot balloon stations worldwide. However, significant uncertainty exists in the accuracy of the constructed profiles for many regions. The United States Reanalysis Data Set, recently created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, has the potential to improve the quality of the vertical profiles. The initial evaluation of the usefulness of the Reanalysis data for wind resource assessment consisted of contrasting reanalysis-derived vertical profiles of the wind characteristics to those generated from upper-air observations for comparable locations. The results indicate that, while reanalysis data can be substituted for upper-air observation data in the assessment methodology for areas of the world where observation data are limited, enough discrepancies with observation data have been noticed to warrant further studies

  19. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  20. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  1. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  2. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  3. Assessment of the Great Lakes Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Characterizing Lake Erie Surge, Seiche and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadzadeh, A.; Hashemi, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Erie, the fourth largest in surface area, smallest in volume and shallowest among the Great Lakes is approximately 400 km long and 90 km wide. Short term lake level variations are due to storm surge generated by high winds and moving pressure systems over the lake mainly in the southwest-northeast direction, along the lakes longitudinal axis. The historical wave data from three active offshore buoys shows that significant wave height can exceed 5 m in the eastern and central basins. The long-term lake level data show that storm surge can reach up to 3 m in eastern Lake Erie. Owing its shallow depth, Lake Erie frequently experiences seiching motions, the low frequency oscillations that are initiated by storm surge. The seiches whose first mode of oscillations has a period of nearly 14.2 hours can last from several hours to days. In this study, the Lake Erie potential for power generation, primarily using storm surge and seiche and also waves are assessed. Given the cyclic lake level variations due to storm-induced seiching, a concept similar to that of tidal range development is utilized to assess the potential of storm surge and seiche energy harvesting mechanisms for power generation. In addition, wave energy resources of the Lake is characterized -. To achieve these objectives, the following steps are taken : (1) Frequency of occurrence for extreme storm surge and wave events is determined using extreme value analysis such as Peak-Over-Threshold method for the long-term water level and wave data; (2) Spatial and temporal variations of wave height, storm surge and seiche are characterized. The characterization is carried out using the wave and storm surge outputs from numerical simulation of a number of historical extreme events. The coupled ADCIRC and SWAN model is utilized for the modeling; (3) Assessment of the potentials for marine renewable power generation in Lake Erie is made. The approach can be extended to the other lakes in the Great Lakes region.

  4. Assessing Resource Intensity and Renewability of Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies using Eco-LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the contributions of natural resources and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA) of cellulosic ethanol, an in-depth analysis of the contribution of natural resources in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five differen...

  5. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  6. Resources: the renewable promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, I.; Damier, J.; Persiaux, R.

    2010-01-01

    A set of brief articles gives an overview of development perspectives and objectives for renewable energies in France (biomass, hydraulic, wind, geothermal, solar, and sea energies). The influence of public investments and subsidies, and possible technological developments are evoked for solar energy. The advances of various projects and ideas in the field of sea energy are discussed: sea current energy, wave and swell energy, offshore wind generators, ocean thermal energy. The objectives and impacts of the use of biomass and of the development of bio-refineries are discussed, as well as the challenge CO 2 capture and storage. The evolution of electricity networks is outlined in terms of electricity storage, demand management and energy saving

  7. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  8. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  9. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...

  10. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... deployment of offshore renewable energy plants, particularly wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies.... Technology Design and Validation Design and validate energy devices for the marine environment that would predictably withstand physical loads on energy devices in the marine environment while operating at optimum...

  11. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Badger, Jake; Larsen, Soeren; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Hansen, Lars Boye; Stisen, Simon; Mariko, Adama; Togola, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorological mesoscale modeling. The paper presents first results from applying the methodology in Mali and discusses the appropriateness of the results obtained. It is shown that northern Mali has considerable wind energy potential, while average wind speeds in the southern part are too low to make wind power a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options. (author)

  12. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  13. Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

  14. Essays in renewable resource economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdlenbruch, K.

    2005-03-01

    This thesis constitutes a study on renewable resource economics. Chapter 2 presents two types of extracting behaviour in two optimal control models, continuous and impulse control. Chapter 3 analyses stock dependent instruments and shows their advantages. Chapter 4 compares the two types of extracting behaviour and demonstrates that the impulse control generates higher gains, whereas fiscal revenues and stocks are not always higher. Chapter 5 establishes a dynamic game and shows that the scope for cooperation between heterogeneous agents is greatest for intermediary levels of heterogeneity. Chapter 6 studies forest exploitation and fiscal- and regulatory systems of the forest sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in France. Finally, chapter 7 presents a study on forest biodiversity and indicates the economic criteria and cutting strategies that are beneficial for biodiversity preservation. (author)

  15. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  16. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  17. Inventory of Canadian marine renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Hydraulics Centre; Tarbotton, M. [Triton Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The future development of marine renewable energy sources was discussed with reference to an inventory of both wave energy and tidal current resources in Canada. Canada is endowed with rich potential in wave energy resources which are spatially and temporally variable. The potential offshore resource is estimated at 37,000 MW in the Pacific and 145,000 MW in the Atlantic. The potential nearshore resource is estimated at 9,600 MW near the Queen Charlotte Islands, 9,400 MW near Vancouver Island, 1,000 MW near Sable Island, and 9,000 MW near southeast Newfoundland. It was noted that only a fraction of the potential wave energy resource is recoverable and further work is needed to delineate important local variations in energy potential close to shore. Canada also has rich potential in the tidal resource which is highly predictable and reliable. The resource is spatially and temporally variable, with 190 sites in Canada with an estimated 42,200 MW; 89 sites in British Columbia with an estimated 4,000 MW; and, 34 sites in Nunavut with an estimated 30,500 MW. It was also noted that only a fraction of the potential tidal resource is recoverable. It was suggested that the effects of energy extraction should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis for both wave and tidal energy. This presentation provided a site-by site inventory as well as an analysis of buoy measurements and results from wind-wave hindcasts and tide models. Future efforts will focus on wave modelling to define nearshore resources; tidal modelling to fill gaps and refine initial estimates; assessing impacts of energy extraction at leading sites; and developing a web-enabled atlas of marine renewable energy resources. The factors not included in this analysis were environmental impacts, technological developments, climate related factors, site location versus power grid demand, hydrogen economy developments and economic factors. tabs., figs.

  18. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  19. Thematic mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resource/agricultural remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Macdonald, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A "quick look" investigation of the initial LANDSAT-4, thematic mapper (TM) scene received from Goddard Space Flight Center was performed to gain early insight into the characteristics of TM data. The initial scene, containing only the first four bands of the seven bands recorded by the TM, was acquired over the Detroit, Michigan, area on July 20, 1982. It yielded abundant information for scientific investigation. A wide variety of studies were conducted to assess all aspects of TM data. They ranged from manual analyses of image products to detect obvious optical, electronic, or mechanical defects to detailed machine analyses of the digital data content for evaluation of spectral separability of vegetative/nonvegetative classes. These studies were applied to several segments extracted from the full scene. No attempt was made to perform end-to-end statistical evaluations. However, the output of these studies do identify a degree of positive performance from the TM and its potential for advancing state-of-the-art crop inventory and condition assessment technology.

  20. Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture/remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the early thematic mapper (TM) data indicate the TM sensor and associated ground processing are performing equal to the high expectations and within advertised specifications. The overall TM system with improved resolution, together with additional and more optimumly placed spectral bands shows much promise for benefits in future analysis activities. By selecting man-made features of known dimensions (e.g., highways, airfields, buildings, and isolated water bodies), an assessment was made of the TM performance relative to the specified 30-meter (98-foot) resolution. The increase of spatial resolution of TM (30 m) over MSS (80 M) appears to be significant not only in resolving spectrally distinct classes that were previously undefinable but also in distinguishing within-field variability. An Important result of the early TM evaluation and pre-TM analyses was the development of an integrated system to receive LANDSAT-4 TM (as well as MSS) data and analyze the data via various approaches.

  1. Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is believed that the increased spatial resolution will provide solutions to proportion estimation error due to mixed pixels, and the increased spectral resolution will provide for the identification of important agricultural features such as crop stage, and condition. The results of analyses conducted relative to these hypothesis from sample segments extracted from the 4-band Detroit scene and the 7-band Mississippi County, Arkansas engineering test scene are described. Several studies were conducted to evaluate the geometric and radiometric performance of the TM to determine data viability for the more pertinent investigations of TM utility. In most cases this requirement was more than sufficiently satisfied. This allowed the opportunity to take advantage of detailed ground observations for several of the sample segments to assess class separability and detection of other important features with TM. The results presented regarding these TM characteristics show that not only is the increased definition of the within scene variance captured by the increased spatial and spectral resolution, but that the mid-IR bands (5 and 7) are necessary for optimum crop type classification. Both qualitative and quantitative results are presented that describe the improvements gained with the TM both relative to the MSS and on its own merit.

  2. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Anthony [Madison, NJ; Jaffe, Michael [Maplewood, NJ; Zhang, Yi [Harrison, NJ; Catalani, Luiz H [Carapicuiba, BR

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  3. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorolo...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...... a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity...

  4. The renewable energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Lingova, S.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results from the joint study between the National Laboratory of Renewable Energy Resources of USA and the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (BG). The geographical distribution of solar and wind energy potential in Bulgaria as well as inventory of biomass is studied. Calculation of total, available and reserve solar and wind resources is performed. Comparative data on all kind of renewable energy resources in Bulgaria are presented. The evaluation of economically accessible resources and feasibility of implementation of specific technologies is given. 7 refs., 1 tab

  5. Renewable energy resources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker; Naumann, Karin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    Although the need to decarbonise our global economy and thus in particular the supply of energy to limit the global temperature increase is internationally undisputed the German politics in 2014 has significantly contributed less compared to previous years in order to attain this objective. The expansion of renewable energies in the electricity sector has decelerated significantly; and in the heating and mobility area no new impulses were set in relation to renewable energies. In addition, a dramatic fallen oil price makes it difficult to increase the use of renewable energy supply. Based on these deteriorated framework conditions compared to conditions of the previous years, the developments in Germany of 2014 are shown in the electricity, heat and transport sector in the field of renewable energy. For this purpose - in addition to a discussion of the current energy economic framework - for each option to use renewable energies the state and looming trends are analyzed. [German] Obwohl die Notwendigkeit zur Dekarbonisierung unserer globalen Wirtschaft und damit insbesondere der Energiebereitstellung zur Begrenzung des globalen Temperaturanstiegs international unstrittig ist, hat die deutsche Politik im Jahr 2014 im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren deutlich weniger zur Erreichung dieses Zieles beigetragen. Der Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Stromsektor wurde deutlich verlangsamt; und im Waerme- und Mobilitaetsbereich wurden keine neuen Impulse in Bezug auf regenerative Energien gesetzt. Zusaetzlich erschwert ein drastisch gefallener Rohoelpreis die verstaerkte Nutzung des erneuerbaren Energieangebots. Ausgehend von diesen im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren verschlechterten Rahmenbedingungen werden nachfolgend die Entwicklungen in Deutschland des Jahres 2014 im Strom-, Waerme- und Transportsektor fuer den Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien aufgezeigt. Dazu werden - neben einer Diskussion des derzeitigen energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmens - fuer die

  6. Growth and non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Schou, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , interest income taxes and investment subsidies can no longer affect the long-run growth rate, whereas resource tax instruments are decisive for growth. The results stand out both against observations in the literature from the 1970's on non-renewable resources and taxation-observations which were not based...

  7. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Claire W. Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  8. Biomethane: A Renewable Resource as Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has set a mandatory target for renewable fuels of 10% for each member state by 2020. Biomethane is a renewable energy representing an alternative to the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. This resource is a solution to reach this target. Furthermore, it contributes to reducing carbon dioxide emissions, gives social benefits and increases the security supply. Sustainability is reached also when the economic opportunities are verified. This work studies the profitability of small plants of biomethane, which is sold as vehicle fuel using the Net Present Value (NPV and Discounted Payback Time (DPBT. The paper shows in detail the method used for the economic assessment of two typologies of feedstock recovered: (i municipal solid waste and (ii agricultural waste. Detailed information about the various parameters that affect the profitability of biomethane is given, and several case studies are analyzed as a function of two variables: subsidies and selling price. The results support the commercialization of small-scale plants, reducing also several environmental issues. The role of subsidies is strategic, and the profitability is verified only in some case studies

  9. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  10. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  11. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    ) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...... showing that quotas are preferred in a number of situations qualify the pro fee message dominating prior studies....

  12. Valorization of Renewable Carbon Resources for Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yunzhu; Yan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The overuse of fossil fuels has caused an energy crisis and associated environment issues. It is desirable to utilize renewable resources for the production of chemicals. This review mainly introduces our recent work on the transformation of renewable carbon resources including the conversion of cellulose, lignin, and chitin into sustainable chemicals. Various transformation routes have been established to form value-added chemicals, and accordingly a variety of effective catalytic systems have been developed, either based on metal catalysis and/or acid-base catalysis, to enable the desired transformation.

  13. Economic and environmental effects under resource scarcity and substitution between renewable and non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Susana; Soares, Isabel; Afonso, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    We build a general equilibrium model with renewable (non-polluting) and non-renewable (polluting) resources to analyze the interaction and compatibility between economic growth and a cleaner environment. The study is in two phases: (i) resource extraction/production costs are constant; (ii) resource producers invest in knowledge to reduce extraction/production costs, endogenizing technical change. With constant costs, there is a permanent trade-off between economic growth and a cleaner environment. With endogenous technical change, it is possible to harmonize more output and less emissions by replacing non-renewable resources for renewable ones. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis to explore three specific policy actions. With constant costs, the best policy action is the imposition of a higher renewable resources standard, while with endogenous technical change, under certain conditions, all policy interventions may benefit both the economy and the environment. - Highlights: ► Our general equilibrium model includes renewable and non-renewable resources. ► Under constant resource production costs emissions grow at the same rate as output. ► Resource producers can invest in knowledge to reduce production costs. ► Under decreasing costs, lower emissions are compatible with stable output growth. ► Empirical results differ under constant costs and under endogenous technical change

  14. Sustainable processes synthesis for renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, L.; Povoden, G.; Narodoslawsky, M.

    2005-01-01

    Renewable resources pose special challenges to process synthesis. Due to decentral raw material generation, usually low transport densities and the perishable character of most renewable raw materials in combination with their time dependent availability, logistical questions as well as adaptation to regional agricultural structures are necessary. This calls for synthesis of structures not only of single processes but of the whole value chain attached to the utilisation of a certain resource. As most of the innovative technologies proposed to build on a renewable raw material base face stiff economic competition from fossil based processes, economic optimality of the value chain is crucial to their implementation. On top of this widening of the process definition for synthesis, many processes on the base of renewable resources apply technologies (like membrane separations, chromatographic purification steps, etc.) for which the heuristic knowledge is still slim. This reduces the choice of methods for process synthesis, mainly to methods based on combinatorial principles. The paper investigates applicability as well as impact on technology development of process synthesis for renewable raw material utilisation. It takes logistic considerations into account and applies process synthesis to the case study of the green biorefinery concept. The results show the great potential of process synthesis for technology development of renewable resource utilisation. Applied early in the development phase, it can point towards the most promising utilisation pathways, thus guiding the engineering work. On top of that, and even more important, it can help avoid costly development flops as it also clearly indicates 'blind alleys' that have to be avoided

  15. Managing risk with renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, M.C.; Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M.; Spinney, P.; Bell, K.

    1997-01-01

    One approach to managing risk is for a utility company to invest in diverse power sources such as wind power plants. Since wind plants consume no fuel, can be built in relatively small increments with short construction lead times, and generate no pollutants, it is often said that they offer significant protection from risks associated with conventional fossil-fuel power plants. With assistance from Convergence Research, Charles River Associates, and the Tellus Institute, the authors tested this hypothesis by conducting an in-depth analysis of the risk implications of a decision to build a 1,600 MW wind power plant instead of a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant. (The two plants were assumed to have equal firm capacity.) The case study utility was Texas Utilities Electric, a very large investor-owned company serving an area with substantial, high-quality wind resources. The uncertain inputs included fuel prices, environmental regulations (specifically, CO 2 and air pollution controls), wind plant output, conventional plant availability, and load growth. Two different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation and an unregulated wholesale market characterized either by a power pool or fixed-price contracts of varying duration. Conclusions are striking: under traditional regulation, wind energy provides a net present-value risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh

  16. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  17. Novel Hydrogels from Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Muzafer Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The cell wall of most plant biomass from forest and agricultural resources consists of three major polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Of these, hemicelluloses have gained increasing attention as sustainable raw materials. In the first part of this study, novel pH-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on hemicelluloses and chitosan were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The hemicellulose isolated from aspen was analyzed for sugar content by HPLC, and its molecular weight distribution was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. Results revealed that hemicellulose had a broad molecular weight distribution with a fair amount of polymeric units, together with xylose, arabinose and glucose. The effect of hemicellulose content on mechanical properties and swelling behavior of hydrogels were investigated. The semi-IPNs hydrogel structure was confirmed by FT-IR, X-ray study and ninhydrin assay method. X-ray analysis showed that higher hemicellulose contents yielded higher crystallinity. Mechanical properties were mainly dependent on the crosslink density and average molecular weight between crosslinks. Swelling ratios increased with increasing hemicellulose content and were high at low pH values due to repulsion between similarly charged groups. In vitro release study of a model drug showed that these semi-IPN hydrogels could be used for controlled drug delivery into gastric fluid. The aim of the second part of this study was to control the crosslink density and the mechanical properties of hemicellulose/chitosan semi-IPN hydrogels by changing the crosslinking sequence. It has been hypothesized that by performing the crosslinking step before introducing hemicellulose, covalent crosslinking of chitosan would not be hindered and therefore more and/or shorter crosslinks could be formed. Furthermore, additional secondary interactions and crystalline domains introduced through hemicellulose could be favorable in terms of

  18. Renewable energy and integrated resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated resource planning, or IRP, is a new means of comparing resource choices for electric and gas utilities. Since its inception in 1986, at least 15 states have implemented IRP, and more are considering adopting IRP or have limited IRP processes in place. Some of the characteristics of IRP, such as increased public participation and an expanded analysis of the costs and benefits of energy resources, can contribute to addressing some of the technical and market barriers that hinder the increased deployment of renewable energy technologies. This paper looks at the status of some of these issues

  19. Human Capital, Wealth, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.

  20. Renewable Resources, Environmental Pollution, and International Migration

    OpenAIRE

    KENJI KONDO

    2013-01-01

    We develop a two-country model with two industries: the smokestack manufacturing industry, which generates pollution, and the transboundary renewable resource industry. With no trade, migration occurs from the foreign country, with lower manufacturing productivity, to the home country. If the gap in pollution abatement technology, which is superior in the home country, dominates the productivity gap, both countries gain from migration. Under a free trade equilibrium, we also show that if the ...

  1. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  2. Externality costs by resource. E. Renewable generation resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the environmental impacts associated with operation of renewable energy technologies. Renewable energy technologies currently supply 8% of US total energy usage and that figure is certain to grow. The rate of growth will depend heavily on the availability of research and development funds, and could reach 28% of US energy demands by 2030. Renewable generation resources include hydroelectric development, solar energy technologies, wind conversion facilities, and biomass fueled generation. A task force of personnel from five national laboratories recently concluded that renewable energy technologies generally have lower environmental impacts than do fossil fuel energy systems. The task force also stated that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of environmental impacts is needed and would strengthen the National Energy Strategy. This chapter summarizes some of the available literature on costing the environmental externalities associated with hydro, solar, wind, and biomass facilities. The less prevalent renewable energy technologies, including geothermal and ocean energy technologies, were not researched. The cost ranges identified are summarized in Table 1. The Table does not include a value for hydroelectric energy. The one study which attempted to value hydroelectric externalities was highly site-specific and has been criticized for having vastly overstated the value of the externalities

  3. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    that the substitution effect always dominates: A price increase at some point in space and time causes NRR supply to decrease at all other points. This new but orthodox supply setting extends to NRRs the partial equilibrium analysis of demand and supply policies. Thereby, it provides a generalization of many results......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  4. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on Public Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-02-01

    This report represents an initial activity of the Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) proposed National Energy Policy Implementation Plan: identify and evaluate renewable energy resources on federal lands and any limitations on accessing them. Ultimately, BLM will prioritize land-use planning activities to increase industrys development of renewable energy resources. These resources include solar, biomass, geothermal, water, and wind energy. To accomplish this, BLM and the Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of renewable energy resources on BLM lands in the western United States. The objective of this collaboration was to identify BLM planning units in the western states with the highest potential for private-sector development of renewable resources. The assessment resulted in the following findings: (1) 63 BLM planning units in nine western states have high potential for one or more renewable energy technologies; and (2) 20 BLM planning units in seven western states have high potential for power production from three or more renewable energy sources. This assessment report provides BLM with information needed to prioritize land-use planning activities on the basis of potential for the development of energy from renewable resources.

  5. A critical assessment of renewable energy usage in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The displacement of non-renewable fossil fuels by renewable energy resources has occurred at a low rate in the USA. But a large number of drivers is expected to cause significant expansion of the US renewable energy industry in the near future. Included among the extrinsic drivers, or those that are not directly related to renewable energy resources, are reductions in natural gas and crude oil supplies and the OPEC Effect. An assessment of petroleum crude oil and natural gas consumption and reserves supports the position that supply problems and significant cost increases will start to occur in the first and second quarters of this century. Among the intrinsic drivers, or those that are directly related to renewable energy resources, are global warming and specific government incentives and mandates such as Renewable Portfolio and Fuel Standards that require the commercial use of renewable energy resources. The increasing US dependence on imported crude oil and environmental and political issues will drive the growth of the renewable energy industry and result in the gradual phase-out of what can be called the Fossil Fuel Era. By the end of this century, the dominant commercial energy mix in the USA is projected to include major contributions by renewable energy resources to help satisfy energy and fuel demands. Practical solutions to the problems of disposing of spent nuclear fuels and the development of clean coal applications will enable these energy resources to afford major contributions also

  6. Essays in economics of renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulte, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    In chapter 2 the basics of renewable resource management are described, based on a brief literature review. Key issues are (1) optimum stock size; (2) approach dynamics; (3) extinction; (4) property rights; and (5) tropical deforestation. Chapter 3 focuses on tropical deforestation in more detail. The distinction between primary, undisturbed forests and secondary, or selectively logged, forests is crucial for understanding deforestation. With a model that explicitly recognizes the transformation of primary forests into secondary forests, the validity of two widely held presumptions is theoretically examined. First, we examine the claim that encroachment is necessarily detrimental for nature conservation. Second, we investigate whether high discount rates accelerate deforestation, as conventional wisdom implies. Chapter 4 also deals with deforestation. The usefulness of providing international transfers to developing countries to promote conservation of tropical forests is examined. In chapter 5 a fairly standard renewable resource model is constructed to study the impact of the trade ban on ivory on the optimum elephant population tion as perceived by the govermnent of African countries. Chapter 6 follows naturally from the previous chapter, where the performance of a trade ban is explored. The central issue is whether, from an economic point of view, trade bans should have been implemented mented in the first place. The case examined relates to commercial (minke) whaling, which has been subject to a commercial moratorium since the mid-1980s. Chapters 7, 8 and 9 are about fisheries policies. Chapter 7 goes back to the property rights problems, discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 8 is a more formal theoretical model of fishing policies. In chapter 9 an instrument is discussed that could be used to facilitate implementation of quota cuts next to other management instruments that have the potential to meet resistance from the sector. Chapters 10 and 11 are based on

  7. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Metzger, J.O.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute

  8. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  9. Renewable energy resources: Opportunities and constraints 1990-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This study examined the prospects for new renewable energy resources, from a global perspective, over the next three decades and beyond. The study is intended to support the work of the World Energy Council (WEC) Commission on Energy for Tomorrow's World. The new renewable resources investigated were: Solar; wind; geothermal; modern biomass; ocean; small hydro. Each of these areas was thoroughly researched and was the subject of a separate section of the report. Recent information on large-scale hydroelectric and traditional biomass is included for added perspective on total use of renewable energy, but both fall outside the definition of new renewable energy used in this report

  10. Growth with Endogenous Capital, Knowledge, and Renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with endogenous technological change, physical capital and renewable resources. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory, Arrow’s learning by doing, and some traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between technological change, physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because o...

  11. Impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: assessing the benefits of avoided greenhouse gas emissions using selected CMIP5 climate projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, Felix T; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to minimize climate change requires very significant societal effort. To motivate this effort, it is important to clarify the benefits of avoided emissions. To this end, we analysed the impact of four emissions scenarios on future renewable groundwater resources, which range from 1600 GtCO 2 during the 21st century (RCP2.6) to 7300 GtCO 2 (RCP8.5). Climate modelling uncertainty was taken into account by applying the bias-corrected output of a small ensemble of five CMIP5 global climate models (GCM) as provided by the ISI-MIP effort to the global hydrological model WaterGAP. Despite significant climate model uncertainty, the benefits of avoided emissions with respect to renewable groundwater resources (i.e. groundwater recharge (GWR)) are obvious. The percentage of projected global population (SSP2 population scenario) suffering from a significant decrease of GWR of more than 10% by the 2080s as compared to 1971–2000 decreases from 38% (GCM range 27–50%) for RCP8.5 to 24% (11–39%) for RCP2.6. The population fraction that is spared from any significant GWR change would increase from 29% to 47% if emissions were restricted to RCP2.6. Increases of GWR are more likely to occur in areas with below average population density, while GWR decreases of more than 30% affect especially (semi)arid regions, across all GCMs. Considering change of renewable groundwater resources as a function of mean global temperature (GMT) rise, the land area that is affected by GWR decreases of more than 30% and 70% increases linearly with global warming from 0 to 3 ° C. For each degree of GMT rise, an additional 4% of the global land area (except Greenland and Antarctica) is affected by a GWR decrease of more than 30%, and an additional 1% is affected by a decrease of more than 70%. (letter)

  12. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  13. Renewable energy resources in the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnizhevskij, B.V.; Mal'tseva, A.V.; Muzalev, E.Yu.; Makarova, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analysis of about 30 sources (USA, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Israel, EEC) were used to distinguish some characteristic features of foreign legislation, concerning use of renewable energy sources [ru

  14. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2001 Information Resources Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) eighth annual Information Resources Catalog can help keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The catalog includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  15. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  16. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  17. Evaluation of substrates from renewable-resources in biosurfactants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of substrates from renewable-resources in biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas strains. Sidnei Cerqueira dos Santos, Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez, Juan Carlos Rossi-Alva, Milton Ricardo de Abreu Roque ...

  18. Liquid fuels from renewable resources in Canada: systems economics studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osler, C. F

    1978-01-01

    This paper highlights the methodology and results of a six volume study completed for the Canadian government on alternatives for liquid fuel production from renewable resources after the mid-1980s...

  19. Distribution of decentralized renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.; Benque, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a great number of inhabitants without electricity, living in areas of low population density, with modest energy requirements and low income provides a major potential market for decentralized renewable energy sources. Ademe and EDF in 1993 made two agreements concerning the development of Renewable Energy Sources. The first aims at promoting their decentralized use in France in pertinent cases. The second agreement concerns other countries and has two ambitions: facilitate short-term developments and produce in the longer term a standardised proposal for decentralized energy production using Renewable Energy Sources to a considerable extent. These ideas are explained, and the principles behind the implementation of both Ademe-EDF agreements as well as their future prospects are described. (R.P.)

  20. GRENADA. Renewables Readiness Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Grenada, like many Caribbean islands, is dependent on costly oil imports for its energy needs, including the generation of electricity. The transition to renewable energy could potentially support price reductions and improve the overall competitiveness of key sectors of the economy, particularly tourism. This report provides facts and analysis to support the country's discussion on ways to move forward with the renewable energy agenda. IRENA is ready to provide support in the implementation of the actions identified in this report.

  1. Regional renewable energy and resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Hon Loong; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of the energy potential in biomass in a specific geographical region is frequently constrained by high production costs and the amount of land required per unit of energy generated. In addition, the distributed nature of the biomass resource and its normally low energy density may result in large transportation costs. Biomass also requires large land areas to collect and process the incoming solar radiation before the energy can be harvested. Previously published works on regional energy clustering (REC) and the Regional Resources Management Composite Curve, RRMCC (in this paper shortened to RMC), have been extended in this paper to tackle simultaneously the issues of the biomass supply chain, transportation, and land use. The RMC is a tool for supporting decision making in regional resource management. It provides a complete view of energy and land availability in a region, displaying their trade-offs in a single plot. The extension presented in this work has been developed in two steps. The first step presents the Regional Energy Cascade Analysis, which estimates the energy target within regional supply chains and provides the result for energy exchange flows between zones, the quantity of energy required to be imported/exported, and the locations of the demands. In the second step, the initial results are analysed against potential measures for improving the energy and land use targets by using the RMC and a set of rules for its manipulation. The presented method provides the option to assess the priorities: either to produce and sell the surplus energy on the fuel market or use the land for other purposes such as food production. This extended approach is illustrated with a comprehensive case study demonstrating that with the RMC application it is possible to maximise the land use and to maximise the biofuel production for the requested energy demand.

  2. Renewable resources: development at the crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, B.; Cummings, J.

    1981-12-01

    The era of fossil fuel alternatives began with no clear definition or consensus on which energy supplies are alternatives or renewables. It also brought a technological search for diverse solutions, with solar getting the most adherents. Debate centered on how much solar and other renewables can realistically contribute to the total energy demand, what that contribution means in terms of barrels of oil and tons of coal, and how to attract the political and financial support necessary to develop new energy industries. The current status of renewable energy technologies underscores the critical juncture facing research because of inflation, budget cuts, the dismantlement of DOE, and a philosophical opposition to government participation. Some solar technologies can continue commercial development, but fusion is unique in its classification as a high-risk venture justifying government support. If research on renewable and synthetic energy sources is to progress, American industry must regroup and organize in support of technical, institutional, and social innovation. A timetable of development and commercialization for those technologies expected to be making a significant contribution by 2030 follows the article. (DCK)

  3. Review of dynamic optimization methods in renewable natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the applications of dynamic optimization procedures in natural resource management have proliferated. A systematic review of these applications is given in terms of a number of optimization methodologies and natural resource systems. The applicability of the methods to renewable natural resource systems are compared in terms of system complexity, system size, and precision of the optimal solutions. Recommendations are made concerning the appropriate methods for certain kinds of biological resource problems.

  4. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  5. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  6. Spatiotemporal variability of marine renewable energy resources in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varlas, George; Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) resources such as wind and wave energy depend on the complex behaviour of weather and climatic conditions which determine the development of MRE technologies, energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the spatiotemporal variability of MRE resources along

  7. Committee on renewable resources for industrial materials (Corrim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Meyer; Carol B. Ovens

    1976-01-01

    In recent years major emphasis has been placed on nonrenewable resources in relation to potential national problems that may arise from possible changes in materials supply or utilization. Renewable resources, however, have received disproportionately small attention in spite of their current importance as industrial raw materials and their potential for the future. In...

  8. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity...

  9. Probabilistic generation assessment system of renewable energy in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonchan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes probabilistic generation assessment system introduction of renewable energy generators. This paper is focused on wind turbine generator and solar cell generator. The proposed method uses an assessment model based on probabilistic model considering uncertainty of resources (wind speed and solar radiation. Equivalent generation function of the wind and solar farms are evaluated. The equivalent generation curves of wind farms and solar farms are assessed using regression analysis method using typical least square method from last actual generation data for wind farms. The proposed model is applied to Korea Renewable Generation System of 8 grouped 41 wind farms and 9 grouped around 600 solar farms in South Korea.

  10. Low Cost Carbon Fiber From Renewable Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles has shown that, by lowering overall weight, the use of carbon fiber composites could dramatically decrease domestic vehicle fuel consumption. For the automotive industry to benefit from carbon fiber technology, fiber production will need to be substantially increased and fiber price decreased to$7/kg. To achieve this cost objective, alternate precursors to pitch and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are being investigated as possible carbon fiber feedstocks. Additionally, sufficient fiber to provide 10 to 100 kg for each of the 13 million cars and light trucks produced annually in the U.S. will require an increase of 5 to 50-fold in worldwide carbon fiber production. High-volume, renewable or recycled materials, including lignin, cellulosic fibers, routinely recycled petrochemical fibers, and blends of these components, appear attractive because the cost of these materials is inherently both low and insensitive to changes in petroleum price. Current studies have shown that a number of recycled and renewable polymers can be incorporated into melt-spun fibers attractive as carbon fiber feedstocks. Highly extrudable lignin blends have attractive yields and can be readily carbonized and graphitized. Examination of the physical structure and properties of carbonized and graphitized fibers indicates the feasibility of use in transportation composite applications

  11. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  12. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  13. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  14. Renewable Energy Resources: Solutions to Nigeria power and energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladan-Haruna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Power and energy, with particularly electricity remains the pivot of economical and social development of any country. In view of this fact, a research on how renewable energy resources can solve Nigeria power and energy needs was carried out. It has identified main issues such as inconsistence government policies, corruptions and lack of fund hindering the development of renewable and power sectors for sustainable energy supply. The capacity of alternative energy resources and technology [hydropower, wind power, biomass, photovoltaic (solar), and geothermal power] to solve Nigerian energy crisis cannot be over-emphasized as some countries of the world who have no petroleum resources, utilizes other alternatives or options to solves their power and energy requirement. This paper reviews the prospects, challenges and solutions to Nigeria energy needs using renewable sources for development as it boost industrialization and create job opportunities

  15. Profit-based conventional resource scheduling with renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Srikanth; Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-08-01

    Technological breakthroughs in renewable energy technologies (RETs) enabled them to attain grid parity thereby making them potential contenders for existing conventional resources. To examine the market participation of RETs, this paper formulates a scheduling problem accommodating energy market participation of wind- and solar-independent power producers (IPPs) treating both conventional and RETs as identical entities. Furthermore, constraints pertaining to penetration and curtailments of RETs are restructured. Additionally, an appropriate objective function for profit incurred by conventional resource IPPs through reserve market participation as a function of renewable energy curtailment is also proposed. The proposed concept is simulated with a test system comprising 10 conventional generation units in conjunction with solar photovoltaic (SPV) and wind energy generators (WEG). The simulation results indicate that renewable energy integration and its curtailment limits influence the market participation or scheduling strategies of conventional resources in both energy and reserve markets. Furthermore, load and reliability parameters are also affected.

  16. Towards innovative industrialization for optimal renewable resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... #Laboratory of Signals, Distributed Systems and Artificial Intelligence (SSDIA), Normal superior school of ... human activities, the exhaustion of the layers of fossil resources ... quality and grain size, weak abrasive action, low cost price… .... moduli being able to play a significant role in the improvement.

  17. Solid waste as a renewable resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria Albanese, Jimmy Alexander; Ruiz, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The volume of waste produced by human activity continues to grow, but steps are being taken to mitigate this problem by viewing waste as a resource. Recovering a proportion of waste for re-use immediately reduces the volume of landfill. Furthermore, the scarcity of some elements (such as phosphorous

  18. Exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, John R.

    2003-01-01

    This note shows that when marginal exploration costs are increasing in the rate of exploration that it is possible to observe non-renewable resource prices falling over a portion of the extraction profile. Thus, while the model of Pindyck (J. Polit. Econ. 86 (1978) 841) was based on an incorrect specification of the aggregate extraction cost function, its general conclusion that exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices is upheld. This result is in contrast to Mendelsohn and Swierzbinski (Int. Econ. Rev. 30 (1989) 175), who assumed that marginal extraction costs were constant

  19. Renewable marine energies, resources for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lidec, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The need for alternative sources of energy has never been more urgent than it is today. At the very time International Energy Agency estimates that demand will increase 30% by 2030, fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) are beginning to dwindle, as the need to counter global warming imposes limits on CO 2 emissions. In this context, DCNS has entered a new field of innovation and development: ocean energy. Having included marine renewable energy as an intrinsic part of its strategic growth plan, DCNS is the only industrial company in the world to invest in all four key technologies in this sector: - the tidal energy generated using underwater turbines known as 'tidal turbines',' which convert the energy of marine tidal streams into electricity; - the ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology that exploits the difference of temperature between the warm surface water of tropical oceans and the cold water found in the ocean depths to generate electrical power 24 hours a day, 35 days a year; - the offshore wind energy generated by offshore floating wind turbines; - the wave energy technology which operates on the principle of recovering energy from the ocean swell. With 400 years of expertise in shipbuilding and its in-depth understanding of the marine environment, DCNS is committed to playing a major role in the development of this new ocean industry. (author)

  20. Space use by foragers consuming renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Guillermo; Kuperman, Marcelo N.; Morales, Juan M.; Miller, Joel C.

    2014-05-01

    We study a simple model of a forager as a walk that modifies a relaxing substrate. Within it simplicity, this provides an insight on a number of relevant and non-intuitive facts. Even without memory of the good places to feed and no explicit cost of moving, we observe the emergence of a finite home range. We characterize the walks and the use of resources in several statistical ways, involving the behavior of the average used fraction of the system, the length of the cycles followed by the walkers, and the frequency of visits to plants. Preliminary results on population effects are explored by means of a system of two non directly interacting animals. Properties of the overlap of home ranges show the existence of a set of parameters that provides the best utilization of the shared resource.

  1. Growth with Endogenous Capital, Knowledge, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with endogenous technological change, physical capital and renewable resources. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory, Arrow’s learning by doing, and some traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between technological change, physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, the model analyzes some interactions between economic variables which are not found in the existing literature of economic growth. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the capacity of the renewable resource increases the stock and reduces the price of the resource of the resource over time; the output levels of the two sectors, the total capital stock, and capital inputs of the two sectors are all increased; the labor distribution between the two sectors is slightly affected initially but is not affected in the long term; the rate of interest rises initially rise and is almost not affected in the long term; the per capita consumption levels of the good and the resource and the wage rate are increased.

  2. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  3. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  4. Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

  5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalog 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-01-01

    NREL's ninth annual Information Resources Catalog can keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. It includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  6. Industrial Performance of the Renewable Resources Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Zhou; Xingang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Promoting the development of renewable resources industry is an effective way to solve the problems of resources shortage and environmental pollution in China. In this paper, studies have found that “market structure” and “ownership structure”, namely “double structure”, is an important explanatory variable that affects industrial performance according to the “structure-conduct-performance” paradigm. Literature reviews have shown that large state-owned enterprises are playing an important rol...

  7. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  8. Renewable energy resources barriers in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umoh, U.T.; Ekpoh, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    Africa's hydroelectric power plants are not able to perform at greater than 30 per cent of their installed capacity, despite the fact that Africa has abundant hydroelectric resources. Droughts and floods attributed to climate change are presenting challenges to the effective management and distribution of hydroelectric power supplies. This paper identified climate change-related barriers against hydroelectric power development in Africa. Case studies of 3 hydroelectric power projects in Nigeria were considered. Rainfall intensity data for a 25-year period were analyzed. The study showed that while the hydroelectric power plants are capable of supplying more power, most dams in Africa are prone to erosion and flash flooding. The sedimentation of reservoirs and natural lakes are also posing significant water management problems. Redesigns are needed in order to reduce risk. The new hydroelectric projects should be designed to ensure that environmental impacts are minimized. A river basin management approach was recommended in order to improve industrial water supplies, power generation, and recreational aspects of waterways. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Meta-analysis of non-renewable energy resource estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a review of estimates of ultimately recoverable resources (URR) of non-renewable energy sources: coal, conventional and unconventional oil, conventional and unconventional gas, and uranium for nuclear fission. There is a large range in the estimates of many of the energy sources, even those that have been utilized for a long time and, as such, should be well understood. If it is assumed that the estimates for each resource are normally distributed, then the total value of ultimately recoverable fossil and fissile energy resources is 70,592 EJ. If, on the other hand, the best fitting distribution from each of the resource estimate populations is used, a the total value is 50,702 EJ, a factor of around 30% smaller. - Highlights: ► Brief introduction to categorization of resources. ► Collated over 380 estimates of ultimately recoverable global resources for all non-renewable energy sources. ► Extensive statistical analysis and distribution fitting conducted. ► Cross-energy source comparison of resource magnitudes.

  10. Assessing Resource Assessment for MRE (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H. P.; Bozec, A.; Duerr, A. S.; Rauchenstein, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center at Florida Atlantic University is concerned with marine renewable energy (MRE) recovery from the Florida Current using marine hydrokinetic technology and, in the future, from the thermocline in the Florida Straits via ocean thermal energy conversion. Although neither concept is new, technology improvements and the evolution of policy now warrant optimism for the future of these potentially rich resources. In moving toward commercial-scale deployments of energy-generating systems, an important first step is accurate and unembellished assessment of the resource itself. In short, we must ask: how much energy might be available? The answer to this deceptively simple question depends, of course, on the technology itself - system efficiencies, for example - but it also depends on a variety of other limiting factors such as deployment strategies, environmental considerations, and the overall economics of MRE in the context of competing energy resources. While it is universally agreed that MRE development must occur within a framework of environmental stewardship, it is nonetheless inevitable that there will be trade-offs between absolute environmental protection and realizing the benefits of MRE implementation. As with solar-energy and wind-power technologies, MRE technologies interact with the environment in which they are deployed. Ecological, societal, and even physical resource concerns all require investigation and, in some cases, mitigation. Moreover, the converse - how will the environment affect the equipment? - presents technical challenges that have confounded the seagoing community forever. Biofouling, for example, will affect system efficiency and create significant maintenance and operations issues. Because this will also affect the economics of MRE, nonlinear interactions among the limiting factors complicate the overall issue of resource assessment significantly. While MRE technology development is

  11. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  12. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E. [University of Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  13. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs

  14. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  15. DETERMINATION OF PROCESSES OF USE, PRESERVING AND REPRODUCTION IN THE SYSTEM OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Gazuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop factor model of renewable natural resources management, specifying the assessment of the amount of resource, including the natural factor, consumption level and intensity of reproduction. Methodology. The survey is based on highlighting factors influencing the reproductive capacity of natural environment. It allows, on the base of taking into consideration reproductive abilities of resources and intensity of consumption, to substantiate three models for their use, including: heavy exploitation of renewable natural resources as the most commonly used model at the current level of development of society; model of reproductive use of natural resources, stipulating for the interference from the side of authorities and management, and the model of simple reproduction of renewable natural resources, at which the resource itself and the amount of its reproduction for the next period remain constant. Practical implications. The need is substantiated in implementation of the new model for determination of the processes of managing balanced use of natural resources, which will stipulate processes of reproduction in the sphere of natural management, form new approaches to environmental protection and promote the optimal ratio between the consumption and reproduction of natural resources. At this, the processes of natural reproduction are influenced by the amount of resource itself, intensity of its reproduction and level of consumption. The main objective of the managing bodies in the sphere of the use of renewable natural resources should be securing optimal ratio between consumption and reproduction of such natural resources. The efficiency of the implementation process and reproduction of natural resources presupposes providing their simple and extended reproduction, economic effectiveness and sustainability in allocation and use of such resources. This will have positive effect on ecological and economic security

  16. The research and training of human resources to produce renewable resources of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospective technique approach used as a context, this paper emphasizes the importance of a long term vision on the human resources development for renewable energies production. In the same sense it outlines the connection between the professions associated with the generation of renewable energy and the labor market. Results are presented on the research intellectual capacity of Mexico, highlighting, the public universities, specialized research centers, researchers, and the associated academic programs to renewable energies. Finally, it is presented the conclusions, and suggestions oriented to increase strategically, the renewable energies research for the technology development. Also it might incorporate our country towards the international market for renewable technologies, in the long term.

  17. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, Simon; Grandell, Leena; Wachtmeister, Henrik; Höök, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns. - Highlights: • Growth rates and service life is important when evaluating energy transitions. • A sustained commissioning model is suggested for analysing renewable energy. • Natural resource requirements for renewable energy are connected to growth rates. • Arguments by recent studies ruling out physical constraints appear inadequate

  18. Dentin biomodification: strategies, renewable resources and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedran-Russo, Ana K; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James; Castellan, Carina S; Phansalkar, Rasika S; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Vidal, Cristina M P; Napotilano, José G; Nam, Joo-Won; Leme, Ariene A

    2014-01-01

    The biomodification of dentin is a biomimetic approach, mediated by bioactive agents, to enhance and reinforce the dentin by locally altering the biochemistry and biomechanical properties. This review provides an overview of key dentin matrix components, targeting effects of biomodification strategies, the chemistry of renewable natural sources, and current research on their potential clinical applications. The PubMed database and collected literature were used as a resource for peer-reviewed articles to highlight the topics of dentin hierarchical structure, biomodification agents, and laboratorial investigations of their clinical applications. In addition, new data is presented on laboratorial methods for the standardization of proanthocyanidin-rich preparations as a renewable source of plant-derived biomodification agents. Biomodification agents can be categorized as physical methods and chemical agents. Synthetic and naturally occurring chemical strategies present distinctive mechanism of interaction with the tissue. Initially thought to be driven only by inter- or intra-molecular collagen induced non-enzymatic cross-linking, multiple interactions with other dentin components are fundamental for the long-term biomechanics and biostability of the tissue. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins show promising bioactivity, and their chemical complexity requires systematic evaluation of the active compounds to produce a fully standardized intervention material from renewable resource, prior to their detailed clinical evaluation. Understanding the hierarchical structure of dentin and the targeting effect of the bioactive compounds will establish their use in both dentin-biomaterials interface and caries management. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  20. Renewable energy resources and technologies practice in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rofiqul Islam, M.; Rafiqul Alam Beg, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Rabiul Islam, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh)

    2008-02-15

    Bangladesh has very limited nonrenewable energy resources of its own. She is facing energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. It is essential for scientists and researchers to find out the renewable energy resources and effective technologies. Bangladesh is endowed with vast renewable energy resources such as biomass and solar insolation. Besides, hydro and wind power can be considered as potential renewable energy resources. Harnessing these resources appears to be a promising solution for improving the quality of life of rural villagers. The government and many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have tried to comprehend and have strived to address the problem of energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy resources and renewable energy technologies (RETs) practicing in Bangladesh in terms of its implementation, research and development activities. The development and trial of systems are mostly funded so far by donor agencies in collaboration with government and NGOs. Biomass energy sources are traditionally used for domestic cooking and in small rural industries. Approximately 60% of total energy demand of the country is supplied by indigenous biomass based fuels. Activities on the development and promotion of biomass technologies have been going on for one decade. Some national and international funds have been available for biogas technology, improved biomass cookers and production of biomass briquettes. At the time, around 25,000 biogas plants exist all over the country in rural areas and educational institutes, etc. More than 0.20 million improve stoves have been installed to save biomass fuel. Over 900 briquetting machines have been operating in the country on commercial basis. The annual solar radiation availability in Bangladesh is as high as 1700 kWh/m{sup 2}. Research and demonstration activities carried out for one

  1. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  2. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  3. Industrial Performance of the Renewable Resources Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the development of renewable resources industry is an effective way to solve the problems of resources shortage and environmental pollution in China. In this paper, studies have found that “market structure” and “ownership structure”, namely “double structure”, is an important explanatory variable that affects industrial performance according to the “structure-conduct-performance” paradigm. Literature reviews have shown that large state-owned enterprises are playing an important role in improving the industrial performance because of the advantage in technology and capital. However, this paper analyzed the performance of China’s renewable resource industry from two aspects—the overall industrial development and the listed companies, from which two conclusions have drawn: (1 Above a designated size, private enterprises have the greatest contribution, while the contribution of state-owned and foreign-funded enterprises is different; (2 The main reason for the high positive growth rate of total factor productivity between 2009 and 2013 is the rapid growth of technological progress such as the improvement of production processes and manufacturing skills, rather than the promotion of management, system, or polices.

  4. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  5. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  6. Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Renewable Marine Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emilio; Quiles, Eduardo; Correcher, Antonio; Morant, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    In this paper we present a multi-sensor floating system designed to monitor marine energy parameters, in order to sample wind, wave, and marine current energy resources. For this purpose, a set of dedicated sensors to measure the height and period of the waves, wind, and marine current intensity and direction have been selected and installed in the system. The floating device incorporates wind and marine current turbines for renewable energy self-consumption and to carry out complementary studies on the stability of such a system. The feasibility, safety, sensor communications, and buoy stability of the floating device have been successfully checked in real operating conditions.

  7. Mapping and monitoring renewable resources with space SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Brisco, B.; Dobson, M. C.; Moezzi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT-A SAR and SIR-A imagery was examined to evaluate the quality and type of information that can be extracted and used to monitor renewable resources on Earth. Two tasks were carried out: (1) a land cover classification study which utilized two sets of imagery acquired by the SEASAT-A SAR, one set by SIR-A, and one LANDSAT set (4 bands); and (2) a change detection to examine differences between pairs of SEASAT-A SAR images and relates them to hydrologic and/or agronomic variations in the scene.

  8. Production of biosurfactants using substrates from renewable-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds commonly used in industries are chemically synthesized. However, biosurfactants have been paid increasing attention to replace the synthetic surfactants owing to their advantages such as biodegradability and low toxicity. Nowadays, the use of biosurfactant has been limited due to the high production cost. Nevertheless, biosurfactants can be produced with high yield by some microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas sp. These microorganisms can use the various renewal resources, especially agroindustrial wastes, as the potential carbon sources. This leads to the greater possibility for economical biosurfactant production and reduced pollution caused by those wastes.

  9. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  11. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  13. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  14. Uranium resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  15. Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) of renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehnt, M. [Institut for Energy and Environmental Research, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Before new technologies enter the market, their environmental superiority over competing options must be asserted based on a life cycle approach. However, when applying the prevailing status-quo Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to future renewable energy systems, one does not distinguish between impacts which are 'imported' into the system due to the 'background system' (e.g. due to supply of materials or final energy for the production of the energy system), and what is the improvement potential of these technologies compared to competitors (e.g. due to process and system innovations or diffusion effects). This paper investigates a dynamic approach towards the LCA of renewable energy technologies and proves that for all renewable energy chains, the inputs of finite energy resources and emissions of greenhouse gases are extremely low compared with the conventional system. With regard to the other environmental impacts the findings do not reveal any clear verdict for or against renewable energies. Future development will enable a further reduction of environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. Different factors are responsible for this development, such as progress with respect to technical parameters of energy converters, in particular, improved efficiency; emissions characteristics; increased lifetime, etc.; advances with regard to the production process of energy converters and fuels; and advances with regard to 'external' services originating from conventional energy and transport systems, for instance, improved electricity or process heat supply for system production and ecologically optimized transport systems for fuel transportation. The application of renewable energy sources might modify not only the background system, but also further downstream aspects, such as consumer behavior. This effect is, however, strongly context and technology dependent. (author)

  16. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  17. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  18. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  19. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  1. Web based system for renewable energy sources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtrakov, Stanko; Ivanov, Lachezar South

    2011-01-01

    The RES A ssess software is developed to assist in the preliminary assessment of potential renewable energy projects. The first release includes water pumping solar systems, passive solar systems, wind, and geothermal energy and biomass. The program guides the users in the design of their systems, by providing initial estimates. By changing the system’s parameters, users are able to quickly screen an effective technology and system size depending on load, climatic conditions, and season of use. This paper describes scope of models (radiation, wind, geothermal, heat transfer) used to predict energy production from energy resource systems, climatic variables and system parameters and software technology for realising the project. Keywords: Energy projects, Renewable energy, Web system

  2. The resource curse: Analysis of the applicability to the large-scale export of electricity from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The “resource curse” has been analyzed extensively in the context of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas. More recently commentators have expressed concerns that also renewable electricity exports can have adverse economic impacts on exporting countries. My paper analyzes to what extent the resource curse applies in the case of large-scale renewable electricity exports. I develop a “comprehensive model” that integrates previous works and provides a consolidated view of how non-renewable resource abundance impacts economic growth. Deploying this model I analyze through case studies on Laos, Mongolia, and the MENA region to what extent exporters of renewable electricity run into the danger of the resource curse. I find that renewable electricity exports avoid some disadvantages of non-renewable resource exports including (i) shocks after resource depletion; (ii) macroeconomic fluctuations; and (iii) competition for a fixed amount of resources. Nevertheless, renewable electricity exports bear some of the same risks as conventional resource exports including (i) crowding-out of the manufacturing sector; (ii) incentives for corruption; and (iii) reduced government accountability. I conclude with recommendations for managing such risks. - Highlights: ► Study analyzes whether the resource curse applies to renewable electricity export. ► I develop a “comprehensive model of the resource curse” and use cases for the analysis. ► Renewable electricity export avoids some disadvantages compared to other resources. ► Renewable electricity bears some of the same risks as conventional resources. ► Study concludes with recommendations for managing such risks

  3. Hydrogen from renewable resources - the hundred year commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade interest in a potential 'Hydrogen Economy' has increased and is now discussed in main stream literature and political debates. This is largely due to the promise that fuel cell technology, which uses a hydrogen-rich gas, has shown. Though hydrogen can be produced from a number of sources, it is steam reforming of natural gas that has gained a substantial support base, and is seen as an important bridge to a sustainable hydrogen production from renewable energy. What this paper examines is the synergy that exists now between hydrogen from renewable resources and the inception of the fuel cell market. It argues that although the natural gas pathway will be necessary for the short to medium term, there should not be a complete dominance of the production route. The paper also brings together a number of policy documents from the EU and argues that what is needed from the level of the EU is a long term, binding commitment to ensure that the natural gas pathway does not become locked in. (author)

  4. Micro generation from renewable resources - secure and sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan's power demand is mainly satisfied by fossil fuel, which is not abundant and major source of global warming/climate change. A sustainable and secure alternative for Pakistan would be to exploit its indigenous and renewable energy (RE) resources like hydro, solar and wind with public participation. Pakistan receives year-round solar irradiance, which can become a major power producer in urban and non-arable areas. Secondly, locally managed run-of-river micro hydro projects can be an important source of power generation in Northern Pakistan. Thirdly, small wind turbines installed in coastal and windy areas of Southern Pakistan can serve as significant electricity producers. The limiting factors in the case of power from RE are: space, cost, storage, vested interests and reluctance to change. Regardless of production technique, the power shortfall can be controlled to some extent by energy conservation, managing heat loss, transmission and distribution losses and by having energy-efficient buildings and appliances. (author)

  5. Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glushankova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20% is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type. Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls.

  6. Determinants of Renewable Energy Resources and Their Relationship Between Economic Growth: The Case of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Çınar; Mine Yılmazer

    2015-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is based on two different approaches that are supply-side and demand-side. The impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic growth is investigated with traditional production function on supply-side approach. The relationship between renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 and energy prices is analyzed on demand-side approach. In this study, the impact of renewable resources on eco...

  7. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  8. Renewable energy resources and their role in the energy balance of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the renewable energy sources in the energy production sector is discussed. The main features of solar, wind and biomass energy are reviewed. Studies for Bulgaria show a total solar radiation above 1600 kWh/m 2 for the Southern regions. The assessment of the solar resources, made by the DOE gives about 170 000 TWh/y for the whole territory. The economically advantageous resources for passive heating are 10.6 TWh till 2020. For the same period the utilization of 0.92 TWh solar energy is possible. Solar installations with surface about 14 000 m 2 are currently in operation. 54% of them are in the tourism sphere and only 8% are in industry (due to some economical difficulties about 44% of the industrial installations are shut down). On the base of processing of the data from more that 100 meteorological stations on the country territory, a spatial assessment of the resources has been done. For the whole territory the wind potential is estimated to about 15800 GW. Theoretical average annual wind resources at 10 km above the surface are 125 000 TWh. There are several areas with wind velocity 5-6 m/s which are suitable for wind energy production. The energy resources of biomass for the country are large - around 35.5 TWh. Under the programmes 'Country Study Project' and PHARE, different scenarii for the renewable energy source utilization till 2020 are developed. Estimation for the possibilities for wider application of the renewable sources in the market are done

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Renewable Resources into Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Johannes G

    2016-12-01

    Several strategies can be chosen to convert renewable resources into chemicals. In this account, I exemplify the route that starts with so-called platform chemicals; these are relatively simple chemicals that can be produced in high yield, directly from renewable resources, either via fermentation or via chemical routes. They can be converted into the existing bulk chemicals in a very efficient manner using multistep catalytic conversions. Two examples are given of the conversion of sugars into nylon intermediates. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be prepared in good yield from fructose. Two hydrogenation steps convert HMF into 1,6-hexanediol. Oppenauer oxidation converts this product into caprolactone, which in the past, has been converted into caprolactam in a large-scale industrial process by reaction with ammonia. An even more interesting platform chemical is levulinic acid (LA), which can be obtained directly from lignocellulose in good yield by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 200°C. Hydrogenation converts LA into gamma-valerolactone, which is ring-opened and esterified in a gas-phase process to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenoates in excellent selectivity. In a remarkable selective palladium-catalysed isomerising methoxycarbonylation, this mixture is converted in to dimethyl adipate, which is finally hydrolysed to adipic acid. Overall selectivities of both processes are extremely high. The conversion of lignin into chemicals is a much more complicated task in view of the complex nature of lignin. It was discovered that breakage of the most prevalent β-O-4 bond in lignin occurs not only via the well-documented C3 pathway, but also via a C2 pathway, leading to the formation of highly reactive phenylacetaldehydes. These compounds went largely unnoticed as they immediately recondense on lignin. We have now found that it is possible to prevent this by converting these aldehydes in a tandem reaction, as they are formed. For this purpose, we have used

  10. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  11. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request...

  12. Microgrid planning based on fuzzy interval prediction models of renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, R.; Sáez, D.; Marín, L.G.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Cordon, O.

    2016-01-01

    Microgrids are sustainable solutions for electrification of rural zones that can make use of their local renewable resources. In this paper, we propose a new method for microgrid planning which includes the effect of the uncertainties of the renewable resources explicitly. Fuzzy interval models are

  13. New Horizons for Hydrogen: Producing Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Recent events have reminded us of the critical need to transition from crude oil, coal, and natural gas toward sustainable and domestic sources of energy. One reason is we need to strengthen our economy. In 2008 we saw the price of oil reach a record $93 per barrel. With higher oil prices, growing demand for gasoline, and increasing oil imports, an average of $235 billion per year, has left the United States economy to pay for foreign oil since 2005, or $1.2 trillion between 2005 and 2009. From a consumer perspective, this trend is seen with an average gasoline price of $2.50 per gallon since 2005, compared to an average of $1.60 between 1990 and 2004 (after adjusting for inflation). In addition to economic impacts, continued reliance on fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions that may cause climate change, health impacts from air pollution, and the risk of disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Energy efficiency in the form of more efficient vehicles and buildings can help to reduce some of these impacts. However, over the long term we must shift from fossil resources to sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  14. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  15. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  16. Linking global scenarios to national assessments: Experiences from the Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda L. Langner; Peter J. Ince

    2012-01-01

    The Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment provides a nationally consistent analysis of the status and trends of the Nation's renewable forest resources. A global scenario approach was taken for the 2010 RPA Assessment to provide a shared world view of potential futures. The RPA Assessment scenarios were linked to the global scenarios and climate projections used...

  17. Biosurfactants' Production from Renewable Natural Resources: Example of Innovativeand Smart Technology in Circular Bioeconomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K.; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Banpurkar, Arun G.

    2017-03-01

    A strong developed bio-based industrial sector will significantly reduce dependency on fossil resources, help the countries meet climate change targets, and lead to greener and more environmental friendly growth. The key is to develop new technologies to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based products and biofuels. Biomass is a valuable resource and many parameters need to be taken in to account when assessing its use and the products made from its. The bioeconomy encompass the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, feed and bio-based products (chemicals, materials and fuels) via innovative and efficient technologies provided by industrial biotechnology. The paper presents the smart and efficient way to use the agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes for biosurfactant's production. Clarification processes are mandatory to use the raw substrates for microbial growth as well as biosurfactant production for commercial purposes. At the same time it is very essential to retain the nutritional values of those cheap substrates. Broad industrial perspectives can be achieved when quality as well as the quantity of the biosurfactant is considered in great depth. Since substrates resulting from food processing, dairy, animal fat industries are not explored in great details; and hence are potential areas which can be explored thoroughly.

  18. The rheology, degradation, processing, and characterization of renewable resource polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jason David

    Renewable resource polymers have become an increasingly popular alternative to conventional fossil fuel based polymers over the past couple decades. The push by the government as well as both industrial and consumer markets to go "green" has provided the drive for companies to research and develop new materials that are more environmentally friendly and which are derived from renewable materials. Two polymers that are currently being produced commercially are poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers, both of which can be derived from renewable feedstocks and have shown to exhibit similar properties to conventional materials such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and PET. PLA and PHA are being used in many applications including food packaging, disposable cups, grocery bags, and biomedical applications. In this work, we report on the rheological properties of blends of PLA and PHA copolymers. The specific materials used in the study include Natureworks RTM 7000D grade PLA and PHA copolymers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate). Blends ranging from 10 to 50 percent PHA by weight are also examined. Shear and extensional experiments are performed to characterize the flow behavior of the materials in different flow fields. Transient experiments are performed to study the shear rheology over time in order to determine how the viscoelastic properties change under typical processing conditions and understand the thermal degradation behavior of the materials. For the blends, it is determined that increasing the PHA concentration in the blend results in a decrease in viscosity and increase in degradation. Models are fit to the viscosity of the blends using the pure material viscosities in order to be able to predict the behavior at a given blend composition. We also investigate the processability of these materials into films and examine the resultant properties of the cast films. The mechanical and thermal properties of the

  19. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  1. Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-05-01

    Report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Report contains results from utility scale analysis and site visits, as well as facility scale screening and site visits.

  2. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    .e., respond to quick variations in the loads and renewable resource outputs in a manner that maintains the power balance, by incorporating appropriate ramping requirement constraints in the formulation of the SOP. The simulation approach makes use of Monte Carlo simulation techniques to represent the impacts of the sources of uncertainty on the side-by-side power system and market operations. As such, we systematically sample the "input'' random processes -- namely the buyer demands, renewable resource outputs and conventional generation resource available capacities -- to generate the realizations, or sample paths, that we use in the emulation of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets via SOP . As a result, we obtain realizations of the market outcomes and storage resource operations that we can use to approximate their statistics. The approach not only has the capability to emulate the side-by-side power system and energy market operations with the explicit representation of the chronology of time-dependent phenomena -- including storage cycles of charge/discharge -- and constraints imposed by the transmission network in terms of deliverability of the energy, but also to provide the figures of merit for all metrics to assess the economics, reliability and the environmental impacts of the performance of those operations. Our efforts to address the implementational aspects of the methodology so as to ensure computational tractability for large-scale systems over longer periods include relaxing the SOP, the use of a "warm-start'' technique as well as representative simulation periods, parallelization and variance reduction techniques. Our simulation approach is useful in power system planning, operations and investment analysis. There is a broad range of applications of the simulation methodology to resource planning studies, production costing issues, investment analysis, transmission utilization, reliability analysis, environmental assessments, policy formulation and

  3. Research and utilization of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.S.; Aditya, S.K.; Mazumder, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh is an energy deficit and low-economy country with high population density. Per-capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world. The only dependable indigenous gas, which is the major primary energy source in the country, is used mainly for the production of electricity and fertilizer. If it is burnt at an annual 10% growth rate of consumption, may not last more than 15-20 years. Around 30% of the people of the country have connections to the national grid line. In the villages, where 80% of the population live, the situation is worse. Even if it is possible to take the electric grid line to all villages of the country, which will be an extremely difficult and expensive work to do, the majority of the village houses will not be able to have electric connections due to poverty. No nuclear power station exists in the country and the possibility of setting up any in the near future is limited due to non-availability of funds. Hydroelectric resources are also low because of the flat terrain of the country. The fuel import bill also occupies a significant portion of the total amount of export earnings. Conventional resources in Bangladesh are utterly inadequate for supplying the energy needs to bring in a significant improvement in our economy. On the other hand when our gas reserves will be exhausted it will be difficult for us even to maintain the energy supply for the development of our country unless we find alternate sources of energy. Solar energy availability in Bangladesh is high around 5KWH/day per meter square or 2.6 10/sup 11/ MWH/year on the total surface area of the country. This is equivalent to the output of about 30GW capacity utility plant for 100 years assuming 10% efficiency of the solar devices. Large-scale production of electricity from new, renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Wind power is difficult to exploit economically in regions with wind speeds bellow 5 m/s yearly average. Solar thermal power plants come

  4. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  5. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    . In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...

  6. Renewable sources electric power: resources and challenges for the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchereau, J.M.; Dormoy, C.

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides information (statistical data, legal framework) on the electric power produced by the renewable energy sources in France. It explains the associated local economical challenge and the french objectives in the European Union Directive. (A.L.B.)

  7. Agricultural Commercialisation, Diversification, and Conservation of Renewable Resources in Northern Thailand Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Trébuil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of commercialisation-diversification in the highlands of upper northern Thailand and the accompanying dismissal of self-subsistence are documented based on the findings from seven case studies carried out in different agricultural and social situations during the past decade. The characteristics of the key driving forces powering this agrarian transition such as rapid economic growth, decrease in the share of labour employed in the agriculture, urbanization and changes in food consumption patterns, and improved communication infrastructures, are presented in the Thai context. The environmental impact of these profound agrarian transformations on the degradation of key renewable resources, particularly soil erosion, is assessed. Their socio-economic consequences on an extensive differentiation among farming households and equity issues are also discussed. Finally the authors draw several lessons from this Thai experience that illustrate the very strong adaptive capacity of small highland farmers. They could be useful in similar agro-ecological zones of neighbouring countries that are presently experiencing the same kind of agricultural transition in the Montane Mainland Southeast Asia ecoregion. Particularly, the article underlines the need for more holistic and integrated approaches to agricultural development and the management of renewable resources in highland agro-ecosystems to alleviate poverty while conserving the resource base.

  8. Competitive assessment of the US: Renewable energy equipment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report is a competitive assessment of the U.S. renewable energy equipment industry. The contents include: Definition of technologies; Industry characteristics; Historical perspectives; Industry performance; Trends and projections; The world marketplace; and Issues and options.

  9. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  10. State and Local Initiatives: Your Bridge to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Resources (Brochure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.

    2001-01-01

    A brochure for local and state policymakers, informing them about the State and Local Initiatives team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The brochure outlines the benefits of using renewables and energy efficiency, the benefits of using the State and Local Initiatives team as a liaison to the wealth of information at NREL, and some of the services and resources available

  11. Survey cost of electric power generation from renewable resources in the state of Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ronaldo Pereira de; Bortoni, Edson da Costa; Haddad, Jamil

    2010-01-01

    The work presents a developed study to obtain the investment index costs for renewable based distributed generation in Goias state. A set of renewable resources was selected, along with their availability in each city of the state. Therefore, a rank of investments could be developed. (author)

  12. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  13. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B813.IA001113] Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... 1995, the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of...

  14. 78 FR 19005 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request...--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for...

  15. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B811.IA000913] Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior... Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget...

  16. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  17. Mongolia wind resource assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.; Chadraa, B.; Natsagdorj, L.

    1998-01-01

    The development of detailed, regional wind-resource distributions and other pertinent wind resource characteristics (e.g., assessment maps and reliable estimates of seasonal, diurnal, and directional) is an important step in planning and accelerating the deployment of wind energy systems. This paper summarizes the approach and methods being used to conduct a wind energy resource assessment of Mongolia. The primary goals of this project are to develop a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas of Mongolia and to establish a wind measurement program in specific regions of Mongolia to identify prospective sites for wind energy projects and to help validate some of the wind resource estimates. The Mongolian wind resource atlas will include detailed, computerized wind power maps and other valuable wind resource characteristic information for the different regions of Mongolia

  18. Green power: A renewable energy resources marketing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as power generated from the sun, the wind, the heat of the earth, and biomass. Green pricing is the marketing strategy to sell green power to customers who voluntarily pay a premium for it. Green pricing is evolving from the deregulation of the electric industry, the need for clean air, reflected in part as concern over global warming, and technology advances. The goal of the renewable energy marketing plan is to generate enough revenues for a utility to fund power purchase agreements (PPAs) with renewable energy developers or construct its own renewable facilities. Long-term, fixed price PPAs enable developers to obtain financing to construct new facilities, sometimes taking technological risks which a utility might not take otherwise. The marketing plan is built around different rate premiums for different categories of ratepayers, volunteer customer participation, customer participation recognition, and budget allocations between project costs and power marketing costs. Green prices are higher than those for conventional sources, particularly prices from natural gas fired plants. Natural gas is abundant relative to oil in price per British thermal unit (Btu). Green pricing can help bridge the gap between the current oversupply of gas and the time, not far off, when all petroleum prices will exceed those for renewable energy. The rapid implementation of green pricing is important. New marketing programs will bolster the growing demand for renewable energy evidenced in many national surveys thus decreasing the consumption of power now generated by burning hydrocarbons. This paper sets forth a framework to implement a green power marketing plan for renewable energy developers and utilities working together

  19. Life-cycle assessment in the renewable energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goralczyk, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy industry is facing challenges regarding energetic safety, competitiveness, improvement of domestic companies and environmental protection. Ecological guidelines concern the elimination of detrimental solutions, and effective energy management, which will form the basis for sustainable development. The Polish power industry is required to systematically increase the share of energy taken from renewable sources in the total energy sold to customers. Besides the economic issues, particular importance is assigned to environmental factors associated with the choice of energy source. That is where life-cycle assessment (LCA) is important. The main purpose of LCA is to identify the environmental impacts of goods and services during the whole life cycle of the product or service. Therefore LCA can be applied to assess the impact on the environment of electricity generation and will allow producers to make better decisions pertaining to environmental protection. The renewable energy sources analysed in this paper include the energy from photovoltaics, wind turbines and hydroelectric power. The goal and scope of the analysis comprise the assessment of environmental impacts of production of 1 GJ of energy from the sources mentioned above. The study will cover the construction, operation and waste disposal at each power plant. Analysis will cover the impact categories, where the environmental influence is the most significant, i.e. resource depletion, global warmth potential, acidification and eutrophication. The LCA results will be shown on the basis of European and Australian research. This analysis will be extended with a comparison between environmental impacts of energy from renewable and conventional sources. This report will conclude with an analysis of possibilities of application of the existing research results and LCA rules in the Polish energy industry with a focus on Poland's future accession to the European Union. Definitions of LCA fundamental

  20. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  1. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustainable energy, clear policies and targets and dedicated institutions are crucial. Fortunately, Afghan government with the support of international community is setting ambitious targets for the renewable energy sector and is encouraging national and international investors to take part in the generation, transmission, and distribution of renewable energy especially electricity through Power Purchase Agreements or very cheap land leases. Thus, the objectives of this report are (I to review the existing institutions in the field of renewable energy, (II to review renewable energy policies and targets in Afghanistan, and (III to identify institutional and policy gaps and recommend solutions.

  2. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: an early assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langniss, Ole; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-01-01

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas were well exceeded by the end of 2001, with 915 MW of wind installed in that year alone. RPS compliance costs appear negligible with new wind projects reportedly contracted for well under 3(US) cents/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US) cents/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

  3. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Langniss, Ole

    2001-01-01

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of policies to support renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -size-fits all approach to designing renewable policies, a number of principles of policy design exist, which can dramatically increase the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy policies. Some recommendations for policy- makers include: - assessing which of the three factors is holding back deployment......Close to 80% of the world’s energy supply could be generated through renewables by mid-century with the right enabling public policies. Policies can play a fundamental role in promoting a sustainable energy-mix and it is key to measure their effectiveness in the medium and long run. What...... is the most effective way to measure and monitor this effectiveness? What can we learn from Brazil, one of the first emerging countries to refocus its national energy strategies toward renewable energy? And from South Africa, which committed to develop 42% of additional capacity in renewable by 2030...

  5. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  6. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables

  7. GMLC Extreme Event Modeling -- Slow-Dynamics Models for Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkali, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Min, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The need for slow dynamics models of renewable resources in cascade modeling essentially arises from the challenges associated with the increased use of solar and wind electric power. Indeed, the main challenge is that the power produced by wind and sunlight is not consistent; thus, renewable energy resources tend to have variable output power on many different timescales, including the timescales that a cascade unfolds.

  8. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.

  9. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Motoki; Hirata, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of the power grids against large fluctuations of the effective power. First, we evaluate the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs depends on the locations, while the influence of the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs on power grids is not well known. Thus, second, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model. The results show that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our results suggest that we should consider the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs when estimating the stability of power grids.

  10. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  11. Reliability assessment of distribution system with the integration of renewable distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adefarati, T.; Bansal, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Addresses impacts of renewable DG on the reliability of the distribution system. • Multi-objective formulation for maximizing the cost saving with integration of DG. • Uses Markov model to study the stochastic characteristics of the major components. • The investigation is done using modified RBTS bus test distribution system. • Proposed approach is useful for electric utilities to enhance the reliability. - Abstract: Recent studies have shown that renewable energy resources will contribute substantially to future energy generation owing to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels. Wind and solar energy resources are major sources of renewable energy that have the ability to reduce the energy crisis and the greenhouse gases emitted by the conventional power plants. Reliability assessment is one of the key indicators to measure the impact of the renewable distributed generation (DG) units in the distribution networks and to minimize the cost that is associated with power outage. This paper presents a comprehensive reliability assessment of the distribution system that satisfies the consumer load requirements with the penetration of wind turbine generator (WTG), electric storage system (ESS) and photovoltaic (PV). A Markov model is proposed to access the stochastic characteristics of the major components of the renewable DG resources as well as their influence on the reliability of a conventional distribution system. The results obtained from the case studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of using WTG, ESS and PV to enhance the reliability of the conventional distribution system.

  12. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  13. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  14. Assessing the performance of renewable electricity support instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of feed-in tariffs and tradable certificates is assessed on criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and institutional feasibility. In the early stage of transition to an energy system based entirely on renewable energy supplies, renewable electricity can only thrive if support takes into account the specific technical, economic and political problems which result from embedding this electricity in conventional power systems whose technology, organizational structure, environmental responsibility and general mission differ profoundly from the emerging, renewable-based system. Support schemes need to capture the diversity of power supplies, the variable nature of some renewable supplies, and their different attributes for the purposes of public policy. They must take into account the variety of generators – including small, decentralized generation – emerging in a renewable-based system, and the new relationships between generators and customers. Renewable energy policies need a clear point of reference: because the incumbent power systems are not sustainable they must adapt to the requirements of the renewable ones, not the other way round. Incumbent systems carry the responsibility of paying the transition, something that corresponds best with the polluter pays principle. - Highlights: ► Present power systems must adapt to the requirements of growing renewable ones, not the opposite. ► Well performing support systems capture the diversity of renewable sources and technologies. ► Feed-in Tariffs are superior in addressing the renewables' diversity and in promoting innovation. ► Feed-in Tariffs put transition burdens on incumbents and stimulate independent producers.

  15. Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V. Sheehan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern over global climate change as a result of fossil fuel use has resulted in energy production from renewable sources. Marine renewable energy devices provide clean electricity but can also cause physical disturbance to the local environment. There is a considerable paucity of ecological data at potential marine renewable energy sites that is needed to assess potential future impacts and allow optimal siting of devices. Here, we provide a baseline benthic survey for the Big Russel in Guernsey, UK, a potential site for tidal energy development. To assess the suitability of proposed sites for marine renewable energy in the Big Russel and to identify potential control sites, we compared species assemblages and habitat types. This baseline survey can be used to select control habitats to compare and monitor the benthic communities after installation of the device and contribute towards the optimal siting of any future installation.

  16. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  17. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  18. Exploration of resource and transmission expansion decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19% of the total delivered cost of renewable energy. - Research highlights: → We describe a new tool to evaluate transmission expansion and renewable resource selection. → We examine a scenario where 33% of the energy in the Western Interconnection comes from renewables. → Wind energy provides the majority of new renewable energy. → For some loads, the decision to procure wind and the required transmission is insensitive to assumptions. → For other loads, assumptions can shift toward more solar, which also changes the needed transmission.

  19. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  20. Petroleum resources assessment 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Geobit, a seismic data processing software, is the token of the achievement for the development of technology in the oil exploration over the Korean continental shelf. This report consists of six articles: (1) Experimental processing of a model data set using Geobit seismic software, (2) Management of seismic data on network, (3) Seismic data processing for domestic seismic survey over the continental shelf of Korea using the Geobit, (4) A study on the intrusion model by physical modeling, (5) Research on application and development of Geobit seismic software, (6) Assessment of Geobit system and suggestions for further development. (author)

  1. Renewable liquid transport fuels from microbes and waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhodri

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...

  2. Values of Land and Renewable Resources in a Three-Sector Economic Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence of capital, land and resource values in a three sector growth model with endogenous wealth and renewable resources. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory, Ricardian theory and growth theory with renewable resources. The household’s decision is modeled with an alternative approach proposed by Zhang two decades ago. The economic system consists of the households, industrial, agricultural, and resource sectors. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of a unique stable equilibrium point and plot the motion of the dynamic system. The study conducts comparative dynamic analysis with regard to changes in the propensity to consume resources, the propensity to consume housing, the propensity to consume agricultural goods, the propensity to consume industrial goods, the propensity to save, the population, and the output elasticity of capital of the resource sector.

  3. Definition of a remuneration system for heat from renewable resources; Ausgestaltung einer Einspeiseverguetung fuer erneuerbare Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Ott, W.; Philippen, D.; Umbricht, A.

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with proposals for a remuneration system for heat obtained from renewable resources. Local and regional district heating systems cover around three percent of Swiss heating needs. The authors estimate that, if these systems were to be operated completely using renewable resources such as biomass, ambient heat and the renewable portion of heat from waste incineration, around seven per cent of needs could be met. Further, around 10,000 heating systems with a power of more than 350 kW could be operated with renewables. A further potential for the use of renewable heating resources can be found in wastewater treatment plants and industrial waste heat. Various obstacles and restraints on the use of renewable resources in the heating area are discussed. The idea of providing a cost-covering remuneration system for heat is discussed and compared with that for renewable electricity. The proposed system is discussed, which would provide investment subsidies, risk-coverage and project development subsidies. The report discusses the results of a market analysis and the differences to be found between the markets for electricity and heat. Existing promotional programs are noted and the aims of a possible remuneration system are discussed. A concept for a promotion program for renewable heat generation and the use of waste heat is introduced. The installations to be promoted and the amount of remuneration to be paid out are discussed. Finally, the costs and the effects of the proposed promotion scheme are discussed. A comprehensive appendix provides details on the proposed system and provides information on market volume, energy resources, networks and infrastructure, providers of heat energy, heat consumers and general conditions as far as factors such as pricing and legislation are concerned. Finally, the 'Climate Cent' foundation is commented on.

  4. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  5. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  6. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  7. Dynamic taxation of non-renewable natural resources under asymmetric information about reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which a model was developed for the effective tax collection of non-renewable natural resources, subject to private information about reserves. Most governments are faced with the problem that resource exploitation companies possess private information about the size of reserves. Often governments do not know if a company's high costs are due to low reserves or to strategic cost reporting. This model was designed to solve that problem. It was shown that the specific cost characteristics of extracting non-renewable natural resource make it desirable to reduce both the extent and the pace of extraction. This conclusion was reached using both a two-period model and a time terminal endogenized model. Although this paper referred specifically to petroleum, the model applies for all types of non-renewable natural resources. 21 refs

  8. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  9. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  10. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  11. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  12. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  13. Vulnerability and fragility risk indices for non-renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Steele, Nicholas; Tobin, Benjamin W

    2018-06-02

    Protected areas are tasked with mitigating impacts to a wide range of invaluable resources. These resources are often subject to a variety of potential natural and anthropogenic impacts that require monitoring efforts and management actions to minimize the degradation of these resources. However, due to insufficient funding and staff, managers often have to prioritize efforts, leaving some resources at higher risk to impact. Attempts to address this issue have resulted in numerous qualitative and semi-quantitative frameworks for prioritization based on resource vulnerability. Here, we add to those methods by modifying an internationally standardized vulnerability framework, quantify both resource vulnerability, susceptibility to human disturbance, and fragility, susceptibility to natural disturbance. This modified framework quantifies impacts through a six-step process: identifying the resource and management objectives, identifying exposure and sensitivity indicators, define scoring criteria for each indicator, collect and compile data, calculate indices, and prioritize sites for mitigations. We applied this methodology to two resource types in Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA): caves and fossil sites. Three hundred sixty-five cave sites and 127 fossil sites in GRCA were used for this analysis. The majority of cave and fossil sites scored moderate to low vulnerability (0-6 out of 10 points) and moderate to low fragility for fossils. The percentage of sites that fell in the high-priority range was 5.5% for fossils and 21.9% for caves. These results are consistent with the known state of these resources and the results present a tool for managers to utilize to prioritize monitoring and management needs.

  14. The Project Activities of the Renewable Energy Resources Use in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Energy Community of Southeast Europe countries (14th July 2006 the Republic of Serbia, among other things, accepted the obligation to adopt and implement a plan of applying the Directive 2001/77/EC about promoting the production of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. The projects of the renewable energy resources use have a positive impact on the environment, in particular about the mitigation of global climate change and local environmental sustainability.

  15. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  17. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  18. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  19. The role of environmental assessment and planning in renewable energy diffusion in the US and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, Gesa

    2013-09-30

    The worldwide generation of energy from renewable resources such as wind, sun, biomass, water or ground heat, is constantly growing. Numerous countries have adopted renewable energy goals, often as part of their policies on fighting climate change. However, despite ambitious policy goals and increasing numbers in installed capacity, difficulties in the diffusion of renewable energy technologies occur and are jeopardizing the achievement of the targets. Several aspects have been identified to account for these difficulties in renewable energy diffusion. In order to successfully realize the diffusion of renewable energy technologies and to reach the goals for their future contribution to energy generation, the existing hindrances need to be addressed and solved. Planning and permitting, as the relevant decision-making processes, are one element of successful siting and deployment of renewable energy. Part of these planning and permitting processes often are environmental assessments (EA) requiring the consideration of the effects and impacts of the proposed renewable energy projects on the environment. The goal of this PhD thesis is the generation of hypotheses on the role of EA in the diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and on the need for innovation/adaptation of EA to fit the innovation system of renewable energy technology diffusion. This goal will be pursuit by the analysis of EA systems and EA practice related to renewable energy diffusion. Two cases will be analyzed and compared, namely the United States of America and Germany. In general, the conclusion can be drawn that EA for renewable energy diffusion needs to be improved in certain aspects in order to be able to meet the special requirements of this energy system. Some elements in EA legislation and practice pose certain problems in renewable energy diffusion. One field for further research would be the characterization of the role of environmental EA in renewable energy technology diffusion and

  20. The role of environmental assessment and planning in renewable energy diffusion in the US and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, Gesa

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide generation of energy from renewable resources such as wind, sun, biomass, water or ground heat, is constantly growing. Numerous countries have adopted renewable energy goals, often as part of their policies on fighting climate change. However, despite ambitious policy goals and increasing numbers in installed capacity, difficulties in the diffusion of renewable energy technologies occur and are jeopardizing the achievement of the targets. Several aspects have been identified to account for these difficulties in renewable energy diffusion. In order to successfully realize the diffusion of renewable energy technologies and to reach the goals for their future contribution to energy generation, the existing hindrances need to be addressed and solved. Planning and permitting, as the relevant decision-making processes, are one element of successful siting and deployment of renewable energy. Part of these planning and permitting processes often are environmental assessments (EA) requiring the consideration of the effects and impacts of the proposed renewable energy projects on the environment. The goal of this PhD thesis is the generation of hypotheses on the role of EA in the diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and on the need for innovation/adaptation of EA to fit the innovation system of renewable energy technology diffusion. This goal will be pursuit by the analysis of EA systems and EA practice related to renewable energy diffusion. Two cases will be analyzed and compared, namely the United States of America and Germany. In general, the conclusion can be drawn that EA for renewable energy diffusion needs to be improved in certain aspects in order to be able to meet the special requirements of this energy system. Some elements in EA legislation and practice pose certain problems in renewable energy diffusion. One field for further research would be the characterization of the role of environmental EA in renewable energy technology diffusion and

  1. Short run effects of bleaker prospects for oligopolistic producers of a non-renewable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, Kristine; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid; Tsygankova, Marina

    2013-01-15

    In a non-renewable resource market with imperfect competition, the resource owners' supply is governed both by current demand and by the resource rent. New information regarding future market conditions will typically affect the resource rent and hence current supply. Bleaker prospects will tend to accelerate extraction. We show, however, that for resource owners with substantial resource stocks, a more pessimistic outlook may in fact slow down early extraction. The explanation is that for players with extensive resource stocks, the resource rent is limited and supply is more driven by current market considerations. As players with less resources accelerate their supply, it may be optimal for the large resource owners to cut back on their supply. We illustrate this in the case of the European gas market, finding that the shale gas revolution may lead to an accelerated supply by most gas producers, but a postponement of Russian gas extraction.(Author)

  2. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  3. The technology roadmap for plant/crop-based renewable resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    1999-02-22

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  4. Market Opportunities for Cellulose Products From Combined Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihare, Lauma; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates available resources that has not been used or is used with low added value, such as woody crops, forest residues and invasive species possibilities in case of cellulosic products. Main aspect is this study is market outlook, to see if the products can have positive market sales if produced. Resource have been selected by availability and current usage and properties they contain. Products have been chosen the most basic, to see is there possibility to enter an existing cellulose product markets. GE/McKinsey matrix have been used for clear visual decision making. The results show that only two out of seven products has a potential in international market.

  5. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S.

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal

  6. Renewable energy resources and management appliances-use of smart technologies in the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution is aimed at analyzing the impact of renewable energy resources to power system steady modes and the possibility of using smart technology to reduce the impact of inequalities and the variance of the energies and the quality of energy supplied. The use of smart technologies in the form of active dynamic appliances in response to network conditions to reduce effects of stochastic renewable resources dynamic impacts / wind blasts, quickly changing sunlight emissions on solar panels, increasing the amount of water in flow-based water power plants /or a change in network status. Active response appliances, depending on network conditions, improves parameters of economic power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. (Authors)

  7. Algerian renewable energy assessment: The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudghene Stambouli, Amine

    2011-01-01

    Algeria plays a very important role in world energy markets, both as a significant hydrocarbon producer and as an exporter, as well as a key participant in the renewable energy market. Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar potentials in the world. This paper presents a review of the present renewable energy situation and assesses present and future potential of renewable energy sources (RESs) in Algeria. This paper also discusses the trends and expectation in solar systems applications and the aspects of future implementation of renewable energies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region status. The problem related to the use of RES and polices to enhance the use of these sources are also analysed in this paper. In addition the available capacity building, the technical know-how for each RES technology and localizing manufacturing of renewable energy equipments are defined. The co-importance of both policy and technology investments for the future Algerian markets of RES and competitiveness of the solar/wind approach is emphasized. Some examples of policy significantly impacting Algerian markets are reviewed, and the intention of the new Algerian RES initiative is discussed.

  8. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  9. Renewable resources-based approach to biantennary glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mojtaba; Salman, Abbas Abdulameer; Goh, Ean Wai; Heidelberg, Thorsten; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali

    2018-01-31

    A new synthesis approach towards biantennary lipids of Guerbet glycoside type was developed based on oleic acid as sustainable resource. Functionalization of the double bond provided access to primary alcohols with α-branched C 19 -skeleton. Formulation studies with corresponding lactosides indicated formation of vesicles with high assembly stability. A relatively narrow bimodal size distribution of the latter, which turns into a narrow unimodal distribution of small vesicles upon addition of an ionic cosurfactant, suggests potential for a vesicular drug delivery system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Harvesting Renewable Resources of Population with Size Structure and Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Jun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the optimal exploitation way for a biological resources model incorporating individual’s size difference and spatial effects. The existence of a unique nonnegative solution to the state system is shown by means of Banach’s fixed point theorem, and the continuous dependence of the population density with the harvesting effort is given. The optimal harvesting strategy is established via normal cone and adjoint system technique. Some conditions are found to assure that there is only one optimal policy.

  11. The largest renewable, easily exploitable, and economically sustainable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Giancarlo; Saraceno, Eugenio

    2018-02-01

    Sun, the ultimate energy resource of our planet, transfers energy to the Earth at an average power of 23,000 TW. Earth surface can be regarded as a huge panel transforming solar energy into a more convenient mechanical form, the wind. Since millennia wind is recognized as an exploitable form of energy and it is common knowledge that the higher you go, the stronger the winds flow. To go high is difficult; however Bill Gates cites high wind among possible energy miracles in the near future. Public awareness of this possible miracle is still missing, but today's technology is ready for it.

  12. Renewable energy policies in promoting financing and investment among the East Asia Summit countries: Quantitative assessment and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng; Li, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have implemented various policies for renewable energy development ranging from setting power purchase agreements and the legislation of renewable energy requirements to providing incentives and imposing carbon taxes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of such policies, however, is fragmented, which raises a need for a comprehensive analysis. This paper aims to assess whether and how policies promoting renewable energy investment have achieved the intended goals. It employs five broadly defined criteria - market, uncertainty, profitability, technology, and financial resources - to build an index to assess respectively if such policies have helped create a market for renewable energy, maximize potential profits, reduce risks relating to the investment, develop and adopt new technologies, and improve the access to financial resources. Each criterion is reflected by three indicators. Values of each indicator are converted into ordinal values for analysis. The index not only scans comprehensively all relevant renewable energy investment policies in the East Asia Summit countries, but also provides systematic and quantitative measures to compare the effectiveness of policies in these countries with respect to the creation of market, the degree of uncertainty, the potential of profitability, the development and adoption of technology and the accessibility of financial resources. - Highlights: •This paper evaluate renewable energy policies in 16 East Asia Summit countries. •Five criteria are used to build the quantitative index. •They are market, profitability, legislation, technology, and financial resources. •Policy implications are drawn based on the index.

  13. Three essays on the exploration for non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new additional motive for exploration activity is proposed in the first essay. When exploration occurs before the resource is extracted, there is an incentive to use exploration activity as a strategic instrument to capture market share and inflict capital losses on rivals. This provides an incentive for governments to use strategic taxation to capture greater rents from the imperfectly competitive world output markets. Analytic expressions for the optimal domestic extraction tax and exploration subsidy are presented. In the second essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a multiple-output translog exploration cost function. A new definition of depletion is introduced and its estimated coefficient is found to be statistically significant. Monte Carlo integration techniques were applied to ensure the estimated cost function satisfies concavity and monotonicity. The fitted cost function parameters are then used to estimate the marginal cost of oil and gas exploration. These estimates are used, along with estimates of exploration rents, to measure resource scarcity. In the third essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a stochastic and dynamic model of oil exploration and extraction in Alberta. The main determinants of current period extraction are one period lagged extraction and one period expected extraction. The main determinants of current period exploration are one period lagged cumulative exploration and a relative price variable. 150 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs

  14. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  15. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  16. Harvesting heterogeneous renewable resources: uncoordinated, selfish, team-, and community-oriented strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, M.; de Vries, H.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599

    2009-01-01

    Using the example of a fishing fleet harvesting in different fishing zones with different carrying capacities and growth rates, we investigate strategies for the exploitation of distributed renewable resources by a crowd of agents without centralized coordination. In agent-based simulations we

  17. On dynamical multi-team Cournot game in exploitation of a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asker, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical multi-team Cournot game is formulated for a renewable resource (harvest fish and sell it in a market). Puu's imperfect information to dynamic standard game is generalized to multi-team Cournot game. The asymptotic stability of the equilibrium solution of the resulting game is studied

  18. Debriefing Can Reduce Misperceptions of Feedback: The Case of Renewable Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    According to the hypothesis of misperception of feedback, people's poor performance in renewable resource management tasks can be attributed to their general tendency to systematically misperceive the dynamics of bioeconomic systems. The thesis of this article is that dynamic decision performance can be improved by helping individuals develop more…

  19. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  20. Efficient and Optimal Capital Accumulation under a Non Renewable Resource Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Moreaux, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Usual resource models with capital accumulation focus upon simple one to one process transforming output either into some consumption good or into some capitalgood. We consider a bisectoral model where the capital good, labor and a non renewable resource are used to produce the consumption good and the capital good. Capitalaccumulation is an irreversible process and capital is depreciating over time. In thisframework we reconsider the usual results of the efficient and optimal growth theoryun...

  1. Metal recycling - a renewable resource in Gulf Cooperative Countries region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E. [Bahrain Univ. (Bahrain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The exhaustion of natural resources and growing environmental awareness highlighted the necessity of metal recycling all over the world. The production/consumption activities in the GCC region do generate annually a huge amount of valuable ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap. This paper deals with the benefits of metal recycling to the GCC region in lights of energetic, environmental and economic points of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die abnehmenden Vorraete von Primaermetallen sowie das zunehmende Umweltbewusstsein machen das Metall-Recycling auf der ganzen Welt notwendig. Die Produktions- und Verbrauchsaktivitaeten in der GCC-Region erzeugen jaehrlich riesige Mengen von wertvollem eisen- und nicht eisenhaltigen Schrott. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Energie-Verbrauch, dem Umweltschutz und der Wirtschaft des Recycling und stellt dessen Vorteile fuer die GCC-Region vor. (orig.)

  2. 76 FR 36532 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind...), Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC (Complainants) filed a formal complaint against Bonneville Power Administration...

  3. Possibilities of electricity generation from solar and other renewable resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdemiroglu, E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper begins by reviewing the conventional power generation in the country. Increasing power demand due to rapid industrialization as well as the environmental consequences of power generation will be discussed. The potential of renewable energy resources including solar, biomass, wind, and wave and their role in the power generation will be pointed out. Among the strong alternatives are thermal power plants, and rural electricity production by photovoltaic and by small wind machines. Finally, the technical economic difficulties in adapting renewable electricity generation systems for the conditions of the country will be discussed. (Author) 22 refs

  4. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  5. Situation Aware Assessment of Regulating Power Need and Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    power plants, but have the capability to provide a number of ancillary services. It is envisioned that wind power may at times provide a certain share of system stabilization, but it must also be seen that this contribution is limited to only a part of the required functions and that it fluctuates...... with the available wind. The approach proposed in this paper uses a functional classification to sort out the control requirements of a power system with a high share of fluctuating renewable and distributed energy sources and aims to combine it with a structured quantitative assessment.......Distributed generation and renewable energy sources are both, new disturbance and new regulation resource. Which it is, depends to a large extend on the facilitation of control capabilities, that for example modern wind turbines can provide. Most renewable energy sources are quite unlike classical...

  6. Sustainability assessment of renewable energy projects: research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the results of a study that examined the development of an appraisal framework for renewable energy projects in the UK. The aim was to develop a framework that reflected the quality of life capital approach and could take into account social, economic and environmental effects at a range of different scales. The report describes in some detail: the steps leading to the definition, refinement and testing of the appraisal framework; the assessment methodology; baseline characterisation and evaluation; and application. Three fictional case studies (wind farm in a remote upland rural area, energy recovery facility in an urban fringe location and wood fuelled renewable energy plant in less remote rural area) are used to test the approach.

  7. Workshop on Control Theory Applied to Renewable Resource Management and Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Skowronski, Janislaw

    1981-01-01

    As society becomes stressed by economic and population pressures, in turn, nature's renewable resources become stressed by harvesting pressures. For our own survival and euphoria, it is paramount that such resources remain as their name implies and not be driven to extinction through short term programs of over exploitation. Consideration of the harvesting of renewable resources leads to a simple question that was the theme of the workshop and is the focus of these proceedings: SUPPoRe you are assigned the role of manager for a specific renewable resource eco­ system. How would you decide on harvesting policies so that the system can be exploited economically yet at the same time maintain the integrity of the system? This, of course, is a loaded question. First of all, it is not clear that there is ever anyone single decision maker who is able to set the rules for all of the harvesters in an exploited ecosystem. The political process is complicated and to some extent unpredictable. This aspect of the questio...

  8. Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Sanjay; Edinger, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological/social benefits have to be taken into account. This paper outlines the driving parameters for shifting toward alternative fuels based on fossil or renewable resources and their use in innovative vehicle technologies such as advanced internal combustion and fuel cell electric drive systems. For the decision in favor or against an alternative fuel to be introduced to the mass market, automotive technologies and the energy supply system have to be examined in an integrated way. From an economic and technological perspective, some fuels may be even incompatible with the trend toward using renewable resources that have advantages in decentralized systems. Beyond efficiency calculations, political and industrial interests arise and may be influential to reshaping our currently crude oil-based mobility sector

  9. Accounting for the income of non-renewable resources - Four essays on new theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Taoyuan

    2009-01-15

    Non-renewable resources are widely extracted and used in today's global economy. On the one hand, the use of these resources generates huge cash flows that can be used for current consumption. On the other hand, the extraction of these resources implies less wealth of these natural resources in the future. To compensate for this wealth decrease, we have to accumulate other kinds of real wealth, like man-made capital, human capital, and renewable resources. The wealth accumulation can be achieved by activities of investments. Reasonable financial support for the investments should come from cash flows related to non-renewable resources. Hence, cash flows related to non-renewable resources should be divided for two basic purposes: current consumption and savings to support activities of investments. The trade-off between current consumption and savings invokes a fundamental question: how much of the cash flows can we use for current consumption without impoverishing the future? Following the literature line from Hicks (1946, Chapter 14) via Samuelson (1961) to Sefton and Weale (2006), in the first essay of this dissertation, Geir Asheim and I develop a theory of sectoral income. The theory can be applied to estimate income at a sectoral level. By this notion of sectoral income, we can answer the fundamental question concerning the division of the cash flows generated by non-renewable resources into consumption and savings. In particular, by applying the new theory in this dissertation, I provide a new method for estimating real income generated by non-renewable resources. The new method has at least two advantages when compared with the wealth-based method, which is a commonly applied method in practical resource accounting. By the wealth-based method, sectoral income is associated with the interest on the sector's wealth, where the wealth is estimated as the present value of cash flows generated from the sector (see, e.g., Aslaksen et al., 1990, and Brekke

  10. Using Probability of Exceedance to Compare the Resource Risk of Renewable and Gas-Fired Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Of the myriad risks surrounding long-term investments in power plants, resource risk is one of the most difficult to mitigate, and is also perhaps the risk that most-clearly distinguishes renewable generation from natural gas-fired generation. For renewable generators like wind and solar projects, resource risk manifests as a quantity risk—i.e., the risk that the quantity of wind and insolation will be less than expected.i For gas-fired generators (i.e., a combined-cycle gas turbine or “CCGT”), resource risk manifests primarily as a price risk—i.e., the risk that natural gas will cost more than expected. Most often, resource risk—and natural gas price risk in particular—falls disproportionately on utility ratepayers, who are typically not well-equipped to manage this risk. As such, it is incumbent upon utilities, regulators, and policymakers to ensure that resource risk is taken into consideration when making or approving resource decisions, or enacting policies that influence the development of the electricity sector more broadly.

  11. Prices and costs of irregularity in renewable resources in the liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.

    2004-01-01

    The problems raised by incorporating irregular production are of a technical nature (risk of non-availability during peak demand, the requirements for additional reserves) but the electricity markets methods of operation impose economic penalties, which greatly exceed these additional technical costs. In this document, the authors examine the nature of the technical problems posed by irregularity of production and the additional costs resulting from this, and then analyse the origins of the economic penalties that the operation of liberalized electricity markets impose, taking in particular the example of the British market, the New Energy Trading Arrangement (NETA). It would appear that the markets' operating rules may conflict, in certain cases, with the targets for promoting electricity generation from renewable resources. Two types of solutions can therefore be envisaged: a set of rules to limit the impact on irregular production or collective handling of the adjustment to production from renewable resources as already exists in the Nordic electricity markets. (authors)

  12. Assessing the costs and benefits of US renewable portfolio standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Keyser, David; Krishnan, Venkat; Macknick, Jordan

    2017-09-01

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) exist in 29 US states and the District of Columbia. This article summarizes the first national-level, integrated assessment of the future costs and benefits of existing RPS policies; the same metrics are evaluated under a second scenario in which widespread expansion of these policies is assumed to occur. Depending on assumptions about renewable energy technology advancement and natural gas prices, existing RPS policies increase electric system costs by as much as 31 billion, on a present-value basis over 2015-2050. The expanded renewable deployment scenario yields incremental costs that range from 23 billion to 194 billion, depending on the assumptions employed. The monetized value of improved air quality and reduced climate damages exceed these costs. Using central assumptions, existing RPS policies yield 97 billion in air-pollution health benefits and 161 billion in climate damage reductions. Under the expanded RPS case, health benefits total 558 billion and climate benefits equal 599 billion. These scenarios also yield benefits in the form of reduced water use. RPS programs are not likely to represent the most cost effective path towards achieving air quality and climate benefits. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that US RPS programs are, on a national basis, cost effective when considering externalities.

  13. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii annual water resources assessment, and (iii industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  14. On the dynamics of non-renewable resources. A mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliney, S.; Alvoni, E.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the consumption dynamics of non-renewable resources; the underlying assumption is that the most relevant factor is given by the evolution of technology. Then, the consumption as a function of time is governed by a non-linear differential equation,whose parameters can be estimated using the historical record. Some meaningful cases are worked out in detail, namely the coal consumption in UK and the world oil consumption [it

  15. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  16. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  17. Potential renewable energy resources of the Lerma Valley, Salta, Argentina for its strategic territorial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.; Viramonte, J.G. [Instituto GEONORTE, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta and CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Nunez, V. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Ecodesarrollo (IRNED), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Campo Castanares, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Franco, J. [Instituto Nacional de Energias No Convencionales (INENCO), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Renewable energy sources are considered as strategic opportunities to improve the population's quality of life, to promote the development of more efficient and equitable economic systems, and to favor environmental sustainability in the territorial planning of Lerma Valley (Salta, Argentina). The mapping in raster format (each pixel having a reference value) of the potential renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydraulic, mixed) is essential to define ideal locations for different types of renewable applications, and to plan suitable strategies for its implementation. It is necessary considering environmental diversity and site conditions (topographic, natural resource, infrastructure and service availability, social and economical) of the intervention area. Different methodologies are used for mapping of potential energy resources. Solar radiation is spatialized through the application of statistical regressions between altitude, latitude, precise incident solar radiation records, and radiation data estimated with the Geosol V.2.0. trademark software. The Argentina Map program is used for the wind potential resource modeling. It requires as inputs: a Digital Elevation Model, a land use and cover map (to determine roughness), and measured and/or estimated wind speed and frequency data. The hydroelectric potential for microturbine applications is calculated from the topographic drop and the annual mean flow in cumulative models, through the application of the Idrisi Kilimanjaro trademark 's runoff tool; while the power densities are compared at the watershed. Biomass potential (at this exploratory stage), is interpreted from the available biomass type (land use and cover map), its energy application availability, and some quantitative indicators associated with the biomass types identified as priority. In conclusion, the renewable energy potential in Lerma Valley is very high and diverse, and its close connection with social

  18. Wind resource assessment in Europe using emergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, S.; Santarelli, M.; Martin, V.; Lacarriere, B.; Corre, le O.

    2014-01-01

    In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess

  19. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  20. Renewable energy resources in Mali : potential and options for a sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Dembele, P. [Mali-Folkecenter, Faladie SEMA, Bamako (Mali)

    2006-07-01

    With a population of approximately 12 million, the per capita energy consumption of Mali is 228 Kilo tons of oil equivalent per inhabitant per year. Household energy consumption accounts for nearly 86 per cent of the total energy consumed with almost 99 per cent coming from wood energy. Energy consumption in the transportation, industrial and agricultural sectors is 10, 3, and 1 per cent respectively. The energy sector in Mali is characterized by the over-exploitation of forestry resources, dependence on imported oil and an under-exploitation of potential renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and biomass. The supply of solar energy is inexhaustible as the country receives almost 12 hours of sunshine with an average daily insolation of 5-7 KWh/m{sup 2}/day. Applications of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Mali concerns the basic needs of the population such as water pumping, lighting, battery charging and refrigeration. In 1994, the Mali government gave preferential fiscal policy on all solar equipment in order to encourage the wide spread use of solar energy, but technical constraints such as low efficiency, appropriate technology transfer methods, and sustainable financing mechanisms remain to be addressed. This paper described several programs that have been initiated to promote the use of renewable energy, protect the fragile environment threatened by the Sahara Desert and to provide access to drinking water. These achievements however, have not yet guaranteed energy sustainability, particularly in rural areas. It was recommended that efforts should be made to strengthen the renewable energy sector, correct inadequacies, introduce a sustainable renewable energy technology transfer process, and consolidate knowledge and experiences to focus on low cost renewable energy technologies. It was suggested that a natural resource map of the country should be made available in order allow for comparative cost and technology sustainability analysis before deciding

  1. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  2. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  3. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  4. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  5. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Stewart facility located approximately 25 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO. The tables also present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  6. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  7. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradip Mitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE of Government of India (GoI has awarded a project to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET, Chennai in the year 2011 to set up 51 Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA stations using the state-of-the-art equipment in various parts of the country, especially the sites with high potential for solar power. The GoI project has synergy with SolMap project, which is implemented by the Deutsche GesellschaftfürInternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ in cooperation with the MNRE. SolMap project is contributing to SRRA project in establishing quality checks on the data obtained as per International protocols and helping data processing to generate investment grade data. The paper highlights the details of SRRA stations and an attempt has been made to present some of the important results of quality control and data analysis with respect to GHI and DNI. While our analysis of the data over one year finds that intensity and profile of the insolation are not uniform across the geographic regions, the variability in DNI is particularly high. Strong influence of monsoon is also identified. SRRA infrastructure aims to develop investment grade solar radiation resource information to assist project activities under the National Solar Mission of India.

  8. Assessment of resource availability and sustainability for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of resources and their suitability for subsistence and small-scale commercial fishers in South Africa were assessed and appropriate options for the management of resources recommended. Assessment of current resource utilization and recommendations for future subsistence and/or small-scale commercial ...

  9. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  10. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  11. A GIS tool for the economic assessment of renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmmud, F.; Woods, J.; Watson, S.; Halliday, J.; Hossain, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) has the potential to analyse a large area for the optimum selection and siting of renewable energy systems. This paper reports on a GIS based scheme for the economic assessment of a selected number of wind and photovoltaic systems in the state of Karnataka, in India. This involved the implementation of an appropriate GIS methodology. The preparation of the GIS database is often the most arduous task in GIS operations. Thus, a description of the GIS methodology and the preparation of the database for the analysis of a selection of wind and photovoltaic systems is given. This approach has enabled the identification of the high potential areas in terms of the levelised electricity costs. An overall assessment of the region for present and future scenarios is also given. (author)

  12. Terpene and dextran renewable resources for the synthesis of amphiphilic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvès, Marie-Hélène; Sfeir, Huda; Tranchant, Jean-François; Gombart, Emilie; Sagorin, Gilles; Caillol, Sylvain; Billon, Laurent; Save, Maud

    2014-01-13

    The present work shows the synthesis of amphiphilic polymers based on the hydrophilic dextran and the hydrophobic terpenes as renewable resources. The first step concerns the synthesis of functional terpene molecules by thiol-ene addition chemistry involving amino or carboxylic acid thiols and dihydromyrcenol terpene. The terpene-modified polysaccharides were subsequently synthesized by coupling the functional terpenes with dextran. A reductive amination step produced terpene end-modified dextran with 94% of functionalization, while the esterification step produced three terpene-grafted dextrans with a number of terpene units per dextran of 1, 5, and 10. The amphiphilic renewable grafted polymers were tested as emulsifiers for the stabilization of liquid miniemulsion of terpene droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the stable droplets was observed at about 330 nm.

  13. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  14. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  15. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  16. Proposed applications with implementation techniques of the upcoming renewable energy resource, The Tesla Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M Usman Saeed; Maqsood, M Irfan; Ali, Ehsan; Jamal, Shah; Javed, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that tesla turbine can be one of the future efficient sources of renewable energy. Modern techniques used for designing of tesla turbine have given optimum results regarding efficiency and applications. In this paper we have suggested fully coordinated applications of tesla turbine in different fields particularly in power generation at both low level and high level generation. In Energy deficient countries the tesla turbine has wide range of applications and it can play an important role in energy management system. Our proposed applications includes, - the use of tesla turbine as renewable energy resource; - using tesla turbine in distributed generation system; - use of tesla turbine at home for power generation; - use of tesla turbine in irrigation channels; - using tesla turbine in hybrid electric vehicles; All applications are explained with the help of flow charts and block diagrams and their implementation techniques are also explained in details. The results of physical experiments and simulations are also included for some applications.

  17. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  18. Wildlife resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Stephen J. Brady; Michael S. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    This report documents trends in wildlife resources for the nation as required by the Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974. The report focuses on recent historical trends in wildlife as one indicator of ecosystem health across the United States and updates wildlife trends presented in previous RPA Assessments. The report also shows short- and long-term...

  19. Regulation as a political contest: the probability of conservation of a renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2017-01-01

    How do the levels of extreme positions of various interest groups influence the conservation policies in the context of a renewable resource conservation contest? To answer this question, a model is provided where conservation policy is determined as a contest between two opposing interest groups......: one in favor of conservation and another in favor of non-conservation. The levels of extreme positions for the conservationalists are determined by their demands about the severity of the conservation strategy that needs to be implemented. For the non-conservation group, the level of extreme position...... is determined by how large the current harvest of the resource should be. The main driver of the model is that resource conservation is realized only if the conservation group wins the contest, which again depends on the relative gain the two contenders receive when winning the contest. The paper derives...

  20. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price of energy commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an endogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the current state and possible uses of remaining non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and natural uranium. The theory is however designed for use within economic or technology models that allow technology substitutions. In this work, it is implemented in the global power sector model FTT:Power. Policy implications are given. - Highlights: • Theoretical model to forecast marginal costs of non-renewable resources. • Tracks the consumption and costs of non-renewable resources. • For use in economic or technology models

  1. Fish and other aquatic resource trends in the United States: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Loftus; Curtis H. Flather

    2012-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 requires periodic assessments of the status and trends in the Nation's renewable natural resources including fish and other aquatic species and their habitats. Data from a number of sources are used to document trends in habitat quality, populations, resource use, and patterns of imperilment...

  2. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  3. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  4. Emerging issues confronting the renewable natural resources sector in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, A; Gordon, A

    1996-05-01

    The renewable natural resources sector in Africa is highly important because of the relatively high proportion of livelihoods it supports relative to other developing regions. However, ongoing rapid population growth threatens the long-term survival of the sector. Key concerns include the need for agricultural intensification in the context of systems which are often located in marginal areas, the demands imposed by rapid urbanization, and access rights to essential resources such as water. The policy and institutional environment can make problems worse since trends toward greater democracy often prove destabilizing or deflect the political agenda toward short-term expediency instead of longer-term strategies essential to the renewable natural resources sector. Structural adjustment has yet to produce the expected benefits and it is clear that the private sector will be unable to meet growth and distributional objectives on its own. A broader-based strategy is needed which includes not only government institutions at national and local levels, but also nongovernmental organizations, community organizations, and regional and international bodies.

  5. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  6. Allocating resources and products in multi-hybrid multi-cogeneration: What fractions of heat and power are renewable in hybrid fossil-solar CHP?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo; Iora, Paolo; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the allocation of resources and products in multi-resource/multi-product facilities is developed with particular reference to the important two-resource/two-product case of hybrid fossil and solar/heat and power cogeneration. For a realistic case study, we show how the method allows to assess what fractions of the power and heat should be considered as produced from the solar resource and hence identified as renewable. In the present scenario where the hybridization of fossil power plants by solar-integration is gaining increasing attention, such assessment is of great importance in the fair and balanced development of local energy policies based on granting incentives to renewables resources. The paper extends to the case of two-resource/two-product hybrid cogeneration, as well as to general multi-resource/multi-generation, three of the allocation methods already available for single-resource/two-product cogeneration and for two-resource/single-product hybrid facilities, namely, the ExRR (Exergy-based Reversible-Reference) method, the SRSPR (Single Resource Separate Production Reference) method, and the STALPR (Self-Tuned-Average-Local-Productions-Reference) method. For the case study considered we show that, unless the SRSPR reference efficiencies are constantly updated, the differences between the STALPR and SRSPR methods become important as hybrid and cogeneration plants take up large shares of the local energy production portfolio. - Highlights: • How much of the heat and power in hybrid solar-fossil cogeneration are renewable? • We define and compare three allocation methods for hybrid cogeneration. • Classical and exergy allocation are based on prescribed reference efficiencies. • Adaptive allocation is based on the actual average efficiencies in the local area. • Differences among methods grow as hybrid CHP (heat and power cogeneration) gains large market fractions

  7. Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System: Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Renewable Resource 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...i U fl A bi 2 rea u ce s ng an p ow naero c Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor 3 Recover Biogas from UASB Remove Sulfur and Moisture for Cattle... biogas per cell ● 15 psi ● Requires highly purified water (RO) Energy NG RO W ta er ● Methane and steam converted into hydrogen-rich gas

  8. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-12-01

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Taxation of non-renewable resources: Appendix A to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    This report includes all revisions made in legislation and other developments up to May 1976 at both the Federal and provincial level that affect the taxation of the nonrenewable resource industries. The report is divided into four sections. Section I is a brief summary of the principal conclusions; Section II presents recent developments in the Taxation of Mining, Oil, and Gas in Canada; Section III provides estimated Federal and provincial government revenues from nonrenewable resources during the six years 1970/71 to 1975/76; and Section IV analyzes briefly the various methods used by governments to obtain additional revenues and the likely effect of these methods on the future development of the industry. (MCW)

  10. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  11. Development of RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR) for environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Tetsushi; Ohtsuka, Masaya; Moriya, Kumiaki; Matsuura, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of long-life transuranium elements produced as by-products with uranium fuel burning became an issue of nuclear power. Hitachi had been developing the reactor with transuranium elements burning as fuels based on BWR type reactors successfully used as commercial reactors: RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR). Efficient transmutation and fissioning of transuranium elements needed adjustment of in-core neutron energy spectra distribution better for nuclear reaction of transuranium elements. Taking advantage of characteristics of BWR type reactors with neutron spectra hardening more easily adjustable than other type of reactors, multiple recycling and fissioning transuranium elements as fuels could make environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes and efficient use of resources compatible. This article described the concept and history of RBWR and showed its specifications and reactor core characteristics. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  13. Asia/Pacific Rim renewable energy market assessments by the State of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimura, D.M.; Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.

    1999-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has begun to encourage its economic growth and diversification by increasing the export of U.S. energy, environment, ocean, and information technologies. Hawaii's Strategic Technology Market Assessment and Development (STMAD) program promotes the transfer of U.S. technology into Asia and the Pacific Rim, locations having phenomenal growth potential and vast technological infrastructure demands. The STMAD program is managed by the State's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT). Under the auspices of STMAD, the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii is assessing biomass energy resources of Asian and Pacific Rim countries to identify and investigate sustainable energy markets. This paper reviews the STMAD program and reports findings of renewable energy assessment performed by HNEI and DBEDT. (author)

  14. Environmental assessment for renewal of source material license No. STB-401 (Docket No. 40-6563)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment contains an assessment of the environmental impact associated with the renewal of the license to operate the Columbian-Tantalum (Cv-Ta) Plant of Mallinckrodt, Inc. at St. Louis, Missouri, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51 (10 CFR Part 51), as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This assessment examines the environmental impacts, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs associated with plant operation. Operational impacts are not anticipated on terrestrial and aquatic ecological resources (including endangered or threatened species) nor on historic and archaeological sites. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. Socioeconomic impacts of the project related to land use and employment are anticipated to be minimal

  15. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Lars J.; Roy, Santanu

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the 'δ-productivity' requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs

  16. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Lars J. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the `{delta}-productivity` requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs.

  17. 2nd U.S.-Australia Workshop on Renewable Resource Management

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Yosef; Grantham, Walter; Kirkwood, Geoffrey; Skowronski, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This vol ume contains the proceedings of the second U. S. -Austral ia workshop on Renewable Resource Management held at the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, December 9-12, 1985. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation (USA) and the Department of Science and Technology (Austral ia) under the U. S. -Austral ia Cooperative Science Program. The objective of the workshop was to focus on problems associated with the management of renewable resource systems. A particular emphasis was given to methods for handling uncertain elements whieh are present in any real system. Toward this end, the partiei pants were chosen so that the collective expertise included mathematical modeling, dynamical control/game theory, ecology, and practical management of real systems. Each participant was invited to give an informal presentation in his field of expertise as related to the overall theme. The formal papers (contained in this vo 1 ume) were written after the workshop so that the authors coul d u...

  18. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  19. Day-ahead resource scheduling of a renewable energy based virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Ali Ghahgharaee; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous energy and reserve scheduling of a VPP. • Aggregate uncertainties of electricity prices, renewable generation and load demand. • Develop a stochastic scheduling model using the point estimate method. - Abstract: The evolution of energy markets is accelerating in the direction of a greater reliance upon distributed energy resources (DERs). To manage this increasing two-way complexity, virtual power plants (VPPs) are being deployed today all over the world. In this paper, a probabilistic model for optimal day ahead scheduling of electrical and thermal energy resources in a VPP is proposed where participation of energy storage systems and demand response programs (DRPs) are also taken into account. In the proposed model, energy and reserve is simultaneously scheduled considering the uncertainties of market prices, electrical demand and intermittent renewable power generation. The Point Estimate Method (PEM) is applied in order to model the uncertainties of VPP’s scheduling problem. Moreover, the optimal reserve scheduling of VPP is presented which efficiently decreases VPP’s risk facing the unexpected fluctuations of uncertain parameters at the power delivery time. The results demonstrated that implementation of demand response programs (DRPs) would decrease total operation costs of VPP as well as its dependency on the upstream network.

  20. Urban Waste Grease Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1999-03-17

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban waste grease resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Two major categories (yellow grease feedstock collected from restaurants by rendering companies; and grease trap wastes from restaurants, which can either be pumped into tank trucks for disposal or flow through municipal sewage systems into wastewater treatment plants) were considered in this study.

  1. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  2. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment for USAID Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Andrea [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bracho, Ricardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romero, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-13

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program is designing its second phase of assistance to the Government of Mexico (GOM). In preparation for program design, USAID has asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist in identifying options for enabling renewable energy in Mexico and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector. The NREL team conducted a literature review and consulted with over 20 Mexican agencies and organizations during a two-week temporary duty assignment (TDY) to Mexico to identify gaps, opportunities, and program theme areas for Mexico.

  4. The assessment of aesthetic and perceptual aspects within environmental impact assessment of renewable energy projects in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolli, Michela, E-mail: michela.tolli@uniroma1.it [Department of Architecture and Design (DiAP), Sapienza University of Rome, Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy); Recanatesi, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.rec@unitus.it [Department of Agriculture, Forests, Nature and Energy (D.A.F.N.E.), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Piccinno, Matteo; Leone, Antonio [Department of Agriculture, Forests, Nature and Energy (D.A.F.N.E.), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The main aim of this paper is to explore how perceptual and aesthetic impact analyses are considered in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with specific reference to Italian renewable energy projects. To investigate this topic, the paper starts by establishing which factors are linked with perceptual and aesthetic impacts and why it is important to analyze these aspects, which are also related to legislative provisions and procedures in Europe and in Italy. In particular the paper refers to renewable energy projects because environmental policies are encouraging more and more investment in this kind of primary resource. The growing interest in this type of energy is leading to the realization of projects which change the governance of territories, with inevitable effects on the landscape from the aesthetic and perceptual points of view. Legislative references to EIA, including the latest directive regarding this topic show the importance of integrating the assessment of environmental and perceptual impacts, thus there is a need to improve EIA methodological approaches to this purpose. This paper proposes a profile of aesthetic and perceptual impact analysis in EIA for renewable energy projects in Italy, and concludes with recommendations as to how this kind of analysis could be improved. - Highlights: • We analyze 29 EIA Reports of Italian renewable energy projects. • We examine esthetic and perceptual aspects present in Italian EIA reports. • We identified inconsistency in use of methods for esthetic and perceptual aspects. • Local populations are rarely included as stakeholders in EIAs. • A shared understanding of perceptual and esthetic issues in EIA proceedings is required.

  5. The assessment of aesthetic and perceptual aspects within environmental impact assessment of renewable energy projects in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolli, Michela; Recanatesi, Fabio; Piccinno, Matteo; Leone, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to explore how perceptual and aesthetic impact analyses are considered in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with specific reference to Italian renewable energy projects. To investigate this topic, the paper starts by establishing which factors are linked with perceptual and aesthetic impacts and why it is important to analyze these aspects, which are also related to legislative provisions and procedures in Europe and in Italy. In particular the paper refers to renewable energy projects because environmental policies are encouraging more and more investment in this kind of primary resource. The growing interest in this type of energy is leading to the realization of projects which change the governance of territories, with inevitable effects on the landscape from the aesthetic and perceptual points of view. Legislative references to EIA, including the latest directive regarding this topic show the importance of integrating the assessment of environmental and perceptual impacts, thus there is a need to improve EIA methodological approaches to this purpose. This paper proposes a profile of aesthetic and perceptual impact analysis in EIA for renewable energy projects in Italy, and concludes with recommendations as to how this kind of analysis could be improved. - Highlights: • We analyze 29 EIA Reports of Italian renewable energy projects. • We examine esthetic and perceptual aspects present in Italian EIA reports. • We identified inconsistency in use of methods for esthetic and perceptual aspects. • Local populations are rarely included as stakeholders in EIAs. • A shared understanding of perceptual and esthetic issues in EIA proceedings is required.

  6. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  7. A Global Look at Future Trends in the Renewable Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Freedman, J. M.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Brower, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the aggressive deployment of utility-scale and distributed generation of wind and solar energy systems, an accurate estimate of the uncertainty associated with future resource trends and plant performance is crucial in maintaining financial integrity in the renewable energy markets. With continuing concerns regarding climate change, the move towards energy resiliency, and the cost-competitiveness of renewables, a rapidly expanding fleet of utility-scale wind and solar power facilities and distributed generation of both resources is now being incorporated into the electric distribution grid. Although solar and wind account for about 3% of global power production, renewable energy is now and will continue to be the world's fastest-growing energy source. With deeper penetration of renewables, confidence in future power production output on a spectrum of temporal and spatial scales is crucial to grid stability for long-term planning and achieving national and international targets in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we use output from a diverse subset of Earth System Models (Climate Model Inter-comparison Project-Phase 5 members) to produce projected trends and uncertainties in regional and global seasonal and inter-annual wind and solar power production and respective capacity factors through the end of the 21st century. Our trends and uncertainty analysis focuses on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. For wind and solar energy production estimates, we extract surface layer wind (extrapolated to hub height), irradiance, cloud fraction, and temperature (air temperature affects density [hence wind power production] and the efficiency of photovoltaic [PV] systems), output from the CMIP5 ensemble mean fields for the period 2020 - 2099 and an historical baseline for POR of 1986 - 2005 (compared with long-term observations and the ERA-Interim Reanalysis). Results include representative statistics such as the

  8. Optimal exploitation of a renewable resource with stochastic nonconvex technology: An analysis of extinction and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Tapan; Roy, Santanu

    1992-11-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities of extinction and survival of a renewable resource whose technology of reproduction is both stochastic and nonconvex. In particular, the production function is subject to random shocks over time and is allowed to be nonconcave, though it eventually exhibits bounded growth. The existence of a minimum biomass below which the resource can only decrease, is allowed for. Society harvests a part of the current stock every time period over an infinite horizon so as to maximize the expected discounted sum of one period social utilities from the harvested resource. The social utility function is strictly concave. The stochastic process of optimal stocks generated by the optimal stationary policy is analyzed. The nonconvexity in the optimization problem implies that the optimal policy functions are not 'well behaved'. The behaviour of the probability of extinction (and the expected time to extinction), as a function of initial stock, is characterized for various possible configurations of the optimal policy and the technology. Sufficient conditions on the utility and production functions and the rate of impatience, are specified in order to ensure survival of the resource with probability one from some stock level (the minimum safe standard of conservation). Sufficient conditions for almost sure extinction and almost sure survival from all stock levels are also specified. These conditions are related to the corresponding conditions derived in models with deterministic and/or convex technology. 4 figs., 29 refs

  9. Optimal exploitation of a renewable resource with stochastic nonconvex technology: An analysis of extinction and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Tapan [Department of Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1992-11-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities of extinction and survival of a renewable resource whose technology of reproduction is both stochastic and nonconvex. In particular, the production function is subject to random shocks over time and is allowed to be nonconcave, though it eventually exhibits bounded growth. The existence of a minimum biomass below which the resource can only decrease, is allowed for. Society harvests a part of the current stock every time period over an infinite horizon so as to maximize the expected discounted sum of one period social utilities from the harvested resource. The social utility function is strictly concave. The stochastic process of optimal stocks generated by the optimal stationary policy is analyzed. The nonconvexity in the optimization problem implies that the optimal policy functions are not `well behaved`. The behaviour of the probability of extinction (and the expected time to extinction), as a function of initial stock, is characterized for various possible configurations of the optimal policy and the technology. Sufficient conditions on the utility and production functions and the rate of impatience, are specified in order to ensure survival of the resource with probability one from some stock level (the minimum safe standard of conservation). Sufficient conditions for almost sure extinction and almost sure survival from all stock levels are also specified. These conditions are related to the corresponding conditions derived in models with deterministic and/or convex technology. 4 figs., 29 refs.

  10. The role of renewable energy in global warming mitigation - A critique of trusted assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, N.; Hamrin, J.

    1992-01-01

    Two recent Congressionally-commissioned studies - one by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the other by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) - support the position that action should be taken now to reduce emissions causing global warming, and find that significant reductions can be achieved at relatively low cost. The authors accept these general conclusions, but take issue with the mix of energy options judged to be the most promising for reacting reduction targets. Specifically, they challenge the impression given in both reports that renewable energy will be, at best, an insignificant element in achieving greenhouse gas reductions. The OTA and NAS studies are important because it is generally assumed that they are based on rigorous, objective analysis and do not contain significant biases. Upon inspection of the recent greenhouse mitigation studies, however, several shortcomings are apparent, the most egregious of which was a general failure to re-evaluate renewables based on recent evidence. Over the last decade, advances in technology have reduced the costs of solar and wind electricity by 60-75% and increased reliability to the point where these resources, along with geothermal and biomass, can now compete with conventional electric plants in some markets, especially those in which environmental benefits are considered. These resources must be accurately valued to optimize carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction strategies. This article identifies the various ways in which these reports have failed in this task

  11. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.; Burlington, L.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  12. China could satisfied her energy demand by her domestic resource of renewable and hydrogen energy and with her favorite condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao De You

    2006-01-01

    Paper described recent situation and the reason of oils consumed increasing rapidly and the activity for searching oil around the world wide and proposed some suggestion for rapid development and commercialization of hydrogen energy system in China with her domestic resources. China could satisfy the energy demand with her domestic resources of renewable energies and depending on her domestic scientific and technology and personal resources etc. It could Clean up the misunderstanding of other country and worried about the oil price increasing. (author)

  13. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  14. Maintaining the Uranium Resources Assessment Data System and assessing the 1990 US uranium potential resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, R.B.; Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Uranium Resource Assessment Data System contains information on potential resources (undiscovered) of uranium in the United States. The purpose of this report is: (1) to describe the work carried out to maintain and update the Uranium Resource Assessment Data (URAD) System, (2) to assess the 1990 US uranium potential resources in various cost categories, and (3) to identify problems and to recommend changes that are needed to improve the URAD System. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Assessment of renewable energy potential. Calculation model “AREP-LP”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penchev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bulgaria is a country rich in renewable energy sources. There are all types of RES including: solar, geothermal, biomass, wind energy and hydropower. Per capita it ranks among the top in Europe. Bulgaria's target for 2020 is 16% of final consumption of electricity should be from renewable energy. To achieve this goal, the first and most important task is assessing the potential of renewable energy and its geographical distribution. Creating a database of renewable energy is essential for implementation of investment projects in this area. Key words: Renewable Energy (RES), Renewable Technologies (RET), Theoretical Potential, Technical Potential, Municipalities, Regions, Energy Planning(EP), Emission Reduction (EmR), Market Assessment (MA), Data base(DB)

  16. Geothermal resource assessment in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Hyoung Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea); Park, Sungho; Kim, Jongchan; Koo, Min-Ho [Kongju National University (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    To estimate available geothermal energy and to construct temperature at depth maps in Korea, various geothermal data have been used. Those include 1560 thermal property data such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and density, 353 heat flow data, 54 surface temperature data, and 180 heat production data. In Korea, subsurface temperature ranges from 23.9 C to 47.9 C at a depth of 1 km, from 34.2 C to 79.7 C at 2 km, from 44.2 C to 110.9 C at 3 km, from 53.8 C to 141.5 C at 4 km, and from 63.1 C to 171.6 C at 5 km. The total available subsurface geothermal energy in Korea is 4.25 x 10{sup 21} J from surface to a depth of 1 km, 1.67 x 10{sup 22} J to 2 km, 3.72 x 10{sup 22} J to 3 km, 6.52 x 10{sup 22} J to 4 km, and 1.01 x 10{sup 23} J to 5 km. In particular, the southeastern part of Korea shows high temperatures at depths and so does high geothermal energy. If only 2% of geothermal resource from surface to a depth of 5 km is developed in Korea, energy from geothermal resources would be equivalent to about 200 times annual consumption of primary energy ({proportional_to}2.33 x 10{sup 8} TOE) in Korea in 2006. (author)

  17. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  18. Energy management in microgrid based on the multi objective stochastic programming incorporating portable renewable energy resource as demand response option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Vahid Sohrabi; Jirdehi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Hemmati, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources are often known as cost-effective and lucrative resources and have been widely developed due to environmental-economic issues. Renewable energy utilization even in small scale (e.g., microgrid networks) has attracted significant attention. Energy management in microgrid can be carried out based on the generating side management or demand side management. In this paper, portable renewable energy resource are modeled and included in microgrid energy management as a demand response option. Utilizing such resources could supply the load when microgrid cannot serve the demand. This paper addresses energy management and scheduling in microgrid including thermal and electrical loads, renewable energy sources (solar and wind), CHP, conventional energy sources (boiler and micro turbine), energy storage systems (thermal and electrical ones), and portable renewable energy resource (PRER). Operational cost of microgrid and air pollution are considered as objective functions. Uncertainties related to the parameters are incorporated to make a stochastic programming. The proposed problem is expressed as a constrained, multi-objective, linear, and mixed-integer programing. Augmented Epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. Final results and calculations are achieved using GAMS24.1.3/CPLEX12.5.1. Simulation results demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed method in microgrid energy management. - Highlights: • Introducing portable renewable energy resource (PRER) and considering effect of them. • Considering reserve margin and sensitivity analysis for validate robustness. • Multi objective and stochastic management with considering various loads and sources. • Using augmented Epsilon-constraint method to solve multi objective program. • Highly decreasing total cost and pollution with PRER in stochastic state.

  19. Biomass as renewable energy resource in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The state with the wooden waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Semin; Smajevic, Izet

    2004-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina today fulfills its needs for primary energy mainly from fossil fuels. In spite of significant resources of all renewable sources of energy and despite evidently open possibility for their utilization, these resources (except for, partly, hydropower) hove practically not been used to date. Due to its climatic situation, Bosnia and Herzegovina is very rich in woodland. Thus the production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and also has nowadays major strategic importance for the country's economic development. The purpose of this paper is to point out the energy potential of wooden waste, as a component of still un sufficiently utilized biomass in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this paper, attention is primarily focused on results of research in the area of estimation of obviously significant energy potential of wooden waste produced in rather widespread wood and timber industry of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Preliminary research of this resource carried out to date showed that technical potential of biomass from timber waste is approx. 8,5 PJ. (Author)

  20. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  1. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment was initiated in 1999 as a result of concerns raised by natural resource managers, the science community, and the public regarding the status and likely future of forests in the South. These included changes to the region’s forests brought about by rapid urbanization, increasing timber demand, increasing numbers of...

  2. Microwave-Assisted Syntheses in Recyclable Ionic Liquids: Photoresists Based on Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Charlotte; Luef, Klaus P; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Stadler, Alexander; Grassl, Bruno; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2015-10-26

    The copoly(2-oxazoline) pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be synthesized from the cationic ring-opening copolymerization of 2-nonyl-2-oxazoline NonOx and 2-dec-9'-enyl-2-oxazoline Dc(=) Ox in the ionic liquid n-hexyl methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under microwave irradiation in 250 g/batch quantities. The polymer precipitates upon cooling, enabling easy recovery of the polymer and the ionic liquid. Both monomers can be obtained from fatty acids from renewable resources. pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be used as polymer in a photoresist (resolution of 1 μm) based on UV-induced thiol-ene reactions. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with renewable and environmental friendly resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Sani Wan Nik; Noraini Ali

    2000-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA using vegetable oils as base stocks for innovative additive packages. While many of the differences in using vegetable based stocks in place of mineral oils have been adapted to by straightforward formulating changes, the oxidation stability of vegetable-based stock is still a challenging area. This work initiates the investigation in Malaysia in the use of environmentally friendly resource to replace partially the petroleum based hydraulic fluid. The study concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. (Author)

  4. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touryan, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  5. Electricity Generation in Fiji: Assessing the Impact of Renewable Technologies on Costs and Financial Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Dornan, Matthew; Jotzo, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy technologies have been advocated in Fiji on the basis that they improve energy security and serve as a risk-mitigation measure against oil price volatility. Despite this, there have been few attempts to measure the impact of renewable technologies on energy security. That analysis is important if the benefits of renewable energy technologies in Fiji are to be adequately evaluated. This paper develops and applies a method for assessing the potential contributi...

  6. Renewable energy integration in smart grids-multicriteria assessment using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    JANJIC, ALEKSANDAR; SAVIC, SUZANA; VELIMIROVIC, LAZAR; NIKOLIC, VESNA

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the traditional way of efficiency assessment of renewable energy sources integration, the smart grid concept is introducing new goals and objectives regarding increased use of renewable electricity sources, grid security, energy conservation, energy efficiency, and deregulated energy market. Possible benefits brought by renewable sources integration are evaluated by the degree of the approach to the ideal smart grid. In this paper, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process methodology for the...

  7. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  8. Sustainability assessment of renewable power and heat generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombi, Mihály; Kuti, István; Balogh, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Rationalisation of consumption, more efficient energy usage and a new energy structure are needed to be achieved in order to shift the structure of energy system towards sustainability. The required energy system is among others characterised by intensive utilisation of renewable energy sources (RES). RES technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, for the strategic planning there is a great demand for the comparison of RES technologies. Furthermore, there are additional functions of RES utilisation expected beyond climate change mitigation, e.g. increment of employment, economic growth and rural development. The aim of the study was to reveal the most beneficial RES technologies with special respect to sustainability. Ten technologies of power generation and seven technologies of heat supply were examined in a multi-criteria sustainability assessment frame of seven attributes which were evaluated based on a choice experiment (CE) survey. According to experts the most important characteristics of RES utilisation technologies are land demand and social impacts i.e. increase in employment and local income generation. Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are favourable technologies for power generation, while geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating can offer significant advantages in case of heat supply. - highlights: • We used choice experiment to estimate the weights of criteria for the sustainability assessment of RES technologies. • The most important attributes of RES technologies according to experts are land demand and social impacts. • Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are advantageous technologies for power generation. • Geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating are favourable in case of heat supply

  9. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are applying Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to new orbital data sets for lunar resource assessment and the identification of past habitable environments on...

  10. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    Mass conservation equation of non-renewable resources is employed to study the resources remaining in the reservoir according to the extraction policy. The energy conservation equation is transformed into an energy-capital conservation equation. The Hotelling rule is shown to be a special case of the general energy-capital conservation equation when the mass flow rate of extracted resources is equal to unity. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations are then coupled and solved together. It is investigated the price evolution of extracted resources. The conclusion of the Hotelling rule for non-extracted resources, i.e. an exponential increase of the price of non-renewable resources at the rate of current interest, is then generalized. A new parameter, called 'Price Increase Factor', PIF, is introduced as the difference between the current interest rate of capital and the mass flow rate of extraction of non-renewable resources. The price of extracted resources can increase exponentially only if PIF is greater than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is lower than the current interest rate of capital. The price is constant if PIF is zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is equal to the current interest rate. The price is decreasing with time if PIF is smaller than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is higher than the current interest rate. (author)

  11. Technical and economic viability of electric power plants on the basis of renewable energy resources regarding hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with power stations working on the basis of non-renewable energy resources and finite resources which will inevitably come to depletion in the future. These installations produce considerable negative impact on the environment, including air pollution. It is noted that considerable amounts of emissions of harmful substances accounts for the share of small thermal installations which aren’t always considered in calculations of pollution. The author specifies that emission reduction of harmful substances should be achieved due to wider use of environmentally friendly renewable energy resources. It is recommended to use hierarchical structure with the priority of ecological and social conditions of the region for technical and economic viability of consumers’ power supply systems and installations, based on renewable energy resources use. At the same time the author suggests considering federal, regional and object levels of viability. It is recommended to consider the main stages of lifecycle of an object for object level: designing, construction, operation, reconstruction of an object and its preservation. The author shows the example of calculation of power plant efficiency, based on renewable energy resources during its reconstruction, followed by power generation increase.

  12. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable

  13. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  14. Overview of renewable energies in Lorraine - Assessment: Year 2013. Situation note on renewable energies in Lorraine - Assessment: first half 2014, 2nd half 2014. Overview of renewable energies in the Grand East region - Assessment year 2015-release 2016. Overview of renewable and recovery energies in the Grand East region - Assessment year 2016-release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    A first document proposes an overview of the development of renewable energies in Lorraine with respect to regional as well as European and national objectives defined for each renewable energy type. Annual data for 2013 are herein presented. Graphs indicate values for the share of renewable energies, the energy mix in Lorraine, locations, evolutions and levels of production for the different renewable sources (wind, photovoltaic, hydroelectricity, methanization, wood energy, geothermal and heat pumps, solar thermal, waste valorisation, bio-fuels). The second and third documents propose assessments and comments of situations and evolutions of productions and development (actions, regulatory and legal context, projects) for the different sources, an assessment of the implementation progress of the regional scheme of connection of renewable energies. Annual publications are then proposed which give the same kind of assessments, and comparisons with other French regions

  15. Remote Assessment of Lunar Resource Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the resource potential of the lunar surface requires a well-planned program to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Moon's surface at a range of scales. The exploration program must include remote sensing measurements (from both Earth's surface and lunar orbit), robotic in situ analysis of specific places, and eventually, human field work by trained geologists. Remote sensing data is discussed. Resource assessment requires some idea of what resources will be needed. Studies thus far have concentrated on oxygen and hydrogen production for propellant and life support, He-3 for export as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors, and use of bulk regolith for shielding and construction materials. The measurement requirements for assessing these resources are given and discussed briefly.

  16. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  17. Overview of the Quality and Completeness of Resource Assessment Data for the APEC Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D. S.; Pilasky, S.

    1998-02-01

    The availability of information and data on the renewable energy resources (solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydro) for renewable energy technologies is a critical element in the successful implementation of these technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of published information on these resources for each of 1 8 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies. In the introductory sections, a discussion of the quality and completeness of this information is presented, along with recommendations on steps that need to be taken to facilitate the further development and deployment of renewable energy technologies throughout the APEC region. These sections are then followed by economy-specific reviews, and a complete bibliography and summary description for each citation. The major results of this survey are that a basis for understanding renewable energy resources is currently available for essentially all the economies, although there is a significant need to apply improved and updated resource assessment techniques in most. For example, most wind resource assessments rely on data collected at national weather stations, which often results in underestimates of the true potential wind resource within an economy. As a second example, solar resource assessments in most economies rely on an analysis of very simple sunshine record data, which results in large uncertainties in accurately quantifying the resource. National surveys of biomass, geothermal, and hydro resources are often lacking; in most cases, resources for these technologies were discussed for site-specific studies only. Thus, the major recommendations in this paper are to: ( 1 ) upgrade current or install new wind and solar measurement systems at key 'benchmark' locations to provide accurate, representative information on these resources; (2) apply advanced wind and solar resource assessment tools that rely on data quality assessment procedures, the use of satellite data

  18. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  19. Modelling renewable energy resource and the electricity network (East Midlands region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, P.A.; Ma, T.

    2002-07-01

    The UK Government's targets for renewable generation and combined heat and power (CHP) are expected to result in a significant growth in embedded generation. This report describes the results of a study of the capability of the electricity distribution network in the East Midlands to accept embedded generation. Detailed network studies were performed for two sample networks: one representing an urban network (Leicester) and one representing a rural network (Boston). The 132 kV networks of the grid groups covering these areas were also studied. This included an examination of the connection points from major 132 kV busbars at grid supply points down to 11 kV primary substations. Power system studies were performed to identify the constraints and capabilities of the existing network, These studies included load flow to examine voltage profile and overloading, fault level analysis and transient studies to examine generator and network stability following faults on the network and voltage step change due to generator tripping. Space network capacity for the region was identified and used to assess the ability to accommodate regional targets for renewables and CHP. The study also examined constraining factors and potential solutions, including four improvement scenarios.

  20. Situational analysis of the Canadian renewable energy sector with a focus on human resource issues : 2007 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Several factors are steering world energy supplies away from traditional fossil fuel sources and toward renewable energy technologies. As a result, renewable energy markets are experiencing significant growth, and experts predict this trend will continue. As of 2004, 2 per cent of Canada's total electricity generation capacity was provided from emerging renewable technologies, excluding large scale hydro which represents 56 per cent of Canada's electricity generation capacity. The development of renewable energy sources in Canada is expected to contribute to Canada's economic prosperity by providing diversified energy supply to industrial buyers, generating direct economic advantages and employment to local communities, as well as direct benefits such as improved air quality and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Human Resources and Social Development Canada contracted the Delphi Group to provide information on the labour market for the renewable energy sector in Canada in order to identify the steps needed to help the sector in developing a human resource strategy. This report provided an overview of key characteristics defining the renewable energy subsectors in Canada along with anticipated changes in the near term. The study focused on the following technologies: wind turbines; photovoltaics; active solar thermal; geoexchange/earth energy; small scale hydropower; bioenergy; and, ocean energy. A reliable estimate of the labour demands in the subsectors over the next 5 to 10 year was presented along with a review of the human resource issues affecting the sector. This project was guided by an advisory committee of members from 4 sector councils; 3 government agencies including Environment Canada, Industry Canada and Natural Resources Canada; 4 industry associations representing bioenergy, geothermal energy, solar energy and wind energy; and other organizations including the Association of Canadian Community Colleges, the Canadian Council of Technicians and

  1. Dynamic Control of Facts Devices to Enable Large Scale Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Govind Sahadeo

    This thesis focuses on some of the problems caused by large scale penetration of Renewable Energy Resources within EHV transmission networks, and investigates some approaches in resolving these problems. In chapter 4, a reduced-order model of the 500 kV WECC transmission system is developed by estimating its key parameters from phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. The model was then implemented in RTDS and was investigated for its accuracy with respect to the PMU data. Finally it was tested for observing the effects of various contingencies like transmission line loss, generation loss and large scale penetration of wind farms on EHV transmission systems. Chapter 5 introduces Static Series Synchronous Compensators (SSSC) which are seriesconnected converters that can control real power flow along a transmission line. A new application of SSSCs in mitigating Ferranti effect on unloaded transmission lines was demonstrated on PSCAD. A new control scheme for SSSCs based on the Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter configuration was proposed and was demonstrated using PSCAD and RTDS. A new centralized controller was developed for the distributed SSSCs based on some of the concepts used in the CHB-based SSSC. The controller's efficacy was demonstrated using RTDS. Finally chapter 6 introduces the problem of power oscillations induced by renewable sources in a transmission network. A power oscillation damping (POD) controller is designed using distributed SSSCs in NYPA's 345 kV three-bus AC system and its efficacy is demonstrated in PSCAD. A similar POD controller is then designed for the CHB-based SSSC in the IEEE 14 bus system in PSCAD. Both controllers were noted to have significantly damped power oscillations in the transmission networks.

  2. Control scheme of three-level H-bridge converter for interfacing between renewable energy resources and AC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed a...

  3. Companion modeling for integrated renewable resource management: a new collaborative approach to create common values for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruankaew, N.; Page, Le C.; Dumrongrojwattana, P.; Barnaud, C.; Gajaseni, N.; Paassen, van A.; Trebuil, G.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable management of renewable resources is often complicated by the diversity and dynamic nature of the ecological and socio-economic systems involved. As the dynamics and interactions of these systems are highly complex and frequently unpredictable, there is a need to opt for

  4. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-44-006] Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 1, 2013...

  5. 77 FR 2286 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-44-000] Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission Personnel as...

  6. A theoretical bilevel control scheme for power networks with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boroojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a bilevel control framework to achieve a highly-reliable smart distribution network with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources (DRRs). We assume that the power distribution network consists of several residential/commercial communities. In the first ...

  7. Wind and Solar Energy Potential Assessment for Development of Renewables Energies Applications in Bucaramanga, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez, G; Osma, G; Vergara, P; Rey, J

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m 2 , equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m 2 /day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures

  8. Assessment of China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Raczkowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China has been ambitious in investing and developing renewable energy technologies, aiming to enhance its energy security, mitigate its energy-related CO 2 emissions and develop renewable energy industry. The 12th Five Year Plan (2011–2015) has set clear targets on installed capacities of different renewable energy technologies. This study aimed to assess the possible contribution of 12th Five Year Plan for China's future energy system and identify factors that might influence its impacts. First, current status of renewable energy development in China has been reviewed. Then several energy scenarios have been developed in an hourly simulation using an energy system analysis tool EnergyPLAN. It was identified that existing grid bottleneck would greatly reduce the potential contribution of renewable installations in terms of share of renewable electricity generation, share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and system CO 2 emissions. In contrast, improving technical performance of renewable energy technologies and sectoral energy efficiency plays an important role in increasing the share of renewables and promoting China’s energy system transition. Finally, some policy suggestions were drawn to facilitate a better implementation of the renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan was assessed. • Non-fossil fuel targets in primary energy for 2015 and 2020 could be easily achieved. • Grid bottlenecks severely decrease the share of RES-E in electricity generation through the 12th Five Year Period. • Improved technical performance of renewable technologies and sectoral energy efficiency are extremely important for achieving higher RES-E share. • Several policy suggestions were drawn

  9. Supply-cost curves for geographically distributed renewable-energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Salvador; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The supply-cost curves of renewable-energy sources are an essential tool to synthesize and analyze large-scale energy-policy scenarios, both in the short and long terms. Here, we suggest and test a parametrization of such curves that allows their representation for modeling purposes with a minimal set of information. In essence, an economic potential is defined based on the mode of the marginal supply-cost curves; and, using this definition, a normalized log-normal distribution function is used to model these curves. The feasibility of this proposal is assessed with data from a GIS-based analysis of solar, wind and biomass technologies in Spain. The best agreement is achieved for solar energy.

  10. Bridging greenhouse gas emissions and renewable energy deployment target: Comparative assessment of China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • India and China’s latest renewable energy targets toward 2030 are assessed. • Carbon emission cap is in line with 2-degree target and governmental commitment. • The impacts of renewable energy on emissions and mitigation costs are quantified. - Abstract: Renewable energy has a critical role in limiting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper assesses the implication of aligning renewable energy deployment target with national emission reduction target for mitigation cost. The assessment methodology uses Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/computable general equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model to determine the mitigation cost in terms of GDP and welfare loss under alternative renewable targets in different climate-constrained scenarios. A range of country-specific emission constraints is taken to address the uncertainties related to global emission pathway and emission entitlement scheme. Comparative results show that China needs to increase its share of non-fossil fuel significantly in the primary energy mix to achieve the stringent emission reduction target compared to India. The mitigation cost in terms of economic and welfare loss can be reduced by increasing the penetration of the renewable energy to achieve the same emission reduction target. The modeling results show that coordinated national climate and renewable energy policies help to achieve the GHG emission reduction target in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  11. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of lactate and succinate from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Recent increasing attention to environmental issues and the shortage of oil resources have spurred political and industrial interest in the development of environmental friendly and cost-effective processes for the production of bio-based chemicals from renewable resources. Thus, microbial production of commercially important chemicals is viewed as a desirable way to replace current petrochemical production. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, is one of the most important industrial microorganisms as a platform for the production of various amino acids. Recent research has explored the use of C. glutamicum as a potential cell factory for producing organic acids such as lactate and succinate, both of which are commercially important bulk chemicals. Here, we summarize current understanding in this field and recent metabolic engineering efforts to develop C. glutamicum strains that efficiently produce L- and D-lactate, and succinate from renewable resources.

  12. Wind power in Scotland - a critique of recent resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twidell, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A critical analysis of 4 recent UK official reports relating to the renewable energy resources of Scotland, particularly the large wind resource, and including institutional and economic factors. Key points are listed with comments for use in supporting wind power developments. (Author)

  13. Prodigiosin Production by Serratia marcescens UCP 1549 Using Renewable-Resources as a Low Cost Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galba M. Campos Takaki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new strain of Serratia marcescens UCP1459 isolated from a semi-arid soil produced the natural red pigment prodigiosin, characterized by an uncommon pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. Prodigiosin is a promising drug due to its reported antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activities. The objective of this work was to indentify a suitable medium to simultaneously enhance S. marcescens growth and pigment production using renewable resources obtained from industrial wastes. S. marcescens produced the highest level of prodigiosin (49.5 g/L at 48 h of cultivation using 6% “manipueira” (cassava wastewater supplemented with mannitol (2% at pH 7 and 28 °C. Carbohydrates in “manipueira” and mannitol play a role in the enhanced cell growth and prodigiosin production. The purified pigment extracted from the biomass was analyzed by mass spectrophotometry and showed the expected molecular weight of 324 Da corresponding to prodigiosin. In conclusion, we have successfully designed a new, economically feasible medium supporting enhanced S. marcescens growth and a high yield production of prodigiosin.

  14. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of green biocellulose nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter xylinus through utilizing the renewable resources of agriculture residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallah, Wahib; Dahman, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the ability to produce green biocellulose nanofibers using the renewable resources of agriculture residues. Locally grown wheat straws (WS) were hydrolyzed under different conditions. Their hydrolysates were utilized to produce the nanofibers in separate hydrolysis fermentation process by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain bacterium. Highest biocellulose production of ~10.6 g/L was achieved with samples that were enzymatically hydrolyzed. Moreover, acidic hydrolyzed WS produced up to 9.7 g/L, with total sugar concentrations in culture media of 43 g/L. Generally, enzymatic hydrolysis of WS resulted in more total sugar concentration than the acidic hydrolysis (i.e., 52.12 g/L), while water hydrolysis produced the least. This can be related to utilizing Xylanase in addition to Cellulase and Beta-glucosidase that helps to hydrolyse WS dry basis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Sugar mixtures produced under all hydrolysis conditions were mainly composed of glucose and xylose with average percentages of 56 and 28 %, respectively. Acidic hydrolysis at higher acid concentration, as well as soaking WS in the acidic solution for longer time, improved the total sugar concentration in the culture media by 18 %. Conducting thermal treatment at more intense conditions of higher temperature or heating time improved the total sugar produced with acidic hydrolysis. These conditions, however, resulted in further production of furfural, which considerably affected bacterial cells proliferation. This resulted in lowest sugar consumption in the range of 62-64 % that affected final BC production.

  16. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  17. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; RWTH Aachen Univ.; World Energy Council, London

    2014-01-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  18. Are government policies effective in promoting deployment of renewable electricity resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Kniefel, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Using a panel data over 50 US states and years 1991-2007, this paper uses a state fixed-effects model with state-specific time-trends to estimate the effects of state policies on the penetration of various emerging renewable electricity sources, including wind, biomass, geothermal, and solar photovoltaic. Renewable portfolio standards with either capacity or sales requirements have a significant impact on the penetration of all types of renewables-however, this impact is variable depending on the type of renewable source: it is negative for combined renewables, wind, and biomass; and positive for geothermal and solar. Further, clean energy funds and required green power options mostly result in increasing the penetration of all types of renewables. On the other hand, voluntary renewable portfolio standards as well as state green power purchasing programs are found to be ineffective in increasing the penetration of any type of renewable source. Finally, economic variables, such as electricity price, natural gas price, and per capita GDP as well as structural variables, such as league of conservation voters rating and the share of coal-generated electricity are found to be generally insignificant, suggesting the crucial role of policy in increasing the penetration of renewables. - Highlights: → Ascertains the impact of state policies on increasing the renewable capacity. → Renewable portfolio requirements have an (sometimes unexpected) impact. → Clean energy funds and required green power options have a positive impact. → Voluntary renewable standards as well as state green power purchasing requirements are ineffective. → Economics as well as political and structural variables are ineffective.

  19. The National Climate Assessment as a Resource for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) is scientifically authoritative and features major advances, relative to other assessments produced by several organizations. NCA3 is a valuable resource for communicating climate science to a wide variety of audiences. Other assessments were often overly detailed and laden with scientific jargon that made them appear too complex and technical to many in their intended audiences, especially policymakers, the media, and the broad public. Some other assessments emphasized extensive scientific caveats, quantitative uncertainty estimates and broad consensus support. All these attributes, while valuable in research, carry the risk of impeding science communication to non-specialists. Without compromising scientific accuracy and integrity, NCA3 is written in exceptionally clear and vivid English. It includes outstanding graphics and employs powerful techniques aimed at conveying key results unambiguously to a wide range of audiences. I have used NCA3 as a resource in speaking about climate change in three very different settings: classroom teaching for undergraduate university students, presenting in academia to historians and other non-scientists, and briefing corporate executives working on renewable energy. NCA3 proved the value of developing a climate assessment with communication goals and strategies given a high priority throughout the process, not added on as an afterthought. I draw several lessons. First, producing an outstanding scientific assessment is too complex and demanding a task to be carried out by scientists alone. Many types of specialized expertise are also needed. Second, speaking about science to a variety of audiences requires an assortment of communication skills and tools, all tailored to specific groups of listeners. Third, NCA3 is scientifically impeccable and is also an outstanding example of effective communication as well as a valuable resource for communicators.

  20. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  1. Renewables in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wager, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has evaluated the potential for using renewable energy for electricity in the Midwest, and has been carrying out a multifaceted effort to expand the use of renewables in the region. The UCS study presents a strategy for developing renewable-electric technologies and resources in 12 midwestern states. UCS analysts used a geographic information system (GIS) to create data-bases of renewable resources, land uses, vegetation cover, terrain elevation and locations of utility transmission lines, and to analyze and present information on a .6 mi x .6 mi (1 km x 1 km) grid scale. In addition, UCS developed a model to calculate the net employment impact of renewable versus conventional electricity technologies on a state-by-state basis. In evaluating the costs and benefits of renewable energy sources, UCS analysts explored a cost assessment that accounted for the impact of pollution from fossil fuels on energy resource cost. Researchers also considered the risks associated with fuel-price volatility, environmental regulation, construction lead times and other uncertainties. Finally, UCS researchers suggested steps to remove the institutional, regulatory and legislative barriers that inhibit renewable energy development, and proposed policies to expand the use of the region's renewable resources. The UCS analysis showed that wind is currently the least expensive renewable resource. UCS also found numerous opportunities to expand biomass-electric generation in the near term, such as converting small coal-fired power plants to wood fuel, making greater use of logging residues and co-firing a small percentage of biomass with fossil fuel at large power plants

  2. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  3. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  4. How much electricity really costs. Comparison of the state subsidisation and overall social costs of conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    This study explains how the costs of electricity are an aggregate of different components. The electricity price paid by the end consumer contains not only the actual costs of energy production, which make up only about a third of the actual price in an average household, but also different surcharges such as network charges, electricity tax, value added tax and the concession levy. It furthermore contains the allocation charge stipulated by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG reallocation charge) as a means of allocating the costs of the subsidisation of electricity from renewable resources to the consumers. On the other hand conventional energy resources such as nuclear energy, hard coal and brown coal have substantially benefited over many decades from state subsidies in the form of financial aids, tax rebates and other promotive measures. The main difference between this and the subsidisation of renewable energy is that the costs of conventional energy resources are largely charged to the state budget rather than being made transparent in the electricity price. Based on an evaluation of the literature, data, interviews and the authors' own methodological deliberations this study makes a systematic comparison of the direct as well as indirect state subsidisation of renewable and conventional energy resources during the period from 1970 until 2012. The annual totals obtained for each energy resources are then set in relation to the share of that resource in overall electricity production, yielding specific subsidisation rates in terms of cents per kWh for each resource. This does not yet take into account the high consequential costs in the form of environmental damage and climate-related damage caused by fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the risks associated with the latter (collectively referred to as ''external costs''), all of which are charged to the polluters only at a small fraction of the true amount. The two cost categories of state

  5. The Relationship between the Generation of Electricity from Renewable Resources and Unemployment: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Nabil Khodeir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a global trend towards the use of renewable energy resources. This is due to their benefits in terms of economic diversification, job creation, and sustainable development. Given the suffering of the Egyptian economy from the chronic unemployment problem, this paper has adopted the effect of electricity generation from renewable resources on unemployment. It tests the hypothesis which implies an inverse relationship between renewable electricity generation and unemployment rate in Egypt. By using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL approach to identify the effects in the short and long run during the period (1989-2013, it has been found that the hypothesis was achieved in the long run only. This is due to the fact that renewable energy projects in their establishment stages focus on capital intensity more than labour intensity, but with time both direct and indirect employment effects start to emerge. The econometric results agree in the presence of a significant negative impact of both economic growth and investments on the unemployment rate.

  6. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  7. Optimal configuration assessment of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, Ahmed M.A.; John, Priscilla N.; Shawal, Mohd [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes the use of a PV-wind-diesel generator hybrid system in order to determine the optimal configuration of renewable energy in Malaysia and to compare the production cost of solar and wind power with its annual yield relevant to different regions in Malaysia namely, Johor, Sarawak, Penang and Selangor. The configuration of optimal hybrid system is selected based on the best components and sizing with appropriate operating strategy to provide a cheap, efficient, reliable and cost-effective system. The various renewable energy sources and their applicability in terms of cost and performance are analyzed. Moreover, the annual yield and cost of energy production of solar and wind energy are evaluated. The Simulations were carried out using the HOMER program based on data obtained from the Malaysian Meteorological Centre. Results show that, for Malaysia, a PV-diesel generator hybrid system is the most suitable solution in terms of economic performance and pollution. However, the cost of production of solar and wind energy proved to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly than the energy produced from diesel generators. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Reliability in Risk-Constrained Scheduling of Autonomous Microgrids with Demand Response and Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    of microgrid. Moreover, the impacts of different VOLL and risk aversion parameter are illustrated on the system reliability. Extensive simulation results are also presented to illustrate the impact of risk aversion on system security issues with and without DR. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages......Uncertain natures of the renewable energy resources and consumers’ participation in demand response (DR) programs have introduced new challenges to the energy and reserve scheduling of microgrids, particularly in the autonomous mode. In this paper, a risk-constrained stochastic framework...... is presented to maximize the expected profit of a microgrid operator under uncertainties of renewable resources, demand load and electricity price. In the proposed model, the trade-off between maximizing the operator’s expected profit and the risk of getting low profits in undesired scenarios is modeled...

  9. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  10. Noise affects resource assessment in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin P; Arnott, Gareth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs ( Pagurus bernhardus ) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating it, and entered it faster. Our results demonstrate that changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of hermit crabs by modifying the selection process of a vital resource. This is all the more remarkable given that the known cues used in shell selection involve chemical, visual and tactile sensory channels. Thus, our study provides rare evidence for a cross-modal impact of noise pollution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social, natural, and human. A number of principles can be derived for each capital asset; indicators for assessing system performance should cover all of the principles. To cater for multiple stakeholders, participatory selection of indicators is appropriate, although when cross-site comparability is required, some generic indicators are suitable. Because of the high degree of context specificity of natural resource management systems, a typology of landscapes or resource management domains may be useful to allow extrapolation to broader systems. The problems of nonlinearities, uncertainty, and time lags in natural resource management systems suggest that systems modeling is crucial for performance assessment, in terms of deriving "what would have happened anyway" scenarios for comparison to the measured trajectory of systems. Given that a number of indicators are necessary for assessing performance, the question becomes whether these can be combined to give an integrative assessment. We explore five possible approaches: (1 simple additive index, as used for the Human Development Index; (2 derived variables (e.g., principal components as the indices of performance; (3 two-dimensional plots of

  12. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-03-12

    Electricity markets in the United States have witnessed unprecedented instability over the last few years, with substantial volatility in wholesale market prices, significant financial distress among major industry organizations, and unprecedented legal, regulatory and legislative activity. These events demonstrate the considerable risks that exist in the electricity industry. Recent industry instability also illustrates the need for thoughtful resource planning to balance the cost, reliability, and risk of the electricity supplied to end-use customers. In balancing different supply options, utilities, regulators, and other resource planners must consider the unique risk profiles of each generating source. This paper evaluates the relative risk profiles of renewable and natural gas generating plants. The risks that exist in the electricity industry depend in part on the technologies that are used to generate electricity. Natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plant additions in the United States. To some, this emphasis on a single fuel source signals the potential for increased risk. Renewable generation sources, on the other hand, are frequently cited as a potent source of socially beneficial risk reduction relative to natural gas-fired generation. Renewable generation is not risk free, however, and also imposes certain costs on the electricity sector. This paper specifically compares the allocation and mitigation of risks in long-term natural gas-fired electricity contracts with the allocation and mitigation of these same risks in long-term renewable energy contracts. This comparison highlights some of the key differences between renewable and natural gas generation that decision makers should consider when making electricity investment and contracting decisions. Our assessment is relevant in both regulated and restructured markets. In still-regulated markets, the audience for this report clearly includes regulators and the utilities they

  13. Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation and management methods will be needed to assure that water resources in drylands are optimally managed in a sustainable manner. Development of water management and conservation methods is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. Scientists and engineers must collaborate and cooperate with water managers, planners, and politicians to successfully adopt new strategies to manage water not only for humans, but to maintain all aspects of the environment. This particularly applies to drylands regions where resources are already limited and conflicts over water are occurring. Every aspect of the hydrologic cycle needs to be assessed to be able to quantify the available water resources, to monitor natural and anthropogenic changes, and to develop flexible policies and management strategies that can change as conditions dictate. Optimal, sustainable water management is achieved by cooperation and not conflict, thereby necessitating the need for high quality scientific research and input into the process.

  14. An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Lin, Grace T.R.; Li, Kuang-Pin; Yuan, Benjamin J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals. (author)

  15. Study of energetic consumptions and of renewable energy production potential for the Dordogne district. Phase 1 - Status and stakes, Phase 2 - Assessment of territory potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers reports made for phases 1 and 2 of a study which aimed at assessing the potential energy production by renewable energies in the French district of Dordogne. The first phase aimed at providing an overview of the present situation and an identification of stakes through an identification of electric and thermal energy sources (renewable or not) on this territory, and an analysis of energy consumptions per sector (housing and so on) in the district. Thus, it presents the district in its geographical, administrative, and demographic dimensions, as well as its local expertise. It gives an overview of the energy situation (energy and renewable energy production, electric power sector, gas sector, fuel supply network), and an overview of energy consumptions in the different sectors (housing, office building, industry, agriculture, transports). The second phase aimed at identifying and at assessing the potential energy production by renewable resources on the territory, and of the economic potential associated with renewable energy development. Raw, net and likely resources are assessed for hydroelectricity, solar sectors, wood energy, geothermal energy, aero-thermal energy, methanization, wind energy, and heat recovery

  16. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-18

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  17. USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new quantitative methodology for assessing resources in continuous (unconventional) petroleum deposits. Continuous petroleum resources include shale gas, coalbed gas, and other oil and gas deposits in low-permeability ("tight") reservoirs. The methodology is based on an approach combining geologic understanding with well productivities. The methodology is probabilistic, with both input and output variables as probability distributions, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the estimates. The new methodology is an improvement of previous USGS methodologies in that it better accommodates the uncertainties in undrilled or minimally drilled deposits that must be assessed using analogs. The publication is a collection of PowerPoint slides with accompanying comments.

  18. Australia's mandatory renewable energy target (MRET): an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Anthony; Mercer, David

    2006-01-01

    In June 2004, the Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, released the long-awaited government blueprint for the favoured policy direction for the country's energy sector, Securing Australia's Energy Future. In part this document was a response to a review of the operation of Australia's mandatory renewable energy target (MRET), a regime that started in April 2001. MRET was put under detailed scrutiny from March 2003 onwards by a four-person panel (the Tambling Committee), appointed by the Howard coalition (conservative) government, that received 248 detailed submissions and finally released its findings to the public in January 2004. This paper presents an overview of (i) the range of opinions on MRET presented to the Tambling Inquiry; (ii) the recommendations of that Committee; (iii) the final judgement on MRET enunciated in Securing Australia's Energy Future; and (iv) the response of the States

  19. Assessment of the feed-in tariff mechanism for renewable energies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on imported energy, and pursuit of sustainable development, renewable energies are extremely important for Taiwan's future energy supply. Since Taiwan's feed-in tariff (FIT) is still in its initial stage, one must examine whether the current system is compatible with a well-designed FIT scheme. This study examines the main features of Taiwan's FIT system and assesses design options using several criteria. Additionally, one of the most important elements of a FIT scheme, namely, a tariff system, is discussed. Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs, and the guaranteed-return tariff system coincides with the spirit underlying leading global FITs; however, many issues, such as setting goals by stages, refinement of the tariff calculation methodology, and elimination of other non-economic barriers, must be addressed to achieve future developmental goals and green industry growth. - Highlights: ► No in-depth study has focused exclusively on Taiwan's FIT design options. ► This study fills this gap in the literature by examining Taiwan's FIT system. ► Assessments demonstrate that Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs. ► Four issues are identified that Taiwan's policy makers should address to achieve future developmental goals and expand green industries.

  20. Collecting and Analyzing At-Sea and Coastal Avian Data to Assess Potential Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereksta, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The prospect of renewable energy development off the coasts of the United States has led to a scramble for data needs on potentially affected resources, particularly those related to avian species. The potential effects from renewable energy development to avian species are complex and varied including collision, displacement, barrier effects, and attraction. As the lead Federal agency for renewable energy development on the Federal outer continental shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has initiated, in coordination with other agencies and partners, the collection and synthesizing of existing data, identification of data gaps, development and funding of studies to fill those gaps, and creation of products for assessing risk to birds from structures at sea. Through the Environmental Studies Program, BOEM collects a wide range of environmental information to provide an improved understanding of offshore ecosystems, a baseline for assessing cumulative effects, and the scientific basis for development of regulatory measures to mitigate adverse impacts. With broad-scale assessments of suitable areas for wind, wave, and tidal energy production offshore, the challenge has been to collect and compile information quickly and at as large a scale as possible. Assessing what we know, what we can predict, and how can we assess risk has led BOEM to develop and collaborate on a variety of studies including baseline data assessments, at-sea surveys, predictive modeling of seabird distribution and abundance, vulnerability and risk assessments, and technology testing for efficient ways to inventory birds on the OCS. These are being applied in both the Atlantic and Pacific, including the Main Hawaiian Islands, to provide for assessments of potential effects and data needs early in the planning process at regional and local scales with the goal of designing and implementing projects that will minimize effects to avian species to the greatest extent practicable.

  1. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle

  2. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)

  3. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... Renewable materials from home-grown crops trees and agricultural wastes can provide many of the same chemical building blocks-plus others that petrochemicals cannot Despite the expertise and ingenuity of U.S...

  4. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LoVullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  5. Tidal current energy resource assessment in Ireland: Current status and future update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Interest in renewable energy in Ireland has increased continually over the past decade. This interest is due primarily to security of supply issues and the effects of climate change. Ireland imports over 90% of its primary energy consumption, mostly in the form of fossil fuels. The exploitation of Ireland's vast indigenous renewable energy resources is required in order to reduce this over-dependence on fossil fuel imports to meet energy demand. Various targets have been set by the Irish government to incorporate renewable energy technologies into Ireland's energy market. As a result of these targets, the development in wind energy has increased substantially over the past decade; however this method of energy extraction is intermittent and unpredictable. Ireland has an excellent tidal current energy resource and the use of this resource will assist in the development of a sustainable energy future. Energy extraction using tidal current energy technologies offers a vast and predictable energy resource. This paper reviews the currently accepted tidal current energy resource assessment for Ireland. This assessment was compiled by Sustainable Energy Ireland in a report in 2004. The assessment employed a 2-dimensional numerical model of the tidal current velocities around Ireland, and from this numerical model the theoretical tidal current energy resource was identified. With the introduction of constraints and limitations, the technical, practical, accessible and viable tidal current energy resources were obtained. The paper discusses why the assessment needs updating including the effect on the assessment of the current stage of development of tidal current turbines and their deployment technology. (author)

  6. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, P.; Cataldi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A consistent, agreed-upon terminology is prerequisite for geothermal resource assessment. Accordingly, we propose a logical, sequential subdivision of the "geothermal resource base", accepting its definition as all the thermal energy in the earth's crust under a given area, measured from mean annual temperature. That part of the resource base which is shallow enough to be tapped by production drilling is termed the "accessible resource base", and it in turn is divided into "useful" and "residual" components. The useful component (i.e. the thermal energy that could reasonably be extracted at costs competitive with other forms of energy at some specified future time) is termed the "geothermal resource". This in turn is divided into "economic" and "subeconomic" components, based on conditions existing at the time of assessment. In the format of a McKelvey diagram, this logic defines the vertical axis (degree of economic feasibility). The horizontal axis (degree of geologic assurance) contains "identified" and "undiscovered" components. "Reserve" is then designated as the identified economic resource. All categories should be expressed in units of thermal energy, with resource and reserve figures calculated at wellhead, prior to the inevitable large losses inherent in any practical thermal use or in conversion to electricity. Methods for assessing geothermal resources can be grouped into 4 classes: (a) surface thermal flux, (b) volume, (c) planar fracture and (d) magmatic heat budget. The volume method appears to be most useful because (1) it is applicable to virtually any geologic environment, (2) the required parameters can in Sprinciple be measured or estimated, (3) the inevitable errors are in part compensated and (4) the major uncertainties (recoverability and resupply) are amenable to resolution in the foreseeable future. The major weakness in all the methods rests in the estimation of how much of the accessible resource base can be extracted at some time in the

  7. NANA Wind Resource Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-09-23

    NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) of northwest Alaska is located in an area with abundant wind energy resources. In 2007, NRC was awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17076 by the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program for funding a Wind Resource Assessment Project (WRAP) for the NANA region. The NANA region, including Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) and Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) have been national leaders at developing, designing, building, and operating wind-diesel hybrid systems in Kotzebue (starting in 1996) and Selawik (2002). Promising sites for the development of new wind energy projects in the region have been identified by the WRAP, including Buckland, Deering, and the Kivalina/Red Dog Mine Port Area. Ambler, Shungnak, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik & Noatak were determined to have poor wind resources at sites in or very near each community. However, all five of these communities may have better wind resources atop hills or at sites with slightly higher elevations several miles away.

  8. A Renewed Focus on Strengths-Based Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Emma; Henley, Laura

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are often called upon to provide assessment and recommendations for struggling students. These assessments often open doors to specialised services or interventions and provide opportunities for students to build competencies in areas of need. However, these assessments often fail to highlight the abilities of these…

  9. Assessment of uranium resources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Uranium as nuclear fuel is an important energy resource, which generates about one-sixth of the world's total electricity generated in 1989. The current nuclear electricity generating capacity of 318 GW(e) is expected to grow by over 38% to 440 GW(e) in the year 2005. The world's uranium requirements are expected to increase similarly from about 52,000 t U in 1989 to over 70,000 t U in 2005. Beyond this time the uranium requirements are projected to reach over 80,000 t U in 2030. It was the objective of the Technical Committee Meeting on Assessment of Uranium Resources and Supply, organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, between 29 August - 1 September 1989, to attract specialists in this field and to provide a forum for the presentation of reports on the methodologies and actual projects carried out in the different countries. Of special interest was the participation of specialists from some countries which did not or only occasionally co-operate with the IAEA in the projects related to the assessment of uranium resources and supply. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  11. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  12. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  13. US hydropower resource assessment for Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Texas.

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  15. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  16. US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  17. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  18. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  19. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  20. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  1. Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources & Municipal Solid Waste for Sustainable Power Generation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderoju, Olaide M.; Dias, Guerner A.; Echakraoui, Zhour

    2017-12-01

    The demand for Energy in most Sub-Saharan African countries has become unimaginable despite its high potential of natural and renewable resources. The deficit has impeded the regions’ economic growth and sustainability. Nigeria as a nation is blessed with fossil fuels, abundant sunlight, hydro, wind and many among others, but the energy output to its population (185 million) still remains less than 4000MW. Currently, the clamour for an alternative but renewable energy source is the demand of the globe but it is quite expensive to achieve the yield that meets the Nigeria demand. Hence, this study aims at identifying and mapping out various regions with renewable energy potentials. The study also considers municipal solid waste as a consistent and available resource for power generation. Furthermore, this study examines the drawbacks inhibiting the inability to harness these renewable, energy generating potentials in full capacity. The study will enable the authorities and other stakeholders to invest and plan on providing a sustainable energy for the people.

  2. The contribution of renewable energy resources on the electrification and development at the Guantanamo Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Angel, J. [CUBASOLAR, Guantanamo (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba); Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Guantanamo province is a leader in the application of renewable energy technologies. This paper discussed the socio-economic impact of renewable energy projects that are underway in the Guantanamo province to improve the standard of living in rural areas. More than 400 rural schools and 70 rural medical offices get their electricity from photovoltaic systems. Hydropower provides the energy needs to 3000 rural houses with 11,000 inhabitants. Other applications include remote community solar systems, improved woodstoves for community kitchens, solar cookers and solar dryers. This paper demonstrated how the high penetration of these renewable energy technologies has contributed to the sustainable development of the province. The lessons learned in energy management by the local governments and research institutions were also outlined. 1 tab.

  3. Economic and Industrial Development: EID - EMPLOY. Final Report, task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The importance of renewable energy in energy systems is increasing at an impressive rate, and the expectation is that this tendency will continue in the longer term. As a consequence, there is a strong need for reliable insight into the employment benefits from renewable energy. The current knowledge on the economic impacts of large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies is more or less derived on an ad hoc basis and consists of a variety of different methodologies with different objectives. This is why the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) would like to facilitate a more structural approach, which will contribute to reliable and consistent insights of employment effects from deployment of renewable energy technologies. The objectives of the EMPLOY-EID project are to: Provide guidelines based on a thorough review of best practices, which are able to contribute to a consistent, reliable framework in which to measure employment effects from renewable energy deployment and which can be replicated from one country to another; Identify data sources and/or inputs required in application of such guidelines; Provide better understanding of key parameters and mechanisms that determine contribution of renewable energy employment; Assess availability of sources for employment benefit data for all RETD member countries as well as other interesting countries; Provide concrete gross employment benefit data to countries where data is available through application of the guidelines and best practices; and, Document the economic effects of renewable energy deployment through a publishable brochure of the main project results, presentations, the guidelines and background report. This project will help achieve the IEA-RETD's objective to ''empowering policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources'' by underlining the

  4. Economic and Industrial Development: EID - EMPLOY. Final Report, task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The importance of renewable energy in energy systems is increasing at an impressive rate, and the expectation is that this tendency will continue in the longer term. As a consequence, there is a strong need for reliable insight into the employment benefits from renewable energy. The current knowledge on the economic impacts of large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies is more or less derived on an ad hoc basis and consists of a variety of different methodologies with different objectives. This is why the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) would like to facilitate a more structural approach, which will contribute to reliable and consistent insights of employment effects from deployment of renewable energy technologies. The objectives of the EMPLOY-EID project are to: Provide guidelines based on a thorough review of best practices, which are able to contribute to a consistent, reliable framework in which to measure employment effects from renewable energy deployment and which can be replicated from one country to another; Identify data sources and/or inputs required in application of such guidelines; Provide better understanding of key parameters and mechanisms that determine contribution of renewable energy employment; Assess availability of sources for employment benefit data for all RETD member countries as well as other interesting countries; Provide concrete gross employment benefit data to countries where data is available through application of the guidelines and best practices; and, Document the economic effects of renewable energy deployment through a publishable brochure of the main project results, presentations, the guidelines and background report. This project will help achieve the IEA-RETD's objective to ''empowering policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources'' by underlining the economic and industrial impacts of

  5. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  6. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    With the evolution of energy and power systems, the emerging Smart Grid (SG) is mainly featured by distributed renewable energy generations, demand-response control and huge amount of heterogeneous data sources. Widely distributed synchrophasor sensors, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fault disturbance recorders (FDRs), can record multi-modal signals, for power system situational awareness and renewable energy integration. An effective and economical approach is proposed for wide-area security assessment. This approach is based on wavelet analysis for detecting and locating the short-term and long-term faults in SG, using voltage signals collected by distributed synchrophasor sensors. A data-driven approach for fault detection, identification and location is proposed and studied. This approach is based on matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) using Gaussian atom dictionary, hidden Markov model (HMM) of real-time frequency and voltage variation features, and fault contour maps generated by machine learning algorithms in SG systems. In addition, considering the economic issues, the placement optimization of distributed synchrophasor sensors is studied to reduce the number of the sensors without affecting the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, because the natural hazards is a critical issue for power system security, this approach is studied under different types of faults caused by natural hazards. A fast steady-state approach is proposed for voltage security of power systems with a wind power plant connected. The impedance matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. Based on the impedance matrix, locations in SG can be identified, where cause the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plants point of interconnection. Furthermore, because this dynamic voltage security assessment method relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations, the proposed approach

  7. Renewing the licenses of US nuclear plants: An assessment of the socioeconomic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, M.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, increased national attention has been focused on the potential effects of renewing, or not renewing, the licenses of nuclear power plants as the oldest of them approach the end of the 40-year operating period allowed by their original licenses. As part of a larger study for the US Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC), the authors conducted an assessment of the potential socioeconomic impacts to those communities throughout the country in which nuclear power plants are located and which, therefore, are most directly affected by renewal of nuclear power plant licenses. This paper focuses on six key issues that are traditionally considered essential in the assessment of social impacts: Population; housing; tax payments; local public services; land use and development; and economic structure

  8. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Chen, Yi-Leng

    2011-01-01

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  9. Assessment and Methods for Supply-Following Loads in Modern Electricity Grids with Deep Renewables Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    today. Following the course of this trend, grids with deep renewables penetration present a CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2 family of new challenges and...maps the demand curve. Coal is operated as an intermediate resource, turned on for the course of the day, but turned off at night; this represents a...Internet access and a data storage entity, recording data samples into a MySQL database. Having all of the sensors on a network was important for

  10. An enviro-economic function for assessing energy resources for district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    District energy (DE) systems provide an important means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and the significant related concerns associated with global climate change. DE systems can use fossil fuels, renewable energy and waste heat as energy sources, and facilitate intelligent integration of energy systems. In this study, an enviro-economic function is developed for assessing various energy sources for a district energy system. The DE system is assessed for the considered energy resources by considering two main factors: CO 2 emissions and economics. Using renewable energy resources and associated technologies as the energy suppliers for a DE system yields environmental benefits which can lead to financial advantages through such instruments as tax breaks; while fossil fuels are increasingly penalized by a carbon tax. Considering these factors as well as the financial value of the technology, an analysis approach is developed for energy suppliers of the DE system. In addition, the proposed approach is modified for the case when thermal energy storage is integrated into a DE system. - Highlights: • Developed a function to assess various energy sources for a district energy system. • Considered CO 2 emissions and economics as two main factors. • Applied renewable energy resources technologies as the suppliers for a DE system. • Yields environmental benefits can lead to financial benefits by tax breaks. • Modified enviro-economic function for the TES integrated into a DE system

  11. Efficiency analysis for the production of modern energy carriers from renewable resources and wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.; Tiezzi, E.; Marques, J.C.; Brebbia, C.A.; Jorgensen, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Two global problems related to the use of fossil fuels are fast depletion and environmental damage. Biomass has a great potential as a clean renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers such as biodiesel, methanol, and hydrogen. However, the use of biomass is accompanied by possible

  12. Integration of wide scale renewable resources into the power delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The CD includes the 60 papers presented and discussed, which cover the following: - National experiences with wind power; - Impact of wind generation on planning; - Rules for connection of wind generation; grid codes; - Impact on operation: Forecasting wind generation; Stability, control; - Research, fields and labs; Modelling and simulation; Micro-grids; - Economics on integrating renewables and other general issues

  13. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Marta Bourke Calgon Carbon Corporation Joe Bozell National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kyd Brenner Corn Refiners Association Robert Brown Iowa State...Rowe Dow Chemical Company Colin Scanes Iowa State University Tom Schechinger Iron Horse Custom Farming LLC Sharon Shoemaker California Institute of Food

  14. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  15. Environmental assessment for renewal of Materials License No. SNM-778 (Docket no. 70-824)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Environmental Assessment includes discussions of the need for the proposed renewal action, alternatives to the action, and the environmental impacts of the proposed action. The staff has determined that the methods of waste confinement and effluent controls meet all applicable state and federal standards. The environmental impact of continued operation is insignificant

  16. Transient Stability Assessment of Power Systems With Uncertain Renewable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas Pico, Hugo Nestor [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aliprantis, Dionysios C. [Purdue University; Lin, Xiaojun [Purdue University

    2017-08-09

    The transient stability of a power system depends heavily on its operational state at the moment of a fault. In systems where the penetration of renewable generation is significant, the dispatch of the conventional fleet of synchronous generators is uncertain at the time of dynamic security analysis. Hence, the assessment of transient stability requires the solution of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with unknown initial conditions and inputs. To this end, we set forth a computational framework that relies on Taylor polynomials, where variables are associated with the level of renewable generation. This paper describes the details of the method and illustrates its application on a nine-bus test system.

  17. Addressing strategic environmental assessment of Mexico's transition towards renewable energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Rodríguez, José José; Cremades Oliver, Lázaro Vicente; Ahumada Cervantes, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The transition to environmentally sustainable societies entails a significant shift in the field of planning process strategy. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) applied to Policies, Plans and Programmes, i.e., planning tools that precede the Project in the decision-making process and surpass it in terms of spatial and subject scope and level of abstraction involved, is recognised internationally as an instrument which is strategic in nature, and is conceived as a flexible framework of ...

  18. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact from Depletion of Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    INPRO is an international project to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. A basic principle of INPRO in the area of environmental impact from depletion of resources is that a nuclear energy system will be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the 21st century while making efficient use of non-renewable resources needed for construction, operation and decommissioning. Recognizing that a national nuclear energy programme in a given country may be based both on indigenous resources and resources purchased from abroad, this publication provides background materials and summarizes the results of international global resource availability studies that could contribute to the corresponding national assessments

  19. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  20. Environmental assessment for final rule on nuclear power plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations provide for the renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses beyond their initial 40-year term. The Act and NRC regulations, however, do not specify the procedures, criteria, and standards that must be satisfied in order to renew a license. The NRC is promulgating a rule (10 CFR Part 54) to codify such requirements prior to the receipt of applications for license renewal. The NRC has assessed the possible environmental effects of promulgating requirements in 10 CFR Part 54 now rather than employing such requirements in an ad hoc manner in individual licensing actions. The final part 54 rule requires the development of information and analyses to identify aging problems of systems, structures, and components unique to license renewal that will be of concern during the period of extended operation and will not be controlled by existing effective programs. In general, licensee activities for license renewal may involve replacement, refurbishment, inspection, testing, or monitoring. Such actions will be generally be within the range of similar actions taken for plants during the initial operating term. These actions would be primarily confined within the plants with potential for only minor disruption to the environment. It is unlikely that these actions would change the operating conditions of plants in ways that would change the environmental effects already being experienced. Relicensing under existing regulations would also be primarily focused on aging degradation and would likely result in requirements similar to those that will result from relicensing under the final rule

  1. Voronoi-Tessellated Graphite Produced by Low-Temperature Catalytic Graphitization from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leyi; Zhao, Xiuyun; Burke, Luke T; Bennett, J Craig; Dunlap, Richard A; Obrovac, Mark N

    2017-09-11

    A highly crystalline graphite powder was prepared from the low temperature (800-1000 °C) graphitization of renewable hard carbon precursors using a magnesium catalyst. The resulting graphite particles are composed of Voronoi-tessellated regions comprising irregular sheets; each Voronoi-tessellated region having a small "seed" particle located near their centroid on the surface. This suggests nucleated outward growth of graphitic carbon, which has not been previously observed. Each seed particle consists of a spheroidal graphite shell on the inside of which hexagonal graphite platelets are perpendicularly affixed. This results in a unique high surface area graphite with a high degree of graphitization that is made with renewable feedstocks at temperatures far below that conventionally used for artificial graphites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

    2006-01-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy

  3. Research on the Renewable Energy Industry Financing Efficiency Assessment and Mode Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Lyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental issues are attracting widespread attention by various countries around the world. In this context, the renewable energy industry has become a stimulus point for economic development and has great potential for development. Renewable energy industry financing is difficult due to its characteristics of high risk and long-term investment returns, and relying on existing financing channels make it present a glut of excess capacity. It is key to realize resource optimal allocation, solve overcapacity phenomenon and select the valid financing mode. This paper used Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF data and the data envelopment analysis (DEA method to analyze the financing efficiency different parts of the global renewable energy industry and different ways of financing. It could be found that although the financing efficiency showed a trend of increasing year by year, the financing efficiency of each industry presented generally weak DEA efficiency, the comprehensive financing efficiency of wind power industry was higher. The article also found that the financing efficiency of project financing and Research and Development (R&D were relatively high, and the equity market and venture capital and private equity were less efficient. The results of this paper play an important role in the overall financing status cognizance of the renewable energy industry and give suggestions about valid financing mode choice.

  4. Comparative Cost-Benefit Analysis of Renewable Energy Resource Trade Offs for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    energy and energy efficiency are defined. Renewable energy comes from natural sources, those that are naturally replenished by the planet , such as rain...temperature gradients, which will change as the planet warms” (Greene, Chatelain, Morrissey, & Stadler, 2012, p. 32). Greene et al. (2012) offer that any...negative effects on the environment. The toxic chemicals used in manufacturing solar panels (such as mercury and chromium, and including the conduit

  5. Coenoses risk assessment in industry (resource specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyaglov Sergey, G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of the economic infrastructure of modern Russia is now essential, taking a natural limiter necessary momentum, which is especially important in the current conditions of global trends and taking into account the efforts taken by the State, aimed at large-scale growth of production of Russian companies. This paper discusses the direction of overcoming the problem of lack of access to financial services to business entities, due to the lack of a universal tool to identify risks in the provision of credit resources to the understanding that, despite the differences in interpretation of Russian and foreign sources, is a complex of ontological perception of researchers, proposed expanded by generally accepted phenomenon of self-organization. It is proposed to assess the risks of the enterprises on the basis of the provisions of coenoses theory, which allows using a few key parameters to determine the degree of efficiency of use of available resources, to identify the stability of the enterprise as a system and predict its dynamic changes.

  6. An analysis of Grenada's power sector and energy resources: a role for renewable energy technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesser, D.

    2004-01-01

    Presently, Grenada's power sector is fully dependent on fossil fuel imports for meeting the country's electricity demand. Electric utilities in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), in general, face high cost of electricity generation due to diseconomies of scale in production, consumption and logistical aspects. Grenada's private power monopoly is no exception and the high cost of import dependent electricity generation places an increasing burden on economic development. In light of rapid technological and economic improvement of renewable energy technologies (RETs), the country's abundant sources of renewable energy should be harnessed. Benefits are envisaged to include lower electricity cost, better environmental performance and a safer and diversified supply of energy. However, barriers for shifting power production towards meaningful contributions from RETs exist, both in government and industry. This work analyses important economic interactions between the power sector and economic development, bringing to attention the importance of power sector reform. Further, present problems of integrating RETs into the grid, ranging from technical and regulatory issues to shareholder interest are investigated. A summary and analysis of past research into renewable sources of energy (RES) underscore the potential for power production from RETs in Grenada. (author)

  7. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  8. Contents and assessment of basic tourism resources

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Rade

    2008-01-01

    The article looks at the attractive factors of basic tourism resources and the structure of their attractions. The general term ‘resource’ refers to both natural and anthropogenic resources, while the content of this concept refers to elements used in creating a tourism product. Basic tourism resources are the most important factors of tourism processes, with a vital attribute of direct and indirect tourism resources being their substitutability. Natural (biotropic) resources are consid...

  9. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Stooksbury, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Rangeland resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    This report documents trends in America's rangelands as required by the Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974. The Forest Service has conducted assessments of the rangeland situation for 30 years. Over this period, rangeland values and uses have gradually shifted from concentrating upon forage production and meeting increasing demand for red meat to a more...

  11. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  12. Invention, innovation and R and D behaviours in non-renewable resource markets: the case of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudou, J.Ch.

    1996-12-01

    This work tries to show how the neo-Hotellinian analysis can be reconsidered through the R and D and technological innovation prism. It tries to appreciate how the R and D efforts, the incitation to innovate and the innovation timing phenomena modify the basic r% rule and allow to explain some of the conventionalized facts observed on non-renewable resource markets, and in particular on the crude-oil market. Methodologically talking, this work follows the mining paradigm built by H. Hotelling and L. Gray, i.e. a neo-classical logic of the agents and of the market. This choice corresponds to a wish to carry out a theoretical analysis instead of a pragmatic one of the relations between natural resource sectors and technological innovation. This study is organized around a separation between the decision problems of companies and the market strategy problems. (J.S.)

  13. The survival of the conformist: social pressure and renewable resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro; Schlüter, Maja; Levin, Simon

    2012-04-21

    This paper examines the role of other-regarding behavior as a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of cooperation in resource use under variable social and environmental conditions. By coupling resource stock dynamics with social dynamics concerning compliance to a social norm prescribing non-excessive resource extraction in a common pool resource, we show that when reputational considerations matter and a sufficient level of social stigma affects the violators of a norm, sustainable outcomes are achieved. We find large parameter regions where norm-observing and norm-violating types coexist, and analyze to what extent such coexistence depends on the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nedaei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies have potential for supplying of relatively clean and mostly local energy. Wind energy generation is expected to increase in the near future and has experienced dramatic growth over the past decade in many countries. Wind speed is the most important parameter in the design and study of wind energy conversion systems. Probability density functions such as Weibull and Rayleigh are often used in wind speed and wind energy analyses. This paper presents an assessment of wind energy at three heights during near two years based on Weibull distribution function in Abadan Airport. Extrapolation of the 10 m and 40 m data, using the power law, has been used to determine the wind speed at height of 80 m. According to the results wind speed at 80 m height in Abadan is ranged from 5.8 m/s in Nov to 8.5 m/s in Jun with average value of 7.15 m/s. In this study, different parameters such as Weibull parameters, diurnal and monthly wind speeds, cumulative distribution and turbulence intensity have been estimated and analyzed. In addition Energy production of different wind turbines at different heights was estimated. The results show that the studied site has good potential for Installation of large and commercial wind turbines at height of 80 m or higher. Keywords: Abadan, Iran, wind energy, wind resource, wind turbine, Weibull

  15. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  16. [Industrial exploitation of renewable resources: from ethanol production to bioproducts development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Plants, which are one of major groups of life forms, are constituted of an amazing number of molecules such as sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds etc. These molecules display multiple and complementary properties involved in various compartments of plants (structure, storage, biological activity etc.). The first uses of plants in industry were for food and feed, paper manufacturing or combustion. In the coming decades, these renewable biological materials will be the basis of a new concept: the "biorefiner" i.e. the chemical conversion of the whole plant to various products and uses. This concept, born in the 90ies, is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and derivative products from petroleum. Agriculture generates lots of co-products which were most often wasted. The rational use of these wasted products, which can be considered as valuable renewable materials, is now economically interesting and will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse has emissions by partially substituting for fossil fuels. Such substructures from biological waste products and transforming them into biofuels and new industrial products named "bioproducts". These compounds, such as bioplastics or biosurfactants, can replace equivalent petroleum derivatives. Towards that goal, lots of filamentous fungi, growing on a broad range of vegetable species, are able to produce enzymes adapted to the modification of these type of substrates. The best example, at least the more industrially developed to date, is the second generation biofuel technology using cellulose as a raw material. The process includes an enzymatic hydrolysis step which requires cellulases secreted from Trichoderma fungal species. This industrial development of a renewable energy will contribute to the diversification of energy sources used to transport and to the development of green chemistry which will partially substitute petrochemicals.

  17. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  18. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.; Farmer, Thomas J.; Hunt, Andrew J.; Sherwood, James

    2015-01-01

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents. PMID:26225963

  19. Readability assessment of online tracheostomy care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Keonho Albert; Hu, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    To assess the readability of online tracheostomy care resources. Cross-sectional study. Academic center. A Google search was performed for "tracheostomy care" in January 2014. The top 50 results were categorized into major versus minor websites and patient-oriented versus professional-oriented resources. These websites were evaluated with the following readability tools: Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG). Readability scores for the websites were FRES 57.21 ± 16.71 (possible range = 0-100), FKGL 8.33 ± 2.84 (possible range = 3-12), SMOG 11.25 ± 2.49 (possible range = 3-19), and GFOG 11.43 ± 4.07 (possible range = 3-19). There was no significant difference in all 4 readability scores between major (n = 41) and minor (n = 9) websites. Professional-oriented websites (n = 19) had the following readability scores: FRES 40.77 ± 11.69, FKGL 10.93 ± 2.48, SMOG 13.29 ± 2.32, and GFOG 14.91 ± 3.98. Patient-oriented websites (n = 31) had the following readability scores: FRES 67.29 ± 9.91, FKGL 6.73 ± 1.61, SMOG 10.01 ± 1.64, and GFOG 9.30 ± 2.27. Professional-oriented websites had more difficult readability scores than patient-oriented websites for FRES (P readability between major and minor websites. Professional-oriented websites were more difficult to read than patient-oriented websites. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  20. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    following utility- and site-specific conditions that may affect the economic viability of distributed renewable energy sources were considered: distribution system characteristics, and design standards, and voltage levels; load density, reliability, and power quality; solar insolation and wind resource levels; utility generation characteristics and load profiles; and investor-owned and publicly owned utilities, size, and financial assumptions.

  1. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  2. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  3. Carbohydrates in sustainable development I. Renewable resources for chemistry and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauter, Amelia, P. [Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Dept. Quimica e Bioquimica; Vogel, Pierre [Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. of Glycochemistry and Asymmetric Synthesis; Queneau, Yves (eds.) [Lyon Univ. Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Chimie et Biochimie

    2010-07-01

    Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material, By S. Peters, T. Rose, and M. Moser; Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis, By I. Andre, G. Potocki-Veronese, S. Morel, P. Monsan, and M. Remaud-Simeon; Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods, By C. Ortiz Mellet and J. M. Garcia Fernandez; Development of Agriculture Left-Overs: Fine Organic Chemicals from Wheat Hemicellulose-Derived Pentoses, By F. Martel, B. Estrine, R. Plantier-Royon, N. Hoffmann, and C. Portella; Cellulose and Derivatives from Wood and Fibers as Renewable Sources of Raw-Materials, By J.A. Figueiredo, M.I. Ismael, C.M.S. Anjo, and A.P. Duarte; Olive Pomace, a Source for Valuable Arabinan-Rich Pectic Polysaccharides, By M. A. Coimbra, S. M. Cardoso, and J. A. Lopes-da-Silva; Oligomannuronates from Seaweeds as Renewable Sources for the Development of Green Surfactants,By T. Benvegnu and J.-F. Sassi; From Natural Polysaccharides to Materials for Catalysis, Adsorption, and Remediation, By F. Quignard, F. Di Renzo, and E. Guibal. (orig.)

  4. Kaneohe, Hawaii Wind Resource Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Green, J.; Meadows, B.

    2011-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has an interagency agreement to assist the Department of Defense (DOD) in evaluating the potential to use wind energy for power at residential properties at DOD bases in Hawaii. DOE assigned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to facilitate this process by installing a 50-meter (m) meteorological (Met) tower on residential property associated with the Marine Corps Base Housing (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay in Hawaii.

  5. Resource analysis of the Chinese society 1980-2002 based on exergy-Part 2: Renewable energy sources and forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q.

    2007-01-01

    This second part is the continuation of the first part on fossil fuels and energy minerals. The major renewable energy sources and forest products entering the Chinese society from 1980 to 2002, including sunlight, wind power, tidal power, wave power, geothermal power and heating, biomass, hydroelectric resource and forestry products, are calculated and analyzed in detail in this paper. The solar exergy inputs from solar photovoltaics and solar collectors, including water heater, solar oven and solar building, are calculated and discussed. The development of the wind power plant is presented. Major tidal power plants, which are still working, are addressed. Wave power devices and plants are introduced. Geothermal resources, mainly for power generation and heating, associated with distribution, are depicted. The utilization of biomass, embracing firewood, straw and biogas, which served as the main obtainable local resources for private consumption and production in the rural areas, is illustrated. Development of hydroelectric resources as complement to scarce fossil fuels is represented, of which the small hydropower project adapted for rural areas is emphasized. Finally, forest products from timber forest and economic forest are presented, with the forestation, reproducing, tending areas and sum of odd forestation trees being manifested

  6. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  7. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  8. How do dynamic capabilities transform external technologies into firms’ renewed technological resources? – A mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Ning, Lutao

    2016-01-01

    microfoundations of dynamic technological capabilities, mediate the relationship between external technology breadth and firms’ technological innovation performance, based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability view. Using a sample of listed Chinese licensee firms, we find that firms must broadly......How externally acquired resources may become valuable, rare, hard-to-imitate, and non-substitute resource bundles through the development of dynamic capabilities? This study proposes and tests a mediation model of how firms’ internal technological diversification and R&D, as two distinctive...... explore external technologies to ignite the dynamism in internal technological diversity and in-house R&D, which play their crucial roles differently to transform and reconfigure firms’ technological resources....

  9. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Adisa, Banji O. ... Key words: Assessment, community-based, natural resources, socio-environmental sustainability, ... Natural resources occur within environments that are.

  10. Optimising the extraction rate of a non-durable non-renewable resource in a monopolistic market: a mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Albert; Fossas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We assume a monopolistic market for a non-durable non-renewable resource such as crude oil, phosphates or fossil water. Stating the problem of obtaining optimal policies on extraction and pricing of the resource as a non-linear program allows general conclusions to be drawn under diverse assumptions about the demand curve, discount rates and length of the planning horizon. We compare the results with some common beliefs about the pace of exhaustion of this kind of resources.

  11. Strategy of penetration of renewable power resources in the Granma province, through Analytical Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez Leyva, Lázaro Ventura; Rosa Andino, Alain Ariel de la; Jácome Cadena, Jaime Fernando; Paredes Palomeque, Cristian Rene

    2014-01-01

    In selecting new energy sources for a country, region or rural communities, the criteria to be considered conflict and it is difficult to determine the best energetic options as to preference and priority. Therefore, the present work had as objective to define a strategy of penetration of renewable energy sources from consultation of experts and the later application of the mathematical procedure ''Analytic Hierarchy Process''. The obtained results suggest that the energy strategies of better performance for the Granma province are the following: eolian energy for water pumping, solar photovoltaic for water pumping, solar thermal energy for the sector which demands hot water, and solar photovoltaic for the electrical sector, in that order of priority. (author)

  12. Modern Energy Markets Real-Time Pricing, Renewable Resources and Efficient Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy has moved to the forefront in terms of societal and economic development. Modern Energy Markets is a comprehensive, economically oriented, exploration of modern electricity networks from production and distribution to deregulation and liberalization processes. Updating previous work by the authors, different aspects are considered resulting in a complete and detailed picture of  the systems and characteristics of modern electricity markets. Modern Energy Markets provides clear detail whilst encompassing a broad scope of topics and includes: •A method to model energy production systems including the main characteristics of future demand side management, •Different applications of this model in nuclear and renewable energy scenarios, •An analysis of Real-Time Pricing of electricity and its potential effects across the market, and, •A discussion of the need for regulation in an easily monopolized industry. Engineering and Economics students alike will find that Modern Energy Markets is a succinct...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  14. Increasing Biofuel Deployment and Utilization through Development of Renewable Super Premium: Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Kass, M.; Theiss, T.

    2014-11-01

    A high octane fuel and specialized vehicle are under consideration as a market opportunity to meet federal requirements for renewable fuel use and fuel economy. Infrastructure is often cited as a barrier for the introduction of a new fuel. This report assesses infrastructure readiness for E25 (25% ethanol; 75% gasoline) and E25+ (more than 25% ethanol). Both above-ground and below-ground equipment are considered as are the current state of stations, codes and regulations, and materials compatibility.

  15. Geothermal resource assessment of Ouray, Colorado. Resource series 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.; Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, a program was initiated to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of geothermal resources in Colorado. In the Ouray area, this effort consisted of geological mapping, soil mercury geochemical surveys and resistivity geophysical surveys. The soil mercury obtained inconclusive results, with the Box Canyon area indicating a few anomalous values, but these values are questionable and probably are due to the hot spring activity and mineralization within the Leadville limestone rock. One isolated locality indicating anomalous values was near the Radium Springs pool and ball park, but this appears to be related to warm waters leaking from a buried pipe or from the Uncompahgre River. The electrical resistivity survey however, indicated several areas of low resistivity zones namely above the Box Canyon area, the power station area and the Wiesbaden Motel area. From these low zones it is surmised that the springs are related to a complex fault system which serves as a conduit for the deep circulation of ground waters through the system.

  16. Assessment of energy supply and continuity of service in distribution network with renewable distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.A.; Agalgaonkar, A.P.; Muttaqi, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Difficulties in assessing distribution network adequacy with DG are addressed. • Indices are proposed to assess adequacy of energy supply and service continuity. • Analytical methodology is developed to assess the proposed indices. • Concept of joint probability distribution of demand and generation is applied. - Abstract: Continuity of electricity supply with renewable distributed generation (DG) is a topical issue for distribution system planning and operation, especially due to the stochastic nature of power generation and time varying load demand. The conventional adequacy and reliability analysis methods related to bulk generation systems cannot be applied directly for the evaluation of adequacy criteria such as ‘energy supply’ and ‘continuity of service’ for distribution networks embedded with renewable DG. In this paper, new indices highlighting ‘available supply capacity’ and ‘continuity of service’ are proposed for ‘energy supply’ and ‘continuation of service’ evaluation of generation-rich distribution networks, and analytical techniques are developed for their quantification. A probability based analytical method has been developed using the joint probability of the demand and generation, and probability distributions of the proposed indices have been used to evaluate the network adequacy in energy supply and service continuation. A data clustering technique has been used to evaluate the joint probability between coincidental demand and renewable generation. Time sequential Monte Carlo simulation has been used to compare the results obtained using the proposed analytical method. A standard distribution network derived from Roy Billinton test system and a practical radial distribution network have been used to test the proposed method and demonstrate the estimation of the well-being of a system for hosting renewable DG units. It is found that renewable DG systems improve the ‘energy supply’ and

  17. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  18. Funds from non-renewable energy resources: Policy lessons from Alaska and Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baena, César; Sévi, Benoît; Warrack, Allan

    2012-01-01

    We document the use of energy natural resource funds in Alaska and Alberta and analyze theirs characteristics for further implementation in resource-rich countries. Such funds allow dealing theoretically with intergenerational equity issues, corruption, and more general institutional problems. The performance of both funds is very different, depending on the management and composition choices but some policy lessons can be drawn from these two examples. Importantly, the role of a public dividend policy is highlighted as a way to bypass corrupted institutions and to enhance quality of life for poorest people. We also emphasize the need to deal with inflation to make the fund sustainable. - Highlights: ► We document the optimal intergenerational energy resource management using funds. ► We use Alaskan and Albertan experiences to provide policy lessons for future implementation of such funds. ► We emphasize the role of a public dividend policy

  19. Planning for a soft landing : non-renewable resource development and community infrastructure in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This paper provided a high-level overview of research related to the boom and bust cycle of resource-based economic development and community infrastructure in the north, particularly in the Northwest Territories. The paper focused on what is known and on knowledge gaps that needed to be filled in each of 3 theme areas for an experts workshop on northern communities. The themes that were discussed at the workshop and in this paper were: the connections between non-renewable resources development and community infrastructure in the north; planning for resource development; and strategies for moving ahead and putting ideas into practice. The paper discussed the objectives of the research and discussed findings under each of the 3 themes. Topics discussed included: changes in the infrastructure mix; infrastructure and climate change; infrastructure financing; uncertainty; knowledge; planning tools; stakeholder participation; and measuring and monitoring planning implementation. Data availability was also discussed along with funding mechanisms, technological innovations and community capacity building. It was concluded that strategies for dealing with the boom-induced infrastructure challenges facing communities in the Northwest Territories should focus on making more creative use of available funding; promoting technical innovation; and improving maintenance capacity at the community level. 62 refs

  20. Assessment of instruments in facilitating investment in off-grid renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng; Liu, Xiying; Yao, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Renewable off-grid solution plays a critical role in supporting rural electrification. However, off-grid Renewable Energy (OGRE) project financing faces significant challenges due to limited financing access, low affordability of consumers, high transactions costs and etc. Various supporting instruments have been implemented to facilitate OGRE investment. This study assesses the effectiveness of those instruments with a framework consists of three dimensions: feasibility, sustainability and replicability. The weights of each dimension in the framework and the scores of each instrument are assessed by expert surveys based on the Delphi method. It is suggested that all the three dimensions should be taken into consideration while assessing the instruments, among which feasibility and sustainability are considered as the most important dimensions in the assessment framework. Furthermore, the top-5 most effective instruments in facilitating OGRE investment are local engagement in operation and maintenance, loan guarantee, start-up grant, end user financing, and concessional finance. Developing countries that need to increase electrification, such as most of the ASEAN member states, could use these top scored instruments despite of their limited amount of public finance. - Highlights: •Assess the effectiveness of instruments for promoting financing for OGRE projects. •A three-dimension assessment framework: feasibility, sustainability, replicability. •Use online surveys and the Delphi method to collect experts’ assessment. •The most effective instruments: local engagement, loan guarantee, and start-up grant.

  1. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, C.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the costs for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the BRAVO system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amount, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply joints, demand points and product movement costs. In addition, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles.

  3. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noon, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the cost for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired power plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform open-quotes what ifclose quotes analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the Bravo system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amounts, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply points, demand points and product movement costs. In additions, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles

  4. Structural identification of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis strains grown on the media obtained from renewable natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Bernat, Przemysław; Kuśmierska, Anna; Chojniak, Joanna; Płaza, Grażyna

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and characterize lipopeptide (LP) biosurfactants produced by two Bacillus subtilis strains (KP7 and I'-1a) grown on various media prepared from renewable natural resources: two different brewery wastewaters (BW#4 and BW#6), 2% beet molasses (M), apple peels extract (APE) supplemented with 0.25% of yeast extract (YE) or 0.25% peptone (P), and similarly supplemented carrot peels extract (CPE). In all used media both strains retained their individual LP production signature characterized by surfactin and iturin overproduction exhibited by KP7 and I'-1a strain, respectively. The production level and the structural diversity of synthesized LPs were dependent on the medium composition. In the CPE+YE medium it was higher than the yield obtained in Luria-Bertani (140.6 and 100.3 mg L -1 , respectively). Surfactins were produced by both strains as a mixture of four homologues (C13-C16) with the domination of variant C14. All other broths prepared from renewable resources strongly stimulated the iturin production by I'-1a strain with the exception of BW media. The highest iturin concentration (428.7 mg L -1 ) obtained in the CPE+P culture of I'-1a strain was about seven-fold higher than in LB. In all cultures only iturin A was identified. Among four iturin homologues (C13-16) produced by I'-1a strain, the highest relative contents of C16 variant (70-80%) were calculated for samples obtained from APE+P and CPE+P media. The obtained data indicate that the waste composition has an influence on both the types and amounts of biosurfactants produced by studied B. subtilis strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-01-01

    This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

  6. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  7. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 04008964, NRC-2012-0214] Power Resources, Inc., Smith... available in ADAMS) is provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland... (Smith Ranch Technical Report); Accession No. ML12234A539 (Smith Ranch Environmental Report). In addition...

  8. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  9. Integration of renewable energy resources when they dominate the electricity production mix; Integration erneuerbarer Energiequellen bei hohen Anteilen an der Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieb, Franz [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Gruppe Energie Integration

    2013-07-15

    The energy turnaround has triggered a reorganisation of the German energy supply system and in the process has given rise to a number of complex problems. The challenge at hand is to find the optimal route into an energy supply landscape based largely on renewable resources. This article investigates two scenarios of a sustainable future, one based on largely fluctuating resources and the other including controllable renewable sources as well as the use of storages. The author has found there to be substantial differences between these two paths.

  10. From resource to valorisation: the long way of renewable energies - ADeus' Notes Nr 191. Renewable energies - To support sectors at the heart of energy transition - ADeus' Notes Nr 192. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Anne; Gendron, Yves; Isenmann, Jean; Ruff, Valentine; Berlet, Jessica; Jeanniard, Myriam; Martin, Stephanie; Vigneron, Fabienne; Masse, Camille

    2015-12-01

    A first issue of this publication discusses the various technical, regulatory, economic or social barriers or brakes which may impede or slow down the development of renewable energies from a theoretical potential to an available one. It outlines that various planning tools are available to local communities to plan such a development, and to manage the valorisation of various resources, to choose the right equipment at the right place, and to manage social acceptance issues through a well planned process. It also discusses the relationship between resources and usages, and the need to integrate local renewable energies to their consumption locations. The second issue of this publication proposes an overview of the differences which can be noticed between local resources in terms of exploitation capacities. It outlines that the different renewable energy sectors display different levels of organisation, and that the diversification of firms, professions and training is still on its way. The next article highlights the promising context for costs and technologies: higher efficiencies, better distribution of installations, progressive reduction of cost differences between renewable energies on the one hand and fossil and nuclear energies on the other hand. Potential courses of action are discussed: a better readability of public supports, guaranteed supply and outputs, promotion of acceptability, support of new actor configurations and integration to the grid

  11. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

    2011-10-06

    This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

  12. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  13. Local impact of renewables on employment: Assessment methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llera Sastresa, Eva; Uson, Alfonso Aranda; Bribian, Ignacio Zabalza; Scarpellini, Sabina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated method that assesses the socio-economic impact of establishing renewable energy on a regional scale, in particular on the creation of jobs. The method proposed is based on the collection, critical analysis and presentation of the results obtained using primary information sources considering the jobs created as the most direct measure of the socio-economic potential of renewable energy sources. Its design includes contributions extracted from a prior analysis of the existing assessment methods, to lessen the uncertainty of the job ratios often used in these types of analysis. The integrated method implemented has been applied to the autonomous community of Aragon (Spain) as a pilot case, through which the method has been tested and the indicators selected to analyse the socio-economic impact of renewable energy sources on the jobs created, the quality of the jobs and other factors related to the socio-economic development of a territory: technological development, per capita income, territorial development and human capital. (author)

  14. Disassembly of Bacterial Biofilms by the Self-Assembled Glycolipids Derived from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Yadavali Siva; Miryala, Sandeep; Lalitha, Krishnamoorthy; Ranjitha, K; Barbhaiwala, Shehnaz; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Maheswari, C Uma; Srinandan, C S; Nagarajan, Subbiah

    2017-11-22

    More than 80% of chronic infections of bacteria are caused by biofilms. It is also a long-term survival strategy of the pathogens in a nonhost environment. Several amphiphilic molecules have been used in the past to potentially disrupt biofilms; however, the involvement of multistep synthesis, complicated purification and poor yield still remains a major problem. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of glycolipid based surfactant from renewable feedstocks in good yield. The nature of carbohydrate unit present in glycolipid influence the ring chain tautomerism, which resulted in the existence of either cyclic structure or both cyclic and acyclic structures. Interestingly, these glycolipids self-assemble into gel in highly hydrophobic solvents and vegetable oils, and displayed foam formation in water. The potential application of these self-assembled glycolipids to disrupt preformed biofilm was examined against various pathogens. It was observed that glycolipid 6a disrupts Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes biofilm, while the compound 6c was effective in disassembling uropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium biofilms. Altogether, the supramolecular self-assembled materials, either as gel or as surfactant solution could be potentially used for surface cleansing in hospital environments or the food processing industries to effectively reduce pathogenic biofilms.

  15. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  16. Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuburovic, M.; Jovovic, A.

    2002-01-01

    Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

  17. Depletion of the non-renewable natural exergy resources as a measure of the ecological cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szargut, Jan; Ziebik, Andrzej; Stanek, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    The cumulative consumption of non-renewable exergy connected with the fabrication of particular products has been termed as their ecological cost. System of linear input-output equations determining the ecological costs have been formulated. The cogeneration processes have been considered using the principle of the avoided costs of fabrication of the products substituted by the by-products of the considered process. The ecological cost determined in a regional scope takes into account the ecological cost of the imported raw materials and semi-finished products. These quantities have been substituted by the economically equivalent export of own products. The deleterious effect of the rejection of waste products to the environment has been approximately determined by means of the monetary indices of harmfulness of waste products. It has been proved, that the ecological cost of human work cannot be introduced into the set of input-output equations. Exemplary calculations have been made for the products connected with the blast-furnace process. The influence of the injection of auxiliary fuels into the blast furnace on the ecological cost of pig iron has been analyzed too. (Author)

  18. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  19. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  20. Wave energy resource assessment for the Indian shelf seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.

    of the southeastern USA. Renewable Energy 2009; 34: 2197-205. [21] Lenee-Bluhm P, Paasch R, Özkan-Haller HT. Characterizing the wave energy resource of the US Pacific Northwest, Renewable Energy 2011; 36; 2106–2119. [22] Gunn K, Stock-Williams C. Quantifying... 17 18 19 0 1 2 3 4 M on th ly v ar ia bi lit y in de x (a) (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Location 2 3 4 5 R at io o f m ax im um to m ea n w av e he ig ht Figure 7. Variation of (a) monthly variability index and (b...

  1. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-liang Zhang; Zheng Lin; Qiu-lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  2. Indicators assessing the performance of renewable energy support policies in 27 Member States. D17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilber, S.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Noothout, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. It is the objective of this report to assess the performance of Member States in promoting renewable energy technologies (RET) that has been achieved during recent years. The report was originally published in late 2010 and has now been updated using the latest available data. The focus shall be on the following aspects: Monitoring the historic success of RET-support with quantitative indicators; Extension of existing Policy Effectiveness Indicator and economic indicators; New: Deployment Status Indicator and Electricity Market Preparedness indicator; followed by Conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  4. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  5. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and also play significant roles in supporting agricultural development but resources are inadequately provided. The main objective of the study was to assess the use of library resources on research activities of scientists in three ...

  6. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  7. Lipids as renewable resources: current state of chemical and biotechnological conversion and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J O; Bornscheuer, U

    2006-06-01

    Oils and fats are the most important renewable raw materials of the chemical industry. They make available fatty acids in such purity that they may be used for chemical conversions and for the synthesis of chemically pure compounds. Oleic acid (1) from "new sunflower," linoleic acid (2) from soybean, linolenic acid (3) from linseed, erucic acid (4) from rape seed, and ricinoleic acid (5) from castor oil are most important for chemical transformations offering in addition to the carboxy group one or more C-C-double bonds. New plant oils containing fatty acids with new and interesting functionalities such as petroselinic acid (6) from Coriandrum sativum, calendic acid (7) from Calendula officinalis, alpha-eleostearic acid (8) from tung oil, santalbic acid (9) from Santalum album (Linn.), and vernolic acid (10) from Vernonia galamensis are becoming industrially available. The basic oleochemicals are free fatty acids, methyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty amines as well as glycerol as a by-product. Their interesting new industrial applications are the usage as environmentally friendly industrial fluids and lubricants, insulating fluid for electric utilities such as transformers and additive to asphalt. Modern methods of synthetic organic chemistry including enzymatic and microbial transformations were applied extensively to fatty compounds for the selective functionalization of the alkyl chain. Syntheses of long-chain diacids, omega-hydroxy fatty acids, and omega-unsaturated fatty acids as base chemicals derived from vegetable oils were developed. Interesting applications were opened by the epoxidation of C-C-double bonds giving the possibility of photochemically initiated cationic curing and access to polyetherpolyols. Enantiomerically pure fatty acids as part of the chiral pool of nature can be used for the synthesis of nonracemic building blocks.

  8. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  9. An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Aziz Mohi El Din, Ehab Mohamed Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1 st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study

  10. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus...... and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...

  11. A Depletion Protocol for Non-Renewable Natural Resources: Australia as an Example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of statements by Australia's Minister of Resources that Australia's exports of coal are growing rapidly and that Australia's coal will last '110 years at current rates of production.' If one assumes that coal production P(t), follows a Gaussian curve (similar to a Hubbert curve) one can construct a family of Gaussian curves showing possible future paths of P(t) which are consistent with the cited '110 years.' Each curve reaches a maximum after which P(t) declines toward zero. Knowledge of the present value of dP/dt allows one member of the family to be identified as the most probable future path of P(t). Families of curves and tabular data are presented for resource quantities that would last 50, 100 and 200 years 'at current rates of production.' If, instead, Australia's P(t) follows a declining exponential curve (exp(-kt)) with k = (1/110) per year, the stated quantity of coal will allow production to continue forever, with P(t) declining with a half life of 76 y. This and more rapidly declining exponential paths are the only paths that can be said to be sustainable. The envelope of the family of Gaussian curves divides the (P, t) plane into 'allowed' and 'forbidden' areas. The declining exponential curve divides the 'allowed' area into an upper area that is 'terminal' and a lower area that is 'sustainable.' These facts, coupled with Australia's expectations of rapid growth of its population, suggest that Australia's present resource policies are 'anti-sustainable' and that the people of Australia need to rethink their present policy of rapidly exporting their fossil fuels

  12. Assessment of tidal range energy resources based on flux conservation in Jiantiao Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wu, He; Yu, Huaming; Lv, Ting; Li, Jiangyu; Yu, Yujun

    2017-12-01

    La Rance Tidal Range Power Station in France and Jiangxia Tidal Range Power Station in China have been both long-term successful commercialized operations as kind of role models for public at large for more than 40 years. The Sihwa Lake Tidal Range Power Station in South Korea has also developed to be the largest marine renewable power station with its installed capacity 254 MW since 2010. These practical applications prove that the tidal range energy as one kind of marine renewable energy exploitation and utilization technology is becoming more and more mature and it is used more and more widely. However, the assessment of the tidal range energy resources is not well developed nowadays. This paper summarizes the main problems in tidal range power resource assessment, gives a brief introduction to tidal potential energy theory, and then we present an analyzed and estimated method based on the tide numerical modeling. The technical characteristics and applicability of these two approaches are compared with each other. Furthermore, based on the theory of tidal range energy generation combined with flux conservation, this paper proposes a new assessment method that include a series of evaluation parameters and it can be easily operated to calculate the tidal range energy of the sea. Finally, this method is applied on assessment of the tidal range power energy of the Jiantiao Harbor in Zhejiang Province, China for demonstration and examination.

  13. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  14. Assessing the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanjun; Yoo, Han Kyul; Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is the second most prevalent greenhouse gas and has a global warming potential at least 28 times as high as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). In the United States, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are reported to be the third-largest source of human-made methane emissions, responsible for 18% of methane emissions in 2011. Capturing landfill gas (LFG) for use as an energy source for electricity or heat produces alternative energy as well as environmental benefits. A host of federal and state policies encourage the development of landfill gas to energy (LFGE) projects. This research provides the first systematic economic assessment of the role of these policies on adoption decisions. Results suggest that Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credits have contributed to the development of these projects, accounting for 13 of 277 projects during our data period from 1991 to 2010. These policy-induced projects lead to 10.4 MMTCO 2 e reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and a net benefit of $41.8 million. - Highlights: • Examine the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects • Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credit had impacts. • Investment tax credit policy is cost-effectiveness in promoting these projects. • Policy-induced projects lead to significant environmental benefits

  15. Assessing and Managing Natural Resource Damages: Continuing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W.; Stahl, Ralph G.

    2017-05-01

    In a 2002 paper, we discussed the technical challenges associated with quantifying natural resource injuries, service losses and damages, and suggested some actions that might help to overcome them. An important suggestion was to consider using some of the approaches in ecological risk assessment to help evaluate potential natural resource injuries, and ultimately in some cases to help translate those injuries into natural resource service loss. This was based on the observation that ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessments use much of the same types of data, but at that time the experience base with ecological risk assessment was greater than for natural resource damage assessments. We also discussed some of the issues in applying the then current Department of Interior natural resource damage assessments regulations. Since our 2002 publication the scientific literature, relevant regulations, the global context and more have changed. In the current paper we focus on the technical and regulatory changes in natural resource damage assessments practice since 2002, and use recent reports and publications to illustrate those changes and identify new directions in natural resource damage assessments.

  16. Kinetic energy recovery turbine technology: resource assessment and site development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, Marie-Helene; Ng, Karen

    2010-09-15

    New technologies to extract readily available energy from waves, tides and river flow are being developed and are promising but are still at the demonstration stage. Harnessing kinetic energy from currents (hydrokinetic power) is considered an attractive and cost-effective renewable energy solution to replace thermal generation without requiring construction of a dam or large civil works. The nature of this innovative hydrokinetic technology requires an adaptation of conventional approach to project engineering and environmental impact studies. This paper presents the approach developed by RSW to design a hydrokinetic site in the riverine environment, from resource assessment to detailed engineering design.

  17. The European renewable energy target for 2030 – An impact assessment of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Brigitte; Nahmmacher, Paul; Schmid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The European Union set binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) and the share of renewable energy (RE) in final energy consumption by 2020. The European Council agreed to continue with this strategy through to 2030 by setting a RE target of 27% in addition to a GHG reduction target of 40%. We provide a detailed sectoral impact assessment by analyzing the implications for the electricity sector in terms of economic costs and the regional distribution of investments and shares of electricity generated from renewable energy sources (RES-E). According to the Impact Analysis by the European Commission the 27% RE target corresponds to a RES-E share of 49%. Our model-based sensitivity analysis on underlying technological and institutional assumptions shows that the cost-effective RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. Secondly, we quantify the economic costs of these variants and those which would be incurred with higher shares. The long-term additional costs for higher RES-E shares would be less than 1% of total system costs. The third aspect relates to the regional distribution of EU-wide efforts for upscaling renewables. We point out that delivering high RES-E shares in a cost-effective manner involves considerably different efforts by the Member States. -- Highlights: •A renewable (RES) target of 27% is the cost-effective share for 40% GHG reduction. •For the electricity sector the RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. •Long-term costs for higher RES-E shares are less than 1% of total system costs. •There are large differences in RES deployment and costs between Member States. •A lack of a governance mechanism makes the EU-wide RES target difficult to achieve

  18. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  19. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  20. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind Power Project in North Dakota AGENCY: Tennessee Valley... (PPA) for the purchase of up to 200 megawatts (MW) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply...