WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable carbon source

  1. Biosynthesis of planet friendly bioplastics using renewable carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Roopesh; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Plastics are uniquely flexible materials that offer considerable benefits as a simple packing to complex engineering material. Traditional synthetic polymers (often called plastics), such as polypropylene and polyethylene have been derived from non-renewable petrochemicals and known to cause environmental concerns due to their non-biodegradable nature. The enormous use of petroleum-based plastic compounds emphasized a need for sustainable alternatives derived from renewable resources. Bioplastics have attracted widespread attention, as eco-friendly and eco-tolerable alternative. But they have got certain limitations as well, such as high cost of production and unsatisfactory mechanical properties. In this study we have found agriculture waste (AW) as low-cost and renewable substrate for the production of bioplastics in bacterial fermentation. Improvement in tensile properties of produced bioplastic film has also been documented upon blending with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB).

  2. Biomass as a Source of Renewable Carbon for Iron and Steelmaking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norgate, Terry; Haque, Nawshad; Somerville, Michael; Jahanshahi, Sharif

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuel-based carbon is widely used in iron and steelmaking in a number of forms, and the replacement of these materials with renewable carbon derived from biomass is seen as offering the greatest...

  3. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2011 significantly was influenced by the disaster in Fukushima (Japan) and the change of course in the German energy policy. In addition, there is the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in an increasingly controversial area of tension between climate protection, energy utilization, cost minimization and considerations on sustainability. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on developments in Germany in the year 2011 in the field of energy supply and fuel supply from renewable energies. Beside the energy-economic framework conditions for the various possibilities for the use of renewable energies, the current status, developments and prospects are analysed. The contribution gives an outlook on the possible expansion of the supply of renewable energies in 2012.

  4. Polymer biocomposites with renewable sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuciel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays production of natural biodegradable polymer composites is an important research topic on the stage of renewable sourcesimplementation instead of petrochemical sources. In this work, possibilities of processing biocomposites on the base on different types of biopolymers – polylactide (PLA, thermoplastic starch (TPS, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, cellulose acetate (CA - filled with natural fibers such as wood, kenaf, horse hair and nettle are presented. Large variety of natural fibers and their developed surface which increases adhesion to matrix makes them an attractive filler material. The fibers serve as reinforcement by giving strength and stiffness to the structure while the polymer matrix holds the fibers in place so that suitable structural composites can be made. Main physic-mechanical properties of natural fibers and biopolymers are presented. Modulus of elasticity and tensile strength increased with rising content of natural fibers in composite. The results show that biocomposites based on starch or PHB filled with kenaf fibers has the best mechanical properties. Modulus of elasticity achieves 10-12 GPa and tensile strength 50 MPa. This property can be interesting for packaging especially for fresh food like fruits or vegetables and for technical products with short-time life cycles. In future prospects, biocomposites based on biopolymers with a long time of decomposition can be interesting alternative as a construction material in automotive sectors.

  5. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O Olotuah; Olabosipo I Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

      Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint...

  6. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  7. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  8. Fermentative production of poly (γ-glutamic acid) from renewable carbon source and downstream purification through a continuous membrane-integrated hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-02-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on continuous and direct production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) in a hybrid reactor system that integrated conventional fermentative production step with membrane-based downstream separation and purification. Novelty of the integrated system lies in high degree of purity, conversion, yield and productivity of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) through elimination of substrate-product inhibitions of traditional batch production system. This new system is compact, flexible, eco-friendly and largely fouling-free ensuring steady and continuous production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) directly from a renewable carbon source at the rate of 0.91 g/L/h. Cross-flow microfiltration membrane modules ensured almost complete separation and recycle of cells without much fouling problem. Well-screened ultrafiltration membrane module helped to concentrate poly-(γ-glutamic acid) while ensuring recovery and recycle of 96% unconverted carbon source resulting in yield of 0.6g/g along with high product purity.

  9. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  10. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  11. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  12. Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

  13. Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion of Carbon and Stainless Steel Alloys Immersed in Mixtures of Renewable Fuel Sources and Tested Under Co-processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely András

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with modern regulations and directives, the use of renewable biomass materials as precursors for the production of fuels for transportation purposes is to be strictly followed. Even though, there are problems related to processing, storage and handling in wide range of subsequent uses, since there must be a limit to the ratio of biofuels mixed with mineral raw materials. As a key factor with regards to these biomass sources pose a great risk of causing multiple forms of corrosion both to metallic and non-metallic structural materials. To assess the degree of corrosion risk to a variety of engineering alloys like low-carbon and stainless steels widely used as structural metals, this work is dedicated to investigating corrosion rates of economically reasonable engineering steel alloys in mixtures of raw gas oil and renewable biomass fuel sources under typical co-processing conditions. To model a desulphurising refining process, corrosion tests were carried out with raw mineral gasoline and its mixture with used cooking oil and animal waste lard in relative quantities of 10% (g/g. Co-processing was simulated by batch-reactor laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 200 and 300ºC and a pressure in the gas phase of 90 bar containing 2% (m3/m3 hydrogen sulphide. The time span of individual tests were varied between 1 and 21 days so that we can conclude about changes in the reaction rates against time exposure of and extrapolate for longer periods of exposure. Initial and integral corrosion rates were defined by a weight loss method on standard size of coupons of all sorts of steel alloys. Corrosion rates of carbon steels indicated a linear increase with temperature and little variation with composition of the biomass fuel sources. Apparent activation energies over the first 24-hour period remained moderate, varying between 35.5 and 50.3 kJ mol−1. Scales developed on carbon steels at higher

  14. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S., California and Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation at national and individual state level in U.S has been developed. The model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints (CO2 emissions. Economic policy analysis experiments are carried out to determine the consequences of switching the sources of electricity generation under two scenarios: in first scenario, a switch from coal to renewable sources is made for 10% of electricity generation; in the second scenario, the switch is made for 10% of electricity generation from coal to coal with clean coal technology by employing CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS. The cost of electricity generation from various non-renewable and renewable sources is different and is taken into account in the model. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted. The model is applied to the states of California and Illinois, and at national level.

  15. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  16. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  17. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  18. Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ... fuel-wood because household energy requirements are met with multiple ..... for activated carbon production - A review. Renewable & Sustainable. Energy ...

  19. Valorization of Renewable Carbon Resources for Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yunzhu; Yan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The overuse of fossil fuels has caused an energy crisis and associated environment issues. It is desirable to utilize renewable resources for the production of chemicals. This review mainly introduces our recent work on the transformation of renewable carbon resources including the conversion of cellulose, lignin, and chitin into sustainable chemicals. Various transformation routes have been established to form value-added chemicals, and accordingly a variety of effective catalytic systems have been developed, either based on metal catalysis and/or acid-base catalysis, to enable the desired transformation.

  20. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

  1. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The Fourth International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held at Prague Technical University from 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, of which 2 were inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants.

  2. Carbon finance options in renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahar, P. [Evolution Markets India Private Ltd., New Delhi (India)

    2010-07-01

    The Kyoto Protocol splits the world into two categories, notably Annex 1 with binding targets; and non-Annex 1 without any binding targets. This presentation discussed the Kyoto Protocol, with particular reference to the flexibility mechanisms which allow countries to achieve their emission targets in a cost effective way through emission trading, joint implementation, or clean development mechanisms (CDM). The CDM was outlined in detail in terms of how it works. The CDM key concepts include baseline use, additionality, and monitoring. Reasons for risk and CDM renewable energy projects were also outlined. Other topics that were presented included the impact of carbon finance; United States federal climate policy; European Union policy; EVO structured carbon; portfolio management; and EVO structured carbon. tabs., figs.

  3. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  4. Microalgae as a Renewable Source of Energy: A Niche Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jegan Porphy Jegathese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae are believed to be a good source of renewable energy because of its rapid growth rate and its ability to be cultivated in waste water or waste land. Several companies and government agencies are making efforts to reduce capital cost and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Algae are the fastest growing plant and theoretically have the potential to produce more oil or biomass per acre when compared to other crops and plants. However, the energy efficiency ratio and carbon and water footprint for algal based biofuels still need to be evaluated in order to fully understand the environmental impact of algal derived biofuels.

  5. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  6. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  7. Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

  8. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  9. Synthesis of the Carbon Nanomaterials Based on Renewable Bioresources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and feasibility of producing nanoscale carbon materials from renewable bioresources were shown as an example marsh mass. The mechanisms of synthesis of amorphous organic carbon from sphagnum moss species modified by a liquid peat phase of humic nature are discussed. A fundamentally new way of producing carbon nanotubes by mechanical activation of amorphous organic carbon is described.

  10. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  11. Carbon Lock-Out: Advancing Renewable Energy Policy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pietzcker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of its climate strategy, the EU aims at increasing the share of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E in overall electricity generation. Attaining this target poses a considerable challenge as the electricity sector is “locked” into a carbon-intensive system, which hampers the adoption of RES-E technologies. Electricity generation, transmission and distribution grids as well as storage and demand response are subject to important path dependences, which put existing, non-renewable energy sources at an advantage. This paper examines how an EU framework for RES-E support policies should be designed to facilitate a carbon lock-out. For this purpose, we specify the major technological, economic and institutional barriers to RES-E. For each of the barriers, a policy review is carried out which assesses the performance of existing policy instruments and identifies needs for reform. The review reveals several shortcomings: while policies targeting generation are widely in place, measures to address barriers associated with electricity grids, storage and demand are still in their infancy and have to be extended. Moreover, the implementation of policies has been fragmented across EU Member States. In this respect, national policies should be embedded into an integrated EU-wide planning of the RES-E system with overarching energy scenarios and partially harmonized policy rules.

  12. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  13. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  14. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  16. Renewable energy and low carbon economy transition in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash; Fujino, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    that aligns India’s emissions to an optimal 450 ppmv CO2-eq. stabilization global response. The second emissions pathway assumes an underlying sustainable development pattern. A low carbon future will be good for renewable energy under both the development pathways, though the share of renewable energy...

  17. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  18. Renewable energy and the role of molten salts and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten carbonate fuel cells have been under development for a number of years and reliable units are successfully working at 250kW scale and demonstration units have produced up to 2 MW. Although these cells cannot be considered as renewable as the fuel, hydrogen or carbon monoxide is consumed and not regenerated, the excellent reliability of such a cell can act as a stimulus to innovative development of similar cells with different outcomes. Molten salt electrolytes based upon LiCl - Li2O can be used to convert carbon dioxide, either drawn from the output of a conventional thermal power station or from the atmosphere, to carbon monoxide or carbon. Recently, dimensionally stable anodes have been developed for molten salt electrolytes, based upon alkali or alkaline ruthenates which are highly electronically conducting and these may allow the concept of high temperature batteries to be developed in which an alkali or alkaline earth element reacts with air to form oxides when the battery is discharging and the oxide decomposes when the battery is being recharged. Batteries using these concepts may be based upon the Hall-Heroult cell, which is used worldwide for the production of aluminium on an industrial scale, and could be used for load levelling. Lithium ion batteries are, at present, the preferred energy source for cars in 2050 as there are sufficient lithium reserves to satisfy the world’s energy needs for this particular application. Graphite is used in lithium ion batteries as the anode but the capacity is relatively low. Silicon and tin have much higher capacities and the use of these materials, encapsulated in carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles will be described. This paper will review these interesting developments and demonstrate that a combination of carbon and molten salts can offer novel ways of storing energy and converting carbon dioxide into useful products.

  19. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay ÇETİN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are increasingly continue around theworld. As a matter of fact, when it is compared to the 2011 rates, the consumption rate of hydro-electricity and other renewable energy sources has increased to 4.3% and % 15.2 respectively in 2012 in the world, is verifying that view.The aim of this study is to investigate the present potential and sufficiency of the main sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal andbiomass at Turkey. In this regard, even Turkey has a remarkable potential especially in hydro, wind, solar and geothermal energies among Europe, renewable energy sources ratio in Turkey’s total energy consumption is not rising at desired level. Furthermore becauseTurkey hasn’t got a rich fossil fuel reserves, it needs to import fossil energy sources to meet its rapidly growing energy needs. In related to this, Turkey’s current deficit has beengrowing due to the increase in fossil fuel sources prices at international energy markets. On the other side Turkey’s Green House Gases (GHGs emission has grown more thantwo times as a result of its rapidly using of fossil fuel sources due to its growing economy, industrialization and urbanization process since 1990. Within this context, as a foreigndependent country on fossil fuel energy sources (especially on crude oil and natural gas, Turkey should rapidly change its energy policy from fossil fuels to renewable energysources which are domestic, clean and much more cheaper

  20. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  1. Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

    2001-07-01

    There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

  2. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  3. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  4. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary...... of future energy and reserve markets. Towards a power system based on distributed energy resources, mainly comprising renewable sources, new operation and management of distribution systems needs to be thought of. In fact, the existing passive distribution grid management does not provide the flexibility...

  5. Renewable Energy and Carbon Management in the Cradle-to-Cradle Certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Cradle to Cradle® (C2C) certification program, the C2C certification criterion, Renewable Energy and Carbon Management (RE&CM), focuses on use of electricity from renewable energy (RE) and direct greenhouse gas offsets in the manufacturing stage and, to a limited extent...... the implementation of electricity from renewable sources from cradle to grave. Our results show that compliance with the current RE&CM certification framework offers limited benefits, that is, significant reduction for climate change, but negligible reductions for other environmental impacts (e.g., particulate...

  6. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. Murtala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of oil prices, the negative effects of petroleum on the environment and the advantages of biomass towards sustainability of resources accelerated the development and utilization of unused biomass. This paper reviewed some of the potentials of biomass as a source of chemicals for industrial applications. Pyrolysis is considered to be one of the most employed technologies for the conversion of biomass into bio-oil, char and gases. The utilization of biomass for chemical manufacture can significantly eliminate the harmful effects of fossil based chemicals on the environment.

  7. Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets

    CERN Document Server

    Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

  8. Iceland's renewable power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverrisdottir, V.

    2000-07-01

    The base of Iceland's natural resource consists of the fish stocks in the sea surrounding the country, the land with its soil and vegetation, enormous quantity of hot and cold spring water and renewable energy resources - both geothermal and hydro. The clean environment of the country, on which food-processing and tourism are based, may also be regarded as one of our most important natural resources. At last but not least the utilization of these resources are based on the highly educated and civilized people living in the country. In terms of the population size, Iceland has considerable untapped reserves of renewable energy. Further harnessing of these reserves for economic and sustainable development is an important task for the future and will probably play a large role in maintaining a high standards of living in Iceland in the near future. In this address I would like to say a few words about Iceland's energy resources, how we have utilized them, the main environmental aspects of the future utilisation and the governmental energy policy. (orig.)

  9. Renewable source controls for grid stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability

  10. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  11. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  12. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  13. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source: Preference for electricity products when the share of renewable energy increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...... a discrete choice experiment to infer consumers' preferences when the share of renewable energy increases. The study results indicate that consumers are generally willing to pay extra for an increasing share of renewable energy, but the renewable energy should come from a mixture of renewable energy sources...

  14. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  15. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  16. Renewable energy sources in Europe; Erneuerbare Energien in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The book on renewable energy sources in Europe includes contributions on the following issues: Europe's energy and climate policy on the crossroad; possible promotion of renewable energy in Europe; regulation and innovations in a multi-level system - European energy and climate protection legislation - freedom of action for the member states; lessons learned - in the implementation of the European renewable energy guideline; Options for the development of the renewable energy guideline; status and development of the legal system of the energy domestic market; actual developments in the legislation of the EuGH on the compatibility of green electricity promotion systems with free movement on goods; Europe without critical power situations; prerequisites and consequences of a European electricity market coupling; selected grants of the EU commission for green energy promotion; assistance guidelines of the EU commission for energy and environment purposes.

  17. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...

  18. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Annual performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year`s research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  19. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  20. Non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources: friends and foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranes, Edmond; JACQMIN, Julien; Jean-Christophe POUDOU

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the links between non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources in the production of electricity. Using U.S. state-level data from 1998 to 2015, we find that the relationship between the price of natural gas and investments in solar and wind capacity is non-linear and can be represented by an inverted U-shape. Hence, for relatively low natural gas prices, the two modes of production are substitutes. After a price threshold is reached, the two ...

  1. Biosynthesis of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA from renewable carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Roland H

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays a growing demand for green chemicals and cleantech solutions is motivating the industry to strive for biobased building blocks. We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure are accessible by simple chemical conversions, e. g. the commodity methacrylic acid as well as isobutylene glycol and oxide. During recent years, biotechnological routes to 2-HIBA acid have been proposed and significant progress in elucidating the underlying biochemistry has been made. Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. The latter reaction has recently been discovered in the course of elucidating the degradation pathway of the groundwater pollutant methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE in the new bacterial species Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. This discovery opens the ground for developing a completely biotechnological process for producing 2-HIBA. The mutase enzyme has to be active in a suitable biological system producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, which is the precursor of the well-known bacterial bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. This connection to the PHB metabolism is a great advantage as its underlying biochemistry and physiology is well understood and can easily be adopted towards producing 2-HIBA. This review highlights the potential of these discoveries for a large-scale 2-HIBA biosynthesis from renewable carbon, replacing conventional chemistry as synthesis route and petrochemicals as carbon source.

  2. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  3. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  4. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  5. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  6. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Van Den Broek, Machteld; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as p

  7. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van Den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as

  8. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios de Postrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Coyoacan (Mexico); Ruiz, B.J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electrical sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided in three parts. The first part consists of a chronology of institutional background related to RES. The second part is an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electrical sector, which can facilitate the promotion of RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (orig.)

  9. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez-Padilla, V. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DEPFI, Edificio A 1 piso Bernardo Quintana, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan, C.P. (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyzes the role of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electricity sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided into three parts. The first part presents a chronology of institutional background related to the RES. This is followed by an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electricity sector, which can facilitate the promotion and integration of the RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system of the sector. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (author)

  10. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  11. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  12. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  13. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.

  14. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  15. Renewable power sources. Data to compare; Sources renouvelables d'electricite. Des chiffres pour comparer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multon, B. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 94 - Cachan (France)

    2003-05-01

    This article makes a status of production, growth and cost data for the different renewable energy sources used for power generation in order to give some elements of comparison between the different fossil, nuclear and renewable energy sources (total installed power, annual growth rate, load factor, service life, power of generator units, investment cost, fuel and maintenance costs, production costs and evolution costs). (J.S.)

  16. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU, “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analysis is included on how to approach the aforementioned targets through investments in geothermal energy through providing an energy consumption forecast and analysing geothermal energy projects in Europe and specifically in Kosovo. This paper carefully represents the potential usage of geothermal energy in Kosovo, renewable energy source targets, and it addresses the importance of laws, regulations, and reports regarding the utilization of this type of energy. Economic and environmental implications of investing in geothermal energy - geothermal heat pumps for the case of International Village are additionally analysed. Lastly, recommendations and conclusions, for future actions, are derived and addressed to relevant stakeholders, primarily policy-makers, and government representatives.

  17. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  18. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  19. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  20. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  1. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  2. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mureddu

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  3. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  4. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  5. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  6. Theoretical Study of Renewable Ionic Liquids in the Pure State and with Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-09-17

    The N-ethyl-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)ethanaminium dihydrogen phosphate ionic liquid was studied as a model of ionic liquids which can be produced from totally renewable sources. A computational study using both molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods was carried out. The properties, structuring, and intermolecular interactions (hydrogen bonding) of this fluid in the pure state were studied as a function of pressure and temperature. Likewise, the adsorption on graphene and the confinement between graphene sheets was also studied. The solvation of single walled carbon nanotubes in the selected ionic liquid was analyzed together with the behavior of ions confined inside these nanotubes. The reported results show remarkable properties for this fluid, which show that many of the most relevant properties of ionic liquids and their ability to interact with carbon nanosystems may be maintained and even improved using new families of renewable compounds instead of classic types of ionic liquids with worse environmental, toxicological, and economical profiles.

  7. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  8. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Helbra Tenrini; Sidiq Suryo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  9. A Novel Method of Utilizing Hybrid Generator as Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Fathima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy production and consumption in the future may depend on renewable energy sources and also depends on the efficiency of utilizing it. Here, a hybrid system, a combination of solar cells and thermoelectric generators is controlled by open circuit voltage method which is normally used for linear electrical characteristics. The proposed system is supported by theoretical analysis and simulation. Lead acid battery is used to accumulate the harvested energy. Cuk converters are used here to improve the efficiency and helps in reduction of noises. Hybrid generators are found to be efficient and more stable.

  10. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  11. CAS institute, US national lab ink MOU on renewable energy sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Amemorandum of understanding (MOU) for cooperation on renewable energy sources was signed between the CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE) and the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on 11 November,2008, in Beijing.

  12. THE NEED FOR THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals main reasons for developing tendencies to the using of new types of energy, which are limited supply of traditional fuels and environmental problems associated with its processing. It is shown that new forms of energy plays an important role in the energy supply of many countries of the world, and in the future they can become the main sources of energy to meet the growing needs of the global economy. We reveal main reasons of the increasing interest in renewable energy, and we show the obvious prospects of their use, due to two factors. First, according to experts, the global reserves of traditional fuels are limited, and secondly, this was evidenced by the investments of leading countries in this promising industry. The article lists reasons for the need for the use of renewable energy sources in Russia. Increased consumption of natural resources has become a real threat to the security of the life of human society. The basis of solving modern social and environmental problems is a transition to a regulated process of safe use of natural energy potential to meet the vital needs of people not only in the coming decades, but in the long run. It is concluded, that the determining condition for the development of the human civilization at present and in the future would be the level of natural resources which ensures the needs of the population without making harm to the environment

  13. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  14. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K; Kato, Z [Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, 982-8577 (Japan); Kumagai, N; Izumiya, K, E-mail: koji@imr.tohku.ac.jp [Daiki Ataka Engineering Co. Ltd. Kashiwa, 277-8515 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  15. How carbon credits could drive the emergence of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A. [Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    The shift to renewable energy options and low-carbon technologies, in response to the concerns over energy security and climate change, is proceeding more slowly than many would like. The usual argument against rapid deployment of new technologies is the costs imposed on the economy, commonly interpreted in terms of upfront costs to be borne or involving large cash transfers to fund, for example, efforts to preserve rainforests. In this contribution I argue that such a perspective provides a continuing barrier to taking effective action, whereas a perspective based on creation and use of carbon credits provides a means of avoiding the shock of abrupt industrial change. Carbon credits granted for bona fide carbon load reductions could be created through private initiative, for example by merchant banks, to constitute a market that will complement regulatory-based initiatives such as national emissions trading systems. This is not a novel idea; indeed it is the way that capitalism has funded every major change, including the Industrial Revolution, through the creation of credit. The emergence of a global carbon credit economy is likely to precede a global regulatory system governing climate change and will doubtless help to stimulate the emergence of such a global system. (author)

  16. Micro and macroalgal biomass: a renewable source for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan P; Anisha, G S; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Population outburst together with increased motorization has led to an overwhelming increase in the demand for fuel. In the milieu of economical and environmental concern, algae capable of accumulating high starch/cellulose can serve as an excellent alternative to food crops for bioethanol production, a green fuel for sustainable future. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during dark-anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for ethanol production. Of late, oleaginous microalgae generate high starch/cellulose biomass waste after oil extraction, which can be hydrolyzed to generate sugary syrup to be used as substrate for ethanol production. Macroalgae are also harnessed as renewable source of biomass intended for ethanol production. Currently there are very few studies on this issue, and intense research is required in future in this area for efficient utilization of algal biomass and their industrial wastes to produce environmentally friendly fuel bioethanol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from biodiesel waste glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Zichun; Williams, Paul T; Huang, Jun

    2013-09-25

    In this report, we introduce a novel and commercially viable method to recover renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from waste glycerol produced in the biodiesel process. Gas-phase catalytic reforming converts glycerol to clean hydrogen fuel and by replacing the problematical coke formed on the catalyst with high value carbon nanotubes, added value can be realised. Additional benefits of around 2.8 kg CNTs from the reforming of 1 tonne of glycerol and the production of 500 Nm(3) H2 could have a considerable impact on the economics of glycerol utilization. Thereby, the contribution of this research will be a significant step forward in solving a current major technical and economic challenge faced by the biofuels industry.

  18. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  19. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon "footprinting" and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  20. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  1. A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.T. Okugbo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs credits.

  2. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    following outage of SMs during cascading events. Therefore, the active power deficit following the disturbance/s may not be properly estimated by existing conventional System Frequency Response (SFR) methods in which the total inertia of the power system is required to be known. In this paper, the actual......The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...... active power deficit is estimated independent of grid inertia, type and number of occurred cascading events after each Load Shedding (LS) stage using shed load amount, pre-shed and post-shed Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). Numerical simulations conducted on IEEE 39 bus standard test system in Dig...

  3. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  4. Biogas, as a renewable energy source, produced during the anaerobic digestion of organic waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative sources of energy is a matter of urgency, since conventional energy sources are becoming exhausted. Renewable energy sources, such as biogas, can be generated from organic waste, through the anaerobic digestion (AD...

  5. Spirogyra biomass a renewable source for biofuel (bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Salem Eshaq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels refer to renewable fuels from biological sources that can be used for heat, electricity and fuel. The fuels obtained from algae are termed as third generation fuels. The production of fuel from algae provides many advantages when compared to the fuel produced from other sources like agrobased raw materials. Other than environmental pollution control the algal biofuel will help in reduction of the fuel cost when compared to the agrobased and fossil fuels. In the present study algae specifically Spirogyra was used for the production of bioethanol by the fermentative process. A comparative study was carried out by using chemically pre-treated anduntreated Spirogyra biomass. The Spirogyra has a very simple cell wall made up of cellulose and starch that can be converted to ethanol by the fermentation process. The Spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungal organism Aspergillus niger MTCCC 2196 for the hydrolysis, this process was followed by the fermentation using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC170 for the production of alcohol. A high yield of ethanol was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. The yield of alcohol using algal biomass is more when compared to alcohol produced from other sources like agrobased rawmaterials.

  6. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  7. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators

    OpenAIRE

    Elettra Agliardi; Luigi Sereno

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes, subsidies on renewable resources and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewabl...

  8. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  9. Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, S.; Chai, S.P.; Mohamed, A.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-12-15

    Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the major attentions is bio-diesel from palm oil. Bio-diesel implementation in Malaysia is important because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. This palm oil bio-diesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel (petro-diesel) when burned. In addition to this oil, palm is also a well-known plant for its other sources of renewable energy, for example huge quantities of biomass by-products are developed to produce value added products such as methane gas, bio-plastic, organic acids, bio-compost, ply-wood, activated carbon, and animal feedstock. Even waste effluent; palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been converted to produce energy. Oil palm has created many opportunities and social benefits for the locals. In the above perspective, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of oil palm industry enhancing sustainable and renewable energy. This work also aims to identify the prospects of Malaysian oil palm industry towards utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy. (author)

  10. A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

  11. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospects for Meeting Australia’s 2020 Carbon Targets, given a Growing Economy, Uncertain International Carbon Markets and the Slow Emergence of Renewable Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Hunt

    2011-01-01

    The carbon emissions of Australia’s future energy consumption are compared with the emissions targets implied by the cuts in carbon emissions committed to by the Australian government for 2020 and 2050. Analysis shows that even the seemingly modest cut of 5% of carbon emissions by 2020 cannot be met without substantial contributions by low carbon sources that are in addition to the contribution of 20% of electricity supply mandated by the government. The choices in renewable energy are cons...

  13. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  14. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  15. Analysing Renewable Energy Source Impacts on Power System National Network Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Balaban

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact on renewable energy sources integrated into the Romanian power system on the electrical network operation considering the reduction of electricity consumption with respect to the 1990s. This decrease has led to increased difficulties in integrating the renewable energy sources into the power system (network reinforcements, as well as issues concerning the balance of production/consumption. Following the excess of certain proportions of the energy mix, intermittent renewable energy sources require the expansion of networks, storage, back-up capacities and efforts for a flexible consumption, in the absence of which renewable energy sources cannot be used or the grid can be overloaded. To highlight the difficulty of connecting some significant capacities installed in wind power plants and photovoltaic installation, the paper presents a case study for Dobrogea area that has the most installed capacity from renewable energy sources in operation.

  16. PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAJVENDER PAL VERMA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due to their lesser start up time, lower operating cost and good ramping capabilities. This paper proposes a model which investigates the combined operation of thermal, wind andpumped storage units for the profit maximization in varying wind, load, and price scenarios. The optimal size of the pumped storage unit to be used has been obtained after putting the system to different operating conditions such as varying wind power and load demand, imposing tax on carbon emission and varying ramping limits etc. The model has been applied on IEEE-30 bus test data and satisfactory results have been obtained for optimal hybrid systemoperation.

  17. Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary renewable energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Holt, Edward [Ed Holt and Associates, Inc., 28 Headland Road, Harpswell, ME 04079-2923 (United States); Levenstein Carroll, Ghita [University of Colorado at Boulder, 3315 Folsom Street, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Many consumers today are purchasing renewable energy in large part for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits that they provide. Emerging carbon regulation in the US has the potential to affect existing markets for renewable energy. Carbon cap-and-trade programs are now under development in the Northeast under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and in early stages of development in the West and Midwest. There is increasing discussion about carbon regulation at the national level as well. While renewable energy will likely benefit from carbon cap-and-trade programs because compliance with the cap will increase the costs of fossil fuel generation, cap-and-trade programs can also impact the ability of renewable energy generation to affect overall CO{sub 2} emissions levels and obtain value for those emissions benefits. This paper summarizes key issues for renewable energy markets that are emerging with carbon regulation, such as the implications for emissions benefits claims and voluntary market demand and the use of renewable energy certificates (RECs) in multiple markets. It also explores policy options under consideration for designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and renewable energy markets to work together. (author)

  18. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  19. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  20. Policies for Enabling Corporate Sourcing of Renewable Energy Internationally: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Speer, Bethany; Volpi, Christina; Cook, Orrin; Jones, Todd; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo; Nilson, Emily

    2017-05-25

    This paper explores the policy and regulatory enabling environment for corporate sourcing of renewables. The paper has been developed in support of the Corporate Sourcing of Renewables Campaign, which was launched at the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) meeting in June 2016. Through the campaign, a subset of CEM member governments is collaborating with corporate and nongovernmental organization partners to facilitate increased corporate procurement of renewables and pursue supportive policies for corporate procurement. This paper finds that policy certainty is essential to creating vibrant markets for renewable energy. While policymakers may need to adjust policy mechanisms over time as markets go through different stages of maturity, they must also consider the economic decisions that end-users make in evaluating projects. Policy interaction is also important to consider because buyers seek assurances that their investments in renewables have impact and wish to make clear claims about their renewable energy purchases.

  1. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  2. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  3. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  4. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation: special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    ... and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renew...

  5. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  6. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  7. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period...... in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact...... the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Wind–Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100...

  8. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  9. An approach for evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongrit CHATTHAWORN; Surachai CHAITUSANEY

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new robust optimization approach to evaluate the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning (TEP). The objective function of TEP is composed of the investment cost of the transmission line and the operating cost of conventional generators. A method to select suitable scenarios representing the intermittent renewable energy generation and loads is proposed to obtain robust expansion planning for all possible scenarios. A meta-heuristic algorithm called adaptive tabu search (ATS) is employed in the proposed TEP. ATS iterates between the main problem, which minimizes the investment and operating costs, and the subproblem, which minimizes the cost of power generation from conventional generators and curtailments of renewable energy generation and loads. The subproblem is solved by nonlinear programming (NLP) based on an interior point method. Moreover, the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP was evaluated by comparing expansion planning with and without consideration of a renewable energy source. The IEEE Reliability Test System 79 (RTS 79) was used for testing the proposed method and evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP. The results show that the proposed robust optimization approach provides a more robust solution than other methods and that the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP should be considered.

  10. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  11. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility...

  12. Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

    2003-08-15

    This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

  13. Guide to funding sources for renewable energy in schools and colleges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guide has been designed specifically to identify sources of funding for renewable energy projects in schools, such as a wind generator or a solar water heating system. It is intended for teachers or Friends of associations. (author)

  14. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  15. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  16. Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, energy of small hydroelectric power plants, etc. worldwide and in rural Serbian communities.

  17. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  18. An Analysis of the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the Western Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yanfei; Liu Mingyang

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for China’s energy is sustainability of the environment. Espe-cially in recent years, global warming, frequent natural disasters, and the serious reduction of the natural resources and energy are gravely affecting normal production and mankind’s existence. Burn-ing large amounts of fossil fuel produces green-house gases and polluted soot. The development and utilization of renewable energy is extremely ur-gent. In other words, renewable energy sources must grow briskly. Under the guidance of the na-tional policy of the“13 th Five Year Plan”, the de-velopment and utilization of renewable energy sources in the Western Minority Areas must be strengthened based on local conditions, by paying attention to relevant personnel training, and en-couraging innovation and entrepreneurship so that the development of local renewable energy sources can reach a new level.

  19. The Economics of Renewable Energy Sources into Electricity Generation in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraka Kichonge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the economics of renewable energy sources into electricity generation in Tanzania. Business as usual (BAU scenario and renewable energy (RE scenario which enforce a mandatory penetration of renewable energy sources shares into electricity generations were analyzed. The results show total investment cost for the BAU scenario is much lower as compared to RE scenario while operating and maintenance variable costs are higher in BAU scenario. Primary energy supply in BAU scenario is higher tied with less investment costs as compared to RE scenario. Furthermore, the share of renewable energy sources in BAU scenario is insignificant as compared to RE scenario due to mandatory penetration policy imposed. Analysis concludes that there are much higher investments costs in RE scenario accompanied with less operating and variable costs and lower primary energy supply. Sensitivity analysis carried out suggests that regardless of changes in investments cost of coal and CCGT power plants, the penetration of renewable energy technologies was still insignificant. Notwithstanding the weaknesses of renewable energy technologies in terms of the associated higher investments costs, an interesting result is that it is possible to meet future electricity demand based on domestic resources including renewables.

  20. Chapter 2: International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Garcia, A.; Hansen, A. D.; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Fortmann, J.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.

    2017-03-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid expansion of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV). The International Energy Agency's 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook stated that the rapid increases in RES integration are underpinned by falling technology costs as well as rising fossilfuel prices and carbon pricing, but RES integration is also encouraged by continued subsidies: from $88 billion globally in 2011 (compared to $523 billion in fossil-fuel subsidies in 2012 [3], with a share of $131 billion for electricity generation) to an estimated $240 billion in 2035 [4]. According to [3], in 2015 RES accounted for 22% of electricity generation, which was approximately the same level as gas and about one-half the level of coal.

  1. The Role of Meteorological Forecasting in Quantifying the Carbon Emissions Associated with Highly Intermittent Renewable Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    A new model is proposed for carbon emissions assessments of systems with very high penetrations of intermittent renewables. Our approach combines a deterministic portfolio planning module with a Monte Carlo simulation of system operation that determines the conventional dispatchable generating capacity required to meet a reliability constraint. Least-cost scheduling optimizations utilize day-ahead wind speed, irradiance, and load forecasts, while real-time dispatch relies on simple statistical models of forecast errors that maintain historical geographical and temporal correlations. The model includes treatments of intermittent generators including wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as conventional generators including natural gas, hydroelectric, and geothermal plants. Results are presented from a model run of the years 2005 and 2006 with wind speed data from the Western Wind Resources Database (WWRD), irradiance data from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB), hydroelectric discharge data from California Department of Water Resources (DWR), and load data from the California ISO. The resulting portfolio is capable of meeting the California ISO load over the simulation period with an 80% reduction in electric power sector carbon emissions, while also meeting a loss of load expectation of 1 day in 10 years. With this portfolio, over 99% of the annual load can be met with non-carbon-based generation and all of the instantaneous demand can be met with non-carbon-based sources in 97% of the hours in the Monte Carlo simulation. The results suggest that further reductions in carbon emissions may be achieved with emerging technologies that can reliably provide large capacities without necessarily providing positive net annual energy generation. These technologies may include demand response, vehicle-to-grid systems, and large-scale energy storage.

  2. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-09-23

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  3. The Analysis of the Usage And Perspectives of Renewable Energy Sources in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominykas Vasarevičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation with the renewable energy sources in Lithuania. An overview of legislation promoting the production and usage of renewable energy in Lithuania is presented. Renewable energy production methods suitable for Lithuanian conditions, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is shown that there is no any promotion from the state for usage of solar energy in private households. The potential of solar energy usage is determined. In order to show the effectiveness of solar thermal energy utilization under similar climatic conditions presented the example of promotion policy model and its results in Poland.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  5. How to Sustainably Feed a Microbe: Strategies for Biological Production of Carbon-Based Commodities with Renewable Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Caitlyn S; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    As interest and application of renewable energy grows, strategies are needed to align the asynchronous supply and demand. Microbial metabolisms are a potentially sustainable mechanism for transforming renewable electrical energy into biocommodities that are easily stored and transported. Acetogens and methanogens can reduce carbon dioxide to organic products including methane, acetic acid, and ethanol. The library of biocommodities is expanded when engineered metabolisms of acetogens are included. Typically, electrochemical systems are employed to integrate renewable energy sources with biological systems for production of carbon-based commodities. Within these systems, there are three prevailing mechanisms for delivering electrons to microorganisms for the conversion of carbon dioxide to reduce organic compounds: (1) electrons can be delivered to microorganisms via H2 produced separately in a electrolyzer, (2) H2 produced at a cathode can convey electrons to microorganisms supported on the cathode surface, and (3) a cathode can directly feed electrons to microorganisms. Each of these strategies has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in designing full-scale processes. This review considers the evolving understanding of each of these approaches and the state of design for advancing these strategies toward viability.

  6. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  7. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  8. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...

  9. Sources of evaluation of nuclear and renewable energy contained in the local press

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Spears, R.; Eiser, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the sources of evaluative coverage concerning nuclear power and renewable alternatives contained in local UK daily press coverage. 10 categories of source were defined for their relevance to the nuclear debate and energy issues. Out of these, only pronuclear industries and national

  10. Sources of evaluation of nuclear and renewable energy contained in the local press

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Spears, R.; Eiser, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the sources of evaluative coverage concerning nuclear power and renewable alternatives contained in local UK daily press coverage. 10 categories of source were defined for their relevance to the nuclear debate and energy issues. Out of these, only pronuclear industries and national governme

  11. Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power Sources into the Vietnamese Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno; Thanh Viet, Dinh; von Bremen, Lueder; Heinemann, Detlev; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnamese Power system is expected to expand considerably in upcoming decades. Power capacities installed are projected to grow from 39 GW in 2015 to 129.5 GW by 2030. Installed wind power capacities are expected to grow to 6 GW (0.8 GW 2015) and solar power capacities to 12 GW (0.85 GW 2015). This goes hand in hand with an increase of the renewable penetration in the power mix from 1.3% from wind and photovoltaics (PV) in 2015 to 5.4% by 2030. The overall potential for wind power in Vietnam is estimated to be around 24 GW. Moreover, the up-scaling of renewable energy sources was formulated as one of the priorized targets of the Vietnamese government in the National Power Development Plan VII. In this work, we investigate the transition of the Vietnamese power system towards high shares of renewables. For this purpose, we jointly optimise the expansion of renewable generation facilities for wind and PV, and the transmission grid within renewable build-up pathways until 2030 and beyond. To simulate the Vietnamese power system and its generation from renewable sources, we use highly spatially and temporally resolved historical weather and load data and the open source modelling toolbox Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA). We show that the highest potential of renewable generation for wind and PV is observed in southern Vietnam and discuss the resulting need for transmission grid extensions in dependency of the optimal pathway. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing effect of wind power has several considerable beneficial effects and that the Vietnamese hydro power potential can be efficiently used to provide balancing opportunities. This work is part of the R&D Project "Analysis of the Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power into the Future Vietnamese Power System" (GIZ, 2016-2018).

  12. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  13. GIS to support cost-effective decisions on renewable sources applications for low temperature geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gemelli, Alberto; Diamantini, Claudia; Longhi, Sauro

    2013-01-01

    Through the results of a developed case study of information system for low temperature geothermal energy, GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources addresses the issue of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in evaluating cost-effectiveness of renewable resource exploitation regional scale. Focusing on the design of a Decision Support System, a process is presented aimed to transform geographic data into knowledge useful for analysis and decision-making on the economic exploitation of geothermal energy. This detailed description includes a literature review and technical issues related to data collection, data mining, decision analysis for the informative system developed for the case study. A multi-disciplinary approach to GIS design is presented which is also an innovative example of fusion of georeferenced data acquired from multiple sources including remote sensing, networks of sensors and socio-economic censuses. GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources ...

  14. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  15. Development of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2011; Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, Frank; Nieder, Thomas; Ruether, Thorsten; Walker, Marion [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    With its energy concept of September 2010 and the energy transformation decision of June 2011, The German government has set ambitious goals for renewable energy sources: By 2020, at least 35 % of the electricity demand is to be covered by renewables; for 2030, the goal is 50 %. In consequence, the wind power industry, solar industry and others have valiantly proved their efficiency in 2011. Power generation from renewables increased dramatically in 2011 as a result of enhanced expansion of power generation capacities and favourable climate conditions. With a total of 20.3 %, wind power, solar power and other renewables for the first time ever had a bigger share in power supply than coal and nuclear power.

  16. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  17. Synchronization of grid-connected renewable energy sources under highly distorted voltages and unbalanced grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults.......Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast...... and dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel...

  18. New PHA products using unrelated carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Fernanda; de Andrade Rodrigues, Maria Filomena

    2011-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are natural polyesters stored by a wide range of bacteria as carbon source reserve. Due to its chemical characteristics and biodegradability PHA can be used in chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industry for many human purposes. Over the past years, few Burkholderia species have become known for production of PHA. Aside from that, these bacteria seem to be interesting for discovering new PHA compositions which is important to different industrial applications. In this paper, we introduce two new strains which belong either to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) or genomovar-type, Burkholderia cepacia SA3J and Burkholderia contaminans I29B, both PHA producers from unrelated carbon sources. The classification was based on 16S rDNA and recA partial sequence genes and cell wall fatty acids composition. These two strains were capable to produce different types of PHA monomers or precursors. Unrelated carbon sources were used for growth and PHA accumulation. The amount of carbon source evaluated, or mixtures of them, was increased with every new experiment until it reaches eighteen carbon sources. As first bioprospection experiments staining methods were used with colony fluorescent dye Nile Red and the cell fluorescent dye Nile Blue A. Gas chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the PHA composition on each strain cultivated on different carbon sources. The synthesized polymers were composed by short chain length-PHA (scl-PHA), especially polyhydroxybutyrate, and medium chain length-PHA (mcl-PHA) depending on the carbon source used.

  19. The use of renewable energy in the form of methane via electrolytic hydrogen generation using carbon dioxide as the feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Kumagai, Naokazu; Izumiya, Koichi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Shinomiya, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kato, Zenta

    2016-12-01

    The history reveals the continuous increase in world energy consumption and carbon emissions. For prevention of intolerable global warming and complete exhaustion of fossil fuels we need complete conversion from fossil fuel consumption to renewable energy. We have been performing the research and development of global carbon dioxide recycling for more than 25 years to supply renewable energy to the world in the form of methane produced by the reaction of carbon dioxide captured from chimney with hydrogen generated electrolytically using electricity generated by renewable energy. We created the cathode and anode for electrolytic hydrogen generation and the catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation by the reaction with hydrogen. The methane formation from renewable energy will be the most convenient and efficient key technology for the use of renewable energy by storage of intermittent and fluctuating electricity generated from renewable energy and by regeneration of stable electricity. Domestic and international cooperation of companies for industrialization is in progress.

  20. SIMULATION OF THE SYSTEMS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES USING HOMER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRINCĂ S.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates by using the Homer software, a distributed energy system with capacity below 1 MW. Among the renewable energy sources are used wind and solar energy. For photovoltaic panels, we are considering two situations: fixed panels, oriented at 45° and panels with tracking system with two axis. Simulation results contain information regarding operation hours of the system throughout the year, energy produced from the renewable energy sources, energy consumption for the load, and excess of electrical energy. The Homer software also allows an economic analysis of these systems.

  1. SIMULATION OF THE SYSTEMS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES USING HOMER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRINCĂ S.D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates by using the Homer software, distributed energy systems with capacity below 1 MW. Among the renewable energy sources are used wind and solar energy. For photovoltaic panels, we are considering two situations: fixed panels, oriented at 45 ° and panels with tracking system with two axis. Simulation results contain information regarding operation hours of the system throughout the year, energy produced from the renewable energy sources, energy consumption for the load, and excess of electrical energy. The Homer software also allows an economic analysis of these systems.

  2. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  3. People’s Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtiyor R. ESHCHANOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for renewable energy generation being the most important ones.

  4. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  5. Renewable energy sources - an option for the future. Federal Government voices opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-31

    Despite unfavourable market conditions, the Federal Government wants to continue the research and development of renewable energy sources up to the 'threshold of market maturity' and - wherever practical - increase them. A 'technological gap' should be avoided. However, the current lack of economy of these forms of energy cannot be compensated for by permanent subsidies. This information is contained in the Federal Government's reply to a parliamentary question from the coalition parties of the CDU/CSU and FDP on the subject of 'Production and use of renewable energy sources in the Federal Republic of Germany'.

  6. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses, it is d......Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses...

  7. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  8. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  9. Felled oil palm trunk as a renewable source for biobutanol production by Clostridium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komonkiat, Itsara; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to convert felled oil palm trunk to biobutanol by Clostridium spp. For efficient utilization of oil palm trunk, it was separated into sap and trunk fiber. The sap was used directly while the trunk fiber was hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars before use. Among five clostridia strains screened, Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731 was the most suitable strain for butanol production from the sap without any supplementation of nutrients. It produced the highest amount of butanol (14.4 g/L) from the sap (sugar concentration of 50 g/L) with butanol yield of 0.35 g/g. When hydrolysate from the trunk fiber was used as an alternative carbon source (sugar concentration of 30 g/L), of the strains tested Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR 1461 produced the highest amount of butanol (10.0 g/L) with butanol yield of 0.41 g/g. The results presented herein suggest that oil palm trunk is a promising renewable substrate for biobutanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Marginal share of renewable energy sources of variable electricity generation: A contribution to the concept definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development is a keystone within the efforts toward enabling longer duration of the world fossil energy resources. The past development and the technologies applied, cause huge emissions of СО2 that must be significantly reduced. Increased usage of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-e contributes essentially to the reduction of CO2, but on the other hand, under current conditions of feed-in priority reduces also the market for the electricity from fossil fuelled power plants (FFPP. The other possibility for reduction of CO2 emissions is to apply carbon capture and storage technologies as a part of overall FFPP technologies. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that there is a marginal share of RES variable electricity in overall annual electricity supply after which further increase of RES-e participation produces higher average electricity generated cost, than in the case of CO2 emission reduction by applying CCS technologies. The presented work confirms this hypothesis. Value of the marginal share depends to the price of RES-e feed-in. With the price span from 13.5 to 7.5€c/kWh, the marginal share is under 50%.

  11. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.

  12. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  13. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses, it is d...

  14. Carbon dioxide reduction in housing: experiences in urban renewal projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, F.M. van der; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that the housing sector can contribute to reductions in the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The renewal of existing residential areas offers opportunities to reduce CO2 emissions. However, technical options for CO2-reduction, such as insulation, solar energy,

  15. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R. M. J.; Moll, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to Chi

  16. Are renewable energy policies upsetting carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso; Koengkan, Matheus

    2017-06-01

    The impact of renewable energy policies in carbon dioxide emissions was analysed for a panel of ten Latin American countries, for the period from 1991 to 2012. Panel autoregressive distributed lag methodology was used to decompose the total effect of renewable energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in its short- and long-run components. There is evidence for the presence of cross-sectional dependence, confirming that Latin American countries share spatial patterns. Heteroskedasticity, contemporaneous correlation, and first-order autocorrelation cross-sectional dependence are also present. To cope with these phenomena, the robust dynamic Driscoll-Kraay estimator, with fixed effects, was used. It was confirmed that the primary energy consumption per capita, in both the short- and long-run, contributes to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and also that renewable energy policies in the long-run, and renewable electricity generation per capita both in the short- and long-run, help to mitigate per capita carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. The carbon footprint of integrated milk production and renewable energy systems - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Doriana Eurosia Angela

    2017-12-31

    Dairy farms have been widely acknowledged as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for a more environmentally friendly milk production system will likely be important going forward. Whereas methane (CH4) enteric emissions can only be reduced to a limited extent, CH4 manure emissions can be reduced by implementing mitigation strategies, such as the use of an anaerobic digestion (AD). Furthermore, implementing a photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation system could mitigate the fossil fuels used to cover the electrical needs of farms. In the present study to detect the main environmental hotspots of milk production, a Life Cycle Assessment was adopted to build the Life Cycle Inventory according to ISO 14040 and 14044 in a conventional dairy farm (1368 animals) provided by AD and PV systems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tiered approach was adopted to associate the level of emission with each item in the life cycle inventory. The functional unit refers to 1kg of fat-and-protein-corrected-milk (FPCM). In addition to milk products, other important co-products need to be considered: meat and renewable energy production from AD and PV systems. A physical allocation was applied to attribute GHG emissions among milk and meat products. Renewable energy production from AD and PV systems was considered, discounting carbon credits due to lower CH4 manure emissions and to the minor exploitation of fossil energy. The CF of this farm scenario was 1.11kg CO2eq/kg FPCM. The inclusion of AD allowed for the reduction of GHG emissions from milk production by 0.26kg CO2eq/kg FPCM. The PV system contribution was negligible due to the small dimensions of the technology. The results obtained in this study confirm that integrating milk production with other co-products, originated from more efficient manure management, is a successful strategy to mitigate the environmental impact of dairy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimising carbon and nitrogen sources for Azotobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... inorganic (nitrates and ammonium) and organic sources. (amino acids .... organic carbon compounds via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well ..... Growth of. Azotobacter chroococcum in chemically defined media containing p-.

  19. Carbon and Energy Sources of Mycorrhizal Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    It has been debated whether ectomycorrhizal fungi have retained saprotrophic capabilities and whether that allows them to obtain carbon, as implied by the alternate carbon source hypothesis, or to obtain nitrogen and phosphorus, as implied by the nutrient mining through priming hypothesis. This

  20. UTILIZATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE AS CARBON SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-01-01

    The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for organic acid fermentation.  The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of pineapple waste as substrate for lactic acid fermentation under variables of aerobic, anaerobic condition and pH controlling. Initial results showed that the liquid pineapple waste can be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation using Lactobacillus del...

  1. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  2. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

  3. Renewable energy sources at decisive turning; Le energie rinnovabili a una svolta decisiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, S.

    2000-11-01

    The renewable energy sources will be very important for planetary environmental emergency and for technological evolution. [Italian] Marginali da molti anni, le rinnovabili diverranno di primaria importanza grazie all'emergenza ambientale planetaria e all'evoluzione tecnologica. Siamo giunti finalmente a una vera svolta epocale?.

  4. Representation of variable renewable energy sources in TIMER, an aggregated energy system simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen Sytze (H S.).; van Vuuren, Detlef (D P.).|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    The power system is expected to play an important role in climate change mitigation. Variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, such as wind and solar power, are currently showing rapid growth rates in power systems worldwide, and could also be important in future mitigation strategies. It is

  5. Six-Phase Vehicular Drive with Renewable DC Sources and Hybrid PWM Control of Four Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Ermuratskii, Vladimir; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research of quad-inverter-based automotive system with combined scheme of PWM control of inverters, supplied by two renewable dc sources (by fuel cells and by battery). It has been shown, that hybrid switching techniques can be used successfully for control of vehicle...

  6. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...

  7. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  8. Sources of evaluation of nuclear and renewable energy contained in the local press

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Examined the sources of evaluative coverage concerning nuclear power and renewable alternatives contained in local UK daily press coverage. 10 categories of source were defined for their relevance to the nuclear debate and energy issues. Out of these, only pronuclear industries and national government produced more positive than negative appraisals of nuclear power. However, detractors of nuclear power were more varied, the most prolific category being the general public. Alternative technolo...

  9. POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Raguzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

  10. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a renewable resource for activated carbon. Application to environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)

  11. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Financial mechanisms for renewable energy sources; Mecanismos financeiros para fontes de energia renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Chaves, Francisco David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents three different financial mechanisms in the world as choices in the electricity generation investment from alternative energy sources. It shows a description of the following methods developed in the world: payment capacity, social costs of energy, and markets that trade renewable energies certificates. Finally, a recommendation about the best choice that could be implemented in Brazil is suggested. Given the importance in the use of the renewable energy of electric energy generation, most of the electric systems in the world have developed mechanisms to encourage the use of alternative energies. With the capacity payment the power plants that employ alternative sources, can receive extra payment as benefits for their initial investment. A possibility could be fixing taxes for the generation of electricity with fossil fuel that could finance the renewable energy sources. A renewable energy market dealing with trade able certificates, forces the electricity purchasers to have a percentage from alternative energies of the totally energy acquired. In this way the forced purchasing of energy from power plants which use energy certificates allows the expansion of these technologies. (author)

  13. New PHA products using unrelated carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Matias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA are natural polyesters stored by a wide range of bacteria as carbon source reserve. Due to its chemical characteristics and biodegradability PHA can be used in chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industry for many human purposes. Over the past years, few Burkholderia species have become known for production of PHA. Aside from that, these bacteria seem to be interesting for discovering new PHA compositions which is important to different industrial applications. In this paper, we introduce two new strains which belong either to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc or genomovar-type, Burkholderia cepacia SA3J and Burkholderia contaminans I29B, both PHA producers from unrelated carbon sources. The classification was based on 16S rDNA and recA partial sequence genes and cell wall fatty acids composition. These two strains were capable to produce different types of PHA monomers or precursors. Unrelated carbon sources were used for growth and PHA accumulation. The amount of carbon source evaluated, or mixtures of them, was increased with every new experiment until it reaches eighteen carbon sources. As first bioprospection experiments staining methods were used with colony fluorescent dye Nile Red and the cell fluorescent dye Nile Blue A. Gas chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the PHA composition on each strain cultivated on different carbon sources. The synthesized polymers were composed by short chain length-PHA (scl-PHA, especially polyhydroxybutyrate, and medium chain length-PHA (mcl-PHA depending on the carbon source used.

  14. Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts for ethanol production from renewable sources under oxygen-limited and low-pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galafassi, Silvia; Merico, Annamaria; Pizza, Francesca; Hellborg, Linda; Molinari, Francesco; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2011-08-01

    Industrial fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol requires microorganisms able to utilise a broad range of carbon sources and generate ethanol at high yield and productivity. D. bruxellensis has recently been reported to contaminate commercial ethanol processes, where it competes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae [4, 26]. In this work Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts were studied to explore their potential to produce ethanol from renewable sources under conditions suitable for industrial processes, such as oxygen-limited and low-pH conditions. Over 50 strains were analysed for their ability to utilise a variety of carbon sources, and some strains grew on cellobiose and pentoses. Two strains of D. bruxellensis were able to produce ethanol at high yield (0.44 g g(-1) glucose), comparable to those reported for S. cerevisiae. B. naardenensis was shown to be able to produce ethanol from xylose. To obtain ethanol from synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysates we developed a two-step fermentation strategy: the first step under aerobic conditions for fast production of biomass from mixtures of hexoses and pentoses, followed by a second step under oxygen limitation to promote ethanol production. Under these conditions we obtained biomass and ethanol production on synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysates, with ethanol yields ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 g g(-1) sugar. Hexoses, xylose and arabinose were consumed at the end of the process, resulting in 13 g l(-1) of ethanol, even in the presence of furfural. Our studies showed that Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts have clear potential for further development for industrial processes aimed at production of ethanol from renewable sources.

  15. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

    2007-06-01

    The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

  16. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Chapman, C.; Logan, J.; Sumner, J.; Short, W.

    2010-05-01

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  17. Stochastic Optimization of Power System Operation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumbrava V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization process of the energy market structure determined significant changes in the electric utility industry, from both generating and transmission perspectives, and new generation technologies emerged, deeply influencing the industry profile. Nowadays, based on the governmental incentives and free access to the power systems, the share of renewable energy sources in the bulk power system generation is increasing. With respect to the classical fuel-based sources, the renewable energy sources (like photovoltaic and wind turbines have an intermittent character determined by the meteorological conditions. Their production cannot be known exactly, but can be forecasted with some degree of accuracy. Thus, within the power system, network measures must be adopted for ensuring its safe operation.

  18. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress...... of rectifier diodes is high and filter is large in traditional voltage-source converters in a wide input-voltage range. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, a full-bridge (FB) three-level (TL) converter is proposed. It can operate at both two-level and three-level modes, so it is suitable for wide...... input-voltage range application. Compared with FB converter, voltage stress of rectifier diodes and the filter can be reduced. Operating principle and control strategy of the proposed converter are illustrated. Design guidelines and example are given. Simulation results of a 1-kW FB TL converter verify...

  19. The Integration of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union Electricity Market – The case for “Smart Grids”

    OpenAIRE

    de Sépibus, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    The power sector is to play a central role in a low carbon economy. In all the decarbonisation scenarios of the European Union renewable energy sources (RES) will be a crucial part of the solution. Current grids constitute however major bottlenecks for the future expansion of RES. Recognising the need for a modernisation of its grids, the European Union has called for the creation of a "smart supergrid" interconnecting European grids at the continental level and making them "intelligent" thro...

  20. Evaluating renewable portfolio standards and carbon cap scenarios in the U.S. electric sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Chapman, Caroline; Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sumner, Jenny, E-mail: jenny.sumner@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This report examines the impact of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the U.S. to examine the impact of a variety of emissions caps-and RPS scenarios both individually and combined. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations simulated in the modeling. - Research highlights: {yields} The report examines renewable portfolio standards and cap-and-trade policy options. {yields} The analysis uses the NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System model. {yields} A carbon emissions cap and an RPS can be complementary policies.{yields} The cap alone case drives significant renewable generation.{yields} A 25% RPS has similar near term emissions as base cap at similar electricity price.

  1. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  2. Denitrification-Efficiencies of Alternate Carbon Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    organic carbon was around 70%. Skrinde and Bhagat (1982) investigated a number of carbon sources (methanol, spent sufite liquor, yeast, corn silage , acid...sludge treated by acid hydrolysis); (5) corn steep liquor (a 4concentrated solution of maize solubles obtained from the lactic fermentation process...during the steeping of maize prior to wet milling, Grain Processing Corporation, Muscatine, IA), (6) soluble fish condensates, (Sharpley Laboratories Inc

  3. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Abo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7 FIN-20500 Abo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Box 534, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Environmental concerns have increasingly led to the installation of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) despite the fact that they are recognized as expensive. Innovative efforts within the area are beset with difficulties, and they are at risk of producing misdirected or insignificant improvements in terms of the cost effectiveness of total energy conversion systems. This paper investigates how RETs can be evaluated, in terms of economy and engineering solutions, by studying the fundamental physics of renewable energy sources and how it matches with the RETs. This match is described by the ''Degree of Utilization''. The findings indicate that new innovations should focus on the possible number of full loading hours. RETs that are correctly matched to their energy source generate a higher amount of electric energy and have a higher potential of becoming more competitive. In cases where this aspect has been ignored, leading to relatively small degrees of utilization, it can be understood as an engineering mismatch between installed power, converted energy, and the fundamental physics of the renewable energy sources. Since there is a strong and possibly biased support for so-called mature RETs and already existing solutions, a clarification of how fundamental physical laws affect the cost of investments and payback of investments is needed. The present paper is part I out of II and it focuses on the difference between power and energy and the physics of different energy sources and their utilization. (author)

  4. Renewable energy sources (RES: alternative possibilities, which could be implemented in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor-Sułkowska Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kyoto Protocol and the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive [1] are the World and the EU’s legal regulations, which put pressure on most of the countries to extensive use of renewable energy sources (RES, in exchange for a reduction of energy from conventional sources. The main goal of the legal regulations is to reduce greenhouse gas emission. In European Union, from 1990 till 2014, share of the renewable energy sources has increased about 173% [2]. The data show that RES share in energy mix is increasing, and still has to increase. Therefore, all European’s countries are obligated to build new RES installations and to improve the efficiency of existing installations. That is the reason of that paper. In this article, on the base of own field research carried out in Germany and in Poland, author presents two alternative methods of energy obtaining, in which former mining excavations are used. In first method the excavations are adapted as the elements of the hydroelectric power stations and in second method they are used as a source of geothermal energy. In the end of the paper, author presents the proposals for the implementation of similar solutions in Poland.

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE TRAINING NEEDS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana PALKOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes, the greenhouse gas emissions and reduced sources of traditional fossil fuels are one of themost serious environmental problems of present time. This fact was the starting point for Directive 2009/28/EC,which defined two objectives in the area of RES, the mandatory 20% share of RES in gross final energyconsumption in the European Community and the mandatory 10% share of RES in transport, which all MemberStates must achieve by 2020. In 2011 was the share of renewable energy sources in total energy production in theEuropean Union 13%. Promoting the use of renewable sources for electricity, heat, hot water, as well as promotingthe use of biomass energy and construction of energy efficient buildings brings, in addition to environmentalaspects, the development of innovative technologies, the transition to an energy-efficient economy and increaseemployment opportunities. Development in clean technologies becomes a strategic not only in terms of ecology, buthas a significant impact on economic development and employment. This paper presents an analysis of trainingneeds in clean technologies and renewable energy sources and through the Leonardo da Vincis’ projects – AVARESand C-TEST – supported by European Commission to show how to increase the attractiveness and accessibility ofvocational education and training for employees in agricultural sector in the European Union.

  6. Social Attitudes towards Wind Farms and other Renewable Energy Sources in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mroczek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of the wind power industry brings benefits for humans and the natural environment through the reduction of pollution emitted into the atmosphere, the creation of new jobs, and the improvement of the energy security of the country. At the same time, however, it causes people’s anxiety about adverse effects of wind farms on the environment and human health. The purpose of the study was to analyze the social attitudes of Poles toward wind power and other renewable energy sources. Material and methods. The research was carried out using the street survey method throughout the whole of Poland It involved 1,169 respondents, including 680 (58.2% from urban and 489 (41.8% from rural areas; 354 (17.2% respondents lived at a distance of more than 3 km from wind farms. Results. The majority of those he surveyed support the development of the renewable energy source and wind industry, and can see the sense of investments in this sector. Every fifth respondent is prepared to pay more for renewable energy, bearing in mind that it reduces the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. The use of wind power contributes to: the protection of human health, the purity of the natural environment, the creation of new jobs, technological progress of Poland, the reduction of the air pollution, the improvement of energy security of the country, the prosperity of the region and its dwellers. Conclusions. Poles who do not live near renewable energy investments support the development of this sector. Nevertheless, the NIMBY syndrome cannot be excluded. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on two groups – a group of people living near renewable energy investments and residents of places where such investments are not planned. Polish people also support for pro-ecological actions and demonstrate positive attitudes toward wind power and other renewable energy sources. They can see benefits for humans and the environment resulting from

  7. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

  8. Renewable energy sources monitoring systems; Sistema de monitoramento de fontes de energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Canto, Mario Afonso Ribeiro do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    The development of techniques and products for use of sources of energy renewed it depends on economic and technical parameters that result of revenue analyses and acting for its improvement. With the objective of to provide and to facilitate the access the information on the future acting of products and techniques of generation of energy of alternative sources and you renewed of energy, it was developed a collection project and storage of data of reduced cost and of facilitated visualization. The system developed in platform of software LabView controls a system of acquisition of data through interface RS-232 and it stores the data in files Excel or Files text, depending on the application type. The system of acquisition of data consists of a circuit of conditioning of analogic signs for digital signs, a control circuit and a circuit of communication type interface serial asynchronous RS-232. (author)

  9. An Approach to Develop Embedded System For Web Based Monitoring & Controlling of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha S. Fating

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread application of Renewable Energy Sources (RESrequires centralized monitoring and controlling System. To makethese operations control room independent, there is need todevelop smart servers and web based applications. Cost is anessential factor of any embedded system design. This paperdiscusses a novel concept of designing of cost effective server/client embedded system Renewable Energy sources. Hereembedded server is developed with ARM9 controller loaded withwindows CE operating system. Low cost client are designedusing Atmega32 microcontroller with LAN connection. Server/client are connected in LAN system and server basedapplications has been developed to monitor/ controlling the clientoperation. The server has web based applications that can beaccessed via internet. Author has presented developed systemand results.

  10. Hair Follicle Melanocyte Cells as a Renewable Source of Melanocytes for Culture and Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon, Ho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Advances in melanocyte culture techniques have not yet led to reliable clinical methods for treating hypopigmentation disorders. We hypothesized that melanocytes harvested from plucked hair follicles may provide a renewable source of melanocytes for the treatment of hypopigmentation. Methods: Hairs with attached cells from the follicles were plucked from Yucatan pigs and implanted in a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix for either immediate or delayed implantation into full-thickness excisional porcine wounds. Wounds were allowed to heal and were biopsied at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results: Fully healed wounds with transplanted hair follicles showed central areas of dark pigmentation corresponding to the location of implanted hair follicles. Corresponding collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix wounds showed no central areas of pigmentation. Conclusions: Hair follicle--derived melanocytes may potentially serve as a renewable source of pigment-producing cells for treating hypopigmentation disorders.

  11. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, A., E-mail: a-uchi@riken.jp; Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  12. Analysis The Potential Implementation And Use Of The Renewable Energy Sources In The Murmansk Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the geographical location of the Murmansk region and possibilities of using different renewable energy sources. Present the results of the analysis of using and practicality wind power to wind turbines to generate electricity. The paper presents of average annual consumption of electricity settlements in the Murmansk region, options for replacing the use of diesel fuel by wind energy and recommendations for possible areas of utilization of wind energy.

  13. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  14. Regensim – Matlab toolbox for renewable energy sources modelling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the implementation and development of a Matlab Simulink library named RegenSim designed for modeling, simulations and analysis of real hybrid solarwind-hydro systems connected to local grids. Blocks like wind generators, hydro generators, solar photovoltaic modules and accumulators are implemented. The main objective is the study of the hybrid power system behavior, which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply.

  15. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  16. Using Remote Sensing Data for Integrating different Renewable Energy Sources at Coastal Site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Feudo, Teresa Lo; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Italian coastal sites have the advantage of favorable climatic conditions to use mixed renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. Harbors are safe places to install wind turbines where wind conditions are almost offshore. Space-borne remote sensing can provide information to determine solar...... and wind energy production potential cheaper than usual observational activity to identify and assess suitable areas. Here, we present a case study for both energy resources assessment from satellite in harbors....

  17. Renewable energy sources. Research activities of German universities. Erneuerbare Energiequellen. Aktivitaeten deutscher Hochschulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuser, F.A.; Weiss, R. (comps.)

    1992-01-01

    An overview on research and development works in German colleges in the field of renewable energy sources is given. 1. Solar thermal utilization (heat) - 56 projects; 2. Heat pumps - 8 projects; 3. Storage technology - 10 projects; 4. Solar architecture - 17 projects; 5. Photovoltaics - 70 projects; 6. Wind power - 24 projects; 7. Biomass - 24 projects; 8. Further themes - 14 projects; altogether - 223 projects. For each of the projects a separate subject analysis has been carried out. (HW).

  18. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  19. Biomass and waste as a renewable and sustainable energy source in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Due to Vietnam’s economic development its energy demand will continue to rise by 12–16% annually over the next few years. The government has realized that supply problems in the energy sector pose a significant threat to further development. Therefore, it is making concerted efforts to modernize the existing energy sector and expand the generating structure. There are ambitious expansion plans in the field of renewable energy sources, too. Owing to its very high potential, biomass could play ...

  20. Enhanced biomass production through optimization of carbon source and utilization of wastewater as a nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Pawar, Radheshyam R; Jung, Sokhee P; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2016-12-15

    The study aimed to utilize the domestic wastewater as nutrient feedstock for mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae by evaluating appropriate carbon source. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in municipal wastewater under various carbon sources (glucose, glycerol, and acetate), followed by optimization of appropriate carbon source concentration to augment the biomass, lipid, and carbohydrate contents. Under optimized conditions, namely of 5 g/L glucose, C. vulgaris showed higher increments of biomass with 1.39 g/L dry cell weight achieving biomass productivity of 0.13 g/L/d. The biomass accumulated 19.29 ± 1.83% total lipid, 41.4 ± 1.46% carbohydrate, and 33.06 ± 1.87% proteins. Moreover, the cultivation of Chlorella sp. in glucose-supplemented wastewater removed 96.9% chemical oxygen demand, 65.3% total nitrogen, and 71.2% total phosphate. The fatty acid methyl ester obtained showed higher amount (61.94%) of saturated fatty acid methyl esters associated with the improved fuel properties. These results suggest that mixotrophic cultivation using glucose offers great potential in the production of renewable biomass, wastewater treatment, and consequent production of high-value microalgal oil.

  1. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  2. Renewable Energy Sources in the Function of Sustainable Business in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Cerović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trends on the international tourist market are recording numerous changes almost on a daily basis, regarding the development of ecological tourist offer. Modern tourists are becoming more and more aware of the necessity of applying the principles of sustainable development in everyday life, so the same preferences are being expressed during their stay in their chosen tourist destination. The management of ecologically oriented tourist destination must pay special attention to the use of renewable energy sources, and in its micro-environment encourage an approach to business according to modern ecological standards. The implementation of renewable energy sources in tourism and hospitality industry aims at ensuring the improvement of business, profiling of an ecologically responsible tourist destination, repositioning of the current tourist offer on the international tourist market and achieving competitive advantages and conquest of a specific tourist segment of ecologically-oriented consumers. The aim of the research is to point out the advantages which sustainable development and application of renewable energy sources has on business development in tourism and hospitality industry, with a goal of improving competitive advantages and positive effect on the environment

  3. Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Mamatha Sandhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy has gained a lot of investments from all over the world. However, due to the wind speed‘s uncertain behavior it is difficult to obtain good quality power, since wind speed fluctuations reflect on the voltage and active power output of the electric machine connected to the wind turbine. Solar penetration also changes the voltage profile and frequency response of the system and affects the transmission and distribution systems of utility grid. This paper presents a review in the issues, challenges, causes, impacts and utilization of renewable energy sources (RES - Grid Integration.

  4. Investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy sources in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredojević Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency and renewable energy are areas that are very promising, with the growing importance on the global marketplace. These are based on large and complex sets of regulations and controls, at both domestic and international level. In order to successfully fulfill the targets set in these areas including the greater registered use of renewable energy sources, it is required to boost cooperation with the banking sector, which may, primarily owing to its financial support and know-how, be the key partner in the implementation of many public and commercial projects. The paper analyzes the opportunities that the regulatory framework in the Republic of Serbia introduced in the field of renewable energy, including the legal framework and mechanisms that regulate the nature of the relationship between various stakeholders. The basic premise of the research is that the good regulations aim to provide predictability of income in the project, which has a direct impact on the reduction of costs and risks related to financing. Also, the paper analyzes the challenges that should be overcome in the future and recommends the possible further activities towards the more comprehensive funding, improvement of the general level of awareness about the importance of renewable energy projects and the role of banks in financing their further development.

  5. THE USE OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES – AS THE WAY TO GET OVER MACRO-ECONOMIC IMBALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmelnitsky L.Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes major groups of current macroeconomic risks. Major challenges of modern world energy development are described and the spotlight on renewable energy sources as one of mechanisms of the described problems solution. Major requirements applied to government support schemes for renewable energy development are stated as well.

  6. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Aabo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7FIN-20500 Aabo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO{sub 2} neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable

  7. Multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy using data from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejicek, L.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from remote sensing can provide information for multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy. Advanced land cover quantification makes it possible to search for suitable sites. Multicriteria analysis, together with other data, is used to determine the energy potential and socially acceptability of suggested locations. The described case study is focused on an area of surface coal mines in the northwestern region of the Czech Republic, where the impacts of surface mining and reclamation constitute a dominant force in land cover changes. High resolution satellite images represent the main input datasets for identification of suitable sites. Solar mapping, wind predictions, the location of weirs in watersheds, road maps and demographic information complement the data from remote sensing for multicriteria analysis, which is implemented in a geographic information system (GIS). The input spatial datasets for multicriteria analysis in GIS are reclassified to a common scale and processed with raster algebra tools to identify suitable sites for sources of renewable energy. The selection of suitable sites is limited by the CORINE land cover database to mining and agricultural areas. The case study is focused on long term land cover changes in the 1985-2015 period. Multicriteria analysis based on CORINE data shows moderate changes in mapping of suitable sites for utilization of selected sources of renewable energy in 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012. The results represent map layers showing the energy potential on a scale of a few preference classes (1-7), where the first class is linked to minimum preference and the last class to maximum preference. The attached histograms show the moderate variability of preference classes due to land cover changes caused by mining activities. The results also show a slight increase in the more

  8. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundame...

  9. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of energy consumption has been one of the main constraints for the development of the Internet. The increasing emissions of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation also raise public concern for the environment. In this paper, we propose a dynamic energy...... management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  10. Forecast of power generation and heat production from renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pydych Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of renewable energy sources (RES in the end use of energy in the UE will increase from the present level of about 25% to 50 % in 2030 according to the assumptions of the European Commission. In Poland the RES Act was passed in 2015. The act defines mechanisms and instruments for supporting the production of electricity and heat from renewable energy sources. Statistics (2003–2014 of electricity generation and heat production from RES in Poland were used in the research. Because of amendments to regulations connected with promoting RES and the emissions trading system (ETS as well as the uncertainty associated with further directions of the energy and environmental policy, generation of electricity and heat based on the use of RES must be modelled while taking risk into account. A number of dynamic processes incorporating random events may be modelled by stochastic equations using Ito calculus. By applying Euler’s method to solve stochastic differential equations (SDE, it is possible to simulate the development of the use of renewable energy carriers in electricity generation and heat production in the future.

  11. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations; Erneuerbare Energien und neue Nuklearanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

    2005-02-15

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  12. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  13. Bioethanol from different Finnish agricultural carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautola, H.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Tokeensuu, L.; Alatalo, T. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Caerdenas, R. (Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad Ciencias Quimicas, Escuela de Quimica, Av. America. Ciudadela Universitaria, Quito (Ecuador)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Bioethanol in fuel and its domestic production has become a great issue in Finland during the last few years. There has been discussion about what kind of raw materials should be used and are there any local priorities. In the years 2004-2007 local farmers in Haem e , in southern part of Finland, started to find alternative use for sugar beet due to drastic reduction of domestic sugar production in the near future. This was also the start of the experimental studies on bi oethanol production. The aim of the study was to find out how the change of carbon source will effect on bi oethanol yield. The bioethanol production was studied in laboratory scale using carbon sources of saccharose, glucose, sugar beet juice, sugar beet mash and barley hydrolysates pretreated with amylases, (beta-glucanase and xylanase). The yeast used was Saccharomyces sp. The pre experiments were performed in 250 mL flasks to optimize carbon, nitrogen and salts contents in production medium, also comparing different carbon sources and mixtures. The production was then studied in a 30 liter fermenter running for 36 hours. The preliminary studies showed that barley hydrolysate gave the best result 2,4% in bioethanol concentration during the performed fermentations, and saccharose was the best substrate in shake flask fermentations with a 9,6% bioethanol concentration. (orig.)

  14. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

  15. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.

  16. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy policy in Serbia and their achievement are also given by that strategy. Serbia's energy policies are designed to allow new legislative, structural, organizational, institutional, and economic frames and visions of unification of Serbian energetics into regional and Pan-European integrations. One of the key factors is the inclusion of sustainable development and energy efficient design concerned policies. Application of these, almost completely neglected, energy sources, for which there is high potential in Serbia, would allow preservation of primary energy sources and local environment. This potential hasn't seen significant research, and therefore, neither the technical improvement. Apart from that, one of the goals of wider application of renewable energy sources is lowering the poverty level. This helps avoiding the already used “dirty development” method. .

  17. Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, T.

    2007-12-14

    This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

  18. Investigation on A Ground Source Heat Pump System Integrated With Renewable Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Defeng; Niu, Fuxin; Kavanaugh, Steven; O'Neill, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Buildings consumed 40% of the energy and represented 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. This is more than any other sector of the U.S. economy, including transportation and industry. About 24% of all energy used in the nation is for space heating, cooling and water heating in buildings. Enhancing building efficiency represents one of the easiest, most immediate and most cost effective ways to reduce carbon emissions. One of energy efficient and environment friendly technologies...

  19. Using the “Footprint” Approach to Examine the Potentials and Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hastik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energies is regarded as a key way to mitigate global climate change and to ensure the provision of energy in the long term. However, conflicts between these goals and local nature conservation goals are likely to increase because of the additional space required for renewable energies. This is particularly true for mountainous areas with biodiversity-rich ecosystems. Little effort has been undertaken to systematically compare different renewable energy sources and to examine their environmental impacts using an interdisciplinary approach. This study adapted the concept of the “ecological footprint” to examine the impact on ecosystem services of land use changes involved in exploiting renewable energy sources. This innovative approach made it possible to assess and communicate the potentials of those energy sources in light of both space consumption and sustainability. The European Alps are an ideal test area because of their high energy potentials and biodiversity-rich ecosystems and the high demand for multiple ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate that energy consumption in the Alps could not be covered with the available renewable energy potentials, despite the utilization of large parts of the Alpine land area and the majority of larger rivers. Therefore, considerable effort must be invested in resolving conflicting priorities between expanding renewable energies and nature conservation, but also in realizing energy-saving measures. To this end, the approach presented here can support decision-making by revealing the energy potentials, space requirements, and environmental impacts of different renewable energy sources.

  20. The Multifunctional Environmental Energy Tower: Carbon Footprint and Land Use Analysis of an Integrated Renewable Energy Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Multifunctional Environmental Energy Tower (MEET is a single, vertical, stand-alone renewable energy plant designed to decrease the primary energy consumption from fossil fuels, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to maximize the energy production from renewable sources available in place and to minimize land use. A feasibility case study was performed for the city of Rome, Italy. Several technologies are exploited and integrated in a single system, including a photovoltaic plant, a geothermal plant and a biomass digester for urban organic waste and sewage sludge. In the proposed configuration, the MEET could cover more than 11% of the electric power demand and up to 3% of the space heating demand of the surrounding urban area. An LCA analysis evaluates the environmental impact in a cradle-to-grave approach for two impact categories: global warming (carbon footprint and land use (land occupation and land transformation. The functional unit is a mix of electric (49.1% and thermal (50.9% energy (kWhmix. The carbon footprint is 48.70 g CO2eq/kWhmix; the land transformation is 4.058 m2/GWhmix; and the land occupation is 969.3 m2y/GWhmix. With respect to other energy production technologies, the carbon footprint is lower and similar to the best-performing ones (e.g., co-generation from wood chips; both of the land use indicators are considerably smaller than the least-impacting technologies. A systematic study was finally performed, and possible optimizations of the original design are proposed. Thanks to the modular design, the conceptual idea can be easily applied to other urban and non-urban scenarios.

  1. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  2. Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmi, C.; Salvia, M. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Unita di Napoli (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia; Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dpto. di Scienze Fisiche; Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy); Pietrapertosa, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

  3. CARBOOCEAN -marine carbon sources and sinks assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volbers, A.; Heinze, C.; de Baar, H.; CARBOOCEAN Consortium

    2009-04-01

    CARBOOCEAN is the European contribution to the global observation and modelling network on marine carbon. It is an FP6 Integrated Project funded over a five year period (2005-2009) with 14.5 million € and combines the key European experts of 35 contracting partners from 14 countries, including the USA. The project provides a description and quantification of the CO2 air-sea exchange ranging from a seasonal to interannual time scale up to a decadal to centennial time scale for the Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, involving also the sub-surface and deep waters. Special focus is given to the quantification of carbon sources and sinks at a regional scale and the identification and understanding of biogeochemical feedback mechanisms which control marine carbon uptake and release. The new data and knowledge is integrated into the prognostic modeling framework. One of the project highlights is the North Atlantic Observing Network which employs voluntary observing ships (VOS). The Air-sea fluxes of CO2 show a high temporal and spatial variation as a result of variability in climate, biological activity and ocean circulation. Latest data indicate that the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean both show at least transient decrease in uptake strength for CO2. The anthropogenic carbon uptake by the oceans is dominated by physical-chemical buffering but biological and biogeochemical effects cannot be neglected. Findings from data analysis, forward and inverse modeling indicate that the oceanic water column burden of anthropogenic carbon has a maximum in the northern North Atlantic close to the areas of deep convection but also the Southern Ocean carries significant amounts of anthropogenic carbon. These carbon sink areas of vertical water mass transfer are vulnerable to climate change.

  4. Influence of macro and micro economical environments of energetical effectiveness for business activity of renewable power sources in the Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Antošová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the contribution is to explain evaluation of economical environment that firms must respect during their business activity.External environment of mining firm includes except others technological development, economical situation, legislative by the wayof regulation, but in last time also stimulations from the government, competition behavior and other. Contribution is dealing also withenergetical effectiveness in the frame of economical evaluation applied in conditions of Slovak republic.The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy suppliesand the diversification of energy sources. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumersand uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more,the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.

  5. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted...... and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles...

  6. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  7. Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

  8. Assessment of Alder Tree Bark Potential as a Renewable Source of Proanthocyanidins in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janceva Sarmīte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to assess potential of alder tree bark as a renewable source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts and proanthocyanidins (PAC isolated from bark of two alder species (grey alder and black alder growing in Latvia have been examined employing two test systems, ABTS●+, DPPH● assays. In the tests the high free radical scavenging capacities of the PAC were demonstrated. The polyphenolic nature of the bark PAC opens the possibility of its application as food additive. The PAC has good potential as an antioxidant for mayonnaise.

  9. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also

  10. Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

    2010-07-15

    This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

  11. Windmill Noise Annoyance, Visual Aesthetics, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Klæboe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A small focused socio-acoustic after-study of annoyance from a windmill park was undertaken after local health officials demanded a health impact study to look into neighborhood complaints. The windmill park consists of 31 turbines and is located in the South of Norway where it affects 179 dwellings. Simple exposure-effect relationships indicate stronger reactions to windmills and wind turbine noise than shown internationally, with the caveat that the sample size is small (n = 90 and responses are colored by the existing local conflict. Pulsating swishing sounds and turbine engine hum are the main causes of noise annoyance. About 60 per cent of those who participated in the survey were of the opinion that windmills degrade the landscape aesthetically, and were far from convinced that land-based windmills are desirable as a renewable energy source (hydropower is an important alternative source of renewables in Norway. Attitudes play an important role in addition to visual aesthetics in determining the acceptance of windmills and the resulting noise annoyance. To compare results from different wind turbine noise studies it seems necessary to assess the impact of important modifying factors.

  12. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NingYi Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  13. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  14. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  15. Windmill Noise Annoyance, Visual Aesthetics, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klæboe, Ronny; Sundfør, Hanne Beate

    2016-07-23

    A small focused socio-acoustic after-study of annoyance from a windmill park was undertaken after local health officials demanded a health impact study to look into neighborhood complaints. The windmill park consists of 31 turbines and is located in the South of Norway where it affects 179 dwellings. Simple exposure-effect relationships indicate stronger reactions to windmills and wind turbine noise than shown internationally, with the caveat that the sample size is small (n = 90) and responses are colored by the existing local conflict. Pulsating swishing sounds and turbine engine hum are the main causes of noise annoyance. About 60 per cent of those who participated in the survey were of the opinion that windmills degrade the landscape aesthetically, and were far from convinced that land-based windmills are desirable as a renewable energy source (hydropower is an important alternative source of renewables in Norway). Attitudes play an important role in addition to visual aesthetics in determining the acceptance of windmills and the resulting noise annoyance. To compare results from different wind turbine noise studies it seems necessary to assess the impact of important modifying factors.

  16. The evolving role of carbon finance in promoting renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna I. [Georgetown University, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, ICC 305-Q, 37th and O Street NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The world is negotiating what the international climate change regime will look like after 2012 - the year that current Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets expire - and the future of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is under discussion. Critics claim the scale of reductions that the CDM is driving in the developing world is insufficient from a scientific perspective if we are to avoid dangerous climate change, that the project-by-project crediting process is inefficient, and that the reductions being achieved are not 'additional - meaning they would have happened anyway and thus should not be financially supported. Yet, the efficacy of CDM must be examined in the broader context of carbon mitigation in the developing world and the actions that are taking place. This paper examines the role that the CDM has played in promoting renewable energy development in China in order to assess how international carbon finance can best be used to help promote emissions mitigation in the developing world. It also assesses how several options under consideration for reforming the current structure of the CDM in particular and developing country engagement in general may impact renewable energy development in China in the coming years. (author)

  17. Potential of renewable energy sources and its applications in Yakushima Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Kai, Takami; Natori, Rintarou; Takahashi, Takeshige; Hatate, Yasuo; Yoshida, Masahiro [Kagoshima University (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2004-04-01

    A study was carried out to see if the potential of renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric power, such as wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass and waste energy sources, can meet the current energy consumption in Yakushima. The current electricity consumption can be covered by wind and photovoltaic energy sources. The total potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources is 5.4 times as much as the current electricity consumption. LP gas and kerosene can be replaced by solar thermal and biogas energy. The potential of plant biomass and municipal waste is not sufficient (approximately one third) to cover the rest of the fossil fuels (gasoline, diesel oil and heavy oil). Also, plant biomass and municipal waste must be converted into fluid form. This shortage can be covered by the potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources. We also investigated the possibility of tourism expansion using the potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources. Taking into account three types of capacity (energy, accommodation and transportation), Yakushima can accept approximately four times as many tourists as the current number of tourists. (author)

  18. Economic and Environmental Analysis of Cool Thermal Energy Storage as an Alternative to Batteries for the Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Matthew John

    2015-01-01

    The balance of the supply of renewable energy sources with electricity demand will become increasingly difficult with further penetration of renewable energy sources. Traditionally, large stationary batteries have been used to store renewable energy in excess of electricity demand and dispatch the stored energy to meet future electricity demand. Cool thermal energy storage is a feasible renewable energy balancing solution that has economic and environmental advantages over utility scale stati...

  19. Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bouloumpasis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  1. Renewable energy sources, the internet of things and the third industrial revolution: Smart grid and contemporary information and communication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsios, Aristidis; Bousakas, Konstantinos; Salame, Takla; Bogno, Bachirou; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Vokas, Georgios A.; Mauffay, Fabrice; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of a contemporary Smart Grid that is based on Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) is examined under the scope of the communication systems utilized between the energy loads and the energy sources. What is evident is that the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies that are based on the existing Web infrastructure can be heavily introduced in this direction especially when combined with long range low bandwidth networking technologies, power line communication technologies and optimization methodologies for renewable energy generation. The renewable energy generation optimization will be based on devices embedded in the PV panels and the wind power generators, which will rely on bidirectional communications with local gateways and remote control stations for achieving energy efficiency. Smart meters and DRES combined with IoT communications will be the enabling technologies for the ultimate fusion of Internet technology and renewable energy generation realizing the Energy Internet.

  2. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  3. Emissions balancing of renewable energy sources. Avoided emissions due to the use of renewable energies in 2007; Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Durch Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien vermiedene Emissionen im Jahr 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmler, Michael; Mohrbach, Elke; Schneider, Sven; Dreher, Marion; Herbener, Reinhard

    2009-10-15

    The report on the emissions accounting with respect to renewable energy covers the following issues: 1. Introduction and purpose. 2. Methodology concerning the balancing for electricity, heat and traffic, uncertainties due to lack of data. 3. Energy supply from renewable energy sources in 2007. 4. Fossil energy substitution by renewable energy sources: electricity, heat and traffic. 5. Emissions from different energy supply lines: electricity, heat, traffic. 6. Results of the emissions accounting for renewable energy sources: electricity, heat, traffic and comprehensive review. 7. Retroacting accounting and forward projection.

  4. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  5. Probabilistic evaluation of reserve requirements of generating systems with renewable power sources: The Portuguese and Spanish cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Manuel; Lopes, Joao Pecas; Rosa, Mauro; Ferreira, Ricardo [INESC Porto, Fac. Engenharia Univ. do Porto., Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Leite da Silva, Armando; Sales, Warlley; Resende, Leonidas; Manso, Luiz [Federal University of Itajuba, UNIFEI (Brazil); Cabral, Pedro; Martins, Nuno [Rede Electrica Nacional, REN (Portugal); Ferreira, Marco [REN Servicos, S.A, Divisao de Planeamento de Longo Prazo, Rua Sa da Bandeira, 567-4 , 4000-437 Porto (Portugal); Artaiz, Carlos; Soto, Fernando; Lopez, Ruben [Red Electrica de Espana, REE (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an application of probabilistic methodologies to evaluate the reserve requirements of generating systems with a large penetration of renewable energy sources. The idea is to investigate the behavior of reliability indices, including those from the well-being analysis, when the major portion of the renewable sources comes from wind power and other intermittent sources. A new simulation process to address operating reserve adequacy is introduced, and the correspondent reliability indices are observed. Case studies on the Portuguese and Spanish generating systems are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotube-acetylcholinesterase/biopolymer renewable interfaces: SPR and electrochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Arugula, Mary A; Kirsch, Jeffrey S; Yang, Xiaoyun; Olsen, Eric; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2015-02-03

    Developing simple, reliable, and cost-effective methods of renewing an inhibited biocatalyst (e.g., enzymatic interfaces) on biosensors is needed to advance multiuse, reusable sensor applications. We report a method for the renewal of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled inhibition-based enzymatic interfaces in multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) armored acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors. The self-assembly process of MWCNT dispersed enzymes/biopolymers was investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The LbL fabrication consisted of alternating cushion layers of positively charged CNT-polyethylenimine (CNT-PEI) and negatively charged CNT-deoxyribonucleic acid (CNT-DNA) and a functional interface consisting of alternating layers of CNT-PEI and negatively charged CNT-acetylcholine esterase (CNT-AChE, pH 7.4). The observed SPR response signal increased while assembling the different layers, indicating the buildup of multiple layers on the Au surface. A partial desorption of the top enzymatic layer in the LbL structure was observed with a desorption strategy employing alkaline treatment. This indicates that the strong interaction of CNT-biopolymer conjugates with the Au surface was a result of both electrostatic interactions between biopolymers and the surface binding energy from CNTs: the closer the layers are to the Au surface, the stronger the interactions. In contrast, a similar LbL assembly of soluble enzyme/polyelectrolytes resulted in stronger desorption on the surface after the alkaline treatment; this led to the investigation of AChE layer removal, permanently inhibited after pesticide exposure on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, while keeping the cushion layers intact. The desorption strategy permitted the SPR and electrochemical electrode surfaces to be regenerated multiple times by the subsequent self-assembly of fresh PEI/AChE layers. Flow-mode electrochemical amperometric analysis demonstrated good stability toward the determination of

  7. An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemaiswarya, S.; Carvalho, Isabel S. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Raja, Rathinam [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Ravikumar, R. [Aquatic Energy LLC, Lake Charles, LA (United States); Zambare, Vasudeo [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Barh, Debmalya [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology

    2012-12-15

    India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. (orig.)

  8. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  9. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8 µW/cm(2) with 30 mM of glucose addition at +0.94 V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10 nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3 µW/cm(2).

  10. Promoting renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in EU-27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansino, Jose M., E-mail: jmcansino@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Pablo-Romero, Maria del P. [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Roman, Rocio, E-mail: rroman@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    In addition to public policies aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings, EU authorities have also promoted the use of Renewable Energy Sources for heating and cooling uses (RES H and C). This paper analyses the main policy measures implemented in EU-27 countries up to 2009: i.e. subsidies, tax incentives, financial support and feed-in tariffs. Twenty-three Member States (MSs) have developed some of these policy measures. The most widespread measure is the subsidy (22 MSs have implemented these) because from a political point of view, subsidies provide a straightforward approach to promote the use of RES H and C. Secondly, tax incentives have been used for reducing investment costs and making renewable energy profitable. Thirdly, financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly. While financial incentives might be used more extensively for promoting RES H and C if they are accompanied by other policy measures, feed-in tariffs are not likely to be implemented significantly in the future because this measure is not designed for household heat producers. - Highlights: > Main EU policies to reduce energy consumption are focused on buildings' efficiency. > Alternative incentives to promote the use of RES H and C in EU-27 are now studied. > Subsidies are the most widespread measure. > Tax incentives are used for reducing investment costs and making RES profitable. > Financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly.

  11. An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemaiswarya, S; Raja, Rathinam; Carvalho, Isabel S; Ravikumar, R; Zambare, Vasudeo; Barh, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels.

  12. Barriers on the propagation of renewable energy sources and sustainable solid waste management practices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemi, Sn; Papadopoulos, Am; Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, S

    2010-11-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES), excluding large hydroelectric plants, currently produce 4.21% of total electricity production in Greece. Even when considering the additional production from large hydroelectric plants, which accounts for some 7.8%, the distance to be covered towards the objective of 20% electricity produced from RES by 2010 and respectively towards 20% of total energy production by 2020 is discouraging. The potential, however, does exist; unfortunately so do serious barriers. On the other hand, solid waste management (SWM) is an issue that generates continuously increasing interest due to the extra amounts of solid waste generated; the lack of existing disposal facilities with adequate infrastructure and integrated management plans, also often accompanied by legislative and institutional gaps. However, socio-economic and public awareness problems are still met in the planning and implementation of RES and SWM projects, together with the lack of a complete national cadastre and a spatial development master plan, specifying areas eligible for RES and SWM development. Specific barriers occur for individual RES and the on-going inclusion of waste-derived renewable energy in the examined palette further increases the complexity of the entire issue. The consolidated study of this broad set of barriers was a main task of the present study which was carried out within the frame of a Hellenic-Canadian research project; the main results will be discussed herein.

  13. Renewable energy sources. Activities of German universities. Erneuerbare Energiequellen. Aktivitaeten deutscher Hochschulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    With the presentation of this report, an attempt is made for the first time to provide the interested public with a survey about ongoing projects and investigations carried out at universities and colleges, dealing with subjects in the associated field and sphere of influence regarding renewable energy sources. These considerations even go beyond the sponsorship through the BMFT (Federal Ministry for Research and Technology). An efficient science which rapidly takes up new subjects is especially important for a successful solar energy utilization. Initiatives from private industry and science in the field of application oriented fundamental research are necessary to help to further spread solar technology. With this, especially those works are of importance that are oriented to photovoltaic, photochemical, photo-electrochemical as well as to electrochemical investigations. The present description shows in an impressive way that numerous institutes and scientists, even in fields which are not solar specific such as crystallography, metallurgy, surface phsics, material science, physical chemistry or meteorology, this means fundamental research in the broadest sense, presently increasingly deal with subjects which might contribute to open important impetus and promising future perspectives for renewable energies and efficient energy utilization by means of materials with new unknown properties, innovative procedures and cost-effective manufacturing processes or improved design and prediction methods for example. (orig.).

  14. Oligomannuronates from Seaweeds as Renewable Sources for the Development of Green Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnu, Thierry; Sassi, Jean-François

    The development of surfactants based on natural renewable resources is a concept that is gaining recognition in detergents, cosmetics, and green chemistry. This new class of biodegradable and biocompatible products is a response to the increasing consumer demand for products that are both "greener", milder, and more efficient. In order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary to use renewable low-cost biomass that is available in large quantities and to design molecular structures through green processes that show improved performance, favorable ecotoxicological properties and reduced environmental impact. Within this context, marine algae represent a rich source of complex polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with innovative structures and functional properties that may find applications as starting materials for the development of green surfactants or cosmetic actives. Thus, we have developed original surfactants based on mannuronate moieties derived from alginates (cell-wall polyuronic acids from brown seaweeds) and fatty hydrocarbon chains derived from vegetable resources. Controlled chemical and/or enzymatic depolymerizations of the algal polysaccharides give saturated and/or unsaturated functional oligomannuronates. Clean chemical processes allow the efficient transformation of the oligomers into neutral or anionic amphiphilic molecules. These materials represent a new class of surface-active agents with promising foaming/emulsifying properties.

  15. Resource constraints in a hydrogen economy based on renewable energy sources: An exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijn, Rene; Voet, Ester van der [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    In order to tackle climate change, a transition to a renewable based energy system is crucial. A renewable based hydrogen economy is one of the possible implementations of such a system. The world receives ample energy from the sun that can be harvested by PV solar cells and, indirectly, by wind turbines. In order to use the most optimal locations for collecting and concentrating energy from these diffuse sources, a long distance transmission network is needed. Mature and semi-mature technologies are available for all parts of the system: from collection to transmission to end-use. In an early stage of development, when new technologies have to win market share from the existing energy system, their development is driven almost exclusively by the reduction of costs per J delivered. However, if a technology should be able to deliver tens to hundreds of EJ, resource constraints can become show stoppers. Many of the newest, most cost-efficient, energy technologies make use of scarce resources and, although they may play an important role in the transition process, they can not be scaled up the level we need for a complete transition. In most cases however other technologies are available that use more abundant materials, be it often at a cost of efficiency. The issue is not only with scarce resources. The sheer size of the energy transition will also challenge the industrial capacity for the mining and production of bulk materials like steel and copper. (author)

  16. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources; Costi e benefici economici delle fonti rinnovabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leo, G. A. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Rizzi, L. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica; Caizzi, A. [Cesi Spa, Business Unit Ambiente, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants. [Italian] Viene analizzata la capacita' di penetrazione delle fonti di energia rinnovabile e della cogenerazione nel mercato italiano sulla base dello stato di maturazione delle varie tecnologie e gli impatti ambientali ad esse associate. L'articolo mostra che il rispetto del vincolo di Kyoto comporterebbe in ultima analisi non un aggravio dei costi per la collettivita', ma addirittura un risparmio di 11 lire per ogni kWh prodotto, ovvero oltre il 10% rispetto ai costi totali.

  17. Solid waste as renewable source of energy: current and future possibility in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Hamad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste holds the greatest potential as biomass source in Libya. The rapid expansion of industry has led to increased urbanization and growing population. These factors have dramatically increased the amount of MSW (municipal solid waste generated in Libya. However, issues related to environmentally sound MSW management—including waste decrease and clearance—have not been addressed sufficiently. This study presents an overview on solid waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy in Libya including MSW, ISW (industrial solid waste, and HSW (health care wastes as biomass sources. The management of solid waste and valorization is based on an understanding of MSW׳s composition and physicochemical characteristics. The results show that organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper–cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%, metals 7%, glass 4%, and wood 2%. The technology of WTE (waste-to-energy incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in Libya. This paper provides an overview of this technology, including both its conversion options and its useful products (e.g., electricity, heat, greenhouse gas emissions. The WTE benefits and the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in Libya are discussed. It also demonstrates that Libya could become an exporter of hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.

  18. A Significant Role for Renewables in a Low-Carbon Energy Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Renewables currently make up a small (but growing) fraction of total U.S. electricity generation. In some regions, renewable growth has resulted in instantaneous penetration levels of wind and solar in excess of 60% of demand. With decreasing costs, abundant resource potential and low carbon emissions and water requirements, wind and solar are increasingly becoming attractive new generation options. However, factors such as resource variability and geographic distribution of prime resources raise questions regarding the extent to which our power system can rely on variable generation resources. Here, we describe scenario analyses designed to tackle engineering and economic challenges associated with variable generation, along with insights derived from research results. These analyses demonstrate the operability of high renewable systems and quantify some of the engineering challenges (and solutions) associated with maintaining reliability. Key questions addressed include the operational and economic impacts of increasing levels of variable generation on the U.S. power system. Since reliability and economic efficiency are measured across a variety of time frames, and with a variety of metrics, a suite of tools addressing different system impacts are used to understand how new resources affect incumbent resources and operational practices. We summarize a range of modeled scenarios, focusing on ones with 80% RE in the United States and >30% variable wind and solar in the East and the West. We also summarize the environmental impacts and benefits estimated for these and similar scenarios. Results provide key insights to inform the technical, operational and regulatory evolution of the U.S. power system. This work is extended internationally through the 21st Century Power Partnership's collaborations on power system transformation, with active collaboration in Canada, Mexico, India, China and South Africa, among others.

  19. Factors of impact on the evolution of electricity markets from renewable energy sources: a comparison between Romania and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodnițchi Roxana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When talking about the future of Europe we also think about alternative energy sources. It is up to national governments to decide how to encourage investments in this field in order to contribute to the 20-20-20 EU-objective. Until the network delivery cost for electricity produced from renewable sources will be comparable to the cost for energy from traditional sources ("grid parity", the development of businesses and markets for electricity from renewable sources is going to be driven by support schemes. The state of the grids and the facility of grid-access constitute another two key factors influencing the development of this sector. Last but not least, the question of policy consistency is raised within the business community. Over the past years some support schemes have proved to be more effective than others, and grid conditions have also evolved. Policies supporting the development of renewables also changed at EU-level and at national levels. Based on statistics, scientific literature and the feedback of the business community, this study aims to analyse the development of renewable energy sectors in the European Union by comparing Germany’s and Romania’s experience. Also this study describes the current and expected future market situation in these countries relying on data gained from questionnaires and interviews with specialists in the renewable field.

  20. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery-Based Energy Storage System for a Microgrid with High Penetration of Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    A new scheduling method is proposed to manage efficiently the integration of renewable sources in microgrids (MGs) with energy storage systems (ESSs). The purpose of this work is to take into account the main stress factors influencing the ageing mechanisms of a battery energy storage system (BESS......) in order to make an optimal dispatch of resources in the microgrid and enhance the storage system lifetime while minimizing the cost of electric consumption. The load demand and generation profiles are derived from the analysis of consumption and renewable production (solar photovoltaic sources and wind...... turbines) of the Western Denmark electric grid. Thus, the proposed microgrid is mainly fed by renewable sources and few electricity is coming from the main grid (which helps operating costs minimization). In this respect, a cost analysis is performed to find the optimal hourly power output of the BESS...

  1. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  2. The role of local renewable energy sources in regional energy production: The case of South-East Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laihanen, A. Karhunen, T. Ranta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper was on discussing the challenges and possibilities of promoting and utilising various renewable energy sources at the regional level. National obligations and the rising prices of fossil fuels have put pressure on energy producers and end users to start utilising renewable energy sources. South-East Finland has one of Europe’s highest forest industry concentrations, and renewable energy sources such as wood fuels are utilised widely. The study utilises earlier regional studies and statistics as well as new results from this study. These results are combined into regional potentials which are presented by regional energy balance. The analyses provide important background information for decision making. The various regions of Finland have different operational environments and local participants need motivation and activation regarding these local possibilities.

  3. Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skovajsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs. The thermal panels have an integrated tube heat exchanger and heating foils. The technology can be used as a passive or active system for heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology”, so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic (PV panels, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermoelectric coolers. In the research, measurements of the different operating modes were made, and the results are presented in the text. The measurement approves that the technology improves the thermal capacity of the building, and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling.

  4. Introduction of renewable energy sources in the district heating system of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Margaritis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The district heating (DH system of Greece, mainly supported from lignite fired stations, is facing lately significant challenges. Stricter emission limits, decreased efficiency due to old age and increased costs are major challenges of the lignite sector and are expected to result in the decommissioning of several lignite-fired units in the coming years. As a result, managers of DH networks are currently investigating alternative scenarios for the substitution of thermal power that it is expected to be lost, through the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES into the system. In this paper, the DH systems of Kozani and Ptolemaida are examined regarding possible introduction of RES. The first study examines district heating of Kozani and alternative future options for covering a part of city’s thermal load whereas the second study refers to a biomass CHP plant (ORC technology, 1MWe, 5MWth to be powered from a biomass mixture (wood chips and straw.

  5. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yijian [Iowa State University; Hong, Mingyi [Iowa State University; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Xu, Zi [Shanghai University

    2017-07-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  6. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijian; Hong, Mingyi; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj; Xu, Zi

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  7. Systematic Assessment of Carbon Emissions from Renewable Energy Access to Improve Rural Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Cherni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One way of increasing access to electricity for impoverished unconnected areas without adding significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere is by promoting renewable energy technologies. However, decision-makers rarely, if ever, take into account the level of in-built energy requirements and consequential CO2 emissions found in renewable energy, particularly photovoltaic cells and related equipment, which have been widely disseminated in developing countries. The deployment of solar panels worldwide has mostly relied on silicon crystalline cell modules, despite the fact that less polluting material—in particular, thin film and organic cells—offers comparatively distinct technical, environmental and cost advantages characteristics. A major scientific challenge has thus been the design of a single decision-making approach to assess local and global climate change-related impacts as well as the socio-economic effects of low-carbon technology. The article focuses on the functions of the multi-criteria-based tool SURE-DSS and environmental impact analysis focused on greenhouse gases (GHG emissions balance to inform the selection of technologies in terms of their impact on livelihoods and CO2eq. emissions. An application in a remote rural community in Cuba is discussed. The results of this study show that while PV silicon (c-Si, thin film (CdTe and organic solar cells may each equally meet the demands of the community and enhance people’s livelihoods, their effect on the global environment varies.

  8. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  9. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal with different carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is one of the most economical and sustainable methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater. However, the performance of EBPR can be affected by available carbon sources types in the wastewater that may induce different functional microbial communities in the process. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly found by coexisting in the EBPR process. Predominance of GAO population may lead to EBPR failure due to the competition on carbon source with PAO without contributing phosphorus removal. Carbon sources indeed play an important role in alteration of PAOs and GAOs in EBPR processes. Various types of carbon sources have been investigated for EBPR performance. Certain carbon sources tend to enrich specific groups of GAOs and/or PAOs. This review summarizes the types of carbon sources applied in EBPR systems and highlights the roles of these carbon sources in PAO and GAO competition. Both single (e.g., acetate, propionate, glucose, ethanol, and amino acid) and complex carbon sources (e.g., yeast extract, peptone, and mixed carbon sources) are discussed in this review. Meanwhile, the environmental friendly and economical carbon sources that are derived from waste materials, such as crude glycerol and wasted sludge, are also discussed and compared.

  10. An Economic Basis for Littoral Land-Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation Heather D. Willauer, Dennis R...difficult challenges to the U.S. Navy for the future production of low carbon fuel from renewable electrical energy from photovoltaic (PV) arrays and...gallons of fuel delivered annually to Diego Garcia. Using published capital cost estimates and a range of solar and wind renewable electrical energy

  11. Lead-carbon electrode designed for renewable energy storage with superior performance in partial state of charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Li; Yin, Jian; Lin, Zhe-Qi; Shi, Jun; Wang, Can; Liu, De-Bo; Wang, Yue; Bao, Jin-Peng; Lin, Hai-Bo

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy storage is a key issue in our modern electricity-powered society. Lead acid batteries (LABs) are operated at partial state of charge in renewable energy storage system, which causes the sulfation and capacity fading of Pb electrode. Lead-carbon composite electrode is a good solution to the sulfation problem of LAB. In this paper, a rice-husk-derived hierarchically porous carbon with micrometer-sized large pores (denoted as RHC) has been used as the component of lead-carbon composite electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of lead-carbon composite electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the charge transfer capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Both full charge-discharge method and charge-discharge method operating at harsh partial state of charge condition have been used to prove the superior energy storage capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Experiment results prove that the micrometer-sized pores of RHC are beneficial to the construction and stability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Microporous carbon material with high surface area is not suitable for the construction of lead-carbon electrode due to the ruin of lead-carbon structure caused by severe electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

  12. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.

  13. What Carbon Sources Support Groundwater Microbial Activity in Riparian Forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwick, N. P.; Groffman, P. M.; McCorkle, D. C.; Stolt, M. H.; Kellogg, D. Q.; Gold, A. J.

    2004-05-01

    A major question in riparian research is the source of energy to support subsurface microbial denitrification activity. The supply of microbially-available carbon frequently limits microbial activity in the subsurface. Therefore, identifying the relative importance of carbon sources in the riparian subsurface helps explain the sustainability and spatial heterogeneity of denitrification rates. We have investigated the importance of buried, carbon-rich soil horizons, deep roots and dissolved organic carbon as potential carbon sources to support groundwater denitrification in riparian forests in Rhode Island. We used field observations, laboratory incubations and in-situ experiments to evaluate these sources at four sites in different geomorphic settings. In particular, we measured the 14C-DIC signature and DIC concentration of ambient groundwater and groundwater that had been degassed, re-introduced into the well, and incubated in-situ. Buried horizons appear to be an important source of carbon in the subsurface, as shown by active respiration in laboratory incubations; greater microbial biomass in buried carbon-rich soils compared to surrounding carbon-poor soils; and the presence of very old carbon (>1,000 ybp) in DIC 225 cm beneath the surface. DIC collected from shallower wells showed no clear evidence of ancient carbon. Roots also appear to be important, creating hotspots of carbon availability and denitrification in the generally carbon poor subsurface matrix. Dissolved organic carbon did not stimulate denitrification in aquifer microcosms in the laboratory, suggesting that this was not an important carbon source for denitrification in our sites. Determining which carbon source is fueling denitrification has practical implications. Where buried horizons are the key source, surface management of the riparian zone will likely have little direct influence on groundwater denitrification. Where roots are the key source, changes in the plant community are likely to

  14. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  15. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

  16. Electricity production by intermittent renewable sources: a synthesis of French and German studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, D.; Le Brun, Ch.; Vidil, R.; Wagner, F.

    2016-09-01

    Wind and solar electricity is produced without direct CO2 emissions. However, the introduction of this electricity in the grid is delicate due to the intermittent character of its sources. Wind and solar production is characterized by multiple, strong variations in the electric power. These variations put stress on the grid where the total production of electricity must always be equal to the consumption. We present a synthesis of five studies conducted for Germany and France with different assumptions of electricity mixes, all with large shares of wind and solar power. These mixes are subjected to the dynamics of wind and solar production as recorded in 2010 (Germany), 2012 and 2013 (Germany and France). Common structural trends are exhibited when the results of simulations (instantaneous power distributions and average annual values) are expressed as a percentage of the annual reduced load to be produced by these intermittent energies. We focus on the evaluation of these trends and the resulting constraints on the grid. The results obtained make it possible to anticipate the problems brought about by a large share of renewable intermittent energies in the production of electricity. They show the need for backup production in order to complement the intermittent sources. This leads to CO2 emissions unless storage systems of large capacity are available.

  17. The current status of the development of renewable energy sources worldwide and in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, V. E.; Popel', O. S.

    2014-06-01

    Resorting to renewable energy sources (RESs) as one of the bases of the promising world energy industry has become a logical result of the historical development and the recognition that is necessary to diversify primary energy sources being used, with the aim of enhancing both energy and ecological security of countries, regions, and concrete energy consumers. The review of the development of new technologies used for conversion of RESs, the progress of which can be characterized by the fact that by the year 2013 the total generating capacity of RES-based power plants now in operation has amounted to 500 GW—by a factor of 1.5 more than the total generating capacity of all nuclear power stations in the world. The paper presents an analysis of the current status of RESs and problems that restrain their development in Russia. It is noted that the peculiarities of the energy situation in Russia impose the specific requirements upon drawing up the programs of the development of RESs. Along with the use of RESs as part of systems of centralized energy supply, which is a priority for most industrially developed countries and promises the most large-scale introduction of RESs in Russia, it is necessary, first of all, to give attention to the development and creation of systems for independent supply of consumers with power and heat and the development of distributed powergenerating systems using RESs.

  18. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Assessing Complementarity of Renewable Energy Sources in Distributed Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, L.; Zink, R.; Dorner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP). This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS) processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  19. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3oC to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60oC by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  20. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  1. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELING FOR ASSESSING COMPLEMENTARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramirez Camargo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  2. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  3. Modeling a drip irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoheiry, Ahmed M.

    Food production is a problem in many of the regions in the world. Today, the process of producing food is very dependent on energy. The dependency on fossil fuels causes the cost of producing crops to increase as the prices of fuel increases. Using a renewable energy sources to power an irrigation system is a mean of decreasing the dependency of food products on the prices of fuel and minimize the impact of the irrigation system on the environment. A model was developed to simulate and predict the performance of an irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source. Both solar energy and wind energy were considered for the modeling of the system. The solar energy was simulated using the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures as an indicator of the amount of clouds in the atmosphere. The model is a modification of earlier models and has the advantage of not needing to be calibrated for each new site. Results showed that a model that calibrates it self for the upper and the lower expected values of the solar radiation can be developed using metrological data such as the location of the site, the daily temperatures, and the minimum relative humidity. The wind energy was predicted using the power coefficient of the turbine and statistical representation of the daily wind speeds. The average hourly values of the wind speed were used for finding the distribution constants for the Weibull distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The results showed that the Weibull distribution is more accurate in predicting the expected power output of the turbine when the daily wind speed coefficient of variation (Cv) was less than 0.5. When the Cv is greater than 0.5 the Rayleigh distribution gives better results. A computer model was developed using Visual Basic to model the system and the resulting model was tested and used in comparing the economics of a traditional irrigation system and an irrigation system powered by solar panels. The system powered by

  4. Influence of carbon sources on nutrient removal in A(2)/O-MBRs: Availability assessment of internal carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongle; Fan, Yaobo; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Yawei; Luo, Nan; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Yu, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Both internal carbon source and some external carbon sources were used to improve the nutrient removal in Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic-Membrane Bioreactor (A(2)/O-MBRs), and their technical and cost analysis was investigated. The experimental results showed that the nutrient removals were improved by all the carbon source additions. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency were higher in the experiments with external carbon source additions than that with internal carbon source addition. It was found that pathways of nitrogen and phosphorus transform were different dependent on different carbon source additions by the mass balance analysis. With external carbon source addition, the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred in aerobic zone, and the P-uptake in aerobic phase was evident. Therefore, with addition of C-MHP (internal carbon source produced from sludge pretreatment by microwave-H2O2 process), the denitrification and phosphorus-uptake in anoxic zone was notable. Cost analysis showed that the unit nitrogen removal costs were 57.13CNY/kg N of C-acetate addition and 54.48CNY/kgN of C-MHP addition, respectively. The results indicated that the C-MHP has a good technical and economic feasibility to substitute external carbon sources partially for nutrient removal.

  5. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  6. Diagnostic Evaluation of Carbon Sources in CMAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional monitoring networks measure only total elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) routinely. Diagnosing model biases with such limited information is difficult. Measurements of organic tracer compounds have recently become available and allow for more detailed di...

  7. Evaluation of the use of renewable energy sources and peat in rural municipal economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, E. A.; Ryapin, I. Yu.; Urvatsev, I. V.; Tsyba, V. Ye.

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness of the use of renewable energy sources (RES) and peat in production of electric and heat energy in rural places of the country by comparing tariffs (prices) of energy versus total expenditures on generation of electric and heat energy when using RES and peat. The appraisal of a cost-effective scale in application of energy plants working on RES and peat in the rural side in Russia is made by using a model-information set developed at the Energy Institute of the National Research University (Higher School of Economics). It is shown that with the current tariffs, the production by use of RES and peat may become economically effective, which means to achieve 1.8 billion kW/h of electric and 250 million GJ of heat energy per year, and, in the long run, 30 billion kW of electric and up to 400 million GJ per year. In comparison of total expenditures on production of electric and heat energy in rural areas (which are considerably above the established tariffs), it becomes cost effective to produce the electric energy of up to 12 billion kW in the nearest years and up to 80 billion kW in the long run. The need for the governmental policy motivating the projects based on use of RES and peat and the lines of this policy for the rural areas of the country are outlined.

  8. Analysis of SFCL’s in DC System with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohanram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting fault-current limiters (SFCLs have been the subject of research and development for many years and offer an attractive solution to the problem of rising fault levels in electrical distribution systems. SFCLs can greatly reduce fault currents and the damage at the point of fault, and help improve the stability of a power system. Superconducting fault-current limiters (SFCL provide a new efficient approach to the reliable handling of such faults.(SCFLs can be used for various nominal voltages and currents, and can be adapted to particular limiting characteristics in case of short circuits. In this project, dc resistive type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL is presented. This SFCL is designed for the HVDC system. Uniform current and voltage sharing among the SFCL modules can be observed through contact resistance tests, dc flow-through tests, and ac flow-through tests. Results of tests show that each limiting module has good uniformity in higher current system. The proposed concept can be implemented using renewable energy sources. The results are presented by using Matlab / simulink platform.

  9. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND HOTEL MANAGEMENT IN MACEDONIA THROUGH THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the nature of energy applied in hotel industry in Macedonia. It explored the indicators for resources application in three, four and five star hotels. The data were collected by means of an online survey conducted among 45 managers and department supervisors. It is found that large number of hotels lack measures to reduce the conventional energy use and replace it with renewable sources of energy. Considering the fact that energy use is a substantial cost factor, the modest and restricted application of geothermal energy, biofuels and photocell lightening is extremely alarming for achieving sustainable tourism development. The study concludes that Macedonian hotels although being fully aware of importance of energy efficiency concept, it is not their managerial priority. It further pointed out that the development and operation of sustainable hotels requires properly planned and designed environmental protection practices. Finally, the study recommends that instead of being driven by increased number of tourists regardless the environmental concern, Macedonian hotels should pay attention and become eco-friendly and be focused on applying environmental oriented practices. At the same time, the research poses new challenges that urgently need to be brought to hotel management in the line of achieving sustainable tourism development.

  10. Strategies for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Europe is pursuing an aggressive programme to increase its share of renewable energy source (RES). However, the integration of intermittent RES (wind and photovoltaic) in the electrical system requires either maintaining in operation thermal backup systems or providing a substantial amount of electricity storage. We analyze the Italian electricity data for the year 2013 provided by the transmission system operator TERNA. The present level of intermittent RES power is scaled-up to a level at which it generates an amount of electricity equal to the annual demand. While a substantial reduction of the energy annually produced by fossil backup systems (and the associated CO2 emission) with respect to the no-RES case is possible in many scenarios considered here, the backup power is generally only marginally reduced below the value in the absence of RES. The strategy proposed is based on the combination of a modest amount of storage (0.5-5TWh) and base-load power (6-15GW, to be used during the seasons of low RES production). In this way the non-RES installed power can be reduced from ˜ 50 GW to less than 15GW and could be covered by a combination of biomass and nuclear energy without any CO2 emission.

  11. Recycling of ash from mezcal industry: a renewable source of lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Guerrero, L; Flores, J; Kharissov, B I

    2010-10-01

    Agave bagasse is a byproduct generated in the mezcal industry. Normally it is burned to reduce its volume, then a byproduct is generated in the form of residual ash, which can contaminate the water in rivers and lakes near the production places called "mezcaleras". This report details measurements of the Agave Salmiana fiber transformation after the burning process. The wasted ash was heated at 950°C, and then hydrolyzed. The compounds were indentified using the X-ray diffraction. The images obtained by scanning electron microscope showed all the morphological transformations of the lime through the whole process. Thermal, elemental and morphological characterization of the agave bagasse were done. Experiments showed that 16% of ash was produced in the burning process of agave bagasse (450°C), and 66% of the ash remains after heating (950°C) in the form of calcium oxide. The results show an important renewable source of calcium compounds, due to the high production of agave based beverages in México. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Future Power Systems: The Role of Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy power production data series, we present a modelling approach to investigate the influence of storage size and efficiency on the pathway towards a 100% RES scenario. Applying our approach to data for Germany, we found that up to 50% of the overall electricity demand can be met by an optimum combination of wind and solar resources without both curtailment and storage devices if the remaining energy is provided by sufficiently flexible power plants. Our findings show further that the installation of small, but highly efficient storage devic...

  13. Hydrogen Generation Through Renewable Energy Sources at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony; Prokopius, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of the potential for generating high pressure, high purity hydrogen at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was performed. This evaluation was based on producing hydrogen utilizing a prototype Hamilton Standard electrolyzer that is capable of producing hydrogen at 3000 psi. The present state of the electrolyzer system was determined to identify the refurbishment requirements. The power for operating the electrolyzer would be produced through renewable power sources. Both wind and solar were considered in the analysis. The solar power production capability was based on the existing solar array field located at NASA GRC. The refurbishment and upgrade potential of the array field was determined and the array output was analyzed with various levels of upgrades throughout the year. The total available monthly and yearly energy from the array was determined. A wind turbine was also sized for operation. This sizing evaluated the wind potential at the site and produced an operational design point for the wind turbine. Commercially available wind turbines were evaluated to determine their applicability to this site. The system installation and power integration were also addressed. This included items such as housing the electrolyzer, power management, water supply, gas storage, cooling and hydrogen dispensing.

  14. High step-up isolated efficient single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gopi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an isolated high step-up single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source is proposed. In the proposed converter high step-up voltage is obtained by single power switching technique that operates low duty cycle with isolated transformer inductors and switched capacitors and power diodes. The disadvantage of conventional converters is that it has high duty ratio and high voltage stress on power devices with less efficiency. The proposed converter eliminates the switching losses and recycles the leakage energy which includes reverse recovery energy of the power diode by using passive clamp circuit. To achieve high output voltage gain, the isolated transformer primary terminal and secondary terminal are connected in series during switching operation. PSIM software has been used for simulation. Simulation circuit is analyzed at 40Vdc/400Vdc, 200 W and this operation is validated by implementing in the hardware model at 12Vdc/120Vdc, 60 W.

  15. The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

  16. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  17. Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores,...... of renewable energy sources, which could lead to reducing reinforcements in the future power systems.......In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores...... and residential sectors, based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. Some field tests were carried out on a facility for intelligent, active and distributed power systems, which...

  18. POTENTIAL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GRANULAR SEWAGE SLUDGE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of the sewage sludge management in Poland is land dis-posal. However, since 01/01/2013, this method will be prohibited. Therefore, there is a strong need for the development of thermal methods of sludge disposal. In Polish legal system sewage sludge may be named as biomass or waste. For the purposes of determining the obligations of environmental regulations the definitionof the Minister of Environment should be used. When disposing of sewage sludge in an amount up to 1% by weight of fuel, emission standards for fuel do not change. At the disposal of sewage in quantities of more than 1%, should be conducted continuous measurement of emissions, including HCl, HF, and continuous measurements of fluegas param-eters (as for the installation of waste disposal. In order to meet the requirement to porduce energy from renewable sources we use the definitionof Minister of Economy. In this case, in accordance with applicable law, sewage sludge shall be considered as pure biomass, thus it is CO2 neutral. The use of sewage sludge as a fuel requires the determination of fundamental combustible properties. These properties should be in accordance with the requirements put fuels as an energy source. The paper presents the results of a detailed physico-chemical analysis of dried sewage sludge produced in the two Polish wastewater treatment plants. The results were compared with fiverepresentatives of biomass fuels: straw of wheat, straw of rape, willow, pine and oak sawdust. Ultimate and proximate analyses include a detailed analysis of fuel and ash. The results clearly indicate that sludge is a very valuable fuel similar to “traditional” biomass.

  19. Design of a Sustainable and Efficient Transportation Station (SETS Based on Renewable Sources and Efficient Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungchin Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for reduction in power consumption for public facilities has increased after the occurrences of multiple blackout events. In an effort to enable the development of green and smart social infrastructure, this paper introduces a design for a sustainable and efficient transportation system (SETS. For this design, renewable power sources and efficient electric drives are considered to be crucial technologies. Considering the subway station as an illustrative example, a power system design that uses wind and solar energy as major power sources is studied. The adjustable speed electric drive system that uses synchronous reluctance machines for ventilation systems contributes to increasing the overall power consumption efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed SETS system is verified through a set of various field measurement data and simulation results. While the verification results demonstrate that operation of SETS is enabled by effective integration of renewable sources and efficient ventilation systems, future research directions have also been identified.

  20. Substitutability of Electricity and Renewable Materials for Fossil Fuels in a Post-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feasible way to avoid the risk of energy decline and combat climate change is to build a 100% renewable global energy mix. However, a globally electrified economy cannot grow much above 12 electric terawatts without putting pressure on the limits of finite mineral reserves. Here we analyze whether 12 TW of electricity and 1 TW of biomass (final power will be able to fuel a future post-carbon economy that can provide similar services to those of a contemporary economy. Contrarily to some pessimistic expectations, this analysis shows that the principle economic processes can be replaced with sustainable alternatives based on electricity, charcoal, biogas and hydrogen. Furthermore, those services that cannot be replaced are not as crucial so as to cause a return to a pre-industrial society. Even so, land transport and aviation are at the limit of what is sustainable, outdoor work should be reorganized, metal primary production should be based on hydrogen reduction when possible, mineral production should be increasingly based on recycling, the petrochemical industry should shrink to a size of 40%–43% of the 2012 petrochemical sector, i.e., a size similar to that the sector had in 1985–1986, and agriculture may require organic farming methods to be sustainable.

  1. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  2. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  3. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  4. Renewable energy sources in Basque Country. Recursos energeticos renovables en la comunidad autonoma del Pais Vasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ente Vasco de la Energia (EVE. Vitoria (Spain))

    1992-07-01

    The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined.

  5. Renewable energy sources and the realities of setting an energy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocnik, Janez

    2007-02-09

    The European Commission has been devoting considerable attention to energy issues. This Perspective describes recent progress in Europe toward achieving goals for renewable energy use, and the role that technology can play, as well as the new Strategic Energy Package.

  6. Integration of wave energy and other marine renewable energy sources with the needs of coastal societies

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Manasseh; SA Sannasiraj; Kathleen L McInnes; Sundar, V.; Purnima Jalihal

    2017-01-01

    Marine renewable energy has the potential to solve both the energy-security and coastal-protection problems affecting coastal societies. In this article, the potential benefits arising from the combination of marine renewable energy technologies with infrastructural needs for coastal protection and other local needs are analysed. Classifications of technologies are developed to inform future coastal planning. Explanations of the resources and technologies are presented in layperson’s term. Th...

  7. Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

  8. Renewable energy sources in the French national plan for improved energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The French National Plan for Improved Energy Efficiency (PNAEE, Programme National d'Amelioration de l'Efficacite Energetique) whose aim is to ensure the conformity of national energy policy with the climate change mitigation policy was designed to be in line with France's national plan to combat climatic change and with the French national targets in the European directive for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). According to this directive, by 2010, RES electricity should account for 21% percent of electricity consumed in France as opposed 15% today. To pave the way for this increase, the mains tools that have been set up by the French authorities in the framework of the PNAEE are as follows: ADEME's programmes; the RES electricity purchase obligation with feed-in tariffs; the pluri-annual investment programme in the electricity sector. The Law no. 2000-108, dated 10 February 2000, on the modernization and development of the public service in the electricity field, includes two articles, which directly relate to RESs. Two years after the PNAEE's implementation, the first achievements are the followings: more than 63.000 square meters of solar thermal panels installed due to a rapidly increasing demand; a new contribution of 47.000 toe to the national energy production coming from wood energy and geothermal; a new contribution of 208 GWh/year to the national electricity production coming from RES electricity, mainly from wind energy. These first results are not yet in line with the final objectives but the budgetary, regulatory and fiscal framework is in place and the market is in a quickly growing phase. (author)

  9. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA. Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  10. An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

  11. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  12. An iterative approach for symmetrical and asymmetrical Short-circuit calculations with converter-based connected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    As more renewable energy sources, especially more wind turbines are installed in the power system, analysis of the power system with the renewable energy sources becomes more important. Short-circuit calculation is a well known fault analysis method which is widely used for early stage analysis...... and design purposes and tuning of the network protection equipments. However, due to current controlled power converter-based grid connection of the wind turbines, short-circuit calculation cannot be performed with its current form for networks with power converter-based wind turbines. In this paper......, an iterative approach for short-circuit calculation of networks with power converter-based wind turbines is developed for both symmetrical and asymmetrical short-circuit grid faults. As a contribution to existing solutions, negative sequence current injection from the wind turbines is also taken into account...

  13. Fatty acid from the renewable sources: a promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Xian, Mo; Cao, Yujin; Fang, Fang; Zou, Huibin

    2014-01-01

    With the depletion of the nonrenewable petrochemical resources and the increasing concerns of environmental pollution globally, biofuels and biobased chemicals produced from the renewable resources appear to be of great strategic significance. The present review described the progress in the biosynthesis of fatty acid and its derivatives from renewable biomass and emphasized the importance of fatty acid serving as the platform chemical and feedstock for a variety of chemicals. Due to the low efficient conversions of lignocellulosic biomass or carbon dioxide to fatty acid, we also put forward that rational strategies for the production of fatty acid and its derivatives should further derive from the consideration of whole bioprocess (pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation, separation), multiscale analysis and interdisciplinary combinations (omics, kinetics, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, fermentation and so on). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  15. A review of the potential of renewable energy sources for the State of Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisar, Arsalan, E-mail: arsalan.nisar@alumnos.upm.es [Department of Industrial Engineering, Business Administration and Statistics, School of Industrial Engineering, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos, E-mail: crmonroy@etsii.upm.es [Department of Industrial Engineering, Business Administration and Statistics, School of Industrial Engineering, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with expected shortages. Many of its current policies and strategies are aimed at the improvement and possible maximization of energy production from the renewable sector. It is also clear that while energy-conservation and energy-efficiency can make an important contribution in the national energy strategy, renewable energies will be essential to the solution and are likely to play an increasingly important role for the growth of grid power, providing energy access, reducing consumption of fossil fuels, and helping India pursue its low carbon progressive pathway. However, most of the states in India, like the northernmost State of Jammu and Kashmir (J and K), have experienced an energy crisis over a sustained period of time. As India intends to be one of the emerging powers of the 21st century, it has to embark upon with these pressing issues in a more sustainable manner and accordingly initiate various renewable energy projects within these states. This paper will provide a broad-spectrum view about the energy situation within J and K and will highlight the current policies along with future strategies for the optimal utilization of renewable energy resources. - Highlights: > To present an overview of the current energy situation in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, India. > To analyze the potential of the various renewable energy resources available in the State given the existing constraints. > To state the challenges of the administration to incentivize the participation of private initiative in energy development.

  16. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  17. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  18. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  19. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  20. Biopitch produced from eucalyptus wood pyrolysis liquids as a renewable binder for carbon electrode manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biomass as a clean source of fuel, chemicals and materials is growing fast. What is attractive about biomass is its renewability and that it is CO2 balanced and sulfur-free. Biomass pyrolysis produces charcoal, bio-oil and gases in different proportions, depending on the technology and raw material used. In this study biopitch, a substitute for fossil pitches in electrodes, was produced from bio-oil distillation in bench-scale equipment. Biopitch and charcoal were mixed and thermically modified to give prebaked electrodes. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the biopitch and final electrodes were measured and compared with those of coal tar and petroleum materials. Despite their similar application, biomaterials are structurally and chemically different from minerals. The oxygen content in biopitch is ca 20 wt% and in mineral pitches it is no more than 2 wt%. Characterization experiments for electrode samples measured electrical resistivity, Young's modulus, rupture strength, density, porosity and proximate analysis.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR RELATED PERSPECTIVES OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa-Pedretti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some considerations and advances a number of proposals about the potential of Agricultural Engineering to contribute to the field of renewable energy, with an emphasis on biomass. Several areas for action are identified. First, general education and teaching of students who will go on to become technicians and professionals in the sector of renewable energies, even though the characteristics of the sectors are still fuzzy. Diffusion of the energy culture, a too often neglected aspect that is however indispensable to sustain the overdue penetration of renewable energies in Italy, is an additional area for action. Another critical area, energy planning, is currently viewed mainly as involving the assessment on more or less wide areas of energy consumption and for the scope of replacing fossil resources with renewables to meet some energy requirements. A more complex, overarching issue is energy efficiency, especially of buildings, which should be a mainstay of the planning process but is in fact not so clearly addressed in development plans for renewables. At this same level, all interactions among production sectors should be assessed, to enhance the role of agriculture, one of the new potential energy-producing sectors and one of the possible prospective suppliers of renewable energy for different final users, from households to the service sector and industry. Agricultural Engineering has the skills needed to implement all these different actions. A role for it in advanced research, i.e. biotechnologies, can and should also be envisaged. Its work in the renewable energy sector should closely involve microbiological, genetic, chemical, agronomic, and animal research to define the goals to be pursued and to implement intuitions. In this way, Agricultural Engineering would increasingly be characterized as Biosystems Engineering.

  2. Limitation of fusion power plant installation on future power grids under the effect of renewable and nuclear power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shutaro, E-mail: takeda.shutarou.55r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Future power grids would be unstable due to renewable and nuclear power sources. • Output interruptions of fusion plant would cause disturbances to future grids. • Simulation results suggested they would create limitations in fusion installation. • A novel diagram was presented to illustrate this suggested limitation. - Abstract: Future power grids would be unstable because of the larger share of renewable and nuclear power sources. This instability might bring some additional difficulties to fusion plant installation. Therefore, the authors carried out a quantitative feasibility study from the aspect of grid stability through simulation. Results showed that the more renewable and nuclear sources are linked to a grid, the greater disturbance the grid experiences upon a sudden output interruption of a fusion power plant, e.g. plasma disruption. The frequency deviations surpassed 0.2 Hz on some grids, suggesting potential limitations of fusion plant installation on future grids. To clearly show the suggested limitations of fusion plant installations, a novel diagram was presented.

  3. Integrated renewable energy networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Spencer, L.

    2015-12-01

    This multidisciplinary research is focused on studying implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Our modern economy now depends heavily on large-scale, energy-intensive technologies. A transition to low carbon, renewable sources of energy is needed. We will develop a procedure for designing and analyzing renewable energy systems based on the magnitude, distribution, temporal characteristics, reliability and costs of the various renewable resources (including biomass waste streams) in combination with various measures to control the magnitude and timing of energy demand. The southern Canadian prairies are an ideal location for developing renewable energy networks. The region is blessed with steady, westerly winds and bright sunshine for more hours annually than Houston Texas. Extensive irrigation agriculture provides huge waste streams that can be processed biologically and chemically to create a range of biofuels. The first stage involves mapping existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation, such as ridges, rooftops and valley walls, will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids.

  4. Entrepreneurship as a source of development and strengthening of endogerous capacities for the utilization of renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Esperanza Sanabria A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg While current environmental problems are taken place worldwide, their impacts are seen in different regions, populations and economies. For this reason, all measures and plans to mitigate those problems should originate from local initiatives to respond to specific needs of social agents, making use of available resources and capacities in each territory. Facing all these current environmental problems bring about changes in production and consumption systems which involve more efficient and sustainable use of resources, changing the energy pattern with its key role due to the impact in the use of non- renewable energies. To solve all these problems, an entrepreneurial and innovative capacity is needed to adopt new production methods, supplies and products, as well as new ways to do things. As renewable energies play an important role as a new alternative to face the depletion of non- renewable energies and as a way to reduce the external negative factors associated with energy consumption. Then, this paper aims at showing a theoretical revision describing the relevance of entrepreneurship in the development and strengthening of endogenic capacities to take advantage of local renewable sources of energy.

  5. PowerStep - Wastewater as source of biomass for renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loderer, Christian; Lesjean, Boris; Krampe, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    at operating WWTP sites of different sizes (up to 350,000 pe) and involving various and representative state-of-the-art treatment processes, which underlines both the realistic nature of testing conditions and also the interest of associated partners and utilities in the innovative potential of the investigated technologies and concepts. Within the next three years the following goals should be achieved: • Breakthough innovation: the WWTP will be net energy producer. Wastewater as the last forgotten source of biomass for renewable energy. • No additional needs for power infrastructure, as WWTPs are already well connected in energy supply network and close to power demand (big cities). • First coordinated European project demonstrating energy positive WWTPs as cost effective combination of technological solutions. • Demonstration with first large-scale references: Best practices for next generation WWTPs integrated with global assessment. • Outstanding market and environment impact: Global yearly market value of up 30 Billion, energy cost savings for WWTP operators in Europe of at least €1.7 Billion per year and 5.9 Million tCO2 reduction per year.

  6. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  7. The Optimization Model for Interregional Power System Planning considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Renewable Energy Quota Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the rapid construction of ultra-high-voltage (UHV transmission lines promotes interregional resource optimizing configuration and interregional power system planning. This paper analyzes external environment of interregional power system planning from geographical, technical, and policy environments. Then, the paper takes the minimum system investment cost as the optimization objective and constructs the optimization model of interregional power system planning considering carbon emissions trading (CET and renewable energy quota mechanism (REQ. Finally, this paper sets base scenario, carbon emissions trading scenario, renewable energy quota mechanism scenario, and comprehensive scenario for case simulation. The results show that interregional power system planning could connect power grids in different regions, enlarge wind power consumption space, and relieve the inconformity problem between power resource and load demand. CET and REQ can increase the installed proportion of clean energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but the cost of transmission lines construction and system reserve will increase correspondingly. The optimization effect of REQ on power system planning is better than CET. When they are both introduced, the power structure will reach the best, carbon dioxide emissions will achieve the minimum, and comprehensive benefits will become more balanced.

  8. The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano C, J. Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los

  9. BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

  10. Main types of technical facilities used in poland agricultural sector for obtaining energy from renewable sources of various nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Kalinichenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main ways of heat and electric energy supply of farms in Poland, using energy from renewable sources. Particular attention is paid to the relevant requirements for technical support of energy supply processes. It is assumed that in agriculture production and rural areas in Poland soon the number of used conventional fuels, including natural gas and coal, will change significantly, for the use of biomass, solar, geothermal and wind energy. Devices that are designed for use almost unlimited supply of renewable energy are: heat pumps, solar panels, photo-electric elements, wind and hydrostations. The main effect is as traditional energy saving and reduction of technogenic impact on the environment, and increasing of energy security level, creating new workplaces and promote regional development

  11. Renewable sources electric power: resources and challenges for the France; Electricite d'origine renouvelable: ressources et enjeux pour la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchereau, J.M.; Dormoy, C

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides information (statistical data, legal framework) on the electric power produced by the renewable energy sources in France. It explains the associated local economical challenge and the french objectives in the European Union Directive. (A.L.B.)

  12. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  13. RELATIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR, RENEWABLE, AND FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M; Charles W. Forsberg, C

    2008-08-04

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  14. Cyanobacteria and microalgae: a renewable source of bioactive compounds and other chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Telma; Pais, Alberto A C C; Campos, Maria G; Burrows, Hugh D

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are rich sources of many valuable compounds, including important bioactive and biotechnologically relevant chemicals. Their enormous biodiversity, and the consequent variability in the respective biochemical composition, make microalgae cultivations a promising resource for many novel chemically and biologically active molecules and compounds of high commercial value such as lipids and dyes. The nature of the chemicals produced can be manipulated by changing the cultivation media and conditions. Algae are extremely versatile because they can be adapted to a variety of cell culture conditions. They do not require arable land, can be cultivated on saline water and wastewaters, and require much less water than plants. They possess an extremely high growth rate making these microorganisms very attractive for use in biofuel production--some species of algae can achieve around 100 times more oil than oil seeds. In addition, microalgae and cyanobacteria can accumulate various biotoxins and can contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases since they produce biomass through carbon dioxide fixation. In this review, we provide an overview of the application of microalgae in the production of bioactive and other chemicals.

  15. Climate change mitigation: the potential of agriculture as a renewable energy source in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elum, Z A; Modise, D M; Nhamo, G

    2017-02-01

    Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The paper employed a critical discourse analysis to examine the potential of the agricultural sector to provide biofuels from energy crops and other biomass sources. We conclude that Nigeria can reduce its GHG emissions and greatly contribute to global climate change mitigation while also alleviating its energy supply deficit if the agricultural and municipal wastes readily available in its towns and cities are converted to bioenergy. Such engagements will not only promote a clean and healthy environment but also create jobs for economic empowerment and a better standard of living for the people.

  16. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  17. Coffee Area (Subak Abian Tri Guna Karya Kintamani Bangli Based Waste Management Potential to Generate Renewable Energy Sources and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INyoman Sucipta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali island has 5.632.86 km2 area with a total area of 36.298 hectares of coffee farm in 2004with production 3.696.206 15386.405 tons of Arabica coffee and Robusta coffee produces tonsof waste is high enough. The results of the proximate analysis of robusta coffee waste containingprotein, crude fiber and fat is high at 6.67 to 12.43% crude protein, fiber kasar11,05-21,40%, fat1.04 to 1.07%, while the calcium 0 , 21 to 0.34% and 0.02-0.07% phosfor.Materials (coffee waste inserted through the container revenue in accordance with thetreatment, then allowed to ferment anaerobically for 35 days, if the bio-gas already formed inlarge volume, then the bio-gas flow from the inner tube to cleaners tube which then exits througha gas hose. Bio-gas has started to form when the water in the U manometer and hose materialspointer moves upward.Parameters measured were the temperature of the fermentation medium was measured with athermometer scale 0-100oC. Volume of bio-gas can be shown on the hose raw material pointerwas the changes of the surface of raw material height multiplied by its width. Gasbio pressureinside the bioreactor was measured using a manometer U scaleD 3-3 cm. gasbio production wasmeasured by thermik properties of the gas or through the ideal gas equation (Sutanto, 1982.Technical analysis measured through the strength of materials, dimensions and weight. Thecontent of gasbio is observed from methanogenic process is methane gas, and of the hydrolysisand acidification processes was carbon dioxide gas using a Shimadzu GC-7A kromatograf modelChemical analysis of coffee waste and bio-gas as byproduct was crude fiber, nitrogen, fattyacids, calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc as well ascaffeine using atomic spetrophotometes.Handling of coffee waste using region-based bioreactors (Subak Abian Tri to workKintamani Bangli generate renewable energy, a source of nutrients and bioactive and spawned aculture of energy

  18. Power generation from renewable energy sources. Climate-friendly and economically efficient. Background information; Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien. Klimafreundlich und oekonomisch sinnvoll. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    As the publication shows, the public discussion in Germany is increasingly focusing on the cost of the promotion of renewable energy sources. Critical comments state that the EEG (Renewables Act) accounts for most of the recent electricity rate increases and also does not contribute to climate protection. This background paper of the Federal Environmental Office stresses the role of the EEC for climate protection and its effects on price trends in electricity supply. The resulting financial burden for the German citizens and industry is investigated, and it is discussed whether public funding of renewable energy sources is indeed beneficial for the German economy on the whole.

  19. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current situation and perspectives in the use of renewable energy sources and nuclear power for regional electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present book maximizes reader insights into the current and future roles to be played by different types of renewable energy sources and nuclear energy for the purpose of electricity generation in the European region as a whole and in a select group of European countries specifically. This book includes detailed analysis of the different types of renewable energy sources available in different European countries; the pros and cons of the use of the different types of renewables and nuclear energy for electricity generation; which energy options are available in the different European coun

  20. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  1. Renewable energy sources: Jobs created, skills required (and identified gaps, education and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malamatenios Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As has been documented, renewables contribute significantly to employment growth, creating relatively more jobs than the fossil fuels they displace, an important fact due to the dramatic rise in unemployment experienced nowadays. The results of various studies made are presented, along with projections for the future. The jobs per installed megawatt of various renewable energy (RE technologies are estimated for Greece and compared to conventional power production methods. Then, the variety of professions involved in each sub-sector of the RE industry (equipment manufacture and distribution, project development, construction and installation, operation and maintenance of plants are presented, along with the recognized skills they should have to properly fulfil their tasks. Finally, selected initiatives undertaken by universities and vocational training providers aiming to address the identified skill shortages in all RE industry's parts are listed.

  2. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  3. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    CERN Document Server

    Dedinec, Aleksandar; Gajduk, Andrej; Markovska, Natasa; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  4. Opportunities for the compensation of the fluctuation feed-in from renewable energy sources. Study commissioned by the German Renewable Energy Federation; Moeglichkeiten zum Ausgleich Fluktuierender Einspeisungen aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Studie im Auftrag des Bundesverbandes Erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzikalla, Norbert; Achner, Siggi; Bruehl, Stefan [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    The platform 'system transformation' of the German Renewable Energy Federation (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) accompanies the forthcoming restructuring of the energy supply towards 100 percent renewable energy. The previous discussions of this platform provided two results: the fluctuating renewable energies must be placed at the center of considerations in order to enable a sustainable system design and market design. Furthermore, the question of how the fluctuating feed-in from renewable energy sources can be compensated has to be answered. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on these compensation options. There are different flexibility options available in order to create a safe, environmentally sustainable and affordable energy system.

  5. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  6. Use of the Drawing-Writing Technique to Determine the Level of Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers Regarding Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of pre-service science teachers in Turkey regarding the different types of renewable energy sources, the methods used for obtaining energy from these sources, and the areas of use for these energy sources. Within the context of the study, the drawing-writing technique was used in order…

  7. Modulation of Candida albicans Biofilm by Different Carbon Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Suma C; Pruthi, Parul A; Prasad, R; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, the role of carbon sources (glucose, lactate, sucrose, and arabinose) on Candida albicans biofilm development and virulence factors was studied on polystyrene microtiter plates. Besides this, structural changes in cell wall component β-glucan in presence of different carbon sources have also been highlighted. Biofilm formation was analyzed by XTT (2,3-bis[2-Methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reduction assay. Glucose-grown cells exhibited the highest metabolic activity during adhesion among all carbon sources tested (p roughness measurements by atomic force microscopy. Exposure to lactate induced hyphal structures with the highest proteinase activity while arabinose-grown cells formed pseudohyphal structures possessing the highest phospholipase activity. Structural changes in β-glucan characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy displayed characteristic band of β-glucan at 892 cm(-1) in all carbon sources tested. The β(1→6) to β(1→3) glucan ratio calculated as per the band area of the peak was less in lactate (1.15) as compared to glucose (1.73), sucrose (1.62), and arabinose (2.85). These results signify that carbon sources influence C. albicans biofilm development and modulate virulence factors and structural organization of cell wall component β-glucan.

  8. Analysis Of The Profitability of Investment In Renewable Energy Sources On The Example of A Semi-Detached House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the profitability of investment in a selection of systems based on renewable energy sources on the example of a semi-detached house with a floor area of nearly 150 m2. The analysis was conducted in three variants:1 the application of a biomass boiler, solar collectors and photovoltaic panels; 2 a heat pump, solar collectors and photovoltaic panels; 3 a heat pump, solar collectors and a wind turbine. Next, the proposed solutions were compared with a traditional heating system featuring a gas-powered boiler and obtaining electricity through the power distribution grid. The investment and operational costs were calculated after the selection of the appropriate equipment. The example under analysis indicates that variant 3 entailed the highest investment costs (the purchase and fitting of a heat pump as well as the drilling required to install underground pumps. Traditional technical solutions were proven to produce the highest costs. The investment profitability analysis was conducted using both the simple and discounted methods of evaluating profitability. It was established that variant 3 yielded the shortest discounted payback period - less than 13 years. It is estimated that the investment will reach the break-even point after this time. As a summary, it must be noted that the profitability of a given investment depends on the adopted technical solutions. Due to high initials costs, investors often lack interest in the purchase and installation of renewable energy generation systems; however, the contribution of the investors can be lowered with the use of subsidies and price reductions regarding the installation of renewable energy generation systems. We can observe a decrease in the price of the most popular and efficient renewable energy systems.

  9. Maintenance-energy-dependent dynamics of growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB] production by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 using simple and renewable carbon substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of microbial growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB] production in growth/ non-growth phases of Azhohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 were studied using a maintenance-energy-dependent mathematical model. The values of calculated model kinetic parameters were: m s1 = 0.0005 h-1, k = 0.0965, µmax = 0.25 h-1 for glucose; m s1 = 0.003 h-1, k = 0.1229, µmax = 0.27 h-1 for fructose; and m s1 = 0.0076 h-1, k = 0.0694, µmax = 0.25 h-1 for sucrose. The experimental data of biomass growth, substrate consumption, and P(3HB production on different carbon substrates were mathematically fitted using non-linear least square optimization technique and similar trends, but different levels were observed at varying initial carbon substrate concentration. Further, on the basis of substrate assimilation potential, cane molasses was used as an inexpensive and renewable carbon source for P(3HB production. Besides, the physico-chemical, thermal, and material properties of synthesized P(3HB were determined which reveal its suitability in various applications.

  10. An adaptive Phase-Locked Loop algorithm for faster fault ride through performance of interconnected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    of the phase-locked loop algorithm. The adaptive parameters are adjusted in real time according to the proposed fault classification unit, which permits a fast estimation of the type of the grid fault. The outstanding performance of the proposed adaptive PLL is verified through simulation and experimental......Interconnected renewable energy sources require fast and accurate fault ride through operation in order to support the power grid when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive Phase-Locked Loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response of the grid...

  11. The competition of different measures to increase flexibility in energy systems with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Christoph; Teufel, Felix [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Research and Innovation Dept.

    2013-04-01

    The continuous expansion of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) is changing the present generation structure that has been designed to follow fluctuating demand considerably. In order to utilise a high share of supply-dependent RES, the future energy system needs to become more flexible than it is today. This paper describes the different flexibility options that can be implemented with regard to their major restrictions as well as their suitability to balance a certain deficit or surplus of RES generation. Furthermore, it outlines the importance of competition between these different balancing measures to meet the required level of flexibility at lowest cost. (orig.)

  12. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems as a Strategy for Predicting and Controling the Energy Produced from Renewable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Elena Dragomir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The challenge for our paper consists in controlling the performance of the future state of a microgrid with energy produced from renewable energy sources. The added value of this proposal consists in identifying the most used criteria, related to each modeling step, able to lead us to an optimal neural network forecasting tool. In order to underline the effects of users’ decision making on the forecasting performance, in the second part of the article, two Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS models are tested and evaluated. Several scenarios are built by changing: the prediction time horizon (Scenario 1 and the shape of membership functions (Scenario 2.

  13. Innovative Promotion of Renewable Energy Development for Challenging Sustainable Low-Carbon Society: Case Study of Pingtung County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pingtung County, located in the southernmost part of Taiwan, has been selected as one of the Smarter Cities Challenge by the International Business Machines (IBM in 2013 due to its innovative promotion for renewable energy exploitation in recent years. In this regard, the objective of this paper will be to present an in-depth analysis of the success of environmental sustainability efforts through aggressive measures and profitable plans by this tropical county. The description in the paper is, thus, summarized on the central regulations and economic measures for promoting renewable energy in Taiwan, focusing on the feed-in tariff (FIT. Then, some innovative promotion plans for renewable energy in Pinugtung County, including swine-derived biogas-to-power and “Raise Water, Grow Electricity”, were further addressed to show the preliminary results under the funding supports of the central and local governments. With a practical basis of the total swine population (around 433,000 heads, from the farm scale of over 5,000 heads in Pingtung County, a preliminary analysis showed the annual benefits: methane reduction of 2.2 Gg, electricity generation of 8.3 × 106 kilowatt-hour (kW-h, equivalent electricity charge saving of 8.3 × 105 US Dollar (USD, and equivalent carbon dioxide mitigation of 50.9 thousand tons (Gg.

  14. Deoiled asphalt as carbon source for preparation of various carbon materials by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuguang; Yang, Yongzhen; Lin, Xian; Xu, Bingshe; Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Various carbon materials, including vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) and carbon trees, were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition in argon atmosphere, using deoiled asphalt as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. Pure carbon microbeads (CMBs) were also obtained by this method in the absence of ferrocene. The influence of different growth parameters, such as ferrocene content, reaction temperature, retention time and argon flow rate, was investigated, with respect to morphology and product yield. The products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  15. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat...

  16. Energy Management in Smart Home with Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakimi, Mehdi; Hajizadeh, Amin; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban

    2017-01-01

    Heating systems play an indispensable part in building energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort of the occupants. This paper introduces an ingenious residential heating system controller which has a smart grid utility. Due to smart grid, demand response systems can now engage not only...... with the commercial clients but with the individual residential customers as well. In addition to this, the capability exists to have automated control systems which function on the availability of renewable energy and the well-being of the clients. In this paper, one feasible execution of an active controller...

  17. Evaluation of the wind conditions for the acquisition of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    Inherent in the continuous development of civilization is a constant increase in demand for electricity. The result of this situation could be a threat to cover domestic demand for electricity generated from domestic sources. It is significant therefore, to increase the energy security of the country, as well as to generate a positive impact on the development and dynamics of social and economic processes which is carried by the development of renewable energy sources. A crucial argument for the need to implement new sustainable solutions is growing environmental degradation and pollution resulting from the acquisition and use of non-renewable energy resources. Renewable energy resource for interest of this analysis is the wind. A crucial feature of the wind is its high volatility. Wind speed is characterized by diurnal, seasonal and long-term variation. The study area is Sosnowiec city. The analysis covers the data from the period 2002 - 2011 obtained using a meteorological station located in the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Sosnowiec. Analyzed data are observations of wind speed measured at the height of 10m above the ground - average values of 10 minutes. The mean and maximum daily, monthly and annual values of wind speed have been calculated, and on their basis, a relevant analysis have been made. Average wind speed value for the analyzed area of the analyzed period (2002 - 2011) is 1,70m/s, while the maximum wind speed value is 3,78m/s. Sosnowiec is located in zone IV - unfavorable for the use of wind energy.

  18. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  19. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  20. From Goals to Action: The Efforts for Increasing Energy Efficiency and Integration of Renewable Sources in Eskilstuna, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Vassileva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cities’ energy usage accounts for two thirds of global primary energy consumption. Energy efficiency in urban areas is, therefore, one of the most important topics to consider when dealing with urban sustainability. This paper evaluates the goals for increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources in the areas of transportation, buildings and consumers’ awareness, as stated in the Climate action plan, for the municipality of Eskilstuna, Sweden. The efforts of the municipality to successfully reach their energy efficiency goals, are described in this paper including future perspectives. The results show that although the municipality counts with the advantage of owning and working together with the local housing company and energy provider, in order to reach the established goals, additional strategies need to be considered. For an increased use of renewable energy sources, analysis of rooftops suitable for photovoltaic (PV installation should be carried out as well as the integration of goals for self-consumption. In the transport field, the city needs to prepare for large-scale electric vehicle (EV market penetration and to consider different bike or car sharing options. Finally, more specific awareness campaigns are needed to engage the citizens in reducing their energy consumption and living a more sustainable life.

  1. Power Quality Improvement at Distribution Level for Grid Connected Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Syed Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The non-linear load current harmonics may result in voltage harmonics and can create a serious PQ problem in the power system network. Active power filters (APF are extensively used to compensate the load current harmonics and load unbalance at distribution level. This results in an additional hardware cost. However, in this project it has incorporated the features of APF in the conventional inverter interfacing renewable with the grid, without any additional hardware cost. Here, the main idea is the maximum utilization of inverter rating which is most of the time underutilized due to intermittent nature of RES. The grid-interfacing inverter can effectively be utilized to perform the four important functions they are to transfer active power harvested from the renewable resources (wind, solar, etc., load reactive power demand support, current harmonics compensation at PCC and current unbalance and neutral current compensation in case of 3-phase 4-wire system. Moreover, with adequate control of grid-interfacing inverter, all the four objectives can be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. The PQ constraints at the PCC can therefore be strictly maintained within the utility standards without additional hardware cost. With such a control, the combination of grid-interfacing inverter and the 3-phase 4-wire linear/non-linear unbalanced load at point of common coupling appears as balanced linear load to the grid. This new control concept is demonstrated with extensive MATLAB/Simulink simulation studies

  2. Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong

    Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non

  3. The Evaluation and Testing of Various Bladeless Wind Turbine Designs for use as an alternative renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Ian; Ray, Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Over the last two decades wind turbines have proven themselves globally as a reliable, renewable, and clean energy source. Even though wind turbines are simpler in design and do not pollute during operation as compared to conventional energy sources, many improvements can still be made. The design of a bladeless wind turbine offers potential improvements such as cost savings, reduction of operating noise level, simplification of the manufacturing process, reduction of maintenance costs, and incorporation of eco-friendly features. In order to analyze various turbine designs, a wind tunnel with a 30.3 cm x 29.1 cm test section was constructed at Georgia College. Several different wing sections are being evaluated in order to determine the turbine design and engineered for optimal aerodynamic efficiency over a Range of Reynolds numbers. Other factors like Pressure coefficients and overall drag profile of the designs will also be analyzed as well.

  4. Biotemplate synthesis of carbon nanostructures using bamboo as both the template and the carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaodan [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China); China National Bamboo Research and Development Center, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Yang, Qian [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zheng, Yifan; Mo, Weimin; Hu, Jianguan [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Huang, Wanzhen, E-mail: risohuang@zjut.edu.cn [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures was demonstrated. • The bamboo was selected as both the green carbon source and the biotemplate. • Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructure have been identified. • The corresponding growth mechanism of each carbon nanostructure was proposed. - Abstract: A series of carbon nanostructures were prepared via a biotemplate method by catalytic decomposition of bamboo impregnated with ferric nitrate. The natural nanoporous bamboo was used as both the green carbon source and the template for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures. Scanning electron microscope, field emission transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope were used to characterize the product. Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructures have been identified, namely nanofibers, hollow carbon nanospheres, herringbone and bamboo-shaped nanotubes. The effect of reaction temperature (from 600 to 900 °C) on the growth behavior of carbon nanostructures was investigated and the corresponding growth mechanism was proposed. At low temperature the production of nanofibers was favored, while higher temperature led to bamboo-shaped nanostructures.

  5. Renewable fuels from agricultural sources - ethanol, biodiesel, biogas; Foernybara drivmedel fraan jordbruket - etanol, biodiesel, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolke, Camilla L.; Einarson, Elin; Ekloef, Patrik

    2011-07-01

    In this report we give a status report of the biofuels market. We describe some of the issues which are linked to environmental and land use. We also explain why different actors reach different assessments regarding the greenhouse gas emissions, land use and food security. Biofuels have been highlighted as a way to reduce the transport sector large emissions of greenhouse gases and thus as a climate measure. But when several countries have increased their production and consumption and set targets for bio-renewable fuels the biofuels impact has been questioned. Are emissions really reduced? What happens to the direct and indirect land use? How does the production of more biofuels affect the security in food production?

  6. Distributed MPC for Efficient Coordination of Storage and Renewable Energy Sources Across Control Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kyri; Guo, Junyao; Hug, Gabriela; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    In electric power systems, multiple entities are responsible for ensuring an economic and reliable way of delivering power from producers to consumers. With the increase of variable renewable generation it is becoming increasingly important to take advantage of the individual entities' (and their areas') capabilities for balancing variability. Hence, in this paper, we employ and extend the approximate Newton directions method to optimally coordinate control areas leveraging storage available in one area to balance variable resources in another area with only minimal information exchange among the areas. The problem to be decomposed is a model predictive control problem including generation constraints, energy storage constraints, and AC power flow constraints. Singularity issues encountered when formulating the respective Newton-Raphson steps due to intertemporal constraints are addressed and extensions to the original decomposition method are proposed to improve the convergence rate and required communication of the method.

  7. Optimal Operation of the Integrated Electrical and Heating Systems to Accommodate the Intermittent Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinghua; Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The integration of electrical and heating systems has great potential to enhance the flexibility of power systems to accommodate more renewable power such as the wind and solar. This study was to investigate an optimal way to integrate the energy of both systems in urban areas. The amount of energy...... conversion between the electrical system and heating system was optimally decided so that the demand within both systems could be met at the least operational cost. Besides, the best node to join with the electrical system and heating system was chosen by consideration of the energy transmission loss....... The mathematic formulation of the optimization problem was detailed as a large-scale non-linear program (LSNLP) in this paper. A decomposition-coordination algorithm was proposed to solve this LSNLP. At last, a 6-bus electrical power system with 31-node heating transmission system was studied to demonstrate...

  8. Catalytic reactive distillation process development for 1,1 diethoxy butane production from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, I; Barrio, V L; Güemez, B; Cambra, J F; Arias, P L

    2011-01-01

    Some acetals can be produced from renewable resources (bioalcohols) and seem to be good candidates for different applications such as oxygenated diesel additives. In the present case the production of 1,1 diethoxy butane from bioethanol and butanal is presented. Butanal can be obtained from biobutanol following a partial oxidation or a dehydrogenation process. In this paper innovative process development about the synthesis of the mentioned acetal including catalytic reactive distillation experimental and simulation results will be presented and discussed. Katapak SP modules containing Amberlyst 47 resin were used as structured catalytic packings. This reactive system allowed reaching higher conversions than the equilibrium ones at the same temperatures. All the experimental data gathered allowed to tune a simulation model for the reactive distillation operation which showed a fairly good behavior in order to perform initial 1,1 diethoxy butane production process design studies.

  9. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-27

    A method of separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water, includes: (a) mixing magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture; (b) applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material; and (c) removing the body of water from the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material while maintaining the applied magnetic force. The magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material, for a period of time effective to allow the carbon-metal nanocomposites to be formed.

  10. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

    2012-08-02

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of

  11. The flexibility requirements for power plants with CCS in a future energy system with a large share of intermittent renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34573260X; Seebregts, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates flexibility issues of future low-carbon power systems. The short-term power system impacts of intermittent renewables are identified and roughly quantified based on a review of wind integration studies. Next, the flexibility parameters of three types of power plants with CO2

  12. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems.

  13. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  14. Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  15. The market premium of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2012. Does it really contribute to both market and system integration of renewables?; Die Marktpraemie im EEG 2012. Ein sinnvoller Beitrag zur Markt- und Systemintegration erneuerbarer Energien?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Erik [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie; Univ. Leipzig (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement; Purkus, Alexandra [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung (Germany). Dept. Bioenergie

    2013-03-15

    With the share of renewable energies within the electricity sector rising, improving their market integration (i.e. inclusion in the steering and remuneration processes of the electricity market) and system integration (i.e. enhanced responsibility for grid stability) is of increasing importance. To transform the energy system efficiently while ensuring security of supply, it is necessary to increase the alignment of renewable electricity production with short- and long-term market signals. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2012 introduced the market premium to provide market experience to renewable plant operators and incentives for demand-oriented electricity production. Shortly after its introduction, the instrument is already being criticised as ineffective and expensive. Building on early experiences, this article examines whether the market premium in its current design improves market and/or system integration, and if it seems suitable in principle to contribute to these aims (effectiveness). Also, potential efficiency gains and additional costs of ''administering integration'' are discussed (efficiency). While market integration in a strict sense (i.e. exposing renewables to price risks) is not the purpose of the market premium, it has successfully increased participation in direct marketing. However, windfall profits are high, and the benefits of gradually leading plant operators towards the market are questionable. Incentives for demand-oriented electricity production are established, but they prove insufficient particularly in the case of intermittent renewable energy sources. A continuation of the instrument in its current form therefore does not seem recommendable. To conclude, potential alternative solutions are presented.

  16. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  17. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    . Improved technology and/or knowledge of reforestation practices in these situations may provide opportunities to reduce the costs of converting many of these sites as research continues into these practices. It also appears that in many cases substantial payments, non-revenue values, or carbon values are required to reach “profitability” under the present circumstances. It is unclear when, or in what form, markets will develop to support any of these add-on values to supplement commercial forestry revenues. However, as these markets do develop, they will only enhance the viability of forestry on reclaimed mined lands, although as we demonstrate in our analysis of carbon payments, the form of the revenue source may itself influence management, potentially mitigating some of the benefits of reforestation. For a representative mined-land resource base, reforestation of mined lands with mixed pine-hardwood species would result in an average estimated C accumulation in forms that can be harvested for use as wood products or are likely to remain in the soil C pool at ~250 Mg C ha{sup -1} over a 60 year period following reforestation. The “additionality” of this potential C sequestration was estimated considering data in scientific literature that defines C accumulation in mined-land grasslands over the long term. Given assumptions detailed in the text, these lands have the potential to sequester ~180 Mg C ha{sup -1}, a total of 53.5 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, over 60 years, an average of ~900,000 Mg C / yr, an amount equivalent to about 0.04% of projected US C emissions at the midpoint of a 60-year period (circa 2040) following assumed reforestation. Although potential sequestration quantities are not great relative to potential national needs should an energy-related C emissions offset requirement be developed at some future date, these lands are available and unused for other economically valued purposes and many possess soil and site properties that are well-suited to

  19. The potential of global solar radiation in the Silesia region as a renewable source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waniek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, Silesia has been at the centre of the Polish coal industry for many years and thus has experienced poorer air quality compared to other voivodeships. However, in recent years strong economic transformation in the area has led to a considerable reduction in coal production. This study aimed to assess the variability of global solar radiation at selected stations within the Silesian voivodeship, in order to re-evaluate the resources of renewable solar energy during the period 1994–2013. The theoretical potential of solar radiation was calculated based on a three-dimensional terrain model. The data on global solar radiation from 13 stations within the Silesia region, covering the period 1994–2013, were obtained from the Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Katowice. The most favourable conditions for the use of solar energy were found at the cities Sosnowiec and Cieszyn. The largest increase in global radiation over the research period was observed in Zabrze. The average annual global radiation ranged between 600–1300 kWh·m−2. Digital Elevation Models (DEM for selected districts of the Silesia region were used to calculate the theoretical potential of global solar radiation. The highest theoretical potential of global radiation was found in the district of Cieszyn, located at the highest altitude.

  20. Minor metals and renewable energy—Diversifying America’s energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singerling, Sheryl A.; Nassar, Nedal T.

    2017-08-16

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine technologies are projected to make up an increasing proportion of electricity generation capacity in the United States in the coming decades. By 2050, they will account for 36 percent (or 566 gigawatts) of capacity compared with about 11 percent (or 118 gigawatts) in 2016 (fig. 1; EIA, 2017). There are several different types of commercial solar PV and wind turbine technologies, and each type makes use of different minor metals. “Minor metal” is the term used for metals for which world production is small compared with the more widely produced base metals, and they are often produced as byproducts of the mining or processing of base metals. Minor metals used in renewable energy technologies often have complex supply chains, are often produced primarily outside of the United States, and are also used in many other applications. A larger amount of minor metals will be needed in the future to support the projected increases in solar PV and wind energy production capacity (Nassar and others, 2016).

  1. Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

  2. Testing of a Predictive Control Strategy for Balancing Renewable Sources in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Sossan, Fabrizio; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a control strategy for the energy management of a grid-connected microgrid with local distributed energy resources as: 10-kW photovoltaic plant, 11-kW wind turbine, and 15-kW–190-kWh vanadium-based electric storage system. According to future regulations, the ren......This paper presents the design of a control strategy for the energy management of a grid-connected microgrid with local distributed energy resources as: 10-kW photovoltaic plant, 11-kW wind turbine, and 15-kW–190-kWh vanadium-based electric storage system. According to future regulations......, the renewable energy producers will also have to provide a day-ahead hourly production plan. The overall idea is, by knowing the meteorological forecasts for the next 24 h, to dispatch the microgrid in order to be able to grant the scheduled hourly production by means of proper management of the storage system...

  3. BASIC APPROACHES TO THE RESEARCH OF RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AS THE ENERGY POTENTIAL OF TERRITORIES AND BUILT-UP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddaeva Olga Igorevna

    2012-10-01

    renewable sources of energy include water, sun, and wind. Wind power engineering best fits the conditions of the Russian territories. However, experts believe that the wind power is to be backed by other sources due to the irregularity of its generation. This approach to the power generation and planning of territories coupled with the integration of renewable energy technologies into architectural designs of buildings and structures will make it possible to identify the prerequisites for the energy generation specialization of the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of their climatic conditions and urban development patterns. Private investments into renewable sources of energy will assure sustainable population settlement patterns and optimal energy generation and consumption.

  4. 76 FR 35462 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... to iacb@ios.doi.gov . Please mention that your comments concern the Source Directory, OMB Control... iacb@ios.doi.gov or by facsimile to (202) 208-5196. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The...

  5. An Adaptive Tuning Mechanism for Phase-Locked Loop Algorithms for Faster Time Performance of Interconnected Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Interconnected renewable energy sources (RES) require fast and accurate fault ride through (FRT) operation, in order to support the power grid, when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive phase-locked loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response...... of the grid-side converter (GSC) control of a RES, particularly under FRT operation. The adaptive dαβPLL is based on modifying the tuning parameters of the dαβPLL, according to the type and voltage characteristics of the grid fault, with the purpose of accelerating the performance of the PLL algorithm....... The proposed adaptive tuning mechanism adjusts the PLL parameters in real time, according to the proposed fault classification unit, in order to accelerate the synchronization performance. The beneficial effect of the proposed adaptive tuning mechanism on the performance of dαβPLL is verified through...

  6. Contribution of Renewable Energy Sources to the Sustainable Development of Islands: An Overview of the Literature and a Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraima Jaramillo-Nieves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES have significant potential to contribute to the economic, social and environmental energy sustainability of small islands. They improve access to energy for most of the population, they also reduce emissions of local and global pollutants and they may create local socioeconomic development opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the contribution of RES to the energy sustainability of islands, focusing on the main results and the methodologies used. Papers are classified according to their coverage of the three dimensions of the triangular approach to sustainability (economic, environmental and social. The review also takes into account whether and how the procedural sustainability has been tackled in those papers. It is acknowledged that although several topics have been covered by the existing literature, there are promising avenues for future research on several fronts, both thematic and methodological.

  7. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J.; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  8. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-07-19

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  9. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhan Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  10. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  11. Metabolite profiling of Dioscorea (yam) species reveals underutilised biodiversity and renewable sources for high-value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Elliott J; Wilkin, Paul; Sarasan, Viswambharan; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-07-07

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are a multispecies crop with production in over 50 countries generating ~50 MT of edible tubers annually. The long-term storage potential of these tubers is vital for food security in developing countries. Furthermore, many species are important sources of pharmaceutical precursors. Despite these attributes as staple food crops and sources of high-value chemicals, Dioscorea spp. remain largely neglected in comparison to other staple tuber crops of tropical agricultural systems such as cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To date, studies have focussed on the tubers or rhizomes of Dioscorea, neglecting the foliage as waste. In the present study metabolite profiling procedures, using GC-MS approaches, have been established to assess biochemical diversity across species. The robustness of the procedures was shown using material from the phylogenetic clades. The resultant data allowed separation of the genotypes into clades, species and morphological traits with a putative geographical origin. Additionally, we show the potential of foliage material as a renewable source of high-value compounds.

  12. Experimental study of a three-adsorber sorption refrigerator for utilization of renewable sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitovich, A. P.

    2013-03-01

    A three-adsorber refrigerator has been created and experimentally tested, in which use is made of a composite sorbent consisting of activated carbon fiber and alkali salts. This sorbent has a high capacity of storage of refrigeration characteristic of chemical coolers and a high sorption rate characteristic of adsorption refrigerators. The sorbent structure makes it possible to effect a convective intrapore process of cooling of the sorbent through intense two-phase heat transfer. A three-adsorber refrigerator has a higher refrigeration efficiency and smaller mass and overall dimensions than a traditional two-stage four-adsorber refrigerator.

  13. Diversification of the energy mix and renewable energy sources in Slovenia for ensuring sustainable, competitive and secure energy in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlogar, Sasa; Raner, Damjana; Zebeljan, Djordje

    2007-07-01

    The European Union is facing major challenges in the energy field - growing import dependency, the need for substantial investment and lack of competitive energy market. It has adopted binding legislation and non-binding recommendations, but they do not suffice. The latest Green paper identifies diversification of energy mix as one of the key areas, where further action is needed, if Europe is to overcome this crisis. Renewable energy is recognised as a relevant factor in improving security of energy supply, since it increases the share of indigenous energy and thus provides a more balanced and diversified energy mix. Slovenia's energy mix includes 11 % of renewables. In our electricity mix the share of renewables is higher, 27,6 %.The estimations show that by 2015 13,3 % of primary energy use will come from renewable sources. Our current strategy in the field of renewable energy sources is to increase their share in overall energy balance sheet to 12 % in 2010 and to increase their share in electricity production to 33,6 % in 2010. But Slovenia will have to take into account new ambitious targets the European Commission recommended recently, while trying to determine the optimally balanced diversification of energy sources in the future. (auth)

  14. Small Hydro Power-An Important Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MamudaAbdullahi

    2005-01-01

    This paper is trying to highlight the importance of constructing small hydropower station as the alternative source of energy for rural electrification in Nigeria and stressedthe need for the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide a clear open policy that will make environment favourable and safe for local and foreign private investors on small Hydropower.

  15. Android and the political economy of the mobile Internet: A renewal of open source critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwenberg, K.; Poell, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how and why Google in developing Android, the popular mobile operating system, has strategically adopted particular open source practices, but ignored others. It explores how through these practices, the corporation has been able to cultivate and control a vast mobile Internet ec

  16. Android and the political economy of the mobile Internet: A renewal of open source critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwenberg, K.; Poell, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how and why Google in developing Android, the popular mobile operating system, has strategically adopted particular open source practices, but ignored others. It explores how through these practices, the corporation has been able to cultivate and control a vast mobile Internet ec

  17. Android and the political economy of the mobile Internet: A renewal of open source critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwenberg, K.; Poell, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how and why Google in developing Android, the popular mobile operating system, has strategically adopted particular open source practices, but ignored others. It explores how through these practices, the corporation has been able to cultivate and control a vast mobile Internet

  18. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-02-11

    A method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing a plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture, applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material, and removing said plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material from said body of water while maintaining the applied magnetic force, wherein the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material.

  19. Effect of carbon source on the denitrification in constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Songliu; HU Hongying; SUN Yingxue; YANG Jia

    2009-01-01

    The constructed wetlands with different plants in removal of nitrate were investigated.The factors promoting the rates of denitrification including organic carbon, nitrate load, plants in wetlands, pH and water temperature in field were systematically investigated.The results showed that the additional carbon source (glucose) can remarkably improve the nitrate removal ability of the constructed wetland.It demonstrated that the nitrate removal rate can increase from 20% to more than 50% in the summer and from 10% to 30% in the winter, when the nitrate concentration was 30-40 mg/L, the retention time was 24 h and 25 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was ploughed into the constructed wetland.However, the nitrite in the constructed wetland accumulated a litter with the supply of the additional carbon source in summer and winter, and it increased from 0.15 to 2 mg/L in the effluent.It was also found that the abilities of plant in adjusting pH and temperature can result in an increase of denitrification in wetlands, and the seasonal change may impact the denitrification.

  20. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  1. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Jun [Testing and Analysis Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization of abundant renewable natural organic chemicals for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Lu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Sevilla, Marta [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), P.O. Box 73, Oviedo 33080 (Spain); School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), P.O. Box 73, Oviedo 33080 (Spain); Mokaya, Robert [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Yushin, Gleb [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Cellulose, potato starch, and eucalyptus wood saw dust were transformed into porous carbons with micropore surface areas of up to 2387 m{sup 2}/g. The specific capacitance of the produced carbons approaches 236 F/g (100 F/cc) when measured in a symmetric configuration in an organic electrolyte. Charge-discharge tests showed excellent capacitance retention with capacitance of up to 175 F/g at an ultra-high current density of 20 A/g. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hongjun

    2017-07-13

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  4. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjun; Liu, Yue; Ji, Deqiang; Li, Zhida; Yi, Guanlin; Yuan, Dandan; Wang, Baohui; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wang, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  5. Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system. New generation adequacy indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Damas, Manuela [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Porto (Portugal). Studies and Innovation Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The penetration of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system is growing significantly. The identification of possible solutions to maintain the operational reserve levels is necessary to preserve flexibility and security of electricity supply. In this context, the development of probabilistic tools is essential to calculate new generation adequacy indicators associated with the analysis of the operational reserve. In this paper, the mathematical model RESERVAS, is briefly described and is used to analyse the impact of integrating high levels of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system. The presented results allow us to conclude that the electricity adequacy evaluation should be done using probabilistic indicators, which reflect the power system performance in the following areas: (i) Adequacy (evaluation of the available power to face the hourly electricity demand) and (ii) Security (evaluation of the operational reserve requirements through the deviations in the demand-supply balance that occur among all elementary periods). (orig.)

  6. Critical review of black carbon and elemental carbon source apportionment in Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Nicole L.; Long, Christopher M.

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of air pollution source apportionment studies in Europe and the United States have focused on the black carbon (BC) fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM) given its linkage with adverse public health and climate impacts. We conducted a critical review of European and US BC source apportionment studies published since 2003. Since elemental carbon (EC) has been used as a surrogate measure of BC, we also considered source apportionment studies of EC measurements. This review extends the knowledge presented in previous ambient PM source apportionment reviews because we focus on BC and EC and critically examine the differences between source apportionment results for different methods and source categories. We identified about 50 BC and EC source apportionment studies that have been conducted in either Europe or the US since 2003, finding a striking difference in the commonly used source apportionment methods between the two regions and variations in the assigned source categories. Using three dominant methodologies (radiocarbon, aethalometer, and macro-tracer methods) that only allow for BC to be broadly apportioned into either fossil fuel combustion or biomass burning source categories, European studies generally support fossil fuel combustion as the dominant ambient BC source, but also show significant biomass burning contributions, in particular in wintertime at non-urban locations. Among US studies where prevailing methods such as chemical mass balance (CMB) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models have allowed for estimation of more refined source contributions, there are fewer findings showing the significance of biomass burning and variable findings on the relative proportion of BC attributed to diesel versus gasoline emissions. Overall, the available BC source apportionment studies provide useful information demonstrating the significance of both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning BC emission sources in Europe and the US

  7. Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in the USA, while the remainder of the Hot-Mix Asphalt is produced using oil, propane, waste oil, or other fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels in various industry and transportation sectors represent a significant portion of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigates the technical feasibility of using a hybrid wind energy system as a clean source of energy for operating an entire Hot-Mix Asphalt production facility. Since wind blows intermittently, the extracted wind energy will be stored in the form of hydrogen which is considered a lightweight, compact energy carrier, for later use, thus creating a ready source of electricity for the Hot-Mix Asphalt plant when wind is not present or when electricity demand is high.

  8. Neochloris oleabundans UTEX #1185: a suitable renewable lipid source for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luísa; Marques, Ana Evangelista; da Silva, Teresa Lopes; Reis, Alberto

    2009-06-01

    Energy crises, global warming, and climatic changes call for technological and commercial advances in manufacturing high-quality transportation fuels from unconventional feedstocks. Microalgae is one of the most promising sources of biofuels due to the high yields attained per unit area and because it does not displace food crops. Neochloris oleabundans (Neo) microalga is an important promising microbial source of single-cell oil (SCO). Different experimental growth and lipid production conditions were evaluated and compared by using optical density (540 nm), dry-weight determination, and flow cytometry (FC). Best Neo average biomass productivity was obtained at 30 degrees C under conditions of nitrogen-sufficiency and CO(2) supplementation (N+/30 degrees C/CO(2)), with an average doubling time of 1.4 days. The second and third highest productivities occurred with N-sufficient cultures without CO(2) supplementation at 26 degrees C (N+/26 degrees C) and at 30 degrees C (N+/30 degrees C), with doubling times of 1.7 and 2.2 days, respectively. Microbial lipid production was monitored by flow cytometry using Nile red (NR), a lipophilic fluorochrome that possesses several advantageous characteristics for in situ screening near real time (at line). Results showed maximum lipid content (56%) after 6 days of nitrogen depletion under nitrogen starvation without CO(2) supplementation (N-/30 degrees C), followed by N-/30 degrees C/CO(2) and N-/26 degrees C conditions with 52% lipid content, after 5 and 6 days of N starvation, respectively. The adequate fatty acid profile and iodine value of Neo lipids reinforced this microalga as a good source of SCO, in particular for use as biodiesel.

  9. Adaptive Procurement Guidelines for Automatic Selection of Renewable Forest Energy Sources within a Sustainable Energy Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teijo Palander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An automatic forest-stand selection method was developed that integrates the procurement of profitable energy sources within a sustainable energy production system. We tested the method using a forest harvester simulator. We found that site-specific estimates of forest characteristics are important when predicting the potential of an energy-wood stand as a renewable energy source. Further, tree parameters can be combined with automatic stem measurements from a multiple-tree harvester to predict the energy-wood biomass in the stands. The selection process uses data from profitability studies. The selection process also uses environmental criteria to ensure that sufficient soil organic matter is left behind and to protect the soil against erosion. The integrated system of the harvester automatically adapts the system’s models and stand-selection rules to account for various site-specific stand parameters. Predicting the profitable and environmentally acceptable yield of stand biomass has great potential in sustainable forest resource management, but managers must decide whether the operational procurement guidelines provided by the stand-selection method is acceptable under their local real-world wood procurement conditions.

  10. Design of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tvrdon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and construction of new series of power converters equipped with liquid cooling system. This power series is created for project ENET – Energy Units for Utilization of non Traditional Energy Sources. First power converter is determined for stationary battery system use, the second one is used as an inverter/rectifier for a small solar plant system and the last power inverter is used as a fast charger for electric vehicles. Energy balance is performed for the fast charger converter, which is solved using numerical simulations of the system.

  11. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-02

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  12. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGES AND AS A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DRIVER IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar M Gvero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina have significant physical potential regarding to renewable energy sources. Hydro, biomass, geothermal, wind, and solar potential can play important role in the whole state economy. Bosnia and Herzegovina is Non-Annex I country according to UNFCCC and according to that it is obligated to participate in the global efforts in order to reduce green house gases emission. This paper gives some analysis of the physical, technological, economic, and market potential of renewable energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina and their potential role in mitigation of climate changes. Paper also gives the analysis of the potential connections between renewable energy sources and sustainable development of the economy, taking in to consideration specific political structure of the state. Bosnia and Herzegovina is consisting from two entities: Republic of Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Brcko District; energy sector and climate changes mitigation measures are under their jurisdiction. According to that some of this paper results can be useful for the improvement of entity and state strategies with the final aim to place renewable energy sources on the right position, as some of the major economy drivers, not only in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but in whole region.

  14. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  15. Carbon utilization profiles of river bacterial strains facing sole carbon sources suggest metabolic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetghebuer, Lise; Servais, Pierre; George, Isabelle F

    2017-05-01

    Microbial communities play a key role in water self-purification. They are primary drivers of biogenic element cycles and ecosystem processes. However, these communities remain largely uncharacterized. In order to understand the diversity-heterotrophic activity relationship facing sole carbon sources, we assembled a synthetic community composed of 20 'typical' freshwater bacterial species mainly isolated from the Zenne River (Belgium). The carbon source utilization profiles of each individual strain and of the mixed community were measured in Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays PM1 and PM2A microplates that allowed testing 190 different carbon sources. Our results strongly suggest interactions occurring between our planktonic strains as our synthetic community showed metabolic properties that were not displayed by its single components. Finally, the catabolic performances of the synthetic community and a natural community from the same sampling site were compared. The synthetic community behaved like the natural one and was therefore representative of the latter in regard to carbon source consumption. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on growth, nitrogenase activity, and carbon metabolism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noel A; Ortega, Eduardo; Rodés, Rosa; Lluch, Carmen

    2004-09-01

    The effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth, nitrogenase activity, and carbon metabolism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were investigated. The amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid affected microbial growth and nitrogenase activity. Several enzymatic activities involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle were affected by the carbon source used. In addition, glucose and gluconate significantly increased the oxygen consumption (respiration rate) of whole cells of G. diazotrophicus grown under aerobic conditions. Enzymes responsible for direct oxidation of glucose and gluconate were especially active in cells grown with sucrose and gluconate. The presence of amino acids in the apoplastic and symplastic sap of sugarcane stems suggests that these compounds might be of importance in the regulation of growth and nitrogenase activity during the symbiotic association. The information obtained from the plant-bacterium association together with the results of other biochemical studies could contribute to the development of biotechnological applications of G. diazotrophicus.

  17. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiesen, John; Hoff, Thomas; Liu, Chi; Pueschel, Charles; Rao, Radhika; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Compared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (< 300°C) and in the condensed phase to prevent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  18. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Matthiesen; Thomas Hoff; Chi Liu; Charles Pueschel; Radhika Rao; Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

    2014-01-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Com-pared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (<300 °C) and in the condensed phase to pre-vent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  19. Utilization of carbon sources in a northern Brazilian mangrove ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Schwamborn, Ralf; Saint-Paul, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios ( 13C and 15N) and trophic level (TL) estimates based on stomach content analysis and published data were used to assess the contribution of autotrophic sources to 55 consumers in an intertidal mangrove creek of the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Primary producers showed δ 13C signatures ranging between -29.2 and -19.5‰ and δ 15N from 3.0 to 6.3‰. The wide range of the isotopic composition of carbon of consumers (-28.6 to -17.1‰) indicated that different autotrophic sources are important in the intertidal mangrove food webs. Food web segregation structures the ecosystem into three relatively distinct food webs: (i) mangrove food web, where vascular plants contribute directly or indirectly via POM to the most 13C-depleted consumers (e.g. Ucides cordatus and zooplanktivorous food chains); (ii) algal food web, where benthic algae are eaten directly by consumers (e.g. Uca maracoani, mullets, polychaetes, several fishes); (iii) mixed food web where the consumers use the carbon from different primary sources (mainly benthivorous fishes). An IsoError mixing model was used to determine the contributions of primary sources to consumers, based on δ 13C values. Model outputs were very sensitive to the magnitude of trophic isotope fractionation and to the variability in 13C data. Nevertheless, the simplification of the system by a priori aggregation of primary producers allowed interpretable results for several taxa, revealing the segregation into different food webs.

  20. Recent Progress in Triboelectric Nanogenerators as a Renewable and Sustainable Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs provide an excellent approach to convert mechanical energy into electricity, which are mainly based on the coupling between triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. The TENG has the potential of harvesting many kinds of mechanical energies such as vibration, rotation, wind, human motion, and even water wave energy, which could be a new paradigm for scavenging large scale energy. It also demonstrates a possible route towards practical applications for powering electronic devices. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the four modes of TENGs: vertical contact-separation mode, in-plane sliding mode, single-electrode mode, and free-standing triboelectric-layer mode. The performance enhancements of TENGs for harvesting energy as a sustainable power source are also discussed. In addition, recent reports on the hybridized nanogenerator are introduced, which may enable fully self-powered electronic devices. Finally, the practical applications of TENGs for energy harvesting are presented.

  1. The use of marine macroalgae as renewable energy source for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aresta; A. Dibenedetto; I. Tommasi; E. Cecere; M. Narracci; A. Petrocelli; C. Perrone [University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Chemistry and METEA Research Center

    2003-07-01

    The results of studies on selected species of marine macro-algae for the production, under mild energetic conditions, of biofuel, through the extraction of oils or any other material that may be assimilated as a liquid fuel, and their potential for CO{sub 2} capture and as a source of energy. The study was carried out comparing different extraction technologies, among which were SC-CO{sub 2} and solvent extraction. The extraction based on SC-CO{sub 2} is quite advantageous. SC-CO{sub 2} is not toxic and, as its critical temperature is quite close to room temperature, it could be also used for the extraction of thermo-labile compounds. The current cost of production of macro-algae is compared with that of micro-algae, for an economic use of marine biomass for energy production. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiger, Patrik; Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ngṡm-3 to 302 ngṡm-3) and dual-isotope-constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth.

  3. Ligninolytic Activity of Ganoderma strains on Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYPUK ARTININGSIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymers with only few carbon bonds might be hydrolized. Due to its complexity, lignin is particularly difficult to decompose. Ganoderma is one of white rot fungi capable of lignin degradation. The ligninolytic of several species Ganoderma growing under different carbon sources was studied under controlled conditions which P. chrysosporium was used as standard comparison.Three types of ligninolytic, namely LiP, MnP, and laccase were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Ratio between clear zone and diameter of fungal colony was used for measuring specific activity qualitatively.Four sspecies of Ganoderma showed positive ligninolytic qualitatively that G. lucidum KT2-32 gave the highest ligninolytic. Activity of LiP and MnP in different carbon sources was consistently resulted by G. lucidum KT2-32, while the highest activity of laccase was shown by G. ochrolaccatum SA2-14. Medium of Indulin AT affected production of protein extracellular and induced ligninolytic. Glucose, BMC, and pine sawdust did not affect the activity of ligninolytic. The specific activity of Ganoderma species was found to be higher than the one of P. chrysosporium.

  4. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  5. MEDIA OPTIMIZATION FOR BIOPROTEINS PRODUCTION FROM CHEAPER CARBON SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. JAMAL

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There are high demands for animal and human food supply especially protein, which is an important dietary component. Agricultural wastes, cheap carbon sources- which are rich and have high energy, can be used for producing the value added bioprotein. A lab scale study was carried out to optimize the media composition for bioprotein production from a cheaper carbon source - wheat flour using potential strain, which was selected earlier by screening different microorganisms. The performance of the selected strain was enhanced by media optimization with varied substrate concentration, nitrogen sources and nutrient supplementation according to the central composite design from STATISTICA software. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the polynomial regression model through effect of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The maximum biomass produced was 21.89 g/L with optimum fermentation conditions of wheat flour (4 g/L, nitrogen concentration (0.5 g/L, nutrient concentration (0.1 g/L, and four days of fermentation.

  6. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  7. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on the variation and cycling of carbon source in integrated wastewater treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimiao, Zhao; Xinshan, Song; Yufeng, Zhao; Yanping, Xiao; Yuhui, Wang; Junfeng, Wang; Denghua, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Iron and calcium carbonate were added in wastewater treatments as the adjusting agents to improve the contaminant removal performance and regulate the variation of carbon source in integrated treatments. At different temperatures, the addition of the adjusting agents obviously improved the nitrogen and phosphorous removals. TN and TP removals were respectively increased by 29.41% and 23.83% in AC-100 treatment under 1-day HRT. Carbon source from dead algae was supplied as green microbial carbon source and Fe(2+) was supplied as carbon source surrogate. COD concentration was increased to 30mg/L and above, so the problem of the shortage of carbon source was solved. Dead algae and Fe(2+) as carbon source supplement or surrogate played significant role, which was proved by microbial community analysis. According to the denitrification performance in the treatments, dead algae as green microbial carbon source combined with iron and calcium carbonate was the optimal supplement carbon source in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  9. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nowak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE, a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less, DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL. Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells. Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water–rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings

  10. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dail, David Bryan [University of Maine

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  11. NiMo-sulfide supported on activated carbon to produce renewable diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Y Acelas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak polarity and large surface area, activated carbon supports have the potential to enhance the dispersion of metal-sulfides. It is expected that the absence of a strong metal-support interaction can result in the formation of a very active and stable Ni-Mo-S phase. In this study, catalysts with different amounts of nickel and molybdenum supported on a commercial activated carbon were prepared by a co-impregnation method and characterized by BET, XRF, and SEM techniques. The catalytic activity for hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated in a batch reactor, and the composition of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. Results showed that gaseous products are mainly composed of high amounts of propane and small amounts of other light hydrocarbons (C1 to C5. Liquid hydrocarbon products consisted of a mixture containing mainly n-paraffins of C15-C18 and some oxygenated compounds. The catalysts with a mass fraction of 3 % Ni, 15 % Mo (Ni3Mo15/AC presented the highest selectivity toward C17-C18 hydrocarbons, with a product distribution similar to a commercial alumina-supported Ni-Mo-S catalyst.

  12. Methods of synthesizing carbon-magnetite nanocomposites from renewable resource materials and application of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-07-29

    A method of synthesizing carbon-magnetite nanocomposites. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) dissolving a first amount of an alkali salt of lignosulfonate in water to form a first solution, (b) heating the first solution to a first temperature, (c) adding a second amount of iron sulfate (FeSO.sub.4) to the first solution to form a second solution, (d) heating the second solution at a second temperature for a first duration of time effective to form a third solution of iron lignosulfonate, (e) adding a third amount of 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the third solution of iron lignosulfonate to form a fourth solution with a first pH level, (f) heating the fourth solution at a third temperature for a second duration of time to form a first sample, and (g) subjecting the first sample to a microwave radiation for a third duration of time effective to form a second sample containing a plurality of carbon-magnetite nanocomposites.

  13. Report on power consumption from renewable energy sources in France; Rapport sur la consommation d'electricite produite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelable en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This report presents an analysis of the realization of the national objectives of domestic consumption of electricity of renewable origin. Conformably with article 3 of the European directive no 2001/77/CE from September 27, 2001, it takes into account the climatic factors susceptible to interfere with the realization of the objectives and indicates to what extent the actions implemented are conformable with the national commitment of France in the domain of climatic change. Content: national objectives and tools for the sustained development of renewable energy sources (programs, investments, financial incentives, environmental policy), power consumption of renewable origin in 2004 (demand factors, evolution of renewable power generation between 1997 and 2004), 2005 highlights. (J.S.)

  14. When Forest become carbon sources: Impact of herbivory on carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K. V.; Clark, K. L.; Skowronski, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Traditionally forests are thought to be carbon sinks and are becoming important trading commodities in the carbon trading markets. However, disturbances such as fire, hurricanes and herbivory can lead to forests being sources rather than sinks of carbon. Here, we investigate the carbon balance of an oak/pine forest in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under herbivory attack in summer 2007. Net primary productivity (NPP) was reduced to ca 70% of previous year NPP (535 g m-2 a-1 in 2006) and canopy net assimilation (AnC), as modeled with the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation model (4C-A), was reduced to ca 65 % of previous year (1335 g m-2 a-1 in 2006) AnC or ca 1015 g C m-2 a-1. Although the trees were defoliated for only 15 % of the normal annual growing season, the impact amounted to ca 30 % of C accumulation loss when integrated over the year. Overall NPP in 2007 was ca 378 g C m-2 a-1 with 50 % of NPP being allocated to foliage production which constitutes a short term carbon pool. On an ecosystem level net ecosystem exchange amounted to a release of 293 g C m-2 a-1 thus becoming a carbon source over the course of the year rather than being a sink for C. The overall impact of the defoliation spanned 21% of upland forests (320 km2) in the New Jersey Pine Barrens thus representing a significant amount of overall C being emitted back to the atmosphere rather than being accumulated in the biosphere.

  15. Encouraging the use of renewable energy sources in the implementation of the EU energy performance building directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerepoot, M. [OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies/Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Engelund Thomsen, K. [Danish Building andUrgban Reseach, Horsholm (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The recent EC Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (Directive 2002/91/EC, in short: EPBD) will urge member states to develop and design energy performance regulations before 2006. The international EC Fifth Framework Altener research project Build-On-RES2 was formulated with this objective in mind. The Build-On-RES project aims to develop the methodological and contextual framework to maximise the incorporation of renewable energy sources (RES) in an Energy Performance Method for both new and for existing residential buildings. Build-On-RES started by benchmarking energy regulations in five of the EU member states that have experience of energy performance regulations and scrutinised the extent to which they encourage the use of RES in buildings. In addition to energy regulations, other policy schemes that encourage use of RES techniques like financial incentives and schemes based on communication have been collected and described. On the basis of this collection of existing information, the project is designing a framework to maximise the incorporation of RES in an Energy Performance Method for use by member states that are in the process of (re)designing their (new) energy performance building regulations. This paper describes the results of the Build-on-RES research and presents in short the methodological and contextual framework to maximise the incorporation of RES in an Energy Performance Method. (orig.)

  16. Osmotic power. A great energy source for renewable energy; Una gran fuente de energia renovable para electricidad. Potencia osmotica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Alvarez, J.

    2009-07-01

    When freshwater meets saltwater, for example, where a river flows out into the sea, enormous quantities of energy can be utilised to generate power, through the natural phenomenon of osmosis. Osmotic power is based on the natural phenomenon of osmosis, defined as the transport of water through a semi-permeable membranes, enclosing their cells, and tho produce osmotic power one has to design similar, artificial membranes. In an osmotic power plant we feed freshwater into separate chambers, separated by an artificial membranes. The salt molecules in the seawater then draw the freshwater through the membranes, causing the pressure on the seawater side to increase. This pressure corresponds to a water column of 120 meters or a large waterfall, and can be utilised in a turbine which generated electricity. The idea to generate power through osmosis is originates from the 1970s. At the time, however, the membranes had low efficiency and power price were too low to enable anyone to profitable invest in such a project. many years later, research scientists al SINTEF brought the idea to STAT kraft. The collaboration was initiated in 1997, and the development of a new, renewable energy source was initiated. (Author)

  17. Sisal fibers: surface chemical modification using reagent obtained from a renewable source; characterization of hemicellulose and lignin as model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Hoareau, William; Gardrat, Christian; Frollini, Elisabete; Castellan, Alain

    2007-10-17

    Sisal fibers have one of the greatest potentials among other lignocellulosic fibers to reinforce polymer matrices in composites. Sisal fibers have been modified to improve their compatibility with phenolic polymer matrices using furfuryl alcohol (FA) and polyfurfuryl alcohols (PFA) that can be obtained from renewable sources. The modification corresponded first to oxidation with ClO 2, which reacts mainly with guaiacyl and syringyl units of lignin, generating o- and p-quinones and muconic derivatives, followed by reaction with FA or PFA. The FA and PFA modified fibers presented a thin similar layer, indicating the polymer character of the coating. The untreated and treated sisal fibers were characterized by (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectrometry, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the reactions involved in the FA and PFA modifications, the sisal lignin previously extracted was also submitted to those reactions and characterized. The characterization of isolated lignin and hemicellulose provides some information on the chemical structure of the main constitutive macrocomponents of sisal fibers, such information being scarce in the literature.

  18. Effects of hydraulic retention time on cultivation of indigenous microalgae as a renewable energy source using secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, Yugo; Hidaka, Taira; Tsumori, Jun; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants is suitable media for cultivating microalgae as a renewable energy source, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) control in culture is important to conduct well-planned outdoor indigenous microalgae cultivation with secondary effluent. This study revealed cultivation characteristics under various HRT by continuous 6-month experiments. In addition, effects of HRT on cultivation were determined by a mathematical model that described indigenous microalgae growth. Cultivated biomass mainly consisted of Chlorophyceae and its detritus regardless of HRT, and 5.93-14.8g/m(2)/day of biomass yield was obtained. The cultivated biomass had a stable higher heating value of 16kJ/g. Sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that HRT control had great effects on biomass yield, and 2-3days of HRT were recommended to obtain maximum biomass yield under certain weather conditions (temperature: approximately 12-25°C and solar radiation: approximately 8-19MJ/m(2)/day).

  19. Regional prediction of carbon isotopes in soil carbonates for Asian dust source tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Cui, Xinjuan; Wang, Yaqiang

    2016-10-01

    Dust particles emitted from deserts and semi-arid lands in northern China cause particulate pollution that increases the burden of disease particularly for urban population in East Asia. The stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of carbonates in soils and dust aerosols in northern China were investigated. We found that the δ13C of carbonates in surface soils in northern China showed clearly the negative correlation (R2 = 0.73) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived NDVI, we predicted the regional distribution of δ13C of soil carbonates in deserts, sandy lands, and steppe areas. The predictions show the mean δ13C of -0.4 ± 0.7‰ in soil carbonates in Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Deserts, and the isotope values decrease to -3.3 ± 1.1‰ in sandy lands. The increase in vegetation coverage depletes 13C in soil carbonates, thus the steppe areas are predicted by the lowest δ13C levels (-8.1 ± 1.7‰). The measurements of atmospheric dust samples at eight sites showed that the Asian dust sources were well assigned by the 13C mapping in surface soils. Predicting 13C in large geographical areas with fine resolution offers a cost-effective tracer to monitor dust emissions from sandy lands and steppe areas which show an increasing role in Asian dust loading driven by climate change and human activities.

  20. Renewable smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  1. Tracking bio-hydrogen-mediated production of commodity chemicals from carbon dioxide and renewable electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Sebastià; Ganigué, Ramon; Batlle-Vilanova, Pau; Balaguer, M Dolors; Bañeras, Lluís; Colprim, Jesús

    2017-03-01

    This study reveals that reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to commodity chemicals can be functionally compartmentalized in bioelectrochemical systems. In the present example, a syntrophic consortium composed by H2-producers (Rhodobacter sp.) in the biofilm is combined with carboxidotrophic Clostridium species, mainly found in the bulk liquid. The performance of these H2-mediated electricity-driven systems could be tracked by the activity of a biological H2 sensory protein identified at cathode potentials between -0.2V and -0.3V vs SHE. This seems to point out that such signal is not strain specific, but could be detected in any organism containing hydrogenases. Thus, the findings of this work open the door to the development of a biosensor application or soft sensors for monitoring such systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrology & isotope tools to quantify carbon sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Johannes A. C.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Gessler, Arthur

    2010-05-01

    covariance methods, which usually yield local information. Furthermore, eddy covariance methods yield valuable information about ecosystem respiration. The latter needs to be subtracted from carbon uptake to determine net ecosystem CO2 exchange and to define sources or sinks. Eddy covariance and their upscaling combined with area-integrating water isotope methods thus provide cross validation of large scale carbon budgets with independent approaches. This combination may therefore provide new insights into relations between carbon and water balance of the biosphere as affected by various environmental conditions.

  3. Quantification of carbon sources for isoprene emission in poplar leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzwieseer, J.; Graus, M.; Schnitzler, J. P.; Heizmann, U.; Rennenberg, H.; Hansel, A.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant volatile organic compound emitted by plants and in particular by trees. Current interest in understanding its biosynthesis in chloroplasts is forced by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Leaf isoprene formation is closely linked to photosynthesis by a dynamic use of recently fixed photosynthetic precursors in the chloroplast. Under steady state conditions in [13C]CO2 atmosphere approximately 75 % of isoprene became labeled within minutes. The source of unlabeled C is suggested to be of extra-chloroplastidic and/or from starch degradation. In order to test whether these alternative carbon sources - leaf internal C-pools and xylem-transported carbohydrates, contribute to leaf isoprene formation in poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) on-line proton-transfer-reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to follow 13C-labeling kinetics.

  4. Potential impacts of electric power production utilizing natural gas, renewables and carbon capture and sequestration on US Freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C; Malczynski, Leonard A; Kobos, Peter H; Klise, Geoffrey T; Shuster, Erik

    2013-08-06

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has important implications relative to future thermoelectric water use. A bounding analysis is performed using past greenhouse gas emission policy proposals and assumes either all effected capacity retires (lower water use bound) or is retrofitted (upper bound). The analysis is performed in the context of recent trends in electric power generation expansion, namely high penetration of natural gas and renewables along with constrained cooling system options. Results indicate thermoelectric freshwater withdrawals nationwide could increase by roughly 1% or decrease by up to 60% relative to 2009 levels, while consumption could increase as much as 21% or decrease as much as 28%. To identify where changes in freshwater use might be problematic at a regional level, electric power production has been mapped onto watersheds with limited water availability (where consumption exceeds 70% of gauged streamflow). Results suggest that between 0.44 and 0.96 Mm(3)/d of new thermoelectric freshwater consumption could occur in watersheds with limited water availability, while power plant retirements in these watersheds could yield 0.90 to 1.0 Mm(3)/d of water savings.

  5. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  6. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  7. Sources, Subsidies and Sinks: Organic Carbon in Coastal Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, William; Smeaton, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Coastal sedimentary environments such as estuaries, deltas and fjords are sites characterised by high sedimentation rates and effective burial of organic carbon (OC). Fjords in particular have been shown to be hotspots for OC burial and storage. Additionally, the unique geomorphology of fjords and their proximity to the terrestrial environment mean that they are important receptors of terrestrially-derived OC. Such natural 'trapping' mechanisms prevent OC from reaching the open shelf where much of it would potentially be lost to the atmosphere through remineralisation. Though it is well documented that terrestrial OC (OCterr) is buried in fjords, the long-term (interglacial timescale) interactions between the OC stored in the terrestrial environment and in coastal sediments is less well defined. In this review, we outline the current understanding of both OCterr and Blue Carbon sources, subsidies and sinks (i.e. sediment stores) in the coastal sediments of the United Kingdom, with a view to outlining a methodology to establish a national coastal carbon inventory.

  8. The macro economic relevance of renewable energy sources for Switzerland; Volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathani, C.; Schmid, C.; Rieser, A.; Ruetter, H. [Ruetter und Partner, Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Bernath, K.; Felten, N. von [Ernst Basler und Partner, Zollikon (Switzerland); Walz, R.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    This study analyses the economic relevance of renewable energy in Switzerland. In 2010 the enterprises in the renewable energy sector generated a gross value added of 4.8 bn CHF (equalling 0.9% of Swiss GDP). Employment in this sector approximated 22,800 fulltime jobs (0.6% of total Swiss employment). Including supply chain companies, 1.5% of Swiss GDP and 1.2% of total employment can be related to the use of renewable energy. Exports of renewable energy related goods and services equalled 3.2 bn CHF. Since 2000 the Swiss renewable energy sector has experienced an above-average annual growth of more than 4%. Its potential development until the year 2020 was studied with two scenarios. In the policy scenario, that assumes additional policy measures for renewable energy promotion, direct value added of the renewable energy sector would amount to 6.4 bn CHF (+33%), direct employment would increase to 29,200 fulltime jobs (+28%, gross effects resp.). In the more conservative baseline scenario, growth would be much weaker, but still slightly stronger than anticipated for the average economy. (authors)

  9. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  10. Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    is built around a small power grid with renewable power generations (two wind turbines and solar panels), a vanadium battery for storage, EV-charging infrastructure for EVs, and an intelligent office building. The simulation and field tests demonstrated that GA-based and MPC-based predictive control......In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores...

  11. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from the Mojave desert: Isotopic evidence for a carbonate source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Fiona M.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Sparks, Kimberlee; Sparks, Jed P.

    2017-01-01

    Arid soils represent a substantial carbonate pool and may participate in surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange via a diel cycle of carbonate dissolution and exsolution. We used a Keeling plot approach to determine the substrate δ13C of CO2 emitted from carbonate-dominated soils in the Mojave desert and found evidence for a nonrespiratory source that increased with surface temperature. In dry soils at 25-30°C, the CO2 substrate had δ13C values of -19.4 ± 4.2‰, indicative of respiration of organic material (soil organic matter = -23.1 ± 0.8‰). CO2 flux increased with temperature; maximum fluxes occurred above 60°C, where δ13CO2 substrate (-7.2‰ ± 2.8‰) approached soil carbonate values (0.2 ± 0.2‰). In wet soils, CO2 emissions were not temperature dependent, and δ13CO2 substrate was lower in vegetated soils with higher flux rates, higher organic C content, and potential root respiration. These data provide the first direct evidence of CO2 emissions from alkaline desert soils derived from an abiotic source and that diurnal emission patterns are strongly driven by surface temperature.

  12. 7. Kassel symposium on energy systems technology: Renewable energy sources and efficient utilization of energy; 7. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik: Erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Energieverwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselitz, P. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers on the following subjects: Methane hydrates, compounds of gas and water; Compressed air stroage gas turbine power plants / Scheduled application for load levelling between varying wind power production and power demand; Modern pumped storage power stations in the GW range - the PSW Goldisthal example; Lead batteries - new developments and future applications; Alkaline battery systems for hybrid electric road vehicles; Lighium systems and their applications; Zinc/air cells; Hydrogen storage - metal hydride storage, compressed gas storage, LNG storage; Carbon nanofibres for hydrogen storage; Double-layer condensers - technology, cost, perslpectives; Supercondensers in motor vehicles; Superconducting magnetic energy stores; Flywheel storage - status report; Decentralized energy storage in the European integrated supply grid - the EU project DISPOWER; Intercontinental integration of power supply - perspectives of full-scale power supply on the basis of renewable energy sources in Europe; High-volgate direct-current transmission in the European power suppply grid; Superconductivity and energy transport - status and perspectives. [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt 17 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen: Methanhydrate: Verbindung aus Gas und Wasser (Erwin Suess); Druckluftspeicher-Gasturbinen-Kraftwerke / Geplanter Einsatz beim Ausgleich flukturierender Windenergie-Produktion und aktuellem Strombedarf (Fritz Crotogino); Moderne Pumpspeicherwerke im Gigawattbereich - PSW Goldisthal (Wolfgang Bogenrieder); Bleibatterien - neue Entwicklungen und zukuenftige Einsatzbereiche (Reiner Wagner); Alkalische Batteriesysteme fuer Hybrid-Elektrostrassenfahrzeuge (Detlef Ohms, Gunter Schaedlich); Lithiumsysteme - Einsatzbereiche (Dietmar Rahner); Zink/Luft-Zellen (Michael Bruesewitz); Wasserstoffspeicher - Metallhydridspeicher, Druckgasspeicher, Fluessiggasspeicher (Andreas Otto); Kohlenstoff-Nanofasern zur Wasserstoffspeicherung (Juergen Garche

  13. A clear perspective in the matter of renewable energy sources. Data and facts about the energy sources of the future; Der volle Durchblick in Sachen Erneuerbare Energien. Daten and Fakten zu den Energiequellen der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    Are renewable energies not too expensive? Went the lights out when we focus on renewable energy? Do wind turbines destroy the nature? Bioenergy can the people in developing countries go hungry? With the updated brochure ''The full clear view in terms of renewable energy'', the Agency for Renewable Energy works up the most stubborn misunderstandings. The layman will find in the brochure clear answers to frequently asked questions about the potential of renewable energies. Professionals will find support and suggestions for daily energy debate. Many results in the publication of scientific papers are collated and presented in a comprehensive collection of sources to verify the publicly debated theses against renewable energy. [German] Sind Erneuerbare Energien nicht viel zu teuer? Gehen bei uns die Lichter aus, wenn wir auf Erneuerbare Energien setzen? Zerstoeren Windraeder die Natur? Laesst Bioenergie die Menschen in Entwicklungslaendern hungern? Mit der aktualisierten Broschuere: ''Der volle Durchblick in Sachen Erneuerbare Energien'' arbeitet die Agentur fuer Erneuerbare Energien die hartnaeckigsten Missverstaendnisse auf. Der Laie findet in der Broschuere klare Antworten auf haeufig gestellte Fragen zu den Potenzialen Erneuerbarer Energien. Profis finden Unterstuetzung und Anregungen fuer die taegliche Energie-Diskussion. In der Publikation sind viele Ergebnisse wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten zusammengetragen und in einer umfangreichen Quellensammlung aufgefuehrt, um die oeffentlich debattierten Thesen gegen die Erneuerbaren Energien zu ueberpruefen.

  14. Optimal Medium Composition to Enhance Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Production by Ralstonia eutropha Using Cane Molasses as Sole Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the costs associated with Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production of Ralstonia eutropha were studied in batch culture on different carbon sources. Experiments were designed and conducted to not only lower the cost of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by using inexpensive substrates, but also to increase Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by optimizing the culture medium composition. Low cost, abundant carbon sources, including cane molasses, beet molasses, soya bean, and corn steep liquor were used to investigate the possibility of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production in such renewable carbon sources. Based on the experimental results, cane molasses with production of 0.49 g/L Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was selected as the most efficient carbon source. To improve bacterial growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, different chemicals were then used to pretreat the cane molasses. Sulfuric acid, with 33% enhancement in Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, revealed the highest efficiency in removing heavy metals and suspended impurities and was used to pretreat cane molasses in the subsequent experiments. Additionally, to make the process even more efficient and ultimately more effective, urea and corn steep liquor were used as nitrogen/minerals and vitamin sources, respectively. Using the Response Surface Methodology and through a 2n factorial Central Composite Design, the medium composition was then optimized, and maximum biomass concentration of 5.03 g/L and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.63 g/L were obtained.

  15. The Brazilian experience of incentive of renewable sources expansion by means of electric power auctions; A experiencia brasileira de incentivo a expansao das fontes renovaveis por meio de leiloes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Alexandre Guedes [Camara de Comercializacao de Energia Eletrica (CCEE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Brazilian experience to encourage renewable sources of power generation through the auctions into the Regulated Environment of Contracting. These auctions are subdivided into auctions of existing plants, new plants, alternative sources and structural plants. In this process we observe the structure of the mechanism for contracting new projects of renewable sources without neglecting the low tariffs issues. Thus, the auctions of electricity in Brazil is an alternative to be considered in an attempt to group market mechanisms, low tariffs and incentives to renewable sources of generation. (author)

  16. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  17. Losing the roadmap: Renewable energy paralysis in Spain and its implications for the EU low carbon economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Alonso, Patricia; Hewitt, Richard; Diaz Pacheco, Jaime; Bermejo, Lara Roman; Hernández Jiménez, Verónica; Guillen, Jara Vicente.; Bressers, Hans; Boer, de Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    After many years at the forefront of renewable energy (RE) implementation both in Europe and worldwide, Spain experienced a sudden transformation in 2012 to its RE development model in which national government backing and financial incentives for renewables were removed, throwing the RE sector into

  18. A Novel Airborne Carbon Isotope Analyzer for Methane and Carbon Dioxide Source Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Owano, T. G.; Leifer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies on major sources of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4) indicate significant underestimation of methane release from fossil fuel industrial (FFI) and animal husbandry sources, among others. In addition, uncertainties still exist with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements, especially source fingerprinting. CO2 isotopic analysis provides a valuable in situ measurement approach to fingerprint CH4 and CO2as associated with combustion sources, leakage from geologic reservoirs, or biogenic sources. As a result, these measurements can characterize strong combustion source plumes, such as power plant emissions, and discriminate these emissions from other sources. As part of the COMEX (CO2 and MEthane eXperiment) campaign, a novel CO2 isotopic analyzer was installed and collected data aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Developing methods to derive CH4 and CO2 budgets from remote sensing data is the goal of the summer 2014 COMEX campaign, which combines hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages the synergy between high spatial resolution HSI and moderate spatial resolution NIS. The carbon dioxide isotope analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures CO2 concentration as well as δ13C, δ18O, and δ17O from CO2 at natural abundance (100-3000 ppm). The laboratory accuracy is ±1.2 ppm (1σ) in CO2 from 370-1000 ppm, with a long-term (1000 s) precision of ±0.012 ppm. The long-term precision for both δ13C and δ18O is 0.04 ‰, and for δ17O is 0.06 ‰. The analyzer was field-tested as part of the COWGAS campaign, a pre-cursor campaign to COMEX in March 2014, where it successfully discriminated plumes related to combustion processes associated with

  19. Workshop Report: International Workshop to Explore Synergies between Nuclear and Renewable Energy Sources as a Key Component in Developing Pathways to Decarbonization of the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lyons, Peter B. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An international workshop was organized in June 2016 to explore synergies between nuclear and renewable energy sources. Synergies crossing electricity, transportation, and industrial sectors were the focus of the workshop, recognizing that deep decarbonization will require efforts that go far beyond the electricity sector alone. This report summarizes the key points made within each presentation and highlights outcomes that were arrived at in the discussions.

  20. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  1. Rice Husk Ash as a Renewable Source for the Production of Value Added Silica Gel and its Application: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    properties assumes importance at this juncture. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 23th November 2011, Revised: 09th January 2012, Accepted: 10th January 2012[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and M. Pandey. (2012. Rice Husk Ash as a Renewable Source for the Production of Value Added Silica Gel and its Application: An Overview. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 1-25. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1216.1-25][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1216.1-25 ] | View in 

  2. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  3. Analysis of the carbon source for diamond crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; XU Bin; LI MuSen

    2008-01-01

    The lattice constants of diamond and graphite at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) were calculated on the basis of linear expansion coefficient and elastic constant. According to the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), the valence electron structures (VESs) of diamond, graphite crystal and their common planes were calculated. The relationship between diamond and graphite structure was analyzed based on the boundary condition of the improved Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory by Cheng (TFDC). It was found that the electron densities of common planes in graphite were not continuous with those of planes in diamond at the first order of approximation. The results show that during the course of diamond single crystal growth at HPHT with metal catalyst, the carbon sources forming diamond structure do not come from the graphite structure directly. The diamond growth mechanism was discussed from the viewpoint of valence electron structure.

  4. Acetic Acid bacteria: physiology and carbon sources oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called "oxidative fermentations", especially in vinegar production. In the last decades physiology of AAB have been widely studied because of their role in food production, where they act as beneficial or spoiling organisms, and in biotechnological industry, where their oxidation machinery is exploited to produce a number of compounds such as l-ascorbic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid and cellulose. The present review aims to provide an overview of AAB physiology focusing carbon sources oxidation and main products of their metabolism.

  5. Trends in Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which...... by means of power electronics are changing the future electrical infrastructure but also contributes steadily more to non-carbon based electricity production. Most focus is on the power electronics technologies used. In the case of photovoltaics transformer-less systems are discussed as they have...

  6. Microbial Diversity Indexes Can Explain Soil Carbon Dynamics as a Function of Carbon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Pierre-Alain; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Sarr, Amadou; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier; Jolivet, Claudy; Leterme, Philippe; Viaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models do not explicitly represent the influence of soil microbial diversity on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics despite recent evidence of relationships between them. The objective of the present study was to statistically investigate relationships between bacterial and fungal diversity indexes (richness, evenness, Shannon index, inverse Simpson index) and decomposition of different pools of soil organic carbon by measuring dynamics of CO2 emissions under controlled conditions. To this end, 20 soils from two different land uses (cropland and grassland) were incubated with or without incorporation of 13C-labelled wheat-straw residue. 13C-labelling allowed us to study residue mineralisation, basal respiration and the priming effect independently. An innovative data-mining approach was applied, based on generalized additive models and a predictive criterion. Results showed that microbial diversity indexes can be good covariates to integrate in SOC dynamics models, depending on the C source and the processes considered (native soil organic carbon vs. fresh wheat residue). Specifically, microbial diversity indexes were good candidates to help explain mineralisation of native soil organic carbon, while priming effect processes seemed to be explained much more by microbial composition, and no microbial diversity indexes were found associated with residue mineralisation. Investigation of relationships between diversity and mineralisation showed that higher diversity, as measured by the microbial diversity indexes, seemed to be related to decreased CO2 emissions in the control soil. We suggest that this relationship can be explained by an increase in carbon yield assimilation as microbial diversity increases. Thus, the parameter for carbon yield assimilation in mathematical models could be calculated as a function of microbial diversity indexes. Nonetheless, given limitations of the methods used, these observations should be considered with caution and

  7. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Quere, Corrine [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Raupach, Mike [GCP, Canberra, Australia; Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Bopp, Laurent [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environement, France; Friedlingstein, Pierre [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Foster, Pru [University of Bristol, UK; House, Joanna I [University of Bristol, UK; Prentice, Colin I. [University of Bristol, UK; Gurney, Kevin [Purdue University; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Huntingford, Chris [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxon, England; Levy, Peter E. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Midlothian, Scotland; Lomas, M. R. [University of Sheffield; Woodward, F. I. [University of Sheffield; Majkut, Joseph [Princeton University; Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton University; Metzl, Nicolas [University of Paris; Ometto, Jean P [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Peters, Glen P [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Sitch, Stephen [University of Leeds, UK; Takahashi, Taro [Columbia University; Van der Werf, Guido [Universitate Amsterdam

    2009-12-01

    Efforts to control climate change require the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This can only be achieved through a drastic reduction of global CO2 emissions. Yet fossil fuel emissions increased by 29% between 2000 and 2008, in conjunction with increased contributions from emerging economies, from the production and international trade of goods and services, and from the use of coal as a fuel source. In contrast, emissions from land-use changes were nearly constant. Between 1959 and 2008, 43% of each year's CO2 emissions remained in the atmosphere on average; the rest was absorbed by carbon sinks on land and in the oceans. In the past 50 years, the fraction of CO2 emissions that remains in the atmosphere each year has likely increased, from about 40% to 45%, and models suggest that this trend was caused by a decrease in the uptake of CO2 by the carbon sinks in response to climate change and variability. Changes in the CO2 sinks are highly uncertain, but they could have a significant influence on future atmospheric CO2 levels. It is therefore crucial to reduce the uncertainties.

  8. Carbon Nanotube/Magnesium Composite as a Hydrogen Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min Kyu; Se, Kwon Oh; Kim, Min Joong; Hwang, Jae Won; Yoon, Byoung Young; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen produced using the steam reforming process contains sulfur and carbon monoxide that are harmful to the Pt catalyst in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, CO-free hydrogen can be generated from the hydrolysis of either Al in strongly alkaline water or Mg in neutral water with chlorides such as sea water. The hydrogen generation rate from the hydrolysis of Mg is extremely slow and linearly proportional to the corrosion rate of Mg in chloride water. In this work, we fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)--reinforced Mg--matrix composite by Spark Plasma Sintering as a fast hydrogen generation source for a PEMFC. The CNTs distributed in the Mg matrix act as numerous local cathodes, and hence cause severe galvanic corrosion between the Mg-matrix anode and CNT-cathode in NaCl solution. It was found that the hydrogen generation rate from the hydrolysis of the 5 vol.% CNT/Mg composite is 3300 times faster than that of the Mg without CNTs due primarily to the galvanic corrosion effect.

  9. Models for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A legal comparing investigation of models for the promotion of renewable enegy sources by the example of Poland and Germany; Modelle zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Eine rechtsvergleichende Untersuchung von Modellen zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energietraeger am Beispiel Polens und Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowska, Dorota

    2008-04-08

    Energy sources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum, and nuclear fission have long been established on the marketplace and considered competitive. However, a comprehensive restructuring of energy generation is necessary, as conventional energy generation pollutes the environment. Therefore environmentally friendly energy sources, such as solar, wind or water power need to be promoted. However, regenerative energy sources are still not capable of competing with conventional energy. Marketability of renewable energy sources can only be achieved through government-sponsored promotion and regulation. Such measures include fixed price and fixed quantity models with green certificates. The support schemes for renewable energy sources are characterized by their wide-ranging adaptability. The various elements of a scheme must be adapted to a given country's set goals and specific circumstances. There is no universally applicable model. Based on given goals and opportunities, every domestic legislator faces the challenge of choosing the best scheme or developing a mixed model that combines various elements. The aim of this study is to provide a legal analysis of regulations concerning the support schemes for renewable energy sources within the framework of EU and international law. Furthermore, the study aimed at comparing support schemes implemented in Poland and Germany. In the EU, the electricity directive from 1996 and 2003, the directive on the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources from 2003 and 2008, non-binding documents, such as the ''green and white book'', as well as the ''ALTENER'' program, successfully contributed to establishing the topic of renewable energies. Regarding international law, it is primarily the Kyoto protocol that has to be mentioned as a basis for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Poland introduced a fixed quantity model with green certificates. Separated reimbursements for

  10. Land use effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josep; G.; Canadell

    2002-01-01

    Current and past land use practices are critical in determining the distribution and size of global terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks. Althoughfossil fuel emissions dominate the anthropogenic perturbation of the global C cycle, land use still drives the largest portion of anthropogenic emissions in a number of tropical regions of Asia. The size of the emission flux owing to land use change is still the biggest uncertainty in the global C budget. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported a flux term of 1.7 PgC@a-1 for 1990-1995 but more recent estimates suggest the magnitude of this source may be only of 0.96 PgC@a-1 for the 1990s. In addition, current and past land use practices are now thought to contribute to a large degree to the northern hemisphere terrestrial sink, and are the dominant driver for some regional sinks. However, mechanisms other than land use change need to be invoked in order to explain the inferred C sink in the tropics. Potential candidates are the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization and climate change; fertilization due to nitrogen (N) deposition is believed to be small or nil. Although the potential for managing C sinks is limited, improved land use management and new land uses such as reforestation and biomass fuel cropping, can further enhance current terrestrial C sinks. Best management practices in agriculture alone could sequester 0.4-0.8 PgC per year in soils if implemented globally. New methodologies to ensure verification and permanency of C sequestration need to be developed.

  11. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol and acet......The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol...... and acetate. A. oryzae did not grow on galactose as the sole carbon source, but galactose was co-metabolized together with glucose. Relative to that on low glucose concentration (below 10 mg/l), productivity was found to be higher during growth on maltose and maltodextrins, whereas it was lower during growth...

  12. Black carbon from the Mississippi River: quantities, sources, and potential implications for the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Bianchi, Thomas S; McKee, Brent A; Sutula, Martha

    2002-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) may be a major component of riverine carbon exported to the ocean, but its flux from large rivers is unknown. Furthermore, the global distribution of BC between natural and anthropogenic sources remains uncertain. We have determined BC concentrations in suspended sediments of the Mississippi River, the 7th largest river in the world in terms of sediment and water discharge, during high flow and low flow in 1999. The 1999 annual flux of BC from the Mississippi River was 5 x 10(-4) petagrams (1 Pg = 10(15) g = 1 gigaton). We also applied a principal components analysis to particulate-phase high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon isomer ratios in Mississippi River suspended sediments. In doing so, we determined that approximately 27% of the BC discharged from the Mississippi River in 1999 originated from fossil fuel combustion (coal and smelter-derived combustion), implicating fluvial BC as an important source of anthropogenic BC contamination into the ocean. Using our value for BC flux and the annual estimate for BC burial in ocean sediments, we calculate that, in 1999, the Mississippi River discharged approximately 5% of the BC buried annually in the ocean. These results have important implications, not only for the global carbon cycle but also for the fluvial discharge of particulate organic contaminants into the world's oceans.

  13. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes of Few Walls Using Aliphatic Alcohols as a Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Espinosa-Magaña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes with single and few walls are highly appreciated for their technological applications, regardless of the limited availability due to their high production cost. In this paper we present an alternative process that can lead to lowering the manufacturing cost of CNTs of only few walls by means of the use of the spray pyrolysis technique. For this purpose, ferrocene is utilized as a catalyst and aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol or butanol as the carbon source. The characterization of CNTs was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The study of the synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs show important differences in the number of layers that constitute the nanotubes, the diameter length, the quantity and the quality as a function of the number of carbons employed in the alcohol. The main interest of this study is to give the basis of an efficient synthesis process to produce CNTs of few walls for applications where small diameter is required.

  14. Solar belt and wind farm oasis. Which portion have renewable energy sources at the power generation in Chile?; Sonnenguertel und Windparkoasen. Welchen Anteil haben Erneuerbare Energien an der Stromerzeugung in Chile?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarzua, Tatiana [DGS, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the portion of renewable energies at the power generation in Chile. The technically usable potential of renewable energy sources (hydroelectric power plants, photovoltaic systems, wind power plant, geothermal power plants, biogas plants, ocean energy systems) as well as the already approved photovoltaic systems are presented.

  15. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, Caroline R. [Mills College, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  16. Towards a Carbon Nanotube Ionization Source for Planetary Atmosphere Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, A. V.; Leblanc, F.; Berthelier, J. J.; Becker, J.; Coulomb, R.; Gilbert, P.; Hong, N. T.; Lee, S.; Vettier, L.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of planetary exospheres today, relies on the development of a highly efficient ionization source, due to the scant neutral molecules (n atmospheres provide insight on to physical processes known to occur such as: space weathering, magneto-atmosphere interactions, as well as atmospheric escape mechanisms, all of which are being heavily investigated via current 3D Monte Carlo simulations (Turc et al. 2014, Leblanc et al. 2016 in prep) at LATMOS. Validation of these studies will rely on in-situ observations in the coming decades. Neutral detection strongly depends on electron-impact ionization which via conventional cathode-sources, such as thermal filaments (heated up to 2000 K), may only produce the target ionization essential for energy-measurements with large power consumption. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) however are ideal low-power, cold cathodes, when subject to moderate electric fields (E ~ 1 MV / m). We present our current device, a small CNT chip, of emission area 15 mm2, emitting electrons that pass through an anode grid and subsequent electrostatic analyzer. The device currently extracts hundreds of µAmperes with applied external voltages ~ -150 Volts, approaching minimum power consumption plasma sputtering the icy regolith with heavy ions and electrons (keV < E < MeV), producing predominately molecular oxygen (Johnson et al. 2002).

  17. Role of renewable energy for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, J.C. [World Affairs Journal, New Delhi (India)

    1999-01-01

    The present high energy paradigm of consumerism and armament is almost entirely structured on non-renewable fossil fuels. This commitment is now being further extended through massive new infrastructures and life styles to the emerging new nations. Arising out of the energy concentration and constraints of the economic parameters, movement towards low density sun-based sources of energy will be slow and halting. In the final analysis the factors, which will determine the timescale and speed of shift to renewable sources of energy, would include:- the declining economic availability and increasing conflicts in the acquisition of non renewable resources, crossing of he threshold of environmental sustainability of parameters such as doubling of Carbon dioxide, ozone layer depletion and health endangering pollution, and nuclear wastes etc., the available times scale for substitution with renewables, movement away from high energy, high technology consumerist life style and their armament support system. (Author)

  18. Dual-Carbon sources fuel the OCS deep-reef Community, a stable isotope investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Berg, J.; Randall, Michael; Dennis, George D.; Brooks, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that phytoplankton is the sole carbon source for the OCS deep-reef community (>60 m) was tested. Trophic structure for NE Gulf of Mexico deep reefs was analyzed via carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Carbon signatures for 114 entities (carbon sources, sediment, fishes, and invertebrates) supported surface phytoplankton as the primary fuel for the deep reef. However, a second carbon source, the macroalga Sargassum, with its epiphytic macroalgal associate, Cladophora liniformis, was also identified. Macroalgal carbon signatures were detected among 23 consumer entities. Most notably, macroalgae contributed 45 % of total carbon to the 13C isotopic spectrum of the particulate-feeding reef-crest gorgonian Nicella. The discontinuous spatial distribution of some sessile deep-reef invertebrates utilizing pelagic macroalgal carbon may be trophically tied to the contagious distribution of Sargassum biomass along major ocean surface features.

  19. Contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the La Rioja Autonomous Community, Spain. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, Luis Maria; Lopez Ochoa, Luis Maria [Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada, Energia y Construccion, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de La Rioja, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20, 26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Sala Lizarraga, Jose Maria [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Miguez Tabares, Jose Luis [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Vigo, Universidad de Vigo (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    The implementation of the emissions market should imbue renewable energies with a greater degree of competitiveness regarding conventional generation. In order to comply with the Kyoto protocol, utilities are going to begin to factor in the cost of CO{sub 2} (environmental costs) in their overall generating costs, whereby there will be an increase in the marginal prices of the electricity pool. This article reviews the progress made in the La Rioja Autonomous Community (LRAC) in terms of the introduction of renewable energy technologies since 1996, where renewable energy represents approximately only 10% of the final energy consumption of the LRAC. Nonetheless, the expected exploitation of renewable energies and the recent implementation of a combined cycle facility mean that the electricity scenario in La Rioja will undergo spectacular change over the coming years: we examine the possibility of meeting a target of practical electrical self-sufficiency by 2010. In 2004, power consumption amounted to 1494GWh, with an installed power of 1029.0MW of electricity. By 2010, the Arrubal combined cycle facility will produce around 9600GWh/year, thereby providing a power generation output in La Rioja of close to 2044.7MW, which will involve almost doubling the present output, and multiplying by 8.9 that recorded in this Autonomous Community in 2001. (author)

  20. Equilibrium Transitions from Non Renewable Energy to Renewable Energy under Capacity Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We study the transition between non renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...