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Sample records for rendering coal insoluble

  1. Mathematical analysis of physicochemical phenomena in the catalyst during hydrogenating depolymerization of coal extract benzene insoluble fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerzy Szczygieł; Marek Stolarski

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency and selectivity of hydrogenating depolymerization of the coal extract benzene-insoluble part over the heterogeneous Co–Mo/Al2O3 catalyst were assessed using a mathematical model. The analytical equations of the mathematical model were generated based on material balance incorporating the physico-chemical phenomena (reaction and diffusion) both in the autoclave and the catalyst grain. The equations offer the possibility for predicting changes of the reactants in the autoclave during the process and for determining the distribution of reactant concentrations in the grain as a function of its radius. The analytical equations of the model serve as the basis of the algorithm for assessing the influence of restrictive diffusion on the effectiveness and selectivity of the catalyst, and also for defining the optimal radi of the catalyst's pores to enable free transport of reactants in the grain interior.

  2. Determination of toluene insolubles of the coal tar pitch analysis method%煤沥青甲苯不溶物的测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓兰; 向柠; 姜峰

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of the testing principles and different test method of toluene insolubles in coal tar pitch on the test results.Several differences between the test methods and accuracy are demonstrated through the math test,and the most appropriate test method is determined.%讨论了甲苯不溶物的测试原理及不同测试方法对测试结果的影响.通过数学检验法论证了几种测试方法之间的差异性及准确性,确定了最合适的测试方法.

  3. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  4. Quantum rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Gomez, Richard B.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2003-08-01

    In recent years, computer graphics has emerged as a critical component of the scientific and engineering process, and it is recognized as an important computer science research area. Computer graphics are extensively used for a variety of aerospace and defense training systems and by Hollywood's special effects companies. All these applications require the computer graphics systems to produce high quality renderings of extremely large data sets in short periods of time. Much research has been done in "classical computing" toward the development of efficient methods and techniques to reduce the rendering time required for large datasets. Quantum Computing's unique algorithmic features offer the possibility of speeding up some of the known rendering algorithms currently used in computer graphics. In this paper we discuss possible implementations of quantum rendering algorithms. In particular, we concentrate on the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm for Z-buffering, ray-tracing, radiosity, and scene management techniques. We also compare the theoretical performance between the classical and quantum versions of the algorithms.

  5. Removing of quinoline insoluble in modified coal tar pitch by single solvent-extraction hot filtration%单溶剂萃取热过滤法脱除改质煤沥青的喹啉不溶物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐妍; 高丽娟; 吴红运; 赵雪飞

    2014-01-01

    以鞍钢改质沥青为原料,采用单溶剂萃取法过滤脱除原料沥青中的喹啉不溶物(QI),再用常压蒸馏去除溶剂,得到QI含量小于0.1%的净化沥青。考察了料液比、恒温时间和恒温温度对改质煤沥青QI净化效果的影响。结果表明,净化最佳工艺参数为料液比1∶1.5~1∶3,恒温时间1 h,恒温温度140℃。在最佳工艺条件下得到的净化沥青软化点为62℃,QI含量为0,TI含量为19.1%,结焦值为47.77%。采用红外光谱对净化沥青进行表征,结果表明,原料沥青经过萃取过滤后芳香烃类结构减少,脂肪烃类结构增加。该净化沥青QI较低,结焦残炭率较高,可作为制备浸渍剂沥青、煤基炭纤维等炭素材料的优质原料。%Quinoline insolubles (QI) in raw coal pitch was filtrated and removed by using the single solvent-extraction method in this paper, and then the solvent was removed by atmospheric distillation to obtain refined coal pitch with low QI content (<0.1%). The effects of the ratio of pitch to solvent, thermostatic time and thermostatic temperature on the removal rate of QI in refined coal pitch were investigated. The results showed that the optimum purification process parameters were: the range of solid and solvent of 1∶1.5~1∶3, the constant temperature time of 1 h, and the thermostatic temperature of 140℃. The softening point, QI content, TI con-tent and coking value of refined asphalt under the condition of optimum process were 62℃, 0, 19.1%and 47.77%, respectively. The purification asphalt was characterized by infrared spectrum, which showed that the content of aromatic hydrocarbons decreased and that of fat hydrocarbons increased after extraction filter. This purified tar exhibits low QI and high coking value, which could be used as the quality raw materials for the impregnant pitch and coal based carbon fibers.

  6. Practical Parallel Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the growing demands for speed and quality in rendering computer graphics images requires new techniques. Practical parallel rendering provides one of the most practical solutions. This book addresses the basic issues of rendering within a parallel or distributed computing environment, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of multiprocessor machines and networked render farms for graphics rendering. Case studies of working applications demonstrate, in detail, practical ways of dealing with complex issues involved in parallel processing.

  7. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  8. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  9. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  10. High Fidelity Haptic Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Otaduy, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance t

  11. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  12. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sykorova, I. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  13. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  14. Sea modeling and rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  15. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  16. Exposure render: an interactive photo-realistic volume rendering framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kroes

    Full Text Available The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR by integrating a number of visually plausible but often effect-specific rendering techniques, for instance modeling of light occlusion and depth of field. Besides yielding more attractive renderings, especially the more realistic lighting has a positive effect on perceptual tasks. Although these new rendering techniques yield impressive results, they exhibit limitations in terms of their exibility and their performance. Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT, coupled with physically based light transport, is the de-facto standard for synthesizing highly realistic images in the graphics domain, although usually not from volumetric data. Due to the stochastic sampling of MCRT algorithms, numerous effects can be achieved in a relatively straight-forward fashion. For this reason, we have developed a practical framework that applies MCRT techniques also to direct volume rendering (DVR. With this work, we demonstrate that a host of realistic effects, including physically based lighting, can be simulated in a generic and flexible fashion, leading to interactive DVR with improved realism. In the hope that this improved approach to DVR will see more use in practice, we have made available our framework under a permissive open source license.

  17. RenderMan design principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Tony; Porter, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The two worlds of interactive graphics and realistic graphics have remained separate. Fast graphics hardware runs simple algorithms and generates simple looking images. Photorealistic image synthesis software runs slowly on large expensive computers. The time has come for these two branches of computer graphics to merge. The speed and expense of graphics hardware is no longer the barrier to the wide acceptance of photorealism. There is every reason to believe that high quality image synthesis will become a standard capability of every graphics machine, from superworkstation to personal computer. The significant barrier has been the lack of a common language, an agreed-upon set of terms and conditions, for 3-D modeling systems to talk to 3-D rendering systems for computing an accurate rendition of that scene. Pixar has introduced RenderMan to serve as that common language. RenderMan, specifically the extensibility it offers in shading calculations, is discussed.

  18. Exposure Render: An Interactive Photo-Realistic Volume Rendering Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, T.; Post, F.H.; Botha, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) by i

  19. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  20. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  1. Real-time graphics rendering engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Hujun

    2011-01-01

    ""Real-Time Graphics Rendering Engine"" reveals the software architecture of the modern real-time 3D graphics rendering engine and the relevant technologies based on the authors' experience developing this high-performance, real-time system. The relevant knowledge about real-time graphics rendering such as the rendering pipeline, the visual appearance and shading and lighting models are also introduced. This book is intended to offer well-founded guidance for researchers and developers who are interested in building their own rendering engines. Hujun Bao is a professor at the State Key Lab of

  2. Hardware Accelerated Point Rendering of Isosurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    an approximate technique for point scaling using distance attenuation which makes it possible to render points stored in display lists or vertex arrays. This enables us to render points quickly using OpenGL. Our comparisons show that point generation is significantly faster than triangle generation...... and that the advantage of rendering points as opposed to triangles increases with the size and complexity of the volumes. To gauge the visual quality of future hardware accelerated point rendering schemes, we have implemented a software based point rendering method and compare the quality to both MC and our OpenGL based...

  3. Cluster parallel rendering based on encoded mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ai-hong; XIONG Hua; PENG Hao-yu; LIU Zhen; SHI Jiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    Use of compressed mesh in parallel rendering architecture is still an unexplored area, the main challenge of which is to partition and sort the encoded mesh in compression-domain. This paper presents a mesh compression scheme PRMC (Parallel Rendering based Mesh Compression) supplying encoded meshes that can be partitioned and sorted in parallel rendering system even in encoded-domain. First, we segment the mesh into submeshes and clip the submeshes' boundary into Runs, and then piecewise compress the submeshes and Runs respectively. With the help of several auxiliary index tables, compressed submeshes and Runs can serve as rendering primitives in parallel rendering system. Based on PRMC, we design and implement a parallel rendering architecture. Compared with uncompressed representation, experimental results showed that PRMC meshes applied in cluster parallel rendering system can dramatically reduce the communication requirement.

  4. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  5. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  6. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  7. Rendering Caustics on Non-Lambertian Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Wann

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for rendering caustics on non-Lambertian surfaces. The method is based on an extension of the photon map which removes previous restrictions limiting the usage to Lambertian surfaces. We add information about the incoming direction to the photons and this allow...... reduces the rendering time. We have used the method to render caustics on surfaces with reflectance functions varying from Lambertian to glossy specular....

  8. Building Interstellar's black hole: the gravitational renderer

    OpenAIRE

    James, Oliver; Dieckmann, Sylvan; Pabst, Simon; Roberts, Paul-George H.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar is the first feature film to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. A close collaboration between the production's Scientific Advisor and the Visual Effects team led to the development of a new renderer, DNGR (Double Negative Gravitational Renderer) which uses novel techniques for rendering in curved space-time. Following the completion of the movie, the code was adapted for scientific research, leading to new insights into gravitational l...

  9. Image Based Rendering under Varying Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengfeng (王城峰); Hu Zhanyi

    2003-01-01

    A new approach for photorealistic rendering of a class of objects at arbitrary illumination is presented. The approach of the authors relies entirely on image based rendering techniques. A scheme is utilized for re-illumination of objects based on linear combination of low dimensional image representations. The minimum rendering condition of technique of the authors is three sample images under varying illumination of a reference object and a single input image of an interested object. Important properties of this approach are its simplicity, robustness and speediness. Experimental results validate the proposed rendering approach.

  10. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2014-02-07

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  12. Insoluble and flexible silk films containing glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shenzhou; Wang, Xiaoqin; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Kluge, Jonathan A; Uppal, Neha; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L

    2010-01-11

    We directly prepared insoluble silk films by blending with glycerol and avoiding the use of organic solvents. The ability to blend a plasticizer like glycerol with a hydrophobic protein like silk and achieve stable material systems above a critical threshold of glycerol is an important new finding with importance for green chemistry approaches to new and more flexible silk-based biomaterials. The aqueous solubility, biocompatibility, and well-documented use of glycerol as a plasticizer with other biopolymers prompted its inclusion in silk fibroin solutions to assess impact on silk film behavior. Processing was performed in water rather than organic solvents to enhance the potential biocompatibility of these biomaterials. The films exhibited modified morphologies that could be controlled on the basis of the blend composition and also exhibited altered mechanical properties, such as improved elongation at break, when compared with pure silk fibroin films. Mechanistically, glycerol appears to replace water in silk fibroin chain hydration, resulting in the initial stabilization of helical structures in the films, as opposed to random coil or beta-sheet structures. The use of glycerol in combination with silk fibroin in materials processing expands the functional features attainable with this fibrous protein, and in particular, in the formation of more flexible films with potential utility in a range of biomaterial and device applications.

  13. Alkaline phosphatase of Physarum polycephalum is insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    The plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum grow as multinucleated cells in the presence of sufficient humidity and nutriment. Under non-illuminating conditions, stresses such as low temperature or high concentrations of salts transform the plasmodia into spherules whereas dehydration induces sclerotization. Some phosphatases including protein phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been purified from the plasmodia, but alkaline phosphatase remains to be elucidated. Phosphatase of the plasmodia, spherules and sclerotia was visualized by electrophoresis gel-staining assay using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Insoluble fractions of the sclerotia were abundant in phosphatase activity. The phosphatase which was extracted by nonionic detergent was subjected to column chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. Purified phosphatase showed the highest activity at pH 8.8, indicating that this enzyme belongs to alkaline phosphatase. The apparent molecular mass from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing condition was estimated to be 100 kDa whereas that under reducing was 105 kDa. An amount of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.5 M NaCl had no effects on the activity although the phosphatase showed heat instability, Mg(2+)-dependency and sensitivity to 2-glycerophosphate or NaF. The extracting conditions and enzymatic properties suggest that this alkaline phosphatase which is in a membrane-bound form plays important roles in phosphate metabolism.

  14. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkova, T. V.; Minkov, I. L.; Tsekov, R.; Slavchov, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3–30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na+ is specifically adsorbed, while Cl– remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na+ seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer.

  15. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  16. Physically based rendering: from theory to implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pharr, Matt; Humphreys, Greg, Ph. D

    2010-01-01

    ... rendering algorithm variations. This book is not only a textbook for students, but also a useful reference book for practitioners in the field. The second edition has been extended with sections on Metropolis light transport, subsurface scattering, precomputed light transport, and more. Per Christensen Senior Software Developer, RenderMan Products,...

  17. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  18. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...... through the render and into the brick. The test specimen is placed between the source and the detector. The test specimens are all scanned before they are exposed to water. In that way the loss of counts from the dry scan to the wet scan qualitatively shows the presence of water. The results show nearly...... no penetration of water through the render and into the brick, and the results are independent of the start condition of the test specimens. Also drying experiments are performed. The results show a small difference in the rate of drying, in favour of the bricks without render....

  19. Physically based rendering from theory to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pharr, Matt

    2010-01-01

    "Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition" describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This book features new sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. It includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.

  20. Optimization-Based Wearable Tactile Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alvaro G; Lobo, Daniel; Chinello, Francesco; Cirio, Gabriel; Malvezzi, Monica; San Martin, Jose; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2016-10-20

    Novel wearable tactile interfaces offer the possibility to simulate tactile interactions with virtual environments directly on our skin. But, unlike kinesthetic interfaces, for which haptic rendering is a well explored problem, they pose new questions about the formulation of the rendering problem. In this work, we propose a formulation of tactile rendering as an optimization problem, which is general for a large family of tactile interfaces. Based on an accurate simulation of contact between a finger model and the virtual environment, we pose tactile rendering as the optimization of the device configuration, such that the contact surface between the device and the actual finger matches as close as possible the contact surface in the virtual environment. We describe the optimization formulation in general terms, and we also demonstrate its implementation on a thimble-like wearable device. We validate the tactile rendering formulation by analyzing its force error, and we show that it outperforms other approaches.

  1. 3D Rendering - Techniques and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Walia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer generated images and animations are getting more and more common. They are used in many different contexts such as movies,mobiles, medical visualization, architectural visualization and CAD. Advanced ways of describing surface and light source properties are important to ensure that artists are able to create realistic and stylish looking images. Even when using advanced rendering algorithms such as ray tracing, time required for shading may contribute towards a large part of the image creation time. Therefore both performance and flexibility is important in a rendering system. This paper gives a comparative study of various 3D Rendering techniques and their challenges in a complete and systematic manner.

  2. FAST CROWD RENDERING IN COMPUTER GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya OĞUZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games, with the speed advancements of graphical processors, are coming closer to the quality of cinema industry. Contrary to offline rendering of the scenes in a motion picture, computer games should be able to render at 30 frames per second. Therefore, CPU and memory performance are sought by using various techniques. This paper is about using instancing feature of contemporary graphical processors along with level of detail techniques which has been in use for a very long time. Using instancing, 15,000 instances were successfully rendered at 30 frames per second using a very low %10 CPU usage. The application can render 40,000 instances at 13 frames per second.

  3. Visibility-Aware Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai-Ho Mak; Yingcai Wu; Ming-Yuen Chan; Huamin Qu

    2011-01-01

    Direct volume rendering (DVR) is a powerful visualization technique which allows users to effectively explore and study volumetric datasets. Different transparency settings can be flexibly assigned to different structures such that some valuable information can be revealed in direct volume rendered images (DVRIs). However, end-users often feel that some risks are always associated with DVR because they do not know whether any important information is missing from the transparent regions of DVRIs. In this paper, we investigate how to semi-automatically generate a set of DVRIs and also an animation which can reveal information missed in the original DVRIs and meanwhile satisfy some image quality criteria such as coherence. A complete framework is developed to tackle various problems related to the generation and quality evaluation of visibility-aware DVRIs and animations. Our technique can reduce the risk of using direct volume rendering and thus boost the confidence of users in volume rendering systems.

  4. ARC Code TI: SLAB Spatial Audio Renderer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLAB is a software-based, real-time virtual acoustic environment rendering system being developed as a tool for the study of spatial hearing. SLAB is designed to...

  5. Layered Textures for Image-Based Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    en-Cheng Wang; ui-Yu Li; in Zheng; n-Hua Wu

    2004-01-01

    An extension to texture mapping is given in this paper for improving the efficiency of image-based rendering. For a depth image with an orthogonal displacement at each pixel, it is decomposed by the displacement into a series of layered textures (LTs) with each one having the same displacement for all its texels. Meanwhile,some texels of the layered textures are interpolated for obtaining a continuous 3D approximation of the model represented in the depth image. Thus, the plane-to-plane texture mapping can be used to map these layered textures to produce novel views and the advantages can be obtained as follows: accelerating the rendering speed,supporting the 3D surface details and view motion parallax, and avoiding the expensive task of hole-filling in the rendering stage. Experimental results show the new method can produce high-quality images and run faster than many famous image-based rendering techniques.

  6. Composed Scattering Model for Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 石教英

    1996-01-01

    Based on the equation of transfer in transport theory of optical physics,a new volume rendering model,called composed scattering model(CSM),is presented.In calculating the scattering term of the equation,it is decomposed into volume scattering intensity and surface scattering intensity,and they are composed with the boundary detection operator as the weight function.This proposed model differs from the most current volume rendering models in the aspect that in CSM segmentation and illumination intensity calculation are taken as two coherent parts while in existing models they are regarded as two separate ones.This model has been applied to the direct volume rendering of 3D data sets obtained by CT and MRI.The resultant images show not only rich details but also clear boundary surfaces.CSM is demonstrated to be an accurate volume rendering model suitable for CT and MRI data sets.

  7. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  8. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  10. Rendering and Compositing Infrastructure Improvements to VisIt for Insitu Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ruebel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Compared to posthoc rendering, insitu rendering often generates larger numbers of images, as a result rendering performance and scalability are critical in the insitu setting. In this work we present improvements to VisIt's rendering and compositing infrastructure that deliver increased performance and scalability in both posthoc and insitu settings. We added the capability for alpha blend compositing and use it with ordered compositing when datasets have disjoint block domain decomposition to optimize the rendering of transparent geometry. We also made improvements that increase overall efficiency by reducing communication and data movement and have addressed a number of performance issues. We structured our code to take advantage of SIMD parallelization and use threads to overlap communication and compositing. We tested our improvements on a 20 core workstation using 8 cores to render geometry generated from a $256^3$ cosmology dataset and on a Cray XC31 using 512 cores to render geometry generated from a $2000^2 \\times 800$ plasma dataset. Our results show that ordered compositing provides a speed up of up to $4 \\times$ over the current sort first strategy. The other improvements resulted in modest speed up with one notable exception where we achieve up to $40 \\times$ speed up of rendering and compositing of opaque geometry when both opaque and transparent geometry are rendered together. We also investigated the use of depth peeling, but found that the implementation provided by VTK is substantially slower,both with and without GPU acceleration, than a local camera order sort.

  11. Brain Image Representation and Rendering: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Raza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain image representation and rendering processes are basically used for evaluation, development and investigation consent experimental examination and formation of brain images of a variety of modalities that includes the major brain types like MEG, EEG, PET, MRI, CT or microscopy. So, there is a need to conduct a study to review the existing work in this area. This paper provides a review of different existing techniques and methods regarding the brain image representation and rendering. Image Rendering is the method of generating an image by means of a model, through computer programs. The basic purpose of brain image representation and rendering processes is to analyze the brain images precisely in order to effectively diagnose and examine the diseases and problems. The basic objective of this study is to evaluate and discuss different techniques and approaches proposed in order to handle different brain imaging types. The paper provides a short overview of different methods, in the form of advantages and limitations, presented in the prospect of brain image representation and rendering along with their sub categories proposed by different authors.

  12. Equalizer: a scalable parallel rendering framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilemann, Stefan; Makhinya, Maxim; Pajarola, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Continuing improvements in CPU and GPU performances as well as increasing multi-core processor and cluster-based parallelism demand for flexible and scalable parallel rendering solutions that can exploit multipipe hardware accelerated graphics. In fact, to achieve interactive visualization, scalable rendering systems are essential to cope with the rapid growth of data sets. However, parallel rendering systems are non-trivial to develop and often only application specific implementations have been proposed. The task of developing a scalable parallel rendering framework is even more difficult if it should be generic to support various types of data and visualization applications, and at the same time work efficiently on a cluster with distributed graphics cards. In this paper we introduce a novel system called Equalizer, a toolkit for scalable parallel rendering based on OpenGL which provides an application programming interface (API) to develop scalable graphics applications for a wide range of systems ranging from large distributed visualization clusters and multi-processor multipipe graphics systems to single-processor single-pipe desktop machines. We describe the system architecture, the basic API, discuss its advantages over previous approaches, present example configurations and usage scenarios as well as scalability results.

  13. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  14. Adaptive Rendering Based on Visual Acuity Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method of adaptable rendering for interaction in Virtual Environment(VE) through different visual acuity equations is proposed. An acuity factor equation of luminance vision is first given. Secondly, five equations which calculate the visual acuity through visual acuity factors are presented, and adaptive rendering strategy based on different visual acuity equations is given. The VE system may select one of them on the basis of the host's load, hereby select LOD for each model which would be rendered. A coarser LOD is selected where the visual acuity is lower, and a better LOD is used where it is higher. This method is tested through experiments and the experimental results show that it is effective.

  15. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balsa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount of detail to be represented. Moreover, the interactions between the objects (grass, leaves and external forces such as wind are complex to model. In this paper we concentrate in the rendering of falling leaves at low cost. We present a technique that exploits graphics hardware in order to render thousands of leaves with different falling paths in real time and low memory requirements.

  16. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  17. Volume Rendering for Curvilinear and Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Williams, P; Silva, C; Cook, R

    2003-03-05

    We discuss two volume rendering methods developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first, cell projection, renders the polygons in the projection of each cell. It requires a global visibility sort in order to composite the cells in back to front order, and we discuss several different algorithms for this sort. The second method uses regularly spaced slice planes perpendicular to the X, Y, or Z axes, which slice the cells into polygons. Both methods are supplemented with anti-aliasing techniques to deal with small cells that might fall between pixel samples or slice planes, and both have been parallelized.

  18. GPU Pro 5 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In GPU Pro5: Advanced Rendering Techniques, section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Marius Bjorge have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book covers rendering, lighting, effects in image space, mobile devices, 3D engine design, and compute. It explores rasterization of liquids, ray tracing of art assets that would otherwise be used in a rasterized engine, physically based area lights, volumetric light

  19. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  20. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  1. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  2. Haptic rendering for dental training system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DangXiao; ZHANG YuRu; WANG Yong; L(U) PeiJun; ZHOU RenGe; ZHOU WanLin

    2009-01-01

    Immersion and Interaction are two key features of virtual reality systems,which are especially important for medical applications.Based on the requirement of motor skill training in dental surgery,haptic rendering method based on triangle model is investigated in this paper.Multi-rate haptic rendering architecture is proposed to solve the contradiction between fidelity and efficiency requirements.Realtime collision detection algorithm based on spatial partition and time coherence is utilized to enable fast contact determination.Proxy-based collision response algorithm is proposed to compute surface contact point.Cutting force model based on piecewise contact transition model is proposed for dental drilling simulation during tooth preparation.Velocity-driven levels of detail hapUc rendering algorithm is proposed to maintain high update rate for complex scenes with a large number of triangles.Hapticvisual collocated dental training prototype is established using half-mirror solution.Typical dental operations have been realized Including dental caries exploration,detection of boundary within dental crose-section plane,and dental drilling during tooth preparation.The haptic rendering method is a fundamental technology to improve Immersion and interaction of virtual reality training systems,which is useful not only in dental training,but also in other surgical training systems.

  3. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Joseph R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an artist might create by hand using pen and ink. A combination of Hermite and spherical linear interpolation is used to draw smooth, gradually rotating three-dimensional tubes and ribbons with a repeating pattern of texture coordinates, which allows the application of texture mapping, real-time halftoning, and smooth edge lines. This free platform-independent open-source program is written primarily in Java, but also makes extensive use of the OpenGL Shading Language to modify the graphics pipeline. Conclusion By programming to the graphics processor unit, ProteinShader is able to produce high quality images and illustrative rendering effects in real-time. The main feature that distinguishes ProteinShader from other free molecular visualization tools is its use of texture mapping techniques that allow two-dimensional images to be mapped onto the curved three-dimensional surfaces of ribbons and tubes with minimum distortion of the images.

  4. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  5. RAY TRACING RENDER MENGGUNAKAN FRAGMENT ANTI ALIASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriliyan Samopa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Rendering is generating surface and three-dimensional effects on an object displayed on a monitor screen. Ray tracing as a rendering method that traces ray for each image pixel has a drawback, that is, aliasing (jaggies effect. There are some methods for executing anti aliasing. One of those methods is OGSS (Ordered Grid Super Sampling. OGSS is able to perform aliasing well. However, this method requires more computation time since sampling of all pixels in the image will be increased. Fragment Anti Aliasing (FAA is a new alternative method that can cope with the drawback. FAA will check the image when performing rendering to a scene. Jaggies effect is only happened at curve and gradient object. Therefore, only this part of object that will experience sampling magnification. After this sampling magnification and the pixel values are computed, then downsample is performed to retrieve the original pixel values. Experimental results show that the software can implement ray tracing well in order to form images, and it can implement FAA and OGSS technique to perform anti aliasing. In general, rendering using FAA is faster than using OGSS

  6. Automatic Image-Based Pencil Sketch Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 鲍虎军; 周伟华; 彭群生; 徐迎庆

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic image-based approach for converting greyscale images to pencil sketches, in which strokes follow the image features. The algorithm first extracts a dense direction field automatically using Logical/Linear operators which embody the drawing mechanism. Next, a reconstruction approach based on a sampling-and-interpolation scheme is introduced to generate stroke paths from the direction field. Finally, pencil strokes are rendered along the specified paths with consideration of image tone and artificial illumination.As an important application, the technique is applied to render portraits from images with little user interaction. The experimental results demonstrate that the approach can automatically achieve compelling pencil sketches from reference images.

  7. Anti-Aliased Rendering of Water Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Qin; Eihachiro Nakamae; Wei Hua; Yasuo Nagai; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    Water surface is one of the most important components of landscape scenes. When rendering spacious far from the viewpoint. This is because water surface consists of stochastic water waves which are usually modeled by periodic bump mapping. The incident rays on the water surface are actually scattered by the bumped waves,pattern, we estimate this solid angle of reflected rays and trace these rays. An image-based accelerating method is adopted so that the contribution of each reflected ray can be quickly obtained without elaborate intersection calculation. We also demonstrate anti-aliased shadows of sunlight and skylight on the water surface. Both the rendered images and animations show excellent effects on the water surface of a reservoir.

  8. Optimization techniques for computationally expensive rendering algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Gil, Fernando; Gutiérrez Pérez, Diego; Serón Arbeloa, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Realistic rendering in computer graphics simulates the interactions of light and surfaces. While many accurate models for surface reflection and lighting, including solid surfaces and participating media have been described; most of them rely on intensive computation. Common practices such as adding constraints and assumptions can increase performance. However, they may compromise the quality of the resulting images or the variety of phenomena that can be accurately represented. In this thesi...

  9. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby;

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme...

  10. Preparation of insoluble fibroin films and its tensile property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Qiang; CAO Chuanbao; ZHAI Huazhang; ZHU Hesun

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin is becoming a promising biomaterial because of its excellent biocompatibility. However, the regenerated fibroin is usually soluble in water and its mechanical properties should be improved. Although many methods, such as adding other polymers or treating with methanol, can ameliorate the mechanical properties and insolubility, the biocompatibility of fibroin is usually damaged in these processes. In this article, it is first reported that the insoluble fibroin films are directly prepared without methanol treatment. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the amount of β-sheet conformation increased with the increasing of concentration. When fibroin films are dried from 15 wt% at 60℃, the films become insoluble in water. More importantly, The tensile strength and elongation of the insoluble fibroin films dried from 15% solution at 60℃ reached 15.9 MPa and 49.4% respectively in the wet state, which is distinctly superior to the fibroin films treated with methanol.

  11. Visualization of Medpor implants using surface rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng; GUI Lai; LIU Xiao-jing

    2011-01-01

    Background The Medpor surgical implant is one of the easiest implants in clinical practice, especially in craniomaxillofacial surgery. It is often used as a bone substitute material for the repair of skull defects and facial deformities. The Medpor implant has several advantages but its use is limited because it is radiolucent in both direct radiography and conventional computed tomography, causing serious problems with visualization.Methods In this study, a new technique for visualizing Medpor implants was evaluated in 10 patients who had undergone facial reconstruction using the material. Continuous volume scans were made using a 16-channel tomographic scanner and 3D reconstruction software was used to create surface renderings. The threshold values for surface renderings of the implant ranged from -70 HU to -20 HU, with bone as the default.Results The shape of the implants and the spatial relationship between bone and implant could both be displayed.Conclusion Surface rendering can allow successful visualization of Medpor implants in the body.

  12. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 by Insoluble Particulate Material and Association with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Shapiro, Darien; Romero, Erin G; Stockmann, Chris; Bevans, Tatjana S; Phan, Quang M; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled irritants activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), resulting in cough, bronchoconstriction, and inflammation/edema. TRPA1 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our hypothesis was that particulate materials activate TRPA1 via a mechanism distinct from chemical agonists and that, in a cohort of children with asthma living in a location prone to high levels of air pollution, expression of uniquely sensitive forms of TRPA1 may correlate with reduced asthma control. Variant forms of TRPA1 were constructed by mutating residues in known functional elements and corresponding to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in functional domains. TRPA1 activity was studied in transfected HEK-293 cells using allyl-isothiocynate, a model soluble electrophilic agonist; 3,5-ditert butylphenol, a soluble nonelectrophilic agonist and a component of diesel exhaust particles; and insoluble coal fly ash (CFA) particles. The N-terminal variants R3C and R58T exhibited greater, but not additive, activity with all three agonists. The ankyrin repeat domain-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms E179K and K186N exhibited decreased response to CFA. The predicted N-linked glycosylation site residues N747A and N753A exhibited decreased responses to CFA, which were not attributable to differences in cellular localization. The pore-loop residue R919Q was comparable to wild-type, whereas N954T was inactive to soluble agonists but not CFA. These data identify roles for ankyrin domain-4, cell surface N-linked glycans, and selected pore-loop domain residues in the activation of TRPA1 by insoluble particles. Furthermore, the R3C and R58T polymorphisms correlated with reduced asthma control for some children, which suggest that TRPA1 activity may modulate asthma, particularly among individuals living in locations prone to high levels of air pollution.

  13. GPU Pro 4 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    GPU Pro4: Advanced Rendering Techniques presents ready-to-use ideas and procedures that can help solve many of your day-to-day graphics programming challenges. Focusing on interactive media and games, the book covers up-to-date methods producing real-time graphics. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book begins with discussions on the abi

  14. Haptic rendering foundations, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scienti

  15. GPU PRO 3 Advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    GPU Pro3, the third volume in the GPU Pro book series, offers practical tips and techniques for creating real-time graphics that are useful to beginners and seasoned game and graphics programmers alike. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again brought together a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced GPU programming. With contributions by more than 50 experts, GPU Pro3: Advanced Rendering Techniques covers battle-tested tips and tricks for creating interesting geometry, realistic sha

  16. Defects of organization in rendering medical aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavkat Islamov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The defects of organization at the medical institution mean disturbance of rules, norms and order of rendering of medical aid. The number of organization defects in Uzbekistan increased from 20.42%, in 1999 to 25.46% in 2001 with gradual decrease to 19.9% in 2003 and 16.66%, in 2006 and gradual increase to 21.95% and 28.28% (P<0.05 in 2005 and 2008. Among the groups of essential defects of organization there were following: disturbance of transportation rules, lack of dispensary care, shortcomings in keeping medical documentation.

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  19. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  20. A Multiresolution Image Cache for Volume Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMar, E; Pascucci, V

    2003-02-27

    The authors discuss the techniques and implementation details of the shared-memory image caching system for volume visualization and iso-surface rendering. One of the goals of the system is to decouple image generation from image display. This is done by maintaining a set of impostors for interactive display while the production of the impostor imagery is performed by a set of parallel, background processes. The system introduces a caching basis that is free of the gap/overlap artifacts of earlier caching techniques. instead of placing impostors at fixed, pre-defined positions in world space, the technique is to adaptively place impostors relative to the camera viewpoint. The positions translate with the camera but stay aligned to the data; i.e., the positions translate, but do not rotate, with the camera. The viewing transformation is factored into a translation transformation and a rotation transformation. The impostor imagery is generated using just the translation transformation and visible impostors are displayed using just the rotation transformation. Displayed image quality is improved by increasing the number of impostors and the frequency that impostors are re-rendering is improved by decreasing the number of impostors.

  1. Rendering of 3D Dynamic Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the rendering of dynamic 3D virtual environments which can be integrated in the development of videogames. It includes methods to manage sounds and particle effects, paged static geometries, the support of a physics engine and various input systems. It has been designed with a modular structure to allow future expansions. We exploited some open-source state-of-the-art components such as OGRE, PhysX, ParticleUniverse, etc.; all of them have been properly integrated to obtain peculiar physical and environmental effects. The stand-alone version of the application is fully compatible with Direct3D and OpenGL APIs and adopts OpenAL APIs to manage audio cards. Concluding, we devised a showcase demo which reproduces a dynamic 3D environment, including some particular effects: the alternation of day and night infuencing the lighting of the scene, the rendering of terrain, water and vegetation, the reproduction of sounds and atmospheric agents.

  2. Water-insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q.; Hu, X; Wang, X; Kluge, J; Lu, S; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally produced by increasing the {beta}-sheet content (silk II). In the present study water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling the very slow drying of Bombyx mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with a predominant silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle X-ray scattering indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared by slow drying had a globule-like structure at the core surrounded by nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random turns and {alpha}-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250 C, without crystallization above the T{sub g}, but degraded at lower temperatures than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films the films prepared by slow drying had better mechanical ductility and were more rapidly enzymatically degraded, reflecting the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated by the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low {beta}-sheet content.

  3. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  4. A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

  5. Novel proteins identified in the insoluble byssal matrix of the freshwater zebra mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantayet, Arpita; Rees, David J; Sone, Eli D

    2014-04-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is an invasive, biofouling species that adheres to a variety of substrates underwater, using a proteinaceous anchor called the byssus. The byssus consists of a number of threads with adhesive plaques at the tips. It contains the unusual amino acid 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is believed to play an important role in adhesion, in addition to providing structural integrity to the byssus through cross-linking. Extensive DOPA cross-linking, however, renders the zebra mussel byssus highly resistant to protein extraction, and therefore limits byssal protein identification. We report here on the identification of seven novel byssal proteins in the insoluble byssal matrix following protein extraction from induced, freshly secreted byssal threads with minimal cross-linking. These proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests of the matrix proteins by spectrum matching against a zebra mussel cDNA library of genes unique to the mussel foot, the organ that secretes the byssus. All seven proteins were present in both the plaque and thread. Comparisons of the protein sequences revealed common features of zebra mussel byssal proteins, and several recurring sequence motifs. Although their sequences are unique, many of the proteins display similarities to marine mussel byssal proteins, as well as to adhesive and structural proteins from other species. The large expansion of the byssal proteome reported here represents an important step towards understanding zebra mussel adhesion.

  6. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  7. Photon Differential Splatting for Rendering Caustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Schjøth, Lars; Erleben, Kenny;

    2014-01-01

    We present a photon splatting technique which reduces noise and blur in the rendering of caustics. Blurring of illumination edges is an inherent problem in photon splatting, as each photon is unaware of its neighbours when being splatted. This means that the splat size is usually based...... on heuristics rather than knowledge of the local flux density. We use photon differentials to determine the size and shape of the splats such that we achieve adaptive anisotropic flux density estimation in photon splatting. As compared to previous work that uses photon differentials, we present the first method...... where no photons or beams or differentials need to be stored in a map. We also present improvements in the theory of photon differentials, which give more accurate results and a faster implementation. Our technique has good potential for GPU acceleration, and we limit the number of parameters requiring...

  8. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  9. Constructing And Rendering Vectorised Photographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Willis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of representing captured images in the continuous mathematical space more usually associated with certain forms of drawn ('vector' images. Such an image is resolution-independent so can be used as a master for varying resolution-specific formats. We briefly describe the main features of a vectorising codec for photographic images, whose significance is that drawing programs can access images and image components as first-class vector objects. This paper focuses on the problem of rendering from the isochromic contour form of a vectorised image and demonstrates a new fill algorithm which could also be used in drawing generally. The fill method is described in terms of level set diffusion equations for clarity. Finally we show that image warping is both simplified and enhanced in the vector form and that we can demonstrate real histogram equalisation with genuinely rectangular histograms straightforwardly.

  10. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  11. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  12. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  13. Efficient and Effective Volume Visualization with Enhanced Isosurface Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fei; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Compared with full volume rendering, isosurface rendering has several well recognized advantages in efficiency and accuracy. However, standard isosurface rendering has some limitations in effectiveness. First, it uses a monotone colored approach and can only visualize the geometry features of an isosurface. The lack of the capability to illustrate the material property and the internal structures behind an isosurface has been a big limitation of this method in applications. Another limitation of isosurface rendering is the difficulty to reveal physically meaningful structures, which are hidden in one or multiple isosurfaces. As such, the application requirements of extract and recombine structures of interest can not be implemented effectively with isosurface rendering. In this work, we develop an enhanced isosurface rendering technique to improve the effectiveness while maintaining the performance efficiency of the standard isosurface rendering. First, an isosurface color enhancement method is proposed to il...

  14. Development of Stable Solidification Method for Insoluble Ferrocyanides-13170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikarashi, Yuki; Masud, Rana Syed; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Ishizaki, Eiji; Matsukura, Minoru [UNION SHOWA K.K. 17-20, Mita 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The development of stable solidification method of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge is an important subject for the safety decontamination in Fukushima NPP-1. By using the excellent immobilizing properties of zeolites such as gas trapping ability and self-sintering properties, the stable solidification of insoluble ferrocyanides was accomplished. The immobilization ratio of Cs for K{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O saturated with Cs{sup +} ions (Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O) was estimated to be less than 0.1% above 1,000 deg. C; the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions are completely volatilized. In contrast, the novel stable solid form was produced by the press-sintering of the mixture of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O and zeolites at higher temperature of 1,000 deg. C and 1,100 deg. C; Cs volatilization and cyanide release were completely depressed. The immobilization ratio of Cs, under the mixing conditions of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O:CP= 1:1 and calcining temperature: 1,000 deg. C, was estimated to be nearly 100%. As for the kinds of zeolites, natural mordenite (NM), clinoptilolite (CP) and Chabazite tended to have higher immobilization ratio compared to zeolite A. This may be due to the difference in the phase transformation between natural zeolites and synthetic zeolite A. In the case of the composites (K{sub 2-X}Ni{sub X/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O loaded natural mordenite), relatively high immobilization ratio of Cs was also obtained. This method using zeolite matrices can be applied to the stable solidification of the solid wastes of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge. (authors)

  15. Search for EPR markers of the history and origin of the insoluble organic matter in extraterrestrial and terrestrial rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourier, Didier; Binet, Laurent; Scrzypczak, Audrey; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2004-05-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of three carbonaceous meteorites (Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake meteorites) and three samples of cherts (microcrystalline SiO2 rock) containing microfossils with age ranging between 45 million years and 3.5 billion years is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The age of the meteorites is that of the solar system (4.6 billion years). The purpose of this work was to determine the EPR parameters, which allow us to discriminate between biogenic and extra terrestrial origin for the organic matter. Such indicators should be relevant for the controversy regarding the biogenicity of the organic matter in the oldest cheroot (3.5 billion years) and in Martian meteorites containing microbe-like microstructures. The organic matter of meteorites contains a high concentration of diradicaloid moieties characterised by a diamagnetic ground state S = 0 and a thermally accessible triplet state S = 1. The three meteorites exhibit the same singlet-triplet gap (ST gap) DeltaE approximately 0.1 eV. To the best of our knowledge, such diradicaloids are unknown in insoluble organic matter of terrestrial origin. We have also shown that the EPR linewidth of insoluble organic matter in cherts and coals decrease logarithmically with the age of the organic matter. We conclude from this result that the organic matter in the oldest cherts (3.5 billion years) has the same age as their SiO2 matrix, and is not due to a latter contamination by bacteria, as was recently found in meteoritic samples.

  16. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  17. Preparation of soluble and insoluble polymer supported IBX reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Neal N; Delgado, Mercedes; Hereford, Kristina; Clapham, Bruce; Janda, Kim D

    2002-08-05

    A series of soluble and insoluble polymer supported versions of the versatile oxidizing reagent IBX has been prepared. Each of the reagents were evaluated for their efficiency in the conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Results from this study were that the soluble, non-crosslinked polystyrene supported IBX reagent gave the best rate of conversion to benzaldehyde, while the macroporous polymer supported IBX resin provided a superior rate of conversion to benzaldehyde when compared with a gel type resin. The macroporous IBX reagent was also shown to convert a series of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones.

  18. Direct volume rendering methods for cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Martišek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The study of the complicated architecture of cell space structures is an important problem in biology and medical research. Optical cuts of cells produced by confocal microscopes enable two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of observed cells. This paper discuses new possibilities for direct volume rendering of these data. We often encounter 16 or more bit images in confocal microscopy of cells. Most of the information contained in these images is unsubstantial for the human vision. Therefore, it is necessary to use mathematical algorithms for visualization of such images. Present software tools as OpenGL or DirectX run quickly in graphic station with special graphic cards, run very unsatisfactory on PC without these cards and outputs are usually poor for real data. These tools are black boxes for a common user and make it impossible to correct and improve them. With the method proposed, more parameters of the environment can be set, making it possible to apply 3D filters to set the output image sharpness in relation to the noise. The quality of the output is incomparable to the earlier described methods and is worth increasing the computing time. We would like to offer mathematical methods of 3D scalar data visualization describing new algorithms that run on standard PCs very well.

  19. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  20. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-03

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. British coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, M.

    2009-03-15

    The paper describes a visit to UK's Daw Mill in north Warwickshire to find out about a planned expansion of the coal mine. Daw Mill, 10 km west of Coventry is the UK's largest underground coal mine. The coal is extracted by an Eckhoff Sl500 coal shearer that traverses the coalface. Overarching the shearer is a series of electro-hydraulically operated powered roof supports (PRS) over the roof and coalface that are advanced forward after each pass of the shearer. The void behind the PRS is then allowed to collapse. The coalface is currently 295 m long, but there are plans to extend the replacement coalface to 357 m. Under the shearer is an armored face conveyor (AFC) that receives and transports the coal along the coalface and deposits it onto the beam stage loader, which sits at 90{sup o} to the AFC. The coal is turned by a deflector plough on the AFC headframe and is transferred to the belt conveyor to begin its journey out of the mine. Last year two significant records were broken at Daw Mill - the fastest million tonnes achieved and the European record for a single face of 3.2 Mt. The 300s area of the mine has already been mapped out and development teams are constructing roadways to facilitate more mining. To maintain annual production in excess of three million tonnes will require at least 5,000 m of roadways to access the coal, and install equipment. These investments are supported by proven reserves. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling has shown approximately 20 Mt of extractable coal in the 300s area which extends over 15 km{sup 2}. These panels will be the next to be mined in a sequence that extends to 2014. 2 photos.

  2. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.

    1984-01-01

    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  3. HDlive rendering images of the fetal stomach: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubashiri, Eisuke; Abe, Kiyotaka; Watanabe, Yukio; Akutagawa, Noriyuki; Kuroki, Katumaru; Sugawara, Masaki; Maeda, Nobuhiko; Minami, Kunihiro; Nomura, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show reconstruction of the fetal stomach using the HDlive rendering mode in ultrasound. Seventeen healthy singleton fetuses at 18-34 weeks' gestational age were observed using the HDlive rendering mode of ultrasound in utero. In all of the fetuses, we identified specific spatial structures, including macroscopic anatomical features (e.g., the pyrous, cardia, fundus, and great curvature) of the fetal stomach, using the HDlive rendering mode. In particular, HDlive rendering images showed remarkably fine details that appeared as if they were being viewed under an endoscope, with visible rugal folds after 27 weeks' gestational age. Our study suggests that the HDlive rendering mode can be used as an additional method for evaluating the fetal stomach. The HDlive rendering mode shows detailed 3D structural images and anatomically realistic images of the fetal stomach. This technique may be effective in prenatal diagnosis for examining detailed information of fetal organs.

  4. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  5. Fast combinative volume rendering by indexed data structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文武; 王文成; 吴恩华

    2001-01-01

    It is beneficial to study the interesting contents in a data set by combining and rendering variouscontents of the data. In this regard, an indexed data structure is proposed to facilitate the reorganization of data so that the contents of the data can be combined conveniently and only the selected contents in the data are processed for rendering. Based on the structure, the cells of different contents can be queued up easily so that the volume rendering can be conducted more accurately and quickly. Experimental results show that the indexed data structure is very efficient in improving combinative volume rendering.

  6. Occurrence and mobility of toxic elements in coals from endemic fluorosis areas in the Three Gorges Region, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Xiao, Tangfu; Liu, Yizhang; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang

    2017-10-01

    Fluorine (F) is a topic of great interest in coal-combustion related endemic fluorosis areas. However, little extent research exists regarding the environmental geochemistry of toxic elements that are enriched in coals and coal wastes in traditional endemic fluorosis areas, particularly focusing on their occurrences and mobilities during the weathering-leaching processes of coals and coal wastes in the surface environment. This paper addressed the issue of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes in the Three Gorges Region, Southwest (SW) China, where endemic fluorosis has historically prevailed, and investigated the distribution, occurrence, mobility features, and associated potential health risks. For this purpose, a modified experiment combined with long-term humidity cell test and column leaching trial was applied to elucidate the mobility of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes. In addition, sequential chemical extraction (SCE) was used to ascertain the modes of occurrence of toxic elements. The results demonstrated that the contents of toxic elements in the study area followed the order: stone coals > gangues > coal balls > coals. Furthermore, modes of occurrence of toxic elements were obviously different in coals and coal wastes. For example, cadmium (Cd) was mainly associated with monosulfide fraction in coals, molybdenum (Mo) and arsenic (As) were mainly associated with carbonate and silicate in coal gangues and stone coals, chromium (Cr) mainly existed in silicate and insoluble matter in coal gangues and coal balls, thallium (Tl) mainly occurred in organic matter in stone coals and sulfide in coals, and the occurrence of antimony (Sb) varied with different kinds of samples. Moreover, a large amount of toxic elements released to the leachates during the weathering and leaching process, which might pollute the environment and threaten human health. Based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), single factor index (Pi) and Nemerow index (PN), soils in the

  7. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  8. A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 °C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydroliquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydroliquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ•mol-1. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values.

  9. Thermodynamics of the solvent swelling of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    Sorption of pyridine by the pyridine-extracts of three premium Argonne coals was studied at several relative vapor pressures at 50{degree}C and 70{degree}C. The amount of pyridine sorbed by each extract increases linearly with pyridine vapor pressure. Heat of dilution were calculated from the slopes of the straight-line portions of the curves. In a related experiment, the pyridine sorption isotherms of the pyridine-extract, pyridine-insoluble residue, and the whole coal were determined at 50{degree}C. For all materials, the amount of pyridine sorbed increases linearly with pressure of pyridine, with similar slopes. However, the intercepts are different for each material. Finally, the sorption of benzene vapors by O-alkylated Illinois {number sign}6 coals were studied at 30{degree}C. The rate of benzene sorption increases dramatically upon O-methylation, indicating that coal-coal hydrogen bonds play a dominant role in controlling the rate of benzene sorption. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Polymeric Nanosuspensions for Enhanced Dissolution of Water Insoluble Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Yadollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate polymeric nanosuspensions containing three model water insoluble drugs, nifedipine (NIF, carbamazepine (CBZ, and ibuprofen (IBU with various physicochemical properties. The nanosuspensions were prepared from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP by a cosolvent technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG-300 and water as the cosolvents. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the nanosuspensions (particle size, polydispersity index, and crystallinity have been correlated with the drug release behaviour. The effects of polymer, drug ratio on the physical, morphological, and dissolution characteristics of the drugs are reported. Drug release is significantly enhanced from the nanosuspensions; for example, the maximum NIF, IBU, and CBZ concentrations after 8-hour dissolution are increased approximately 37, 2, and 1.2 times, respectively, in comparison with the pure powdered drugs. Based on this solubilization enhancement performance, the nanosuspensions have potential for increasing the orally dosed bioavailability of NIF, IBU, and CBZ.

  11. Solvent vapor annealing of an insoluble molecular semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Amassian, Aram

    2010-01-01

    Solvent vapor annealing has been proposed as a low-cost, highly versatile, and room-temperature alternative to thermal annealing of organic semiconductors and devices. In this article, we investigate the solvent vapor annealing process of a model insoluble molecular semiconductor thin film - pentacene on SiO 2 exposed to acetone vapor - using a combination of optical reflectance and two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements performed in situ, during processing. These measurements provide valuable and new insight into the solvent vapor annealing process; they demonstrate that solvent molecules interact mainly with the surface of the film to induce a solid-solid transition without noticeable swelling, dissolving or melting of the molecular material. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Insoluble glycogen, a metabolizable internal adsorbent, decreases the lethality of endotoxin shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble glycogen is an enzymatically modified form of naturally occurring soluble glycogen with a great adsorbing capacity. It can be metabolized by phagocytes to glucose. In this study we used insoluble glycogen intravenously in the experimental endotoxin shock of rats. Wistar male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by Pb acetate. The survival of rats were compared in groups of animals endotoxin shock treated and non-treated with insoluble glycogen. Furthermore, we have determined in vitro the binding capacity of insoluble glycogen for endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and secretable phospholipase A2. Use of 10 mg/kg dose of insoluble glycogen could completely prevent the lethality of shock induced by LD50 quantity of endotoxin in rats. All animals treated survived. Insoluble glycogen is a form of ‘metabolizable internal adsorbents’. It can potentially be used for treatment of septic shock.

  13. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  14. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  15. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  16. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  17. 7 CFR 54.15 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54.15... Service § 54.15 Advance information concerning service rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  19. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  20. Research of global illumination algorithms rendering in glossy scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Shuangxue; ZHANG Qiang; ZHOU Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    In computer graphic (CG), illumination rendering generated realistic effect at virtual scene is amazing. Not only plausible lighting effect is to show the relative position between of the objects, but also to reflect the material of visual appearance of the vir- tual objects. The diffuse-scene rendering reflectance credibility has gradually matured. Global illumination rendering method for the glossy material is still a challenge for the CG research. Because of the shiny materials is highly energy reflection between the com- plex light paths. Whether we trace glossy reflection paths, or use of one-reflection or multi-reflection approximate above complex il- lumination transmission is a difficult working. This paper we gather some commonly used global illumination algorithms recently year and its extension glossy scene improvements. And we introduce the limitation of classical algorithms rendering glossy scene and some extended solution. Finally, we will summarize the illumination rendering for specular scene, there are still some open prob- lems.

  1. Perception-based transparency optimization for direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Yuen; Wu, Yingcai; Mak, Wai-Ho; Chen, Wei; Qu, Huamin

    2009-01-01

    The semi-transparent nature of direct volume rendered images is useful to depict layered structures in a volume. However, obtaining a semi-transparent result with the layers clearly revealed is difficult and may involve tedious adjustment on opacity and other rendering parameters. Furthermore, the visual quality of layers also depends on various perceptual factors. In this paper, we propose an auto-correction method for enhancing the perceived quality of the semi-transparent layers in direct volume rendered images. We introduce a suite of new measures based on psychological principles to evaluate the perceptual quality of transparent structures in the rendered images. By optimizing rendering parameters within an adaptive and intuitive user interaction process, the quality of the images is enhanced such that specific user requirements can be met. Experimental results on various datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  2. A Volume Rendering Algorithm for Sequential 2D Medical Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering of 3D data sets composed of sequential 2D medical images has become an important branch in image processing and computer graphics.To help physicians fully understand deep-seated human organs and focuses(e.g.a tumour)as 3D structures.in this paper,we present a modified volume rendering algorithm to render volumetric data,Using this method.the projection images of structures of interest from different viewing directions can be obtained satisfactorily.By rotating the light source and the observer eyepoint,this method avoids rotates the whole volumetric data in main memory and thus reduces computational complexity and rendering time.Experiments on CT images suggest that the proposed method is useful and efficient for rendering 3D data sets.

  3. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  4. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  5. Soluble and insoluble signals sculpt osteogenesis in angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ugo; Ripamonti

    2010-01-01

    The basic tissue engineering paradigm is tissue induction and morphogenesis by combinatorial molecular protocols whereby soluble molecular signals are combined with insoluble signals or substrata.The insoluble signal acts as a three-dimensional scaffold for the initiation of de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. The osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) supergene family,the bone morphogenetic/osteogenic proteins(BMPs/OPs) and,uniquely in the non-human primate Papio ursinus(P.ursinus),the three mammalian TGF-βisoforms induce bone formation as a recapitulation of embryonic development.In this paper,I discuss the pleiotropic activity of the BMPs/OPs in the non-human primate P. ursinus,the induction of bone by transitional uroepithelium,and the apparent redundancy of molecular signals initiating bone formation by induction including the three mammalian TGF-βisoforms.Amongst all mammals tested so far,the three mammalian TGF-βisoforms induce endochondral bone formation in the non-human primate P.ursinus only.Bone tissue engineering starts by erect-ing scaffolds of biomimetic biomaterial matrices that mimic the supramolecular assembly of the extracellular matrix of bone.The molecular scaffolding lies at the hearth of all tissue engineering strategies including the induction of bone formation.The novel concept of tissue engineering is the generation of newly formed bone by the implantation of"smart"intelligent biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the ripple-like cascade of bone differentiation by induction without exogenously applied BMPs/OPs of the TGF-βsupergene family.A comprehensive digital iconographic material presents the modified tissue engineering paradigm whereby the induction of bone formation is initiated by intelligent smart biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the induction of bone formation without the exogenous application of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals. The driving force of the

  6. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  7. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  8. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Lester, G. E.; Caterson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve and anion exchange chromatography, a proteoglycan-containing peak was obtained. Immunochemical analysis showed that this peak contained chondroitin 4-sulfate and possibly keratan sulfate. Amino acid analysis showed that this proteoglycan contained high amounts of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), serine (Ser), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), proline (Pro), and glycine (Gly); however, it contained little leucine (Leu) which suggests that it is not a member of the leucine-rich small proteoglycan family. In addition, significant amounts of phosphoserine (P-Ser) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were identified in hydrolysates of this fraction. A single band (M(r) 59 kDa) was obtained on SDS-PAGE that stained with Stains-all but not with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. If bone powder was trypsinized prior to demineralization, this proteoglycan-containing fraction was not liberated. Collectively, these results indicate that a proteoglycan occurs in the demineralized matrix that is precipitated with CaCl2 and is closely associated with both mineral and collagen matrices. Such a molecule might facilitate the structural network for the induction of mineralization in bone.

  10. General introduction: recombinant protein production and purification of insoluble proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Saccardo, Paolo; Corchero, José Luis; Xu, Zhikun; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are synthesized in heterologous systems because of the impossibility to obtain satisfactory yields from natural sources. The production of soluble and functional recombinant proteins is among the main goals in the biotechnological field. In this context, it is important to point out that under stress conditions, protein folding machinery is saturated and this promotes protein misfolding and, consequently, protein aggregation. Thus, the selection of the optimal expression organism and the most appropriate growth conditions to minimize the formation of insoluble proteins should be done according to the protein characteristics and downstream requirements. Escherichia coli is the most popular recombinant protein expression system despite the great development achieved so far by eukaryotic expression systems. Besides, other prokaryotic expression systems, such as lactic acid bacteria and psychrophilic bacteria, are gaining interest in this field. However, it is worth mentioning that prokaryotic expression system poses, in many cases, severe restrictions for a successful heterologous protein production. Thus, eukaryotic systems such as mammalian cells, insect cells, yeast, filamentous fungus, and microalgae are an interesting alternative for the production of these difficult-to-express proteins.

  11. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  12. [The solubilization of four insoluble phosphates by some microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaorong; Lin, Qimei; Li, Baoguo

    2002-04-01

    Four insoluble phosphates of ferric phosphate (Fe-P), aluminum phosphate (Al-P), fluorapatite (FAP) and rock phosphate (RP) were used as a sole phosphorus resource for some phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms. It was found that there was significant difference in solubilizing these phosphates by the tested isolates. The fungi normally were more powerful than the bacteria in dissolving the phsophates. The microorganisms generally solubilized more phosphate when supplied with NO3- than with NH4+. However, the isolates of 2TCiF2 and 4TCiF6 had much higher capacity to solubilize FAP and Al-P respectively in NH4+ medium. Most of the isolates solubilized readily FAP and RP, and then Al-P. Ferric phosphate was the least soluble to these isolates. Only isolate 2TCiF2 showed strong ability to solubilize Fe-P. In particular, two Aspergillus sp. had much higher capacity of dissolving Fe-P when suppled with NO3-. The isolates of Evwinia sp. 4TCRi22 and Enterobacter sp. 1TCRi15 had higher capacity of solubilizing FAP. But two Arthrobacter sp. showed the highest activity in RP medium. It is supposed that complexion of organic acids with metals may be the main reason for these isolates to solubilize the phosphates. However, other chelant substances may be much more important for Enterobacter sp. and Erwinia sp. to release phosphorus from the phsphates.

  13. A conservative interface-interaction model with insoluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranner, Felix S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we extend the conservative interface-interaction method of Hu et al. (2006) [34], adapted for weakly-compressible flows by Luo et al. (2015) [37], to include the effects of viscous, capillary, and Marangoni stresses consistently as momentum-exchange terms at the sharp interface. The interface-interaction method is coupled with insoluble surfactant transport which employs the underlying sharp-interface representation. Unlike previous methods, we thus achieve discrete global conservation in terms of interface interactions and a consistently sharp interface representation. The interface is reconstructed locally, and a sub-cell correction of the interface curvature improves the evaluation of capillary stresses and surfactant diffusion in particular for marginal mesh resolutions. For a range of numerical test cases we demonstrate accuracy and robustness of the method. In particular, we show that the method is at least as accurate as previous diffuse-interface models while exhibiting throughout the considered test cases improved computational efficiency. We believe that the method is attractive for high-resolution level-set interface-tracking simulations as it straightforwardly incorporates the effects of variable surface tension into the underlying conservative interface-interaction approach.

  14. Proximate analysis of coal and solid products from coal conversion by thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.

    1983-01-01

    Proximate analysis of coals consists of the determination of moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon in a sample. This report shows that this analysis can be accomplished using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as a procedure which can simulate all conditions involved. The influence of various variables, such as sample size, purge gas flow rate, temperature program and coal rank have been studied using coal samples ranging in rank from low volatile bituminous coals to lignites. The TGA procedure practically eliminates sample contact with ambient air and reduces sample handling to detemining (automatically) its original weight before the start of the analysis. The whole proximate analysis is essentially a one-step procedure. The use of oxygen after volatile matter removal allows direct burning of fixed carbon as a direct determination of its weight. The method is fast and well repeatable and is recommended as a semiroutine procedure, especially for very small samples from minibomb experiments, or where additional information on the course of sample devolatilization is of interest, such as in the analysis of pyridine and toluene extracts and the various insoluble materials form coal conversion experiments. 7 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  16. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  17. Foggy Scene Rendering Based on Transmission Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering of foggy scene is important in game development and virtual reality. Traditional methods have many parameters to control or require a long time to compute, and they are usually limited to depicting a homogeneous fog without considering the foggy scene with heterogeneous fog. In this paper, a new rendering method based on transmission map estimation is proposed. We first generate perlin noise image as the density distribution texture of heterogeneous fog. Then we estimate the transmission map using the Markov random field (MRF model and the bilateral filter. Finally, virtual foggy scene is realistically rendered with the generated perlin noise image and the transmission map according to the atmospheric scattering model. Experimental results show that the rendered results of our approach are quite satisfactory.

  18. Comparison of Morphological Pyramids for Multiresolution MIP Volume Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    We recently proposed a multiresolution representation for maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering based on morphological adjunction pyramids which allow progressive refinement and have the property of perfect reconstruction. In this algorithm the pyramidal analysis and synthesis

  19. Experiencing "Macbeth": From Text Rendering to Multicultural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Gail

    1993-01-01

    Shows how one teacher used innovative methods in teaching William Shakespeare's "Macbeth." Outlines student assignments including text renderings, rewriting a scene from the play, and creating a multicultural scrapbook for the play. (HB)

  20. View compensated compression of volume rendered images for remote visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalgudi, Hariharan G; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2009-07-01

    Remote visualization of volumetric images has gained importance over the past few years in medical and industrial applications. Volume visualization is a computationally intensive process, often requiring hardware acceleration to achieve a real time viewing experience. One remote visualization model that can accomplish this would transmit rendered images from a server, based on viewpoint requests from a client. For constrained server-client bandwidth, an efficient compression scheme is vital for transmitting high quality rendered images. In this paper, we present a new view compensation scheme that utilizes the geometric relationship between viewpoints to exploit the correlation between successive rendered images. The proposed method obviates motion estimation between rendered images, enabling significant reduction to the complexity of a compressor. Additionally, the view compensation scheme, in conjunction with JPEG2000 performs better than AVC, the state of the art video compression standard.

  1. High-quality multi-resolution volume rendering in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai; YANG Jie; LI Xiao-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform a high-quality interactive rendering of large medical data sets on a single off-theshelf PC, a LOD selection algorithm for multi-resolution volume rendering using 3D texture mapping is presented, which uses an adaptive scheme that renders the volume in a region-of-interest at a high resolution and the volume away from this region at lower resolutions. The algorithm is based on several important criteria, and rendering is done adaptively by selecting high-resolution cells close to a center of attention and low-resolution cells away from this area. In addition, our hierarchical level-of-detail representation guarantees consistent interpolation between different resolution levels. Experiments have been applied to a number of large medical data and have produced high quality images at interactive frame rates using standard PC hardware.

  2. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre ... the objective of achieving sustainable livelihoods for the poor and commonages. ... marketing and management to adequately service the land reform programs.

  3. does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering care?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Physicians and AIDS care: does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering ... experience, age and being a consultant or a senior resident influenced attitude, while male ..... having or not having children, prior instructions on ...

  4. Accelerating Monte Carlo Renderers by Ray Histogram Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Delbracio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the recently introduced Ray Histogram Fusion (RHF filter for accelerating Monte Carlo renderers [M. Delbracio et al., Boosting Monte Carlo Rendering by Ray Histogram Fusion, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 33 (2014]. In this filter, each pixel in the image is characterized by the colors of the rays that reach its surface. Pixels are compared using a statistical distance on the associated ray color distributions. Based on this distance, it decides whether two pixels can share their rays or not. The RHF filter is consistent: as the number of samples increases, more evidence is required to average two pixels. The algorithm provides a significant gain in PSNR, or equivalently accelerates the rendering process by using many fewer Monte Carlo samples without observable bias. Since the RHF filter depends only on the Monte Carlo samples color values, it can be naturally combined with all rendering effects.

  5. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  6. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  7. A parallel architecture for interactively rendering scattering and refraction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabei, Daniele; Hakke-Patil, Ajit; Banterle, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Marco; Ganovelli, Fabio; Pattanaik, Sumanta; Scopigno, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A new method for interactive rendering of complex lighting effects combines two algorithms. The first performs accurate ray tracing in heterogeneous refractive media to compute high-frequency phenomena. The second applies lattice-Boltzmann lighting to account for low-frequency multiple-scattering effects. The two algorithms execute in parallel on modern graphics hardware. This article includes a video animation of the authors' real-time algorithm rendering a variety of scenes.

  8. Wavelet subdivision methods gems for rendering curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW Curve representation and drawing Free-form parametric curves From subdivision to basis functions Wavelet subdivision and editing Surface subdivision BASIS FUNCTIONS FOR CURVE REPRESENTATION Refinability and scaling functions Generation of smooth basis functions Cardinal B-splines Stable bases for integer-shift spaces Splines and polynomial reproduction CURVE SUBDIVISION SCHEMES Subdivision matrices and stencils B-spline subdivision schemes Closed curve rendering Open curve rendering BASIS FUNCTIONS GENERATED BY SUBDIVISION MATRICES Subdivision operators The up-sampling convolution ope

  9. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  10. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  11. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2 x 10(6) voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine.

  12. Evaporation of Sessile Droplets Laden with Particles and Insoluble Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetsas, George; Chandra Sahu, Kirti; Matar, Omar K

    2016-07-12

    We consider the flow dynamics of a thin evaporating droplet in the presence of an insoluble surfactant and noninteracting particles in the bulk. On the basis of lubrication theory, we derive a set of evolution equations for the film height, the interfacial surfactant, and bulk particle concentrations, taking into account the dependence of liquid viscosity on the local particle concentration. An important ingredient of our model is that it takes into account the fact that the surfactant adsorbed at the interface hinders evaporation. We perform a parametric study to investigate how the presence of surfactants affects the evaporation process as well as the flow dynamics with and without the presence of particles in the bulk. Our numerical calculations show that the droplet lifetime is affected significantly by the balance between the ability of the surfactant to enhance spreading, suppressing the effect of thermal Marangoni stresses-induced motion, and to hinder the evaporation flux through the reduction of the effective interfacial area of evaporation, which tend to accelerate and decelerate the evaporation process, respectively. For particle-laden droplets and in the case of dilute solutions, the droplet lifetime is found to be weakly dependent on the initial particle concentration. We also show that the particle deposition patterns are influenced strongly by the direct effect of the surfactant on the evaporative flux; in certain cases, the "coffee-stain" effect is enhanced significantly. A discussion of the delicate interplay between the effects of capillary pressure and solutal and thermal Marangoni stresses, which drive the liquid flow inside of the evaporating droplet giving rise to the observed results, is provided herein.

  13. Soluble antioxidant compounds regenerate the antioxidants bound to insoluble parts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the insoluble fraction was measured by the QUENCHER procedure using ABTS(•+) or DPPH(•) radicals. After measurement, the insoluble residue was washed out to remove the excess of radicals and treated with pure antioxidant solution or antioxidant-rich beverage to regenerate depleted antioxidants on the fiber. Results revealed that the antioxidant capacity of compounds chemically bound to the insoluble moiety could be reconstituted in the presence of other hydrogen-donating substances in the liquid phase. Regeneration efficiency was found to range between 21.5 and 154.3% depending on the type of insoluble food matrix and regeneration agent. Among the food matrices studied, cereal products were found to have slightly higher regeneration efficiency, whereas antioxidant-rich beverages were more effective than pure antioxidants as regeneration agents. Taking wheat bran as reference insoluble material, the regeneration abilities of beverages were in the following order: green tea > espresso coffee > black tea > instant coffee > orange juice > red wine. These results highlighted the possible physiological relevance of antioxidants bound to the insoluble food material in the gastrointestinal tract. During the digestion process they could react with the free radicals and at the same time they can be regenerated by other soluble antioxidant compounds present in the meal.

  14. Queensland coal inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-01

    Australia's black coal resources rank in the top five globally, around 50% of which are located in the sedimentary basins of Queensland. The Bowen Basin is the most prolific coal repository, hosting over 60% of the currently established resource inventory. Large volumes of thermal coal are present in the Surat and Galilee basins as well as small extensional and pull apart basins such as Blair Athol and Tarong. The article examines Queensland's coal industry from a government perspective. It first discusses the current coal market, then introduces the concept of inventory coal and explains the Australia Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) code - a resource evaluation system. The stratigraphy of each of Queensland's coal basins is then discussed in sections headed Permian coals, Triassic coals, Jurassic and Cretaceous coals, and Tertiary coals. 3 figs.

  15. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  16. On the Stable Numerical Approximation of Two-Phase Flow with Insoluble Surfactant

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, John W; Nürnberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present a parametric finite element approximation of two-phase flow with insoluble surfactant. This free boundary problem is given by the Navier--Stokes equations for the two-phase flow in the bulk, which are coupled to the transport equation for the insoluble surfactant on the interface that separates the two phases. We combine the evolving surface finite element method with an approach previously introduced by the authors for two-phase Navier--Stokes flow, which maintains good mesh properties. The derived finite element approximation of two-phase flow with insoluble surfactant can be shown to be stable. Several numerical simulations demonstrate the practicality of our numerical method.

  17. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  18. Adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm for point-based rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping P.

    2015-03-01

    Surgical simulation is a major application in computer graphics and virtual reality, and most of the existing work indicates that interactive real-time cutting simulation of soft tissue is a fundamental but challenging research problem in virtual surgery simulation systems. More specifically, it is difficult to achieve a fast enough graphic update rate (at least 30 Hz) on commodity PC hardware by utilizing traditional triangle-based rendering algorithms. In recent years, point-based rendering (PBR) has been shown to offer the potential to outperform the traditional triangle-based rendering in speed when it is applied to highly complex soft tissue cutting models. Nevertheless, the PBR algorithms are still limited in visual quality due to inherent contrast distortion. We propose an adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm as a postprocessing module for PBR, providing high visual rendering quality as well as acceptable rendering efficiency. Our approach is based on a perceptible image quality technique with automatic parameter selection, resulting in a visual quality comparable to existing conventional PBR algorithms. Experimental results show that our adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm produces encouraging results both visually and numerically compared to representative algorithms, and experiments conducted on the latest hardware demonstrate that the proposed PBR framework with the postprocessing module is superior to the conventional PBR algorithm and that the proposed contrast enhancement algorithm can be utilized in (or compatible with) various variants of the conventional PBR algorithm.

  19. [Compositions and structure characterizations of coal tar refined soft pitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Juan; Zhao, Xue-Fei; Lai, Shi-Quan; Cheng, Jun-Xia; Lu, Yi-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    High temperature coal tar was used as raw materials, and was distilled to 280 degrees C for getting coal tar soft pitch. Then refined soft pitch was obtained by solvent extracting and subsequent settlement method. Its soft point was 32 degrees C; the group compositions consisted of 53.67% heptane soluble, 39.47% heptane insoluble but toluene soluble, 6.86% toluene insoluble and 0.06% quinoline insoluble. The relative average molecular weight was about 292. Its average molecular formula was C22.22 H16.32 N0.12 S0.06 O0.33; the total content of heteroatom was less than 1. IR analytic results showed that its heteroatom O existed in the R-O-R and Ar-O-R structure; its heteroatom N existed in the R-NH-R and -N=, with the latter being primary. Its average structure was obtained by improved Brown-Lander model: five-membered condensed rings. UV analysis indicated that the majority was linear arrangement, and the minority was surface arrangement; namely, the chemical structure of the samples was mainly the cata-condensed structure, while the minority was peri-condensation.

  20. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  1. Clustered deep shadow maps for integrated polyhedral and volume rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Bornik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-accelerated approach for shadow computation in scenes containing both complex volumetric objects and polyhedral models. Our system is the first hardware accelerated complete implementation of deep shadow maps, which unifies the computation of volumetric and geometric shadows. Up to now such unified computation was limited to software-only rendering . Previous hardware accelerated techniques can handle only geometric or only volumetric scenes - both resulting in the loss of important properties of the original concept. Our approach supports interactive rendering of polyhedrally bounded volumetric objects on the GPU based on ray casting. The ray casting can be conveniently used for both the shadow map computation and the rendering. We show how anti-aliased high-quality shadows are feasible in scenes composed of multiple overlapping translucent objects, and how sparse scenes can be handled efficiently using clustered deep shadow maps. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Real-Time Rendering of Teeth with No Preprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Thode; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Jensen, Peter Dahl Ejby

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for real-time rendering of teeth with no need for computational or artistic preprocessing. Teeth constitute a translucent material consisting of several layers; a highly scattering material (dentine) beneath a semitransparent layer (enamel) with a transparent coating (saliva......). In this study we examine how light interacts with this multilayered structure. In the past, rendering of teeth has mostly been done using image-based texturing or volumetric scans. We work with surface scans and have therefore developed a simple way of estimating layer thicknesses. We use scattering properties...... based on measurements reported in the optics literature, and we compare rendered results qualitatively to images of ceramic teeth created by denturists....

  3. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  4. Universal Rendering Mechanism Supporting Dual-Mode Presentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏; 杨文军; 王克宏

    2003-01-01

    XML is a standard for the exchange of business data that is completely platform and vendor neutral. Because XML data comes in many forms, one of the most important technologies needed for XML applications is the ability to convert the data into visible renderings. This paper focuses on the rendering of XML/XSL documents into a readable and printable format by means of a platform-independent process that enables high-quality printing of the product. This paper introduces the core components in the data rendering engine, the X2P server and different levels of object abstraction. The design pattern and the complete formatting and representation of the XSL stylesheet into different types of output formats in the X2P server are also given. The results show that the X2P sever simultaneously constructs the formatting object tree and the area tree in a very efficient design that saves execution time and memory.

  5. Virtual try-on through image-based rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswiesner, Stefan; Straka, Matthias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Virtual try-on applications have become popular because they allow users to watch themselves wearing different clothes without the effort of changing them physically. This helps users to make quick buying decisions and, thus, improves the sales efficiency of retailers. Previous solutions usually involve motion capture, 3D reconstruction or modeling, which are time consuming and not robust for all body poses. Our method avoids these steps by combining image-based renderings of the user and previously recorded garments. It transfers the appearance of a garment recorded from one user to another by matching input and recorded frames, image-based visual hull rendering, and online registration methods. Using images of real garments allows for a realistic rendering quality with high performance. It is suitable for a wide range of clothes and complex appearances, allows arbitrary viewing angles, and requires only little manual input. Our system is particularly useful for virtual try-on applications as well as interactive games.

  6. Natural sedimentation of insoluble particles during directional solidification of upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, C. H.; Xiong, H. P.; Fang, M.; Qiu, S.; Xing, P. F.; Luo, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon is used to cast an ingot by directional solidification. Black shadows are randomly distributed in the ingot, and the shadows are caused by natural sedimentation of insoluble particles. The insoluble particles mainly consist of SiC and Si3N4. SiC and Si3N4 exist as foreign particles and mainly sedimentate at the bottom of the ingot, not generating during directional solidification. Melt convection performs an important role in the sedimentation, resulting in the insoluble particles in the ingot center more than the nearby. Interestingly, since SiC and Si3N4 will not be the recombination center of the minority carrier, the insoluble particles do not have a significant influence on the minority carrier lifetime. In particular, the sedimentation is discussed according to the thermodynamics and kinetics in detail.

  7. Comparisons of methods to obtain insoluble particles in snow for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Zhang, Xiongfei; Wei, Hailun; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Jiaxing; Wang, Xin; Li, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    Most studies of insoluble particles in snow have been focused on their mass concentration. Little is understood about the physicochemical properties of individual insoluble particles in snow. However, the information is essential to trace sources of the particles, to understand ice nuclei, and to quantify critical aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) in snow analyzed by bulk methods. The lack of individual particle analyses of snow meltwater stems from the difficulty of producing feasible samples of the snow-borne insoluble particles. In this study, we examined six sample preparation methods and compared their results using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results are the following: (1) Drop-by-drop method (DDM) is the easiest method to make TEM samples but cannot remove the influence of the dissolved substances in snow meltwater. (2) Direct filtration method (DFM) was infeasible because the water penetration of carbon film on copper TEM grids is low. (3) Filtration and transfer method (FTM) is through using ultrasonication to transfer insoluble particles on the nuclepore polycarbonate membranes to TEM grids. The drawback of this method is that ultrasonication breaks individual particles into fragments. (4) Freeze-drying method (FDM) can result in new particles from the drying dissolved substances, which interferes with the identification of insoluble particles. (5) Dilution-gravity separation method (DGM) can obtain different substances based on their specific gravity in long standing water. The method can effectively reduce soluble substances but lose insoluble carbonaceous particles (e.g., soot and organic particles). (6) Tangential flow filtration and dilution (TFF-D) through concentrating and desalting dissolved substances is to remove the dissolved substances but keep insoluble particles in snow meltwater. The TFF-D method not only can be suitable for electron microscopy to study individual insoluble particles in snow meltwater but also for any

  8. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed wi...

  9. High-throughput screening of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes using novel insoluble chromogenic substrate assay kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    of CAZymes exist in nature (especially in microorganisms) and hundreds of thousands have been cataloged and described in the carbohydrate active enzyme database (CAZy). However, the rate of discovery of putative enzymes has outstripped our ability to biochemically characterize their activities. One reason...... kit based on insoluble chromogenic substrates is described here. Two distinct substrate types were produced: Chromogenic Polymer Hydrogel (CPH) substrates (made from purified polysaccharides and proteins) and Insoluble Chromogenic Biomass (ICB) substrates (made from complex biomass materials). Both...

  10. Efficient rendering of breaking waves using MPS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; ZHENG Yao; CHEN Chun; FUJIMOTO Tadahiro; CHIBA Norishige

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for rendering breaking waves out of large-scale ofparticle-based simulation. Moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) is used to solve the governing equation, and 2D simulation is expanded to 3D representation by giving motion variation using fractional Brownian motion (fBm). The waterbody surface is reconstructed from the outlines of 2D simulation. The splashing effect is computed according to the properties of the particles. Realistic features of the wave are rendered on GPU, including the reflective and refractive effect and the effect of splash. Experiments showed that the proposed method can simulate large scale breaking waves efficiently.

  11. Beaming teaching application: recording techniques for spatial xylophone sound rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophone...... played at student's location is required at teacher's site. This paper presents a comparison of different recording techniques for a spatial xylophone sound rendering. Directivity pattern of the xylophone was measured and spatial properties of the sound field created by a xylophone as a distributed sound...

  12. Chromium Renderserver: Scalable and Open Source Remote RenderingInfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook,Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2007-12-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure thatprovides the ability for one or more users to run and view image outputfrom unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote,parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardwareaccelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocolsand clientviewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to theproblem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote deliveryof parallel hardware-accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis ofseveral different optimizations that are generally applicable to avariety of rendering architectures. CRRSis fully operational, Open Sourcesoftware.

  13. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  14. Morphological study of transpterional-insula approach using volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Linpei; Su, Lue; Sun, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yao, Jihang; Li, Youqiong; Luo, Qi

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the measurements of inferior circular insular sulcus (ICIS) and the shortest distance from ICIS to the temporal horn and determines the position of the incision, which does less harm to the temporal stem in the transpterional-insula approach using volume-rendering technique. Results of the research showed that one-third point over the anterior side of ICIS may be the ideal penetration point during operation. And there is no difference between 2 hemispheres (P ICIS from other Chinese researches demonstrated that volume rendering is a reliable method in insular research that enables mass measurements.

  15. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  16. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Coal markets in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Colorado's coal industry, and the implementation of a nine point mining plan announced in 1988. This plan includes an environmental regulatory review, coal royalty reform, production and marketing incentives, clean coal and clean air issues, and promotion of the coal industry. Other issues to be addressed are abandoned mine reclamation, abandoned mine safety and land reclamation after surface mining. International markets for Colorado coal are also discussed.

  18. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  19. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  20. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  1. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  2. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Kraus, Martin; Klein, Jákup

    2017-01-01

    of the information of the different images is redundant, we use pixel reprojection from the corner cameras to compute the remaining images in the light field. We compare the reprojected images with directly rendered images in a user test. In most cases, the users were unable to distinguish the images. In extreme...

  3. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  4. Interacting with Stroke-Based Rendering on a Wall Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubert, Jens; Hanckock, Mark; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tse, Edward; Isenberg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    We introduce two new interaction techniques for creating and interacting with non-photorealistic images using stroke-based rendering. We provide bimanual control of a large interactive canvas through both remote pointing and direct touch. Remote pointing allows people to sit and interact at a distan

  5. Selection of plasters and renders for salt laden masonry substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Wijffels, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The choice of a repair plaster or render by architects often appears to be the result of fortuitous circumstances, such as prior experience with a plaster or a recommendation by a producer. Seldom is the choice based on a sound assessment of the state of the building and the wall that is to be repai

  6. Depth-Dependent Halos : Illustrative Rendering of Dense Line Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for the illustrative rendering of 3D line data at interactive frame rates. We create depth-dependent halos around lines to emphasize tight line bundles while less structured lines are de-emphasized. Moreover, the depth-dependent halos combined with depth cueing via line width

  7. Virtual Environment of Real Sport Hall and Analyzing Rendering Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Here is presented virtual environment of a real sport hall created in Quest3D VR Edition. All analyzes of the rendering quality, techniques of interaction and performance of the system in real time are presented. We made critical analysis on all of these techniques on different machines and have excellent results.

  8. Interacting with Stroke-Based Rendering on a Wall Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubert, Jens; Hanckock, Mark; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tse, Edward; Isenberg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    We introduce two new interaction techniques for creating and interacting with non-photorealistic images using stroke-based rendering. We provide bimanual control of a large interactive canvas through both remote pointing and direct touch. Remote pointing allows people to sit and interact at a

  9. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1016 Advance information concerning service... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 7 CFR 53.17 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 53.17... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.17 Advance information... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  11. Fast Rendering of Realistic Virtual Character in Game Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengzhao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is made up of multiple translucent layers and rendering of skin appearance usually acquire complex modeling and massive calculation. In some practical applications such as 3D game development, we not only approximate the realistic looking skin but also develop efficient method to implement easily for meeting needs of real-time rendering. In this study, we solve the problem of wrap lighting and introduce a surface details approximation method to give realistic rendering of virtual character. Our method considers that different thicknesses of geometry on the skin surface can result in different scattering degree of incident light and so pre-calculate the diffuse falloff into a look-up texture. Also, we notice that scattering is strongly color dependent and small bumps are common on the skin surface and so pre-soften the finer details on the skin surface according to the R/G/B channel. At last, we linearly interpolate the diffuse lighting with different scattering degree from the look-up texture sampled with the curvature and NdotL. Experiment results show that the proposed approach yields realistic virtual character and obtains high frames per second in real-time rendering.

  12. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Hydrogen bonding in asphaltenes and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.C.; Tewari, K.C.

    1978-04-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate and to determine the nature of hydrogen bonding and other molecular interactions that occur in asphaltene and coal liquids, and to seek possible correlations between the interactions and the viscosity. The asphaltene components of samples of centrifuged liquid product, CLP, and solvent-refined coal, SRC, supplied by the Pittsburgh Energy Research Center, are isolated by solvent fractionation. The compositions of the asphaltenes are obtained by elemental analysis and the molecular weights by vapor pressure osmometry. The acid/neutral and base components of the asphaltenes are separated and again elemental analysis and molecular weights are obtained. The magnetic resonance, infrared and calorimetric methods are used to determine the strength of hydrogen-bond and other molecular interactions in the fractions isolated. Investigations on the toluene-insoluble and heavy-oil fractions are also carried out. In addition, extensive proton magnetic resonance, near infrared and calorimetric studies are carried out for o-phenylphenol and quinoline, which serve as model compounds for the aromatic phenols and the heteronuclear aromatic base nitrogens, respectively, found in coal liquefaction products. This is the final report, giving a summary of activities under the Contract for the entire period.

  14. Large molecular mass materials in coal derived liquids by {sup 252}Cf-plasma and matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domin, M. [School of Pharmacy, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry; Li, S.; Herod, A.A.; Larsen, J.W. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lazaro, M.J.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1997-12-31

    A Point of Ayr coal extract, its hydrocracked product and the pyridine solubles/insolubles of a coal tar pitch have been examined using {sup 252}Cf-plasma desorption-mass spectrometry (PDMS) and matrix assisted laser desorption-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Comparison of molecular masses (MMs) between the coal extract and its hydrocracked product by PDMS indicated ranges of masses in the product to be considerably smaller, with number and weight average MMs reduced by approximately a factor of two. MALDI-mass spectra of the same samples indicated a greater reduction in mass. Similar comparison of the pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of the coal tar pitch showed smaller differences by PD-MS than by MALDI-MS. (orig.)

  15. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  16. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  17. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  18. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; rendering into lard or tallow. 315.1 Section 315.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow... subchapter or rendered into tallow, provided such rendering is done in the following manner: (a) When...

  19. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  20. [Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry analysis of insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bo; Liu, Jin-Feng; Liu, Yao-Chi; Yang, Zhao-Guang; Li, Hai-Pu

    2014-11-01

    A ultraviolet-visible spectrometry method of determining insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes in flotation wastewater was the first time to be put forward. In this work, the changes of ultraviolet-visible spectra of xanthate solution after the addition of various heavy metal ions were investigated firstly. It was found that Pb2+ and Cu2+ can form insoluble complexes with xanthate, while Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ have little effect on the ultraviolet absorption of xanthate solution. Then the removal efficiencies of filter membrane with different pore sizes were compared, and the 0.22 μm membrane was found to be effective to separate copper xanthate or lead xanthate from the filtrate. Furthermore, the results of the study on the reaction of sodium sulfide and insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes showed that S(2-) can release the xanthate ion quantitatively from insoluble complexes to solution. Based on the above research, it was concluded that the amount of insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes in water samples can be obtained through the increase of free xanthate in the filtrate after the addition of sodium sulfide. Finally, the feasibility of this method was verified by the application to the analysis of flotation wastewater from three ore-dressing plants in the Thirty-six Coves in Chenzhou.

  1. Production and cytotoxicity of extracellular insoluble and droplets of soluble melanin by Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, D N; Mazhari, Bi Bi Zainab; Dastager, Syed G; Agsar, Dayanand

    2014-01-01

    A Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 strain with potential to synthesize both insoluble and soluble melanins was detected. Melanins are quite distinguished based on their solubility for varied biotechnological applications. The present investigation reveals the enhanced production of insoluble and soluble melanins in tyrosine medium by a single culture. Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 was characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An enhanced production of 5.29 g/L insoluble melanin was achieved in a submerged bioprocess following response surface methodology. Combined interactive effect of temperature (50°C), pH (8.5), tyrosine (2.0 g/L), and beef extract (0.5 g/L) were found to be critical variables for enhanced production in central composite design analysis. An optimized indigenous slant culture system was an innovative approach for the successful production (264 mg/L) of pure soluble melanin from the droplets formed on the surface of the culture. Both insoluble and soluble melanins were confirmed and characterized by Chemical, reactions, UV, FTIR, and TLC analysis. First time, cytotoxic study of melanin using brine shrimps was reported. Maximum cytotoxic activity of soluble melanin was Lc50-0.40 µg/mL and insoluble melanin was Lc50-0.80 µg/mL.

  2. 浸渍过程沥青喹啉不溶物存在状态对石墨电极生产的影响%Existence situation of quinoline insolubles in impregnating pitch and its effect on impregnation production of graphite electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2012-01-01

    在石墨电极浸渍生产过程中,浸渍沥青喹啉不溶物含量及存在状态决定和制约浸渍生产质量.本文通过对现有浸渍生产状况的分析,探讨了浸渍沥青喹啉不溶物在浸渍生产控制各环节中的存在形态及对电极浸渍生产质量的影响.%The content and existence situation of quinoline insolubles in impregnating pitch are key factors that determine the quality of impregnating pitch, which could further affect the production of the graphite electrode during impregnation process. There are some difficulties and limitations in controlling the quinoline insolubles in impregnating pitch during impregnation process because the quinoline insolubles was formed during the production of coal tar pitch. In this paper the existence situation of the quinoline insolubles during the every link of impregnation production and its effect on the impregnating quality of the electrodes were discussed on the base of analyzing the existing impregnating production. The measurements and approaches for reducing the effect of the quinoline insolubles on the quality of the electrode products were given at the present impregnation production conditions.

  3. Realistic Haptic Rendering of Interacting Deformable Objects in Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Duriez, Christian; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Andriot, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A new computer haptics algorithm to be used in general interactive manipulations of deformable virtual objects is presented. In multimodal interactive simulations, haptic feedback computation often comes from contact forces. Subsequently, the fidelity of haptic rendering depends significantly on contact space modeling. Contact and friction laws between deformable models are often simplified in up to date methods. They do not allow a "realistic" rendering of the subtleties of contact space physical phenomena (such as slip and stick effects due to friction or mechanical coupling between contacts). In this paper, we use Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's friction law as a computer haptics basis. Real-time performance is made possible thanks to a linearization of the behavior in the contact space, formulated as the so-called Delassus operator, and iteratively solved by a Gauss-Seidel type algorithm. Dynamic deformation uses corotational global formulation to obtain the Delassus operator in which the mass and s...

  4. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  5. Chromium Renderserver: scalable and open remote rendering infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook, Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure that provides the ability for one or more users to run and view image output from unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote, parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardware accelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocols and client viewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to the problem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote delivery of parallel hardware accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis of several different optimizations that are generally applicable to a variety of rendering architectures. CRRS is fully operational, Open Source software. imagery and sending it to a remote viewer.

  6. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  7. Tactile display for virtual 3D shape rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Mansutti, Alessandro; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel system for the simultaneous visual and tactile rendering of product shapes which allows designers to simultaneously touch and see new product shapes during the conceptual phase of product development. This system offers important advantages, including potential cost and time savings, compared with the standard product design process in which digital 3D models and physical prototypes are often repeatedly modified until an optimal design is achieved. The system consists of a tactile display that is able to represent, within a real environment, the shape of a product. Designers can explore the rendered surface by touching curves lying on the product shape, selecting those curves that can be considered style features and evaluating their aesthetic quality. In order to physically represent these selected curves, a flexible surface is modeled by means of servo-actuated modules controlling a physical deforming strip. The tactile display is designed so as to be portable, low cost, modular,...

  8. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  9. Binaural technology for e.g. rendering auditory virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    , helped mediate the understanding that if the transfer functions could be mastered, then important dimensions of the auditory percept could also be controlled. He early understood the potential of using the HRTFs and numerical sound transmission analysis programs for rendering auditory virtual...... environments. Jens Blauert participated in many European cooperation projects exploring  this field (and others), among other the SCATIS project addressing the auditory-tactile dimensions in the absence of visual information....

  10. Haptic Rendering Techniques for Non-Physical, Command Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    tactile and haptic rendering techniques. BACKGROUND Usually visualizing battlefield implies maps, computer screens filled with information and perhaps 3...Traditional 2-D Screens 3-D stereo glasses HMD CAVE Audio Haptics Level 1, 2 3 …..Fusion - Estimates INTEL SATELLITE RAW DATA Transforms...sensory modes of data presentation Haptics Tactile 8-14 Virtual Lexicon Haptic feedback The sensation of weight or resistance in a virtual world. (from

  11. Rendering Optical Effects Based on Spectra Representation in Complex Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    http://www.springerlink.com/; Rendering the structural color of natural objects or modern industrial products in the 3D environment is not possible with RGB-based graphics platforms and software and very time consuming, even with the most efficient spectra representation based methods previously proposed. Our framework allows computing full spectra light object interactions only when it is needed, i.e. for the part of the scene that requires simulating special spectra sensitive phenomena. Ach...

  12. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to improving volume rendering by using synthesized textures in combination with a custom transfer function. First, we use existing knowledge to synthesize anisotropic solid textures to fit our volumetric data. As input to the synthesis method, we acquire high quality....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  13. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  14. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  15. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  17. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  18. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  19. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  20. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  1. Real-time rendering of optical effects using spatial convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1998-03-01

    Simulation of special effects such as: defocus effect, depth-of-field effect, raindrops or water film falling on the windshield, may be very useful in visual simulators and in all computer graphics applications that need realistic images of outdoor scenery. Those effects are especially important in rendering poor visibility conditions in flight and driving simulators, but can also be applied, for example, in composing computer graphics and video sequences- -i.e. in Augmented Reality systems. This paper proposes a new approach to the rendering of those optical effects by iterative adaptive filtering using spatial convolution. The advantage of this solution is that the adaptive convolution can be done in real-time by existing hardware. Optical effects mentioned above can be introduced into the image computed using conventional camera model by applying to the intensity of each pixel the convolution filter having an appropriate point spread function. The algorithms described in this paper can be easily implemented int the visualization pipeline--the final effect may be obtained by iterative filtering using a single hardware convolution filter or with the pipeline composed of identical 3 X 3 filters placed as the stages of this pipeline. Another advantage of the proposed solution is that the extension based on proposed algorithm can be added to the existing rendering systems as a final stage of the visualization pipeline.

  2. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Sharawi, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fourier volume rendering (FVR) is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its (N (2)log⁡N) time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are (N (3)) computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU) became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU) on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  3. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier volume rendering (FVR is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its O(N2log⁡N time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are O(N3 computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  4. High dynamic range (HDR) virtual bronchoscopy rendering for video tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Teo; Choi, Jae

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a new rendering method based on high dynamic range (HDR) lighting and exposure control. This rendering method is applied to create video images for a 3D virtual bronchoscopy system. One of the main optical parameters of a bronchoscope's camera is the sensor exposure. The exposure adjustment is needed since the dynamic range of most digital video cameras is narrower than the high dynamic range of real scenes. The dynamic range of a camera is defined as the ratio of the brightest point of an image to the darkest point of the same image where details are present. In a video camera exposure is controlled by shutter speed and the lens aperture. To create the virtual bronchoscopic images, we first rendered a raw image in absolute units (luminance); then, we simulated exposure by mapping the computed values to the values appropriate for video-acquired images using a tone mapping operator. We generated several images with HDR and others with low dynamic range (LDR), and then compared their quality by applying them to a 2D/3D video-based tracking system. We conclude that images with HDR are closer to real bronchoscopy images than those with LDR, and thus, that HDR lighting can improve the accuracy of image-based tracking.

  5. Partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of renders with organic binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal M; Bollmann, Ulla E; Bester, Kai

    2016-01-01

    , the partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render with organic binder was investigated. The partition constants of carbendazim, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, cybutryn (irgarol), octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn, and tebuconazole towards minerals typically used in renders, e.g. barite...... with render-water distribution constants of two artificially made renders showed that the distribution constants can be estimated based on partition constants of compounds for individual components of the render....

  6. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds.

  7. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  8. GC/MS Analysis of Organic Compounds in Hot Water-Extractable Fraction from Shenfu Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-min; YUAN Cheng; ZONG Zhi-min; CAO Jing-pei; LIU Guang-feng; WEI Xian-yong

    2007-01-01

    Shenfu Coal was extracted with hot pure water and slurry was isolated. The concentrated benzene-soluble fraction (CBSF) was analyzed with GC/MS and four types of organic compounds (OCs) were detected: HACOCs, DTEs, DMDT and LCAs. The amount of benzyl benzoate which is the most abundant OC was calculated by an internal standard method with an indicated amount of BP. The broken hydrogen bonds and ether bonds were responsible for the extraction of OCs from the coal .DTEs, DMDT and LCAs are essentially insoluble in water, whereas they are soluble, probably owing to intermolecular interaction of OCs with HACOCs.

  9. An In Situ Method for Sizing Insoluble Residues in Precipitation and Other Aqueous Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axson, Jessica L; Creamean, Jessie M; Bondy, Amy L; Capracotta, Sonja S; Warner, Katy Y; Ault, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Particles are frequently incorporated into clouds or precipitation, influencing climate by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, taking up coatings during cloud processing, and removing species through wet deposition. Many of these particles, particularly ice nuclei, can remain suspended within cloud droplets/crystals as insoluble residues. While previous studies have measured the soluble or bulk mass of species within clouds and precipitation, no studies to date have determined the number concentration and size distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation or cloud water using in situ methods. Herein, for the first time we demonstrate that Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is a powerful in situ method for determining the total number concentration, number size distribution, and surface area distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation, both of rain and melted snow. The method uses 500 μL or less of liquid sample and does not require sample modification. Number concentrations for the insoluble residues in aqueous precipitation samples ranged from 2.0-3.0(±0.3)×10(8) particles cm(-3), while surface area ranged from 1.8(±0.7)-3.2(±1.0)×10(7) μm(2) cm(-3). Number size distributions peaked between 133-150 nm, with both single and multi-modal character, while surface area distributions peaked between 173-270 nm. Comparison with electron microscopy of particles up to 10 μm show that, by number, > 97% residues are <1 μm in diameter, the upper limit of the NTA. The range of concentration and distribution properties indicates that insoluble residue properties vary with ambient aerosol concentrations, cloud microphysics, and meteorological dynamics. NTA has great potential for studying the role that insoluble residues play in critical atmospheric processes.

  10. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  11. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  12. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  13. Prediction of coal hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuschagne, B.C.J. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Energy Technology; Wheelock, T.D.; Guo, R.K.; David, H.T. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States); Markuszewski, R. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1988-12-31

    Many coals exhibit a certain degree of native hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic coals (the higher-rank coals) are easily beneficiated by froth flotation or oil agglomeration, while the more hydrophilic coals (the lower-rank coals) are floated or agglomerated with difficulty. Coals of different ranks and often even of the same rank sometimes differ greatly in hydrophobicity as measured by contact angle or natural floatability. Although the degree of hydrophobicity of a coal is related to its rank and has been correlated with other surface properties of the coal , the known information is still not sufficient to allow a good estimation to be made of the hydrophobicity of a given coal and does not explain the variation of coal hydrophobicity as a function of rank. A statistical analysis of previously published data, as well as newly acquired data, shows that coal hydrophobicity correlates better with moisture content than with carbon content, and better with the moisture/carbon molar ratio than with the hydrogen/carbon or oxygen/carbon atomic ratios. These findings indicate that there is a strong association between hydrophobicity and coal moisture content.

  14. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  16. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  18. The CIS coal summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The presentations (overhead/viewgraphs) include: the impacts of EU environmental legislation on Russian coal market (A. Sankovski); how Caterpillar and Cat dealers create value in the global mining industry (D. Mohr); new coal preparation technology and application in the Russian coal market (D. Morris); UK demand outlook and import growth (G. Parker); new technologies in blasting operations and services (J. Petzold and others); a global bank's view of the coal sector (M. Seleznev); ELGA coal deposit, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (M. Tsikanov); Russia's economic outlook (P. Forrest); Renaissance Capital (investment bank) (R. Edwards); Russian coal for Korean gencos (S. Kim); and coking coal in Ukraine (V. Khilko).

  19. A survey on hair modeling: styling, simulation, and rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly; Bertails, Florence; Kim, Tae-Yong; Marschner, Stephen R; Cani, Marie-Paule; Lin, Ming C

    2007-01-01

    Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it appropriate for particular applications. We discuss each of these major topics in turn, presenting the unique challenges facing each area and describing solutions that have been presented over the years to handle these complex issues. Finally, we outline some of the remaining computational challenges in hair modeling.

  20. Interactive View-Dependent Rendering of Large Isosurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorski, B; Duchaineau, M; Lindstrom, P; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2002-11-19

    We present an algorithm for interactively extracting and rendering isosurfaces of large volume datasets in a view-dependent fashion. A recursive tetrahedral mesh refinement scheme, based on longest edge bisection, is used to hierarchically decompose the data into a multiresolution structure. This data structure allows fast extraction of arbitrary isosurfaces to within user specified view-dependent error bounds. A data layout scheme based on hierarchical space filling curves provides access to the data in a cache coherent manner that follows the data access pattern indicated by the mesh refinement.

  1. Software System for Vocal Rendering of Printed Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a software system architecture developed to render the printed documents in a vocal form. On the other hand, in the paper are described the software solutions that exist as software components and are necessary for documents processing as well as for multimedia device controlling used by the system. The usefulness of this system is for people with visual disabilities that can access the contents of documents without that they be printed in Braille system or to exist in an audio form.

  2. An example of quantum imaging: rendering an object undetectable

    CERN Document Server

    Ataman, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose and analyse a Gedankenexperiment involving three non-linear crystals and two objects inserted in the idler beams. We show that, besides the behaviour that can be extrapolated from previous experiments involving two crystals and one object, we are able to predict a new effect: under certain circumstances, one of the objects can be rendered undetectable to any single detection rate on the signal photons with discarded idler photons. This effect could find applications in future developments of quantum imaging techniques.

  3. An example of quantum imaging: rendering an object undetectable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose and analyse a Gedankenexperiment involving three non-linear crystals and two objects inserted in the idler beams. We show that, besides the behaviour that can be extrapolated from previous experiments involving two crystals and one object, we are able to predict a new effect: under certain circumstances, one of the objects can be rendered undetectable to any single detection rate on the signal photons with discarded idler photons. This effect could find applications in future developments of quantum imaging techniques.

  4. Horse-shoe lung-rediscovered via volume rendered images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa Bharati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe lung, usually associated with pulmonary venolobar syndrome, is a rare congenital anomaly involving the fusion of the postero-basal segments of the right and left lungs across the midline. The fused segment or the isthmus lies posterior to the pericardium and anterior to the aorta.The associated pulmonary venolobar syndrome involves anomalous systemic arterial supply and anomlaous systemic venous drainage of the right lung. With the advent of MDCT imaging, we can diagnose this rare condition as well all its associated anomalies non-invasively. Volume-rendered techniques greatly simplify the complex anatomy and provide easy understanding of the same.

  5. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in recent years. These biocides are, e.g., applied to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching...... compared. The partitioning constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.1 (isoproturon) and 1.1 (iodocarb) and 84.6 (dichlorooctylisothiazolinone), respectively. The results for barite, kaolinite and mica were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partitioning constants for one mineral...

  6. Practical rendering and computation with Direct3D 11

    CERN Document Server

    Zink, Jason; Hoxley, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Practical Rendering and Computation with Direct3D 11 packs in documentation and in-depth coverage of basic and high-level concepts related to using Direct 3D 11 and is a top pick for any serious programming collection. … perfect for a wide range of users. Any interested in computation and multicore models will find this packed with examples and technical applications.-Midwest Book Review, October 2011The authors have generously provided us with an optimal blend of concepts and philosophy, illustrative figures to clarify the more difficult points, and source code fragments to make the ideas con

  7. Liposomes as vehicles for water insoluble platinum-based potential drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaluđerović, Goran N; Dietrich, Andrea; Kommera, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Formulation of liposome delivery system loaded with water insoluble 2-(4-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)-undecyl)-propane-1,3-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), LipoTHP-C11 was carried out. The particle size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering and asymmetrical flow field-flow fract...

  8. Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Quintela, José C; de la Fuente, Ester; Haya, Javier; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes

    2010-03-01

    Recently, polyphenols have been found to affect blood lipids in animals in a similar manner as soluble dietary fibre. The aim was to assess whether an insoluble dietary fiber very rich in polyphenols has a beneficial effect on serum lipids in humans. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study with parallel arms, 88 volunteers with hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to consume daily either, fiber with insoluble 84% polyphenols 4 g twice a day (n = 43) or placebo (n = 45). Serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. The insoluble polyphenols consumption reduced the total cholesterol by 17.8 +/- 6.1% (p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol by 22.5 +/- 8.9% (p < 0.001), LDL: HDL cholesterol ratio by 26.2 +/- 14.3% (p < 0.001) and triglycerides by 16.3 +/- 23.4% (p < 0.05) at the end of the study compared with baseline. No significant differences were found during the study time in the placebo group for the lipid profile. The consumption of fiber very rich in insoluble polyphenols shows beneficial effects on human blood lipid profile and may be effective in prevention and treatment of hyperlipemia.

  9. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    %), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was essentially fully soluble in detergent. In radioactively labeled, mucosal explants, the newly synthesized brush border enzymes began to associate with detergent-insoluble complexes while still in their transient, high mannose-glycosylated form...

  10. Water-holding capacity of soluble and insoluble polysaccharides in pressed potato fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.; Gruppen, H.; Kabel, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Pressed potato fibres (PPF), a by-product of starch production, has a high water-holding capacity (WHC).In this study, it is shown that the WHC is caused by a network of mainly insoluble, non-cellulosic cellwall polysaccharides (CWPs). Despite the solubilization of one-fourth of the CWPs from PPF, r

  11. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted

  12. Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, E.E.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of

  13. Preparation of titania particles utilizing the insoluble phase interface in a microchannel reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Masato; Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2002-07-21

    A stable interface between two insoluble currents in a microchannel reactor has been obtained by selecting the solvents and adjusting the flow rate; titania particles with a size of less than 10 nm could be prepared continuously on this interface; this new method shows great advantage for the control and measurement of particle sizes.

  14. Nonidet P-40 extraction of lymphocyte plasma membrane. Characterization of the insoluble residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A A; Wigglesworth, N M; Allan, D; Owens, R J; Crumpton, M J

    1984-04-01

    Purified preparations of lymphocyte plasma membrane were extracted exhaustively with Nonidet P-40 in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline medium. The insoluble fraction, as defined by sedimentation at 10(6) g-min, contained about 10% of the membrane protein as well as cholesterol and phospholipid. The lipid/protein ratio, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and sphingomyelin content were increased in the residue. Density-gradient centrifugation suggested that the lipid and protein form a common entity. As judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the Nonidet P-40-insoluble fractions of the plasma membranes of human B lymphoblastoid cells and pig mesenteric lymph-node lymphocytes possessed similar qualitative polypeptide compositions but differed quantitatively. Both residues comprised major polypeptides of Mr 28 000, 33 000, 45 000 and 68 000, together with a prominent band of Mr 120 000 in the human and of Mr 200 000 in the pig. The polypeptides of Mr 28 000, 33 000, 68 000 and 120 000 were probably located exclusively in the Nonidet P-40-insoluble residue, which also possessed a 4-fold increase in 5'-nucleotidase specific activity. The results indicate that a reproducible fraction of lymphocyte plasma membrane is insoluble in non-ionic detergents and that this fraction possesses a unique polypeptide composition. By analogy with similar studies with erythrocyte ghosts, it appears likely that the polypeptides are located on the plasma membrane's cytoplasmic face.

  15. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  16. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted wi

  17. the role of soluble and insoluble fibers during fermentation of Chicory root pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

     

    This thesis was aimed at understanding the in vitro fermentability of soluble and insoluble fibers in chicory root pulp (CRP). First, CRP and ensiled chicory root pulp (ECRP) were characterized for cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs). Both CRP and ECRP were rich

  18. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  19. A simplified method for the measurement of insoluble solids in pretreated biomass slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Noah D; Stickel, Jonathan J; Wolfe, Jeffrey L; Nguyen, Quang A

    2010-10-01

    The biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels includes the breakdown of biomass into its soluble, fermentable components. Pretreatment, the initial step in the conversion process, results in heterogeneous slurry comprised of both soluble and insoluble biomass components. For the purpose of tracking the progress of the conversion process, it is important to be able to accurately measure the fraction of insoluble biomass solids in the slurry. The current standard method involves separating the solids from the free liquor and then repeatedly washing the solids to remove the soluble fraction, a laborious and tedious process susceptible to operator variations. In this paper, we propose an alternative method for calculating the fraction of insoluble solids which does not require a washing step. The proposed method involves measuring the dry matter content of the whole slurry as well as the dry matter content in the isolated liquor fraction. We compared the two methods using three different pretreated biomass slurry samples and two oven-drying techniques for determining dry matter content, an important measurement for both methods. We also evaluated a large set of fraction insoluble solids data collected from previously analyzed pretreated samples. The proposed new method provided statistically equivalent results to the standard washing method when an infrared balance was used for determining dry matter content in the controlled measurement experiment. Similarly, in the large historical data set, there was no statistical difference shown between the wash and no-wash methods. The new method is offered as an alternative method for determining the fraction of insoluble solids.

  20. Biochemical Composition and Assembly of Biosilica-associated Insoluble Organic Matrices from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Pawolski, Damian; Milentyev, Alexander; Shevchenko, Anna; Scheffel, André; Poulsen, Nicole; Shevchenko, Andrej; Kröger, Nils

    2016-03-04

    The nano- and micropatterned biosilica cell walls of diatoms are remarkable examples of biological morphogenesis and possess highly interesting material properties. Only recently has it been demonstrated that biosilica-associated organic structures with specific nanopatterns (termed insoluble organic matrices) are general components of diatom biosilica. The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contains three types of insoluble organic matrices: chitin meshworks, organic microrings, and organic microplates, the latter being described in the present study for the first time. To date, little is known about the molecular composition, intracellular assembly, and biological functions of organic matrices. Here we have performed structural and functional analyses of the organic microrings and organic microplates from T. pseudonana. Proteomics analysis yielded seven proteins of unknown function (termed SiMat proteins) together with five known silica biomineralization proteins (four cingulins and one silaffin). The location of SiMat1-GFP in the insoluble organic microrings and the similarity of tyrosine- and lysine-rich functional domains identifies this protein as a new member of the cingulin protein family. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates that most of the lysine residues of cingulins and the other insoluble organic matrix proteins are post-translationally modified by short polyamine groups, which are known to enhance the silica formation activity of proteins. Studies with recombinant cingulins (rCinY2 and rCinW2) demonstrate that acidic conditions (pH 5.5) trigger the assembly of mixed cingulin aggregates that have silica formation activity. Our results suggest an important role for cingulins in the biogenesis of organic microrings and support the hypothesis that this type of insoluble organic matrix functions in biosilica morphogenesis.

  1. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  2. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  3. Fast polyhedral cell sorting for interactive rendering of unstructured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combra, J; Klosowski, J T; Max, N; Silva, C T; Williams, P L

    1998-10-30

    Direct volume rendering based on projective methods works by projecting, in visibility order, the polyhedral cells of a mesh onto the image plane, and incrementally compositing the cell's color and opacity into the final image. Crucial to this method is the computation of a visibility ordering of the cells. If the mesh is ''well-behaved'' (acyclic and convex), then the MPVO method of Williams provides a very fast sorting algorithm; however, this method only computes an approximate ordering in general datasets, resulting in visual artifacts when rendered. A recent method of Silva et al. removed the assumption that the mesh is convex, by means of a sweep algorithm used in conjunction with the MPVO method; their algorithm is substantially faster than previous exact methods for general meshes. In this paper we propose a new technique, which we call BSP-XMPVO, which is based on a fast and simple way of using binary space partitions on the boundary elements of the mesh to augment the ordering produced by MPVO. Our results are shown to be orders of magnitude better than previous exact methods of sorting cells.

  4. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  5. Protein and mineral characterisation of rendered meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, M; Penkman, K E H; Wess, T J; Reaney, S; Collins, M J

    2012-10-01

    We report the characterisation of meat and bone meal (MBM) standards (Set B-EFPRA) derived from cattle, sheep, pig and chicken, each rendered at four different temperatures (133, 137, 141 and 145 °C). The standards, prepared for an EU programme STRATFEED (to develop new methodologies for the detection and quantification of illegal addition of mammalian tissues in feeding stuffs), have been widely circulated and used to assess a range of methods for identification of the species composition of MBM. The overall state of mineral alteration and protein preservation as a function of temperature was monitored using small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS), amino acid composition and racemization analyses. Progressive increases in protein damage and mineral alteration in chicken and cattle standards was observed. In the case of sheep and pig, there was greater damage to the proteins and alteration of the minerals at the lowest treatment temperature (133 °C), suggesting that the thermal treatments must have been compromised in some way. This problem has probably impacted upon the numerous studies which tested methods against these heat treatments. We use protein mass spectrometric methods to explore if thermostable proteins could be used to identify rendered MBM. In more thermally altered samples, so-called 'thermostable' proteins such as osteocalcin which has been proposed as a ideal target to speciate MBM were no longer detectable, but the structural protein type I collagen could be used to differentiate all four species, even in the most thermally altered samples.

  6. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  7. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; van Ruijven, M.W.M.; Velikov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Few fully natural and biocompatible materials are available for the effective particle-stabilization of emulsions since strict requirements, such as insolubility in both fluid phases and intermediate wettability, need to be met. In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of water-insoluble proteins

  8. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  9. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. These asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. Those coal-derived asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions will be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units in the United States. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions. The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  10. Concerning the nature of coal solutions and suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Painter; Maria Sobkowiak; Jonathan Mathews; Alan Scaroni [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2004-08-01

    Coal extract and suspensions of coal particles are capable of forming viscoelastic gels. The nature of the connections or interactions in these systems is not clear. Simple experiments reported in this article indicate that NMP/CS{sub 2} extracts from Upper Freeport coal are predominantly solutions of molecular species that nevertheless form gels at certain concentrations. The physical gels formed in these mixtures must therefore involve some specific association that, in turn, can lead to aggregation, such as {pi}-cation interactions, or a phase separation. This latter mechanism must involve bicontinuous domains where one of the phases is glassy, to provide the cohesive properties necessary for elastic properties. In contrast, gels formed from insoluble coal particles most probably associate through forces common to many colloidal suspensions. In such systems, it is not the local pairwise interactions between molecules alone that is important, but the sum of all interactions between the molecules in each particle. This results in a large interaction energy that is proportional to particle size and the association of these particles to form a space filling network and a gel with viscolelastic properties. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  12. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  13. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  14. Coal: ditching the dirt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.

    2006-01-01

    At the time when the British government is considering building new nuclear power plants, this article gives an overview of how the coal industry has been developing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase combustion efficiency which make coal a more attractive power source that should not be overlooked. Technologies mentioned include integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed combustion, low NOx burners, and combustion control. Research is under way on capturing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. Use of fly ash in cement manufacture help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Clean coal technologies in the UK are supported by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, the World Coal Institute and the Coal Research Forum. 3 photos. 3 figs.

  15. Arthropod cuticles in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, K.M.; Jeram, A.J.; Selden, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    An abundance of scorpion cuticles from Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) coals of Yorkshire is described, and other records of arthropod cuticles in coals are reviewed. The absence of cuticles assignable to arthropod groups other than scorpions is thought to be due to preferential preservation of the unique exocuticle of scorpions; it alone is preserved and appears to retain an organic nature. The cuticle is recovered from all the lithotypes of humic bituminous coals although it is most common in coals rich in inertinite macerals. From the present study it is uncertain whether the scorpions were aquatic or terrestrial. The recognition of arthropod cuticle as a coal maceral could aid environmental interpretations. The abundance of arthropod cuticle in the coals studied indicates its potential use in correlation and in determining the thermal maturity of sediments. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Excellent color rendering indexes of multi-package white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Su Ji; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Y R

    2012-08-27

    This study introduces multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) system with the ability to realize high luminous efficacy and an excellent color rendering index (CRI, R a) using the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B (R B,M A B,M G B,M denoted as a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF)-capped, monochromatic red, amber and green phosphor converted-LED (pc-LED) pumped by a blue LED chip, and C B denoted as a cyan and blue mixed pc-LED pumped by a blue LED) system. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LED systems are compared while changing the concentration of the cyan phosphor used in the paste of a cyan-blue LED package and the driving current of individual LEDs in multi-package white LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 6,500 K (cold white) to 2,700 K (warm white) using a set of eight CCTs as specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard number C78.377-2008. A R B,M A B,M G B,M C B white LED system provides high luminous efficacy (≥ 96 lm/W) and a color rendering index (≥ 91) encompassing the complete CCT range. We also compare the optical properties of the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B system with those of the R B,M A B,M G B,M B and RAGB (red, amber, green, and blue semiconductor-type narrow-spectrum-band LEDs) systems. It can be expected that the cyan color added to a blue LED in multi-package white LEDs based on LPDF-capped, phosphor-converted monochromatic LEDs will meet the needs of the high-quality, highly efficient, full-color white LED lighting market in the near future.

  17. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  18. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  19. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  20. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  1. CLEANER ENERGY FROM COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-MilenaTĂTAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing demand for coal, particularly in the developing world, the use of low emission coal technologies becomes increasingly important if international targets on climate change are to be achieved. The two principal avenues for reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power generation are through use of high efficiency, low emission power plantsand carbon capture, use and storage.

  2. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  3. Efficient Unbiased Rendering using Enlightened Local Path Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Wang

    . The downside to using these algorithms is that they can be slow to converge. Due to the nature of Monte Carlo methods, the results are random variables subject to variance. This manifests itself as noise in the images, which can only be reduced by generating more samples. The reason these methods are slow...... is because of a lack of eeffective methods of importance sampling. Most global illumination algorithms are based on local path sampling, which is essentially a recipe for constructing random walks. Using this procedure paths are built based on information given explicitly as part of scene description......, such as the location of the light sources or cameras, or the re flection models at each point. In this work we explore new methods of importance sampling paths. Our idea is to analyze the scene before rendering and compute various statistics that we use to improve importance sampling. The first of these are adjoint...

  4. Real-time Flame Rendering with GPU and CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of flame simulation based on Lagrange process and chemical composition, which was non-grid and the problems associated with there grids were overcome. The turbulence movement of flame was described by Lagrange process and chemical composition was added into flame simulation which increased the authenticity of flame. For real-time applications, this paper simplified the EMST model. GPU-based particle system combined with OpenGL VBO and PBO unique technology was used to accelerate finally, the speed of vertex and pixel data interaction between CPU and GPU increased two orders of magnitude, frame rate of rendering increased by 30%, which achieved fast dynamic flame real-time simulation. For further real-time applications, this paper presented a strategy to implement flame simulation with CUDA on GPU, which achieved a speed up to 2.5 times the previous implementation.

  5. Latency in Distributed Acquisition and Rendering for Telepresence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Stephan; Willert, Malte; Staadt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Telepresence systems use 3D techniques to create a more natural human-centered communication over long distances. This work concentrates on the analysis of latency in telepresence systems where acquisition and rendering are distributed. Keeping latency low is important to immerse users in the virtual environment. To better understand latency problems and to identify the source of such latency, we focus on the decomposition of system latency into sub-latencies. We contribute a model of latency and show how it can be used to estimate latencies in a complex telepresence dataflow network. To compare the estimates with real latencies in our prototype, we modify two common latency measurement methods. This presented methodology enables the developer to optimize the design, find implementation issues and gain deeper knowledge about specific sources of latency.

  6. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  7. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)

    2001-05-01

    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  8. Distributed Dimensonality-Based Rendering of LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédif, M.; Vallet, B.; Ferrand, B.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are now commonly acquiring lidar scans of urban environments for an increasing number of applications such as 3D reconstruction and mapping, urban planning, urban furniture monitoring, practicability assessment for persons with reduced mobility (PRM)... MMS acquisitions are usually huge enough to incur a usability bottleneck for the increasing number of non-expert user that are not trained to process and visualize these huge datasets through specific softwares. A vast majority of their current need is for a simple 2D visualization that is both legible on screen and printable on a static 2D medium, while still conveying the understanding of the 3D scene and minimizing the disturbance of the lidar acquisition geometry (such as lidar shadows). The users that motivated this research are, by law, bound to precisely georeference underground networks for which they currently have schematics with no or poor absolute georeferencing. A solution that may fit their needs is thus a 2D visualization of the MMS dataset that they could easily interpret and on which they could accurately match features with their user datasets they would like to georeference. Our main contribution is two-fold. First, we propose a 3D point cloud stylization for 2D static visualization that leverages a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-like local geometry analysis. By skipping the usual and error-prone estimation of a ground elevation, this rendering is thus robust to non-flat areas and has no hard-to-tune parameters such as height thresholds. Second, we implemented the corresponding rendering pipeline so that it can scale up to arbitrary large datasets by leveraging the Spark framework and its Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD) and Dataframe abstractions.

  9. On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

    2009-04-02

    We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

  10. Technologies Render Views of Earth for Virtual Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On a December night in 1995, 159 passengers and crewmembers died when American Airlines Flight 965 flew into the side of a mountain while in route to Cali, Colombia. A key factor in the tragedy: The pilots had lost situational awareness in the dark, unfamiliar terrain. They had no idea the plane was approaching a mountain until the ground proximity warning system sounded an alarm only seconds before impact. The accident was of the kind most common at the time CFIT, or controlled flight into terrain says Trey Arthur, research aerospace engineer in the Crew Systems and Aviation Operations Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center. In situations such as bad weather, fog, or nighttime flights, pilots would rely on airspeed, altitude, and other readings to get an accurate sense of location. Miscalculations and rapidly changing conditions could contribute to a fully functioning, in-control airplane flying into the ground. To improve aviation safety by enhancing pilots situational awareness even in poor visibility, NASA began exploring the possibilities of synthetic vision creating a graphical display of the outside terrain on a screen inside the cockpit. How do you display a mountain in the cockpit? You have to have a graphics-powered computer, a terrain database you can render, and an accurate navigation solution, says Arthur. In the mid-1990s, developing GPS technology offered a means for determining an aircraft s position in space with high accuracy, Arthur explains. As the necessary technologies to enable synthetic vision emerged, NASA turned to an industry partner to develop the terrain graphical engine and database for creating the virtual rendering of the outside environment.

  11. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  12. Computer Simulation of Insoluble Pr(Ⅲ) Speciation in Human Interstitial Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiYuanZHANG; XingLU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A multi-phase model of Pr(Ⅲ) speciation in human interstitial fluid was constructed and insoluble Pr(Ⅲ)speciation was studied. When the total concentration of Pr(Ⅲ)is below 8.401E-10 mol/L, soluble Pr(Ⅲ) species are main species. With rising the total concentration of Pr(Ⅲ), Pr(Ⅲ) is firstly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of PrPO4,then bound to carbonate and another precipitate of Pr2(CO3)3 was obtained. When the total concentration is between 1.583E-9 mol/L and 4.000E-3 mol/L, the insoluble species are predominant Pr(Ⅲ) species.

  13. Computer Simulation of Insoluble Pr(III) Speciation in Human Interstitial Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-phase model of Pr(III) speciation in human interstitial fluid was constructed and insoluble Pr(III) speciation was studied. When the total concentration of Pr(III) is below 8.401E-10 mol/L, soluble Pr(III) species are main species. With rising the total concentration of Pr(III), Pr(III) is firstly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of PrPO4, then bound to carbonate and another precipitate of Pr2(CO3)3 was obtained. When the total concentration is between 1.583E-9 mol/L and 4.000E-3 mol/L, the insoluble species are predominant Pr(III) species.

  14. An amperometric enzyme biosensor for real-time measurements of cellobiohydrolase activity on insoluble cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Guilin, Ren; Tatsumi, Hirosuke;

    2012-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme biosensor for continuous detection of cellobiose has been implemented as an enzyme assay for cellulases. We show that the initial kinetics for cellobiohydrolase I, Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei, acting on different types of cellulose substrates, semi-crystalline and amorphous......) and this provided experimental access to the transient kinetics of cellobiohydrolases acting on insoluble cellulose. The response from the CDH-biosensor during enzymatic hydrolysis was corrected for the specificity of PcCDH for the β-anomer of cello-oligosaccharides and the approach were validated against HPLC....... It is suggested that quantitative, real-time data on pure insoluble cellulose substrates will be useful in attempts to probe the molecular mechanism underlying enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose...

  15. Thermodynamically consistent description of the hydrodynamics of free surfaces covered by insoluble surfactants of high concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J.; Plapp, Mathis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose several models that describe the dynamics of liquid films which are covered by a high concentration layer of insoluble surfactant. First, we briefly review the 'classical' hydrodynamic form of the coupled evolution equations for the film height and surfactant concentration that are well established for small concentrations. Then we re-formulate the basic model as a gradient dynamics based on an underlying free energy functional that accounts for wettability and capill...

  16. Weak solutions to a thin film model with capillary effects and insoluble surfactant

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Laurencot, Philippe; Walker, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on a model describing the spreading of an insoluble surfactant on a thin viscous film with capillary effects taken into account. The governing equation for the film height is degenerate parabolic of fourth order and coupled to a second order parabolic equation for the surfactant concentration. It is shown that nonnegative weak solutions exist under natural assumptions on the surface tension coefficient.

  17. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  18. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  19. Rapid Screen for Bacteria Degrading Water-Insoluble, Solid Hydrocarbons on Agar Plates

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A rapid procedure was devised for detecting on solid media bacteria able to degrade water-insoluble, solid hydrocarbons such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene, anthracene, and biphenyl. After Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2 was inoculated on a plate containing mineral salts agar, an ethereal solution of phenanthrene (about 10%, wt/vol) was sprayed on the surface of the plate, and the plate was incubated at 30°C for 2 to 3 days. Colonies showing degradation were surrounded with cl...

  20. Optimization of Insoluble and Soluble Fibres Extraction from Agave americana L. Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Bouaziz; Manel Masmoudi; Amel Kamoun; Souhail Besbes

    2014-01-01

    Experimental design methodology was used to determine significant factors affecting the extraction yield of soluble and insoluble fibres from Agave americana L. and in second time to find optimum conditions leading to the highest yield. Results clearly indicated that the temperature, the powder to water (P/W) ratio, and the agitation speed were the most important factors influencing fibres extraction yield which increased with temperature, P/W ratio, and agitation speed. Ionic strength affect...

  1. COPPER RESISTANT STRAIN CANDIDA TROPICALIS RomCu5 INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE COPPER COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie. P. Prekrasna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was interaction of Candida tropicalis RomCu5 isolated from highland Ecuador ecosystem with soluble and insoluble copper compounds. Strain C. tropicalis RomCu5 was cultured in a liquid medium of Hiss in the presence of soluble (copper citrate and CuCl2 and insoluble (CuO and CuCO3 copper compounds. The biomass growth was determined by change in optical density of culture liquid, composition of the gas phase was measured on gas chromatograph, redox potential and pH of the culture fluid was defined potentiometrically. The concentration of soluble copper compounds was determined colorimetrically. Maximal permissible concentration of Cu2+ for C. tropicalis RomCu5 was 30 000 ppm of Cu2+ in form of copper citrate and 500 ppm of Cu2+ in form of CuCl2. C. tropicalis was metabolically active at super high concentrations of Cu2+, despite the inhibitory effect of Cu2+. C. tropicalis immobilized Cu2+ in the form of copper citrate and CuCl2 by it accumulation in the biomass. Due to medium acidification C. tropicalis dissolved CuO and CuCO3. High resistance of C. tropicalis to Cu2+ and ability to interact with soluble and insoluble copper compounds makes it biotechnologically perspective.

  2. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kalepu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects.

  3. Solubilization and Transformation of Insoluble Zinc Compounds by Fungi Isolated from a Zinc Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawat Sutjaritvorakul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated from zinc-containing rocks and mining soil. They were screened for the ability to solubilize and transform three insoluble zinc compounds: ZnO, Zn3(PO4, and ZnCO3. Fungi were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium which was supplemented with 0.5% (w/v of insoluble zinc compounds. Of the strains tested, four fungal isolates showed the highest efficiency for solubilizing all the insoluble zinc compounds, producing clearing zone diameters > 40 mm. These were identified as a Phomopsis spp., Aspergillus sp.1, Aspergillus sp.2, and Aspergillus niger. Zinc oxide was the most easily solubilized compound and it was found that 87%, 52%, and 61% of the tested fungi (23 isolates were able to solubilize zinc oxide, zinc phosphate, and zinc carbonate, respectively. Precipitation of zinc-containing crystals was observed in zinc oxide-containing agar medium underneath colonies of Aspergillus sp.1, and these were identified as zinc oxalate. It is suggested that these kinds of fungi have the potential application in bioremediation practices for heavy metal contaminated soils.

  4. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Chuan-qing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc.

  5. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chuan-qing; Cao, Guang-xiang; Huang, Wei-yi; Luan, Xing-she; Yang, Yi-fei

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc.

  6. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-09-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects.

  7. Optimization of Insoluble and Soluble Fibres Extraction from Agave americana L. Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Bouaziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental design methodology was used to determine significant factors affecting the extraction yield of soluble and insoluble fibres from Agave americana L. and in second time to find optimum conditions leading to the highest yield. Results clearly indicated that the temperature, the powder to water (P/W ratio, and the agitation speed were the most important factors influencing fibres extraction yield which increased with temperature, P/W ratio, and agitation speed. Ionic strength affected significantly soluble fibre extraction yield and was the most important factor among nonsignificant ones influencing insoluble fibres extraction yield. Then, a Box-Behnken design was carried out to maximise fibres extraction. Selected optimal conditions were temperature: 90°C; P/W ratio: 0.1625; agitation speed: 400 rpm; and ionic strength: 1.5 g/L. These conditions yielded 93.02% and 80.46% of insoluble and soluble fibres, respectively. Concentrates showed high fibres purity and good functional properties.

  8. Technology for the production of Zero Q.I pitch from coal tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, K.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Rao, C. V. Nageswara; Kumar, B. Vinod; Murty, J. V. S.

    2013-06-01

    Zero Quinoline Insolubles (Q.I) pitch is a special type of pitch obtained from pre-treatment of coal tar, which is converted into pitch. This is used for impregnation of electrodes for improving the strength, electrical properties and also used as a pre-cursor for Mesophase pitch for producing Mesophase pitch based carbon fibers, carbon foam, and Meso carbon micro beads. This paper discusses the technology of Q.I separation from Coal Tar by using decantation of Coal Tar mixed with Heavy Creosote Oil (HC Oil) at different temperatures. By this method we were able to produce the Zero Q.I pitch with a Q.I value of 0.1%.

  9. Hydrogen bonding in asphaltenes and coal. Quarterly Report for July 1, 1978 - September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.C.; Tewari, K.C.

    1978-09-29

    Two coal liquid products derived from the same Kentucky hvAb coal have been separated into toluene-insoluble, asphaltene, and pentane-soluble heavy oil fractions. Viscosity and calorimetric studies are reported of the interaction between heavy oil and asphaltene(A) and its acid/neutral(AA) and base(BA) components in solvent benzene. The increase in viscosity and molar enthalpy of interaction, {Delta}H{sup 0}, in the order BA>A>AA, correlate well with the proton magnetic resonance downfield chemical shift of the OH signal of o-phenylphenol, as a function of added asphaltene (A, AA, BA) concentration in solvent CS{sub 2}· The results suggest that when asphaltene .and heavy oil are present together, hydrogen-bonding involving largely phenolic OH, is one of the mechanisms by which asphaltene-heavy oil interactions are achieved and, in part, is responsible for the viscosity increase of coal liquids.

  10. Viscosity, calorimetric, and proton magnetic resonance studies on coal liquid fractions in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, K.C.; Kan, N.; Susco, D.M.; Li, N.C.

    1979-02-01

    Two coal liquid products derived from the same Kentucky hvAb coal have been separated into toluene-insoluble, asphaltene, and pentane-soluble heavy oil fractions. Viscosity and calorimetric studies are reported of the interaction between heavy oil and asphaltene (A) and its acid/neutral (AA) and base (BA) components in solvent benzene. The increase in viscosity and molar enthalpy of interaction, ..delta..H/sup 0/, in the order BA > A > AA, correlates well with the proton magnetic resonance downfield chemical shift of the OH signal of o-phenylphenol, as a function of added asphaltene (A, AA, BA) concentration in solvent CS/sub 2/. The results suggest that when asphaltene and heavy oil are present together, hydrogen-bonding involving largely phenolic OH, is one of the mechanisms by which asphaltene-heavy oil interactions are achieved and, in part, is responsible for the viscosity increase of coal liquids. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  11. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  12. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  13. Coal Industry Burns Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JadaFu

    2003-01-01

    After a rapid boom last year, China's coal industry has continued to grow in 2003. The country has produced 177.27 million tons of coal in the first two months of the year, a year-on-year rise of 17.7 percent.

  14. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  15. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  16. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-10-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  17. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  18. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  19. (Coal utilization in India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  20. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  1. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  2. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  3. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  4. Removal of residual chlorine from Indiana 5 coal by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Lee, S. (University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The perchloroethylene coal desulfurization process has unique advantages as a precombustion coal cleaning process, that include high cleaning efficiencies, mild process conditions, minimal output of undesirable byproducts, and cost effectiveness. However, the use of perchloroethylene in the process renders an important process engineering problem of complete recovery and reuse of perchloroethylene, thus requiring a 'zero discharge' condition of the solvent. Therefore, the treated coal must be stripped of any residual perchloroethylene. Carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) in its supercritical state has been investigated for its ability to remove chlorine from Indiana 5 coal, that has been desulfurized by the perchloroethylene (PCE) process. The reduction of Cl content from a PCE treated and filtered coal has been as high as 78% by mass. The experiments have been carried out following a statistical experimental design and the discerning characteristics of the process have been identified. The solvent density and extraction conditions can be tailored in such a way as to optimally remove C from the coal without any detrimental effects on the coal matrix. The supercritical CO[sub 2] extraction process can be successfully implemented to the PCE coal cleaning process by replacing energy intensive steps of steam stripping and vacuum drying. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  6. VITRAIL: Acquisition, Modeling, and Rendering of Stained Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikachalam, Niranjan; Baboulaz, Loic; Prandoni, Paolo; Trumpler, Stefan; Wolf, Sophie; Vetterli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Stained glass windows are designed to reveal their powerful artistry under diverse and time-varying lighting conditions; virtual relighting of stained glass, therefore, represents an exceptional tool for the appreciation of this age old art form. However, as opposed to most other artifacts, stained glass windows are extremely difficult if not impossible to analyze using controlled illumination because of their size and position. In this paper, we present novel methods built upon image based priors to perform virtual relighting of stained glass artwork by acquiring the actual light transport properties of a given artifact. In a preprocessing step, we build a material-dependent dictionary for light transport by studying the scattering properties of glass samples in a laboratory setup. We can now use the dictionary to recover a light transport matrix in two ways: under controlled illuminations the dictionary constitutes a sparsifying basis for a compressive sensing acquisition, while in the case of uncontrolled illuminations the dictionary is used to perform sparse regularization. The proposed basis preserves volume impurities and we show that the retrieved light transport matrix is heterogeneous, as in the case of real world objects. We present the rendering results of several stained glass artifacts, including the Rose Window of the Cathedral of Lausanne, digitized using the presented methods.

  7. Moisture Transfer through Facades Covered with Organic Binder Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen DICO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Year after year we witness the negative effect of water over buildings, caused by direct or indirect actions. This situation is obvious in case of old, historical building, subjected to this aggression for a long period of time, but new buildings are also affected. Moisture in building materials causes not only structural damage, but also reduces the thermal insulation capacity of building components.Materials like plasters or paints have been used historically for a long period of time, fulfilling two basics functions: Decoration and Protection. The most acute demands are made on exterior plasters, as they, besides being an important decorative element for the facade, must perform two different functions simultaneously: protect the substrate against weathering and moisture without sealing, providing it a certain ability to “breathe” (Heilen, 2005. In order to accomplish this aim, the first step is to understand the hygrothermal behavior of coating and substrate and define the fundamental principles of moisture transfer; According to Künzel’s Facade Protection Theory, two material properties play the most important role: Water absorption and Vapor permeability.In the context of recently adoption (2009 of the “harmonized” European standard EN 15824 – „Specifications for external renders and internal plasters based on organic binders”, this paper deals extensively with the interaction of the two mentioned above properties for the coating materials, covered by EN 15824.

  8. Light field rendering with omni-directional camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Hiroshi; Saito, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents an approach to capture visual appearance of a real environment such as an interior of a room. We propose the method for generating arbitrary viewpoint images by building light field with the omni-directional camera, which can capture the wide circumferences. Omni-directional camera used in this technique is a special camera with the hyperbolic mirror in the upper part of a camera, so that we can capture luminosity in the environment in the range of 360 degree of circumferences in one image. We apply the light field method, which is one technique of Image-Based-Rendering(IBR), for generating the arbitrary viewpoint images. The light field is a kind of the database that records the luminosity information in the object space. We employ the omni-directional camera for constructing the light field, so that we can collect many view direction images in the light field. Thus our method allows the user to explore the wide scene, that can acheive realistic representation of virtual enviroment. For demonstating the proposed method, we capture image sequence in our lab's interior environment with an omni-directional camera, and succesfully generate arbitray viewpoint images for virual tour of the environment.

  9. WikiPrints: rendering enterprise Wiki content for printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkner, Kathrin

    2010-02-01

    Wikis have become a tool of choice for collaborative, informative communication. In contrast to the immense Wikipedia, that serves as a reference web site and typically covers only one topic per web page, enterprise wikis are often used as project management tools and contain several closely related pages authored by members of one project. In that scenario it is useful to print closely related content for review or teaching purposes. In this paper we propose a novel technique for rendering enterprise wiki content for printing called WikiPrints, that creates a linearized version of wiki content formatted as a mixture between web layout and conventional document layout suitable for printing. Compared to existing print options for wiki content, Wikiprints automatically selects content from different wiki pages given user preferences and usage scenarios. Meta data such as content authors or time of content editing are considered. A preview of the linearized content is shown to the user and an interface for making manual formatting changes provided.

  10. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  11. Differentiation renders susceptibility to excitotoxicity in HT22 neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minchao He; Jun Liu; Shaowu Cheng; Yigang Xing; William Z Suo

    2013-01-01

    HT22 is an immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line that does not express cholinergic and glutamate receptors like mature hippocampal neurons in vivo. This in part prevents its use as a model for mature hippocampal neurons in memory-related studies. We now report that HT22 cells were appropriately induced to differentiate and possess properties similar to those of mature hippocampal neurons in vivo, such as becoming more glutamate-receptive and excitatory. Results showed that sensitivity of HT22 cells to glutamate-induced toxicity changed dramatically when comparing undifferentiated with differentiated cells, with the half-effective concentration for differentiated cells reducing approximately two orders of magnitude. Moreover, glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated cells, but not undifferentiated cells, was inhibited by the N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor antagonists MK-801 and memantine. Evidently, differentiated HT22 cells expressed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while undifferentiated cells did not. Our experimental findings indicated that differentiation is important for immortalized cell lines to render post-mitotic neuronal properties, and that differentiated HT22 neurons represent a better model of hippocampal neurons than undifferentiated cells.

  12. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  13. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  14. Transportation of coal by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Canada's coal resources, technology of long distance coal slurry pipelines, existing and planned coal slurry pipelines, their economics, liquid carbon dioxide, methanol and crude oil instead of water as carrier fluid, and coal slurry research in Canada.

  15. Why do proteins aggregate? “Intrinsically insoluble proteins” and “dark mediators” revealed by studies on “insoluble proteins” solubilized in pure water [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/z0

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, I reviewed and proposed a model for our discovery in 2005 that unrefoldable and insoluble proteins could in fact be solubilized in unsalted water. Since then, this discovery has offered us and other groups a powerful tool to characterize insoluble proteins, and we have further addressed several fundamental and disease-relevant issues associated with this discovery. Here I review these results, which are conceptualized into several novel scenarios. 1) Unlike 'misfolded proteins', whic...

  16. Depolymerization of coal by oxidation and alkylation; Sanka bunkai to alkyl ka ni yoru sekitan kaijugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, H.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    Change in depolymerization degree and coal structure was studied for depolymerization treatment of coal in various alcohol containing aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In experiment, the mixture of Yallourn coal, alcohol and aqueous hydrogen peroxide was agitated in nitrogen atmosphere of normal pressure at 70{degree}C for 12 hours. As the experimental result, the methanol solubility of only 5% of raw coal increased up to 35.2% by hydrogen peroxide treatment, while the yield of insoluble matters also decreased from 94% to 62%. Most of the gas produced during treatment was composed of inorganic gases such as CO and CO2, and its carbon loss was extremely decreased by adding alcohol. From the analytical result of carbon loss in hydrogen peroxide treatment, it was clarified that alkylation advances with introduction of alkyl group derived from alcohol into coal by hydrogen peroxide treatment under a coexistence of alcohol, and depolymerization reaction of coal itself is thus promoted by alcohol. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Impact of solid discharges from coal usage in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D G; Straughan, I R

    1978-12-01

    The Southwestern region of the United States is extremely wealthy in low sulfur coal resources which must be eventually utilized in response to national energy balance priorities. Fly ash and scrubber sludge can be safely disposed of using properly managed techniques to ensure that any potential impact from elements such as boron, molybdenum, or selenium is rendered insignificant. Alternative methods of solids utilization are presently being developed. Fly ash is presently being marketed commercially as an additive for concrete manufacture. Successful experiments have been completed to demonstrate the manufacture of commercial-grade wallboard from scrubber sludge. Also, greenhouse studies and field experiments have been conducted to demonstrate increased yields of selected crops grown on typical soils amended with fly ash in amounts ranging from 2% to 8%, by weight. These studies also indicate that barium and strontium may be good monitoring indices for determining atmospheric deposition of fly ash, due to their concentration ratios in soil and vegetation samples. Further studies are being conducted to confirm encouraging irrigation and crop-yield data obtained with fly ash amended soils. Finally, the composition of many fly ashes and soils are similar in the Southwest, and there are no anticipated solid discharges from coal usage which cannot be rendered insignificant with proper management of existing and emerging methods of treatment. Compared with the water availability impact of coal usage in the Southwest, the impact of solid waste discharges are insignificant.

  18. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  19. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  20. Industrial role of coal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierk, E.A.; Stadelhofer, J.W.

    1983-02-07

    The paper is concerned with the production of coal-based chemicals either from the by-products of coal carbonization, or from synthesis gas manufactured from coal. The potential of coal tar as a raw material for chemicals synthesis forms the basis of the paper. Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi gasification processes and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are considered, and, finally, coal liquefaction processes are briefly mentioned.

  1. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein

    OpenAIRE

    de Folter, J.W.J.; van Ruijven, M.W.M.; Velikov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Few fully natural and biocompatible materials are available for the effective particle-stabilization of emulsions since strict requirements, such as insolubility in both fluid phases and intermediate wettability, need to be met. In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of water-insoluble proteins, employing the corn protein zein as a representative of this family, as effective particle-stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions of natural oils and water. For this purpose, we synthesized zein co...

  2. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  3. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  4. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  5. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  6. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  7. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  8. Design and Implementation of an Application. Programming Interface for Volume Rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Selldin, Håkan

    2002-01-01

    To efficiently examine volumetric data sets from CT or MRI scans good volume rendering applications are needed. This thesis describes the design and implementation of an application programming interface (API) to be used when developing volume-rendering applications. A complete application programming interface has been designed. The interface is designed so that it makes writing application programs containing volume rendering fast and easy. The interface also makes created application progr...

  9. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  10. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  11. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil;

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...

  12. A new technique for the encapsulation of water insoluble drugs using ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, D S; Sai, M S; Dorle, A K

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for encapsulation of water insoluble drugs has been developed utilizing ethyl cellulose as a wall forming material. Ethyl cellulose was dissolved in a water immiscible, volatile organic solvent, containing sulphadiazine as a model drug. This dispersion was emulsified into an aqueous bentonite suspension and phase separation was induced by solvent evaporation. The effect of bentonite concentration, core to coat ratio, organic solvent, speed of agitation and temperature was studied with respect to the microcapsule size and size distribution, drug content, in vitro release and surface characteristics.

  13. Functional and physiological properties of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibres derived from defatted rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Cheickna; Zhang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Enzymatic- gravimetric method was used to obtain three fractions of dietary from defatted rice bran. The functional and physiological properties such as viscosity, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI), cholesterol and bile salt adsorption capacity of the resultant fractions were evaluated. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) when compared showed that SDF exhibited significantly (p functional ingredients which can be added to various food products and dietetic, low-calorie high-fiber foods to enhance their nutraceutical properties and health benefits.

  14. Influence of rendering methods on yield and quality of chicken fat recovered from broiler skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Kun Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to utilize fat from broiler byproducts efficiently, it is necessary to develop an appropriate rendering procedure and establish quality information for the rendered fat. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the influence of rendering methods on the amounts and general properties of the fat recovered from broiler skin. Methods The yield and quality of the broiler skin fat rendered through high and lower energy microwave rendering (3.6 W/g for 10 min and 2.4 W/g for 10 min for high power microwave rendering (HPMR and high power microwave rendering (LPMR, respectively, oven baking (OB, at 180°C for 40 min, and water cooking (WC, boiling for 40 min were compared. Results Microwave-rendered skin exhibited the highest yields and fat recovery rates, followed by OB, and WC fats (p<0.05. HPMR fat had the highest L*, a*, and b* values, whereas WC fat had the highest moisture content, acid values, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA values (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the acid value, peroxide value, and TBA values between HPMR and LPMR fats. Conclusion Microwave rendering at a power level of 3.6 W/g for 10 min is suggested base on the yield and quality of chicken fat.

  15. Performance Assessment of Three Rendering Engines in 3D Computer Graphics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žan Vidmar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the determination of testing conditions and visual and numerical evaluation of renderings made with three different rendering engines in Maya software, which is widely used for educational and computer art purposes. In the theoretical part the overview of light phenomena and their simulation in virtual space is presented. This is followed by a detailed presentation of the main rendering methods and the results and limitations of their applications to 3D objects. At the end of the theoretical part the importance of a proper testing scene and especially the role of Cornell box are explained. In the experimental part the terms and conditions as well as hardware and software used for the research are presented. This is followed by a description of the procedures, where we focused on the rendering quality and time, which enabled the comparison of settings of different render engines and determination of conditions for further rendering of testing scenes. The experimental part continued with rendering a variety of simple virtual scenes including Cornell box and virtual object with different materials and colours. Apart from visual evaluation, which was the starting point for comparison of renderings, a procedure for numerical estimation and colour deviations of renderings using the selected regions of interest in the final images is presented.

  16. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  17. Tianjin smokeless coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuvid, J.M. [Information Services Trans Europe B.V. (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    A feasibility study was started to evaluate the technical barriers and the commercial possibilities of forming a joint venture between the Tianjin Coal and Building Materials Company (TCBM) and Coalite hereby coal from the Shanxi coalfields would be converted by the Coalite process to a smokeless fuel, which would reduce Taijin`s heavy level of air pollution. The project was, however, aborted in October 1996 because Tianjin had been allocated a connection to domestic natural gas fields. The project did identify the suitability of coals from the Shanxi coalfields for the Coalite process and the likely market acceptability of the product. It demonstrated the necessity of establishing good contacts in the relevant industries and Ministries in China - and highlighted the benefits of an effective collaboration between three types of organisation - an investment and consultancy company with expertise in China, a UK clean coal technology company, and a local consultant. 4 apps.

  18. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  19. Proximate analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  20. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  1. Coal log pipeline for twenty-first century coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.; Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    During the first years of the 21st century coal log pipeline (CLP) technology will be available for long-distance coal transportation. The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-the-art of coal log pipeline technology. Some recent developments are as follows: optimization of coal log compaction procedures, construction of a unique coal log prototype manufacturing machine, and its testing. Coal log abrasion while transported in water-filled pipelines is also discussed. A CLP pilot plant is currently under construction at the University of Missouri. For certain routes in the US a CLP system appears to be cost-competitive.

  2. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  3. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  4. COAL QUALITY CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥瑞

    1998-01-01

    Coal storing and loading have much more influence on coal quality. In the paper, a goalprogramming model has been constructed to determine the ideal quantity extracting from stockpileand silos and a quality control model is inferred under the guidance of maximum theory ofdispersed number and practice methods are given to meet production demand, with which a coalmine has achieved a better tech-economic result.

  5. American coal imports 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Kolojeski [TransGlobal Ventures Corp. (United States)

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  6. Indicators of coal metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.

    1982-06-01

    Important in determining metamorphism of coal is the reliability of indicators of coalification. Both the reflection of vitrinite and emission of volatile matter have been used for this purpose. To determine which indicator more accurately characterizes metamorphism of coal, their conformity to the following demands was established: 1. uniformity in direction of change of parameters with degree of metamorphism; 2. independence of the indicator of the genetic characteristics of coal (petrographic composition, reduction and oxidation of coal); 3. sensitivity of indicator. Both indicators conform to the first requirement. Emission of volatile substance decreases and reflective capacity of vitrinite increases uniformly with degree of metamorphism. However, the reflectivity of vitrinite is not influenced by petrographic composition of coals and is less dependent on the oxidation and reduction of coal than emission of volatile matter. It is also a more sensitive indicator distinguishing more degrees of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. Reflectivity of vitrinite is a more reliable indicator of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. However, in many laboratories this indicator is not measured with sufficient accuracy. To correct this, measuring equipment must be standardized.

  7. Coal in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConville, L.; Broadbent, J.; Rousaki, K.

    1999-01-01

    Bulgaria`s national energy strategy includes plans to restructure the energy sector by introducing competition and privatisation, to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection and to prepare the country for integration into the EU energy market. Energy prices are still under government control and coal mining is heavily subsidised. Bulgaria is a major producer of coal, all of which is consumed locally. Most of the domestic production is low quality lignite used for electricity generation. Demand for hard coal is met by imports, mainly from the former USSR and the USA. Bulgaria generates almost half of its electricity needs from coal. Total reserves of lignite are estimated at 2.5 Gt. Coal production declined between 1987 and 1991 reflecting the economic disturbance following the break up of the USSR. In 1996, production was 32 Mt. The mining industry is being restructured as Bulgaria is slowly moving from a centrally-controlled economy to a market-based economy. Environmental damage as a result of coal production has been serious in Bulgaria, due to the use of low grade high sulphur content lignite. 84 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. SUMO-2 and PIAS1 modulate insoluble mutant huntingtin protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Jacqueline Gire; Gareau, Jaclyn R; Ochaba, Joseph; Song, Wan; Raskó, Tamás; Reverter, David; Lee, John; Monteys, Alex Mas; Pallos, Judit; Mee, Lisa; Vashishtha, Malini; Apostol, Barbara L; Nicholson, Thomas Peter; Illes, Katalin; Zhu, Ya-Zhen; Dasso, Mary; Bates, Gillian P; Difiglia, Marian; Davidson, Beverly; Wanker, Erich E; Marsh, J Lawrence; Lima, Christopher D; Steffan, Joan S; Thompson, Leslie M

    2013-07-25

    A key feature in Huntington disease (HD) is the accumulation of mutant Huntingtin (HTT) protein, which may be regulated by posttranslational modifications. Here, we define the primary sites of SUMO modification in the amino-terminal domain of HTT, show modification downstream of this domain, and demonstrate that HTT is modified by the stress-inducible SUMO-2. A systematic study of E3 SUMO ligases demonstrates that PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase for both HTT SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 modification and that reduction of dPIAS in a mutant HTT Drosophila model is protective. SUMO-2 modification regulates accumulation of insoluble HTT in HeLa cells in a manner that mimics proteasome inhibition and can be modulated by overexpression and acute knockdown of PIAS1. Finally, the accumulation of SUMO-2-modified proteins in the insoluble fraction of HD postmortem striata implicates SUMO-2 modification in the age-related pathogenic accumulation of mutant HTT and other cellular proteins that occurs during HD progression.

  9. Sulfated modification, characterization and property of a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jun-Qiao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wang, Yuan-Xing; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Sulfated modification was carried out to modify a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum (AGAP). The effects of sulfation on structure, physicochemical and functional properties of AGAP were investigated. Three sulfated derivatives were prepared, designated as S-1, S-2 and S-3 with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.35, 0.74 and 1.14, respectively. AGAP was elucidated as an α-(1→3)-glucan with few branches terminated by single mannose or xylose residues. The molecular weight (Mw) and radius of gyration (Rg) were estimated to be 1665 kDa and 65.49 nm, respectively. After sulfated modification, non-selective sulfation occurred preferably at O-6, partially at O-2 and O-4 positions of the glucosyl residues. The water-solubility of the derivatives was significantly improved in a DS-dependent manner. Mw of the derivatives showed a sharp decrease, and the chain conformation was estimated to be expanded stiff in phosphate buffer. In vitro tests showed that sulfated modification improved its antioxidant activities and anti-proliferative ability against S-180 tumor cells. This study suggested that sulfated modification was an effective approach to improve the water-solubility and functional properties of insoluble polysaccharides.

  10. Comparative characteristics of the insoluble part of organic matter of sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprin, P.N.; Sorokin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Comparative characteristics are presented for the composition of the insoluble part of organic matter (IOM) of sediments of offshore basins from different climate zones. The IOM of the Holocene sediments of the White Sea is characterized by a significant admixture which has a terrestrial (plant) origin. The IOM of the Holocene sediments of the Sidra gulf of the Mediterranean Sea, having a clearly planktonogenic origin is distinguished by significant acidity. The IOM of the middle Wurm deposits record admixture of compounds inherent to terrestrial vegetation. A similar composition of IOM can be associated partially with increase in the role of the terrigenous organic chemistry during the interglacial thawing, and partially with oxidation of the original organic matter. The insoluble part of concentrated and scattered differences in the organic matter of deep-sea Holocene sediments and late Miocene deposits of the Black Sea is characterized by sapropel composition and was formed through phytoplanktons. In this case greater degree of transformation of the IOM from the C /SUB org/ -enriched late Miocene deposits is found as compared to the IOM of the sapropel-like Holocene sediments.

  11. Organic acids as cloud condensation nuclei: Laboratory studies of highly soluble and insoluble species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pradeep Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sub-micron-sized organic acid particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN has been examined at room temperature using a newly constructed continuous-flow, thermal-gradient diffusion chamber (TGDC. The organic acids studied were: oxalic, malonic, glutaric, oleic and stearic. The CCN properties of the highly soluble acids - oxalic, malonic and glutaric - match very closely Köhler theory predictions which assume full dissolution of the dry particle and a surface tension of the growing droplet equal to that of water. In particular, for supersaturations between 0.3 and 0.6, agreement between the dry particle diameter which gives 50% activation and that calculated from Köhler theory is to within 3nm on average. In the course of the experiments, considerable instability of glutaric acid particles was observed as a function of time and there is evidence that they fragment to some degree to smaller particles. Stearic acid and oleic acid, which are both highly insoluble in water, did not activate at supersaturations of 0.6% with dry diameters up to 140nm. Finally, to validate the performance of the TGDC, we present results for the activation of ammonium sulfate particles that demonstrate good agreement with Köhler theory if solution non-ideality is considered. Our findings support earlier studies in the literature that showed highly soluble organics to be CCN active but insoluble species to be largely inactive.

  12. A Vertical Draining Film with an Insoluble Surfactant and Nonlinear Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh; Braun, Richard; Snow, Steve

    2000-11-01

    The drainage of a thin Newtonian film with an insoluble surfactant is studied theoretically in 1+1 dimensions. Lubrication theory is applied to the thin film, which is suspended vertically from a frame and drains into a bath. Three nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) govern the evolution of the film shape, surface velocity and surfactant concentration. The surface viscosity and the surface tension of the films are nonlinear functions of the surface concentration; the functions are of the form defined by Lopez and Hirsa for hemicyanine in water. At high concentrations the effects from surface viscosity and the Marangoni effect become more pronounced. Slow and fast draining limits can still be reached and a Marangoni-driven wave that is very localized may be observed. In some instances, the film surface may even be swept clean over some part of its length. When the surface is swept clean, we expect that a vertical film cannot be made for any useful length of time. This is in agreement with expected behavior when films are made with insoluble surfactants; the surface concentration must be high in order for the film to last. This work has been partially supported by the NSF and Dow Corning.

  13. Neuromelanins of human brain have soluble and insoluble components with dolichols attached to the melanic structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Engelen

    Full Text Available Neuromelanins (NMs are neuronal pigments of melanic-lipidic type which accumulate during aging. They are involved in protective and degenerative mechanisms depending on the cellular context, however their structures are still poorly understood. NMs from nine human brain areas were analyzed in detail. Elemental analysis led to identification of three types of NM, while infrared spectroscopy showed that NMs from neurons of substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease, have similar structure but different from NMs from brain regions not targeted by the disease. Synthetic melanins containing Fe and bovine serum albumin were prepared to model the natural product and help clarifying the structure of NMs. Extensive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies showed the presence of dolichols both in the soluble and insoluble parts of NM. Diffusion measurements demonstrated that the dimethyl sulfoxide soluble components consist of oligomeric precursors with MWs in the range 1.4-52 kDa, while the insoluble part contains polymers of larger size but with a similar composition. These data suggest that the selective vulnerability of neurons of substantia nigra and locus coeruleus in Parkinson's disease might depend on the structure of the pigment. Moreover, they allow to propose a pathway for NM biosynthesis in human brain.

  14. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  15. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  16. Use of Hydrophilic Insoluble Polymers in the Restoration of Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiwei Qu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop cost-effective techniques that contribute to phytostabilization of severely metal-contaminated soils is a necessary task in environmental research. Hydrophilic insoluble polymers have been used for some time in diapers and other hygienic products and to increase the water-holding capacity of coarse-textured soils. These polymers contain groups, such as carboxyl groups, that are capable of forming bonds with metallic cations, thereby decreasing their bioavailability in soils. The use of polyacrylate polymers as soil amendments to restore metal-contaminated soils has been investigated in the Technical University of Lisbon since the late nineties. Plant growth and plant nutrients concentrations, extractable levels of metals in soil, and soil enzyme activities were used to monitor the improvement in soil quality following the application of these polymers. In contaminated soils, hydrophilic insoluble polymers can create microcosms that are rich in water and nutrients (counterions but only contain small concentrations of toxic elements; the conditions of these microenvironments are favorable to roots and microorganisms. In this paper we described the most relevant information available about this topic.

  17. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances.

  18. SUMO-2 and PIAS1 Modulate Insoluble Mutant Huntingtin Protein Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Gire O’Rourke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A key feature in Huntington disease (HD is the accumulation of mutant Huntingtin (HTT protein, which may be regulated by posttranslational modifications. Here, we define the primary sites of SUMO modification in the amino-terminal domain of HTT, show modification downstream of this domain, and demonstrate that HTT is modified by the stress-inducible SUMO-2. A systematic study of E3 SUMO ligases demonstrates that PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase for both HTT SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 modification and that reduction of dPIAS in a mutant HTT Drosophila model is protective. SUMO-2 modification regulates accumulation of insoluble HTT in HeLa cells in a manner that mimics proteasome inhibition and can be modulated by overexpression and acute knockdown of PIAS1. Finally, the accumulation of SUMO-2-modified proteins in the insoluble fraction of HD postmortem striata implicates SUMO-2 modification in the age-related pathogenic accumulation of mutant HTT and other cellular proteins that occurs during HD progression.

  19. Tau kinase inhibitors protect hippocampal synapses despite of insoluble tau accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinners, Ina; Hill, Anika; Otto, Ulrike; Michalsky, Anke; Mack, Till G A; Striggow, Frank

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathomechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prerequisite for the development of efficient treatments. We have used a novel assay system based on virus-transduced organotypic hippocampal slice cultures that mimics important aspects of tau-driven AD pathology in a short time frame. Human tau P301L, when expressed in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slice cultures, was increasingly phosphorylated at several disease-relevant epitopes, leading to progressive neuronal dystrophy and formation of RIPA-insoluble tau. AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation was reduced by the tau kinase inhibitors lithium and SRN-003-556, but RIPA-insoluble tau remained unaffected after treatment with any of these substances. Only SRN-003-556 was able to protect hippocampal neurons from synaptic damage that was presumably caused by a toxic soluble tau fraction. These data provide first mechanistic insights towards the functional benefits of SRN-003-556 that have been observed in vivo.

  20. [Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals and legumes cultivated in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Ayala, C; Vera, G; Pennacchiotti, I; Araya, H

    1990-03-01

    Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber (DF) were determined in 35 varieties of certified whole seeds (without processing) of cereals (rice, oat, rye, and wheat) and legumes (pea, cowpea, beans, chikpea, lentil and lupine). The enzymatic method of Asp, Johansson and Siljestrom was used, with modifications in relation to time of incubation with alpha amylase, filtration system and volumes of the filtrates. Results were expressed as g/100 g dry weight. Total DF for cereals showed a range from 10.1 (wheat var. Chasqui) to 22.2 (rice var Quella). Rye, var. Tetra Baer and oats var. Pony Baer presented the highest soluble fiber content (3.3 and 3.9, respectively). In legumes, total DF fluctuated between 12.7 (pea, var. yellow) and 36.6 (lupine, var. Multolupa). Bean, var. Pinto INIA and lupine var. Multolupa presented the highest soluble fiber values (5.8 for both). Based on the results of this research work, it might be concluded that great variation exists in regard to the amount of total soluble and insoluble DF in cereals and legumes, a fact which impedes generalization as to its content in each food item.

  1. Characterisation of detergent-insoluble membranes in pollen tubes of Nicotiana tabacum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Moscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tubes are the vehicle for sperm cell delivery to the embryo sac during fertilisation of Angiosperms. They provide an intriguing model for unravelling mechanisms of growing to extremes. The asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins in the pollen tube plasma membrane modulates ion fluxes and actin dynamics and is maintained by a delicate equilibrium between exocytosis and endocytosis. The structural constraints regulating polarised secretion and asymmetric protein distribution on the plasma membrane are mostly unknown. To address this problem, we investigated whether ordered membrane microdomains, namely membrane rafts, might contribute to sperm cell delivery. Detergent insoluble membranes, rich in sterols and sphingolipids, were isolated from tobacco pollen tubes. MALDI TOF/MS analysis revealed that actin, prohibitins and proteins involved in methylation reactions and in phosphoinositide pattern regulation are specifically present in pollen tube detergent insoluble membranes. Tubulins, voltage-dependent anion channels and proteins involved in membrane trafficking and signalling were also present. This paper reports the first evidence of membrane rafts in Angiosperm pollen tubes, opening new perspectives on the coordination of signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and polarised secretion.

  2. Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Guide for Authors Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(English Edition), a comprehensive academic periodical of the China Coal Society, covers the fields of coal science and technology including coal geology, exploration,mine survey, mine project assessment, mine construction, coal mining, coal mine electrical machinery,mine safety, coal processing and utilization, coal mine environmental protection, etc. It reflects the latest research results and findings.

  3. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  4. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  5. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-09-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains.

  6. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  7. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  8. Underground coal gasification - the acceptable face of coal mining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryburgh, P.

    2009-11-15

    There is growing interest in underground coal gasification, whereby energy is accessed from coal in a cleaner way than traditional combustion methods. The paper looks at the benefits of UCG. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  9. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  10. Denver Coal Basin boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Denver coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  11. Objective pathological diagnosis of coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, E.R.; Watkins, G.; Lam, N.V.; Tsuda, H.; Hermann, C.; Johal, J.; Liu, H.

    1981-05-08

    Pertinent pathological features of lungs obtained at autopsies from 99 coal miners were compared with those observed in the lungs of 268 male town dwellers of comparable age who were not occupationally related to the coal mining or other industries at risk for development of pneumoconiosis. The degree of anthracotic pigment deposition and severity of type of pigmented lesion with its accompanying reticulum fiber formation and fibrosis were significantly greater in lungs of miners. There was a high degree of overlap in degree of pigment deposition, particularly those quantitated as grades 1 and 2 and in lesions regarded as types 1 and 2. The greatest divergence was observed for prevalence of nodular pulmonary lesions (type 4). There was also a considerable divergence in the type 3 alteration characterized by nonnodular aggregates of carbon-laden macrophages accompanied by minimal reactive fibrosis. It appears that an objective pathological diagnosis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) can be rendered only by the demonstration of type 4 lesions. Approximately 25% of coal miners exhibited unequivocal features of CWP. No significant differences concerning incidence or types of emphysema or frequency of chronic cor pulmonale were encountered between the two populations.

  12. Objective pathological diagnosis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, E.R.; Watkins, G.; Lam, N.V.; Tsuda, H.; Hermann, C.; Johal, J.; Liu, H.

    1981-05-08

    Pertinent pathological features of lungs obtained at autopsies from 99 coal miners were compared with those observed in the lungs of 268 male town dwellers of comparable age who were not occupationally related to the coal mining or other industries at risk for development of pneumoconiosis. The degree of anthracotic pigment deposition and severity of type of pigmented lesion with its accompanying reticulum fiber formation and fibrosis were significantly greater in lungs of miners. There was a high degree of overlap in degrees of pigment deposition, particularly those quantitated as grades 1 and 2 and in lesions regarded as types 1 and 2. The greatest divergence was observed for prevalence of nodular pulmonary lesions (type 4). There was also a considerable divergence in the type 3 alteration characterized by nonnodular aggregates of carbon-laden macrophages accompanied by minimal reactive fibrosis. It appears that an objective pathological diagnosis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis can be rendered only by the demonstration of type 4 lesions. Approximately 25% of coal miners exhibited unequivocal features of CWP. No significant differences concerning incidence or types of emphysema or frequency of chronic cor pulmonale were encountered between the two populations.

  13. Coal recovery from a coal waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanski Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities and efficiency of coal recovery from the waste material located at the Central Coal Waste Dump in Poland were presented in this paper. The waste material includes significant amount of fly ash. Research conducted into determination of energetic properties of such wastes showed that the average ash content was 75.75% and the average gross calorific value was 7.81 MJ/kg. Coal was gravitationally separated from the waste material in a pulsatory jig and in a spiral washer including size fractions: 30-5 and 8-0 mm (this was crushed to a size <3.2 mm, respectively. The application of the pulsatory jig (pulse classifier allowed to obtain a high-quality energetic concentrate with the ash content lower than 12% and the gross calorific value higher than 26 MJ/kg (with average yield 7.8%. The spiral separator gave much worse results. The average gross calorific value for the concentrate was 11.6 MJ/kg, with the high ash content 56.5% and yield approximately 26%.

  14. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  15. Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, Michel A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a wavelet-based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in

  16. Evaluation of voxel-based rendering of high resolution surface descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    responses by having more “distinct” representations of the individual reflections. When rendered audible, such descriptions will lead to a sound quality that can best be described as “canned”. For the rendering of real rooms, as e.g. in "teletransporting", this problem may be addressed by using high...

  17. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  18. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  19. From in situ coal to the final coal product: A case study of the Danville Coal Member (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in

  20. Modes of Occurrence of Fluorine by Extraction and SEM Method in a Coal-Fired Power Plant from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extraction method and environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to reveal the changes in the occurrence mode of fluorine in a coal-fired power plant in Inner Mongolia, China. The different occurrence states of fluorine during coal combustion and emission show that fluorine in coal mainly assumes insoluble inorganic mineral forms. The results illustrate that the three typical occurrence modes in coal are CaF2, MgF2 and AlF3. The fluorine in fly ash can be captured by an electrostatic precipitator (EPS or a bag filter. In contrast, the gaseous fluorine content in flue gas is only in the range of several parts per million; thus, it cannot be used in this study. The occurrence mode of fluorine in bottom ash and slag is inorganic villiaumite (e.g., soluble NaF, KF and insoluble CaF2 which is difficult to break down even at high temperatures. The occurrence mode of fluorine with the highest content in fly ash is physically adsorbed fluorine along the direction of the flue gas flow. The insoluble inorganic mineral fluoride content in fly ash is also high, but the gradually increasing fluorine content in fly ash is mainly caused by physical adsorption. Fluorine in the coal-fired power plant discharges mostly as solid products; however, very little fluorine emitted into the environment as gas products (HF, SiF4 cannot be captured. The parameters used in this study may provide useful references in developing a monitoring and control system for fluorine in coal-fired power plants.

  1. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  2. Method and system for rendering and interacting with an adaptable computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil [Albuquerque, NM; Bouchard, Ann Marie [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-12

    An adaptable computing environment is implemented with software entities termed "s-machines", which self-assemble into hierarchical data structures capable of rendering and interacting with the computing environment. A hierarchical data structure includes a first hierarchical s-machine bound to a second hierarchical s-machine. The first hierarchical s-machine is associated with a first layer of a rendering region on a display screen and the second hierarchical s-machine is associated with a second layer of the rendering region overlaying at least a portion of the first layer. A screen element s-machine is linked to the first hierarchical s-machine. The screen element s-machine manages data associated with a screen element rendered to the display screen within the rendering region at the first layer.

  3. Accelerating Time-Varying Hardware Volume Rendering Using TSP Trees and Color-Based Error Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, David; Chiang, Ling-Jen; Shen, Han-Wei; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new hardware volume rendering algorithm for time-varying data. The algorithm uses the Time-Space Partitioning (TSP) tree data structure to identify regions within the data that have spatial or temporal coherence. By using this coherence, the rendering algorithm can improve performance when the volume data is larger than the texture memory capacity by decreasing the amount of textures required. This coherence can also allow improved speed by appropriately rendering flat-shaded polygons instead of textured polygons, and by not rendering transparent regions. To reduce the polygonization overhead caused by the use of the hierarchical data structure, we introduce an optimization method using polygon templates. The paper also introduces new color-based error metrics, which more accurately identify coherent regions compared to the earlier scalar-based metrics. By showing experimental results from runs using different data sets and error metrics, we demonstrate that the new methods give substantial improvements in volume rendering performance.

  4. Kinetics of mesophase transformation of coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H.; Feng, Y.; Shen, B.; Gao, J. [East China Institute of Metallurgy, Maanshan (China)

    1998-05-01

    A study on the kinetics of mesophase transformation of two coal tar pitches (CTP) with different primary quinoline-insoluble (QI) content is reported. It showed that the meosphase transformation of CTP studied was an autocatalytic type reaction. The rate law and rate constants for the mesophase transformation at holding temperature of 390{degree}C, 410{degree}C and 450{degree}C were determined and the rate constants of mesophase transformation follow the Arrhenius equation. Primary QI of CTP decreases the activation energy from 210.1 kJ/mol to 175.8 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor from 2.12 x 10{sup 13} 1/h to 6.29 x 10{sup 10} 1/h; its influence on the rate constants is irregular. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  6. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  7. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. [Runs 49 to 57 and 59 to 62

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project for the period January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. The fourth quarter of 1979 is reported here in detail. Turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis SRC-II Pilot Plant were completed. During the shutdown, installation of Slurry Preheater B was completed. In addition, extensive modifications were completed to improve operability and slurry handling capabilities. The experimental program for testing Slurry Preheater B was revised to improve the data base for design scale-up considerations. Coal feed was established using Powhatan No. 6 coal. Twenty slurry survey tests were designed to establish the effects of varous slurry and heater inlet hydrogen flow rates on heat transfer, heater coil pressure drop, and heater operability. Additional tests were also added to the preheater evaluation program to study the effects of coal concentration, recycle pyridine insoluble concentration and preheater outlet temperatures. During 1979, PDU P-99 completed 13 runs (Runs 49 to 57 and 59 to 62). All these runs were made feeding coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  9. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  10. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  11. China's post-coal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  12. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  13. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  14. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  15. Combustion and leaching behavior of elements in the argonne premium coal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Palmer, C.A.; Krasnow, M.R.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Sellers, G.A.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal samples and two other coal samples were used to observe the effects of combustion and leaching on 30 elements. The results were used to infer the modes of occurrence of these elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis indicates that the effects of combustion and leaching on many elements varied markedly among the samples. As much as 90% of the selenium and bromine is volatilized from the bituminous coal samples, but substantially less is volatilized from the low-rank coals. We interpret the combustion and leaching behavior of these elements to indicate that they are associated with the organic fraction. Sodium, although nonvolatile, is ion-exchangeable in most samples, particularly in the low-rank coal samples where it is likely to be associated with the organic constituents. Potassium is primarily in an ion-exchangeable form in the Wypdak coal but is in HF-soluble phases (probably silicates) in most other samples. Cesium is in an unidentified HNO3-soluble phase in most samples. Virtually all the strontium and barium in the low-rank coal samples is removed by NH4OAc followed by HCl, indicating that these elements probably occur in both organic and inorganic phases. Most tungsten and tantalum are in insoluble phases, perhaps as oxides or in organic association. Hafnium is generally insoluble, but as much as 65% is HF soluble, perhaps due to the presence of very fine grained or metamict zircon. We interpret the leaching behavior of uranium to indicate its occurrence in chelates and its association with silicates and with zircon. Most of the rare-earth elements (REE) and thorium appear to be associated with phosphates. Differences in textural relationships may account for some of the differences in leaching behavior of the REE among samples. Zinc occurs predominantly in sphalerite. Either the remaining elements occur in several different modes of occurrence (scandium, iron), or the leaching data are equivocal (arsenic, antimony

  16. Coal type and burnout performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  18. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  19. Service Modules for Coal Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Service train follows group of mining machines, paying out utility lines as machines progress into coal face. Service train for four mining machines removes gases and coal and provides water and electricity. Flexible, coiling armored carriers protect cables and hoses. High coal production attained by arraying row of machines across face, working side by side.

  20. Coal mining in socioeconomic aspect

    OpenAIRE

    ZALOZNOVA YU. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article investigate the correlation of economic and social factors in the development of coal mining on example of vertically integrated companies with both domestic and foreign assets. The effect of socioeconomic aspects which have led to the American paradox of coal is studied to understand the essence of the coal mining industry at the present stage of the global economic management.

  1. Comparative fermentation of insoluble carbohydrates in an in vitro human feces model spiked with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne; van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Jensen, Susanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber and slow carbohydrates can have differential beneficial effects on gut microbial composition and metabolism. Insoluble substrates such as RS cannot be used in continuous simulation systems and we tested an in vitro batch fermentation system for possible prebiotic effects using waxy...... by each insoluble carbohydrate resulting in a clear decrease in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Notably, all carbohydrates tested appeared to block the formation of the potentially harmful branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) fermentation products, but supported lactobacilli growth and increase...... in lactic acid production. Potato lintner starch had the greatest effect. Insoluble carbohydrates also suppressed production of SCFAs as compared to the control medium. Importantly, potato lintner starch most efficiently suppressed the ratio between the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and suppressed growth...

  2. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (, and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (. BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring.

  3. Lithium ion conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes containing insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Ohta, Takayuki; Fujinami, Tatsuo [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    Lithium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes composed of insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate (LiTPSB), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate mixed solvent (EC-PC) were prepared and their ionic conductivities and electrochemical stabilities were investigated. Ionic conductivity was largely dependent on the contents of EC-PC and LiTPSB. Gel polymer electrolyte containing optimized content of 50 (LiTPSB)-50 (PVDF-HFP/EC-PC (13:87wt.%)) exhibited ionic conductivity of 4x10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} at 30{sup o}C, lithium ion transference number of 0.33 and anodic oxidation potential of 4.2V. (author)

  4. Lithium ion conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes containing insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Ohta, Takayuki; Fujinami, Tatsuo

    Lithium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes composed of insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate (LiTPSB), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate mixed solvent (EC-PC) were prepared and their ionic conductivities and electrochemical stabilities were investigated. Ionic conductivity was largely dependent on the contents of EC-PC and LiTPSB. Gel polymer electrolyte containing optimized content of 50 (LiTPSB)-50 (PVDF-HFP/EC-PC (13:87 wt.%)) exhibited ionic conductivity of 4 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at 30 °C, lithium ion transference number of 0.33 and anodic oxidation potential of 4.2 V.

  5. Brain Targeting of a Water Insoluble Antipsychotic Drug Haloperidol via the Intranasal Route Using PAMAM Dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Yogesh K; Daya, Ritesh P; Sookram Gray, Christal; Luckham, Roger E; Bhandari, Jayant; Chauhan, Abhay S; Mishra, Ram K

    2015-09-01

    Delivery of therapeutics to the brain is challenging because many organic molecules have inadequate aqueous solubility and limited bioavailability. We investigated the efficiency of a dendrimer-based formulation of a poorly aqueous soluble drug, haloperidol, in targeting the brain via intranasal and intraperitoneal administration. Aqueous solubility of haloperidol was increased by more than 100-fold in the developed formulation. Formulation was assessed via different routes of administration for behavioral (cataleptic and locomotor) responses, and for haloperidol distribution in plasma and brain tissues. Dendrimer-based formulation showed significantly higher distribution of haloperidol in the brain and plasma compared to a control formulation of haloperidol administered via intraperitoneal injection. Additionally, 6.7 times lower doses of the dendrimer-haloperidol formulation administered via the intranasal route produced behavioral responses that were comparable to those induced by haloperidol formulations administered via intraperitoneal injection. This study demonstrates the potential of dendrimer in improving the delivery of water insoluble drugs to brain.

  6. Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

    2014-09-22

    Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour.

  7. Thermodynamically consistent description of the hydrodynamics of free surfaces covered by insoluble surfactants of high concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Thiele, Uwe; Plapp, Mathis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose several models that describe the dynamics of liquid films which are covered by a high concentration layer of insoluble surfactant. First, we briefly review the 'classical' hydrodynamic form of the coupled evolution equations for the film height and surfactant concentration that are well established for small concentrations. Then we re-formulate the basic model as a gradient dynamics based on an underlying free energy functional that accounts for wettability and capillarity. Based on this re-formulation in the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we propose extensions of the basic hydrodynamic model that account for (i) nonlinear equations of state, (ii) surfactant-dependent wettability, (iii) surfactant phase transitions, and (iv) substrate-mediated condensation. In passing, we discuss important differences to most of the models found in the literature.

  8. A negative effect of the insoluble particles of dross on the quality of the galvanized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlias, George; Pistofidis, Nikolaos; Stergioudis, George; Polychroniadis, Efstathios K.

    2005-04-01

    In continuous galvanizing process several byproducts are formed. Amongst these byproducts insoluble particles composed by different compounds are grown. The most problematic seems to be a complex oxide of a ZnAl 2- xFe yO 4 stoichiometry (spinels) with variable lattice parameters, which is formed at the zinc/substrate interface. This oxide accelerates the breakdown of Fe-Al passive layer, resulting in the formation of a series of Fe-Zn intermetallic phases by an outburst growth. The samples used in this study were industrially galvanized wires and byproducts, which were studied by different methods, i.e., Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Rays-Diffraction (XRD).

  9. Characterization and formation mechanism of water-insoluble DNA-matrix induced by UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Satoh, S; Nomizu, M; Ohkawa, K; Yamamoto, H; Nishi, N

    2001-01-01

    We have prepared water-insoluble and nuclease resistant DNA-matrixes by UV irradiation. The UV-irradiated DNA-matrix could effectively accumulate and condense harmful DNA-intercalating compounds, such as acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB), from diluted aqueous solutions. The binding constant of AO and EB for UV-irradiated DNA were determined to be 1.0 (+/- 0.2) x 10(5) M-1 and 6.8 (+/- 0.3) x 10(4) M-1, respectively; values consisted with reported results for non-irradiated DNA. In addition, the agarose gel electrophoresis and AFM measurements indicate that DNA matrix forms an intermolecular cross-linking structure with the radical reaction. The UV-irradiated DNA-matrixes have potential uses as a biomaterial filter for the removal of harmful DNA intercalating compounds.

  10. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  11. Importance of insoluble-bound phenolics to antioxidant properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika M; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-02-22

    Two commercial samples of soft (70% Canadian Eastern soft red spring and 30% Canadian Eastern soft white winter) and hard (90% Canadian western hard red spring and 10% Canadian Eastern hard red winter) wheats were used to obtain different milling fractions. Phenolics extracted belonged to free, soluble esters and insoluble-bound fractions. Soluble esters of phenolics and insoluble-bound phenolics were extracted into diethyl ether after alkaline hydrolysis of samples. The content of phenolics was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent and expressed as ferulic acid equivalents (FAE). The antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions was evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence, and iron(II) chelation activity. The bound phenolic content in the bran fraction was 11.3 +/- 0.13 and 12.2 +/- 0.15 mg FAE/g defatted material for hard and soft wheats, respectively. The corresponding values for flour were 0.33 +/- 0.01 and 0.46 +/- 0.02 mg FAE/g defatted sample. The bound phenolic content of hard and soft whole wheats was 2.1 (+/-0.004 or +/-0.005) mg FAE/g defatted material. The free phenolic content ranged from 0.14 +/- 0.004 to 0.98 +/- 0.05 mg FAE/g defatted milling fractions of hard and soft wheats examined. The contribution of bound phenolics to the total phenolic content was significantly higher than that of free and esterified fractions. In wheat, phenolic compounds were concentrated mainly in the bran tissues. In the numerous in vitro antioxidant assays carried out, the bound phenolic fraction demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than free and esterified phenolics. Thus, inclusion of bound phenolics in studies related to quantification and antioxidant activity evaluation of grains and cereals is essential.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  13. NBR1-mediated selective autophagy targets insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates in plant stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    Full Text Available Plant autophagy plays an important role in delaying senescence, nutrient recycling, and stress responses. Functional analysis of plant autophagy has almost exclusively focused on the proteins required for the core process of autophagosome assembly, but little is known about the proteins involved in other important processes of autophagy, including autophagy cargo recognition and sequestration. In this study, we report functional genetic analysis of Arabidopsis NBR1, a homolog of mammalian autophagy cargo adaptors P62 and NBR1. We isolated two nbr1 knockout mutants and discovered that they displayed some but not all of the phenotypes of autophagy-deficient atg5 and atg7 mutants. Like ATG5 and ATG7, NBR1 is important for plant tolerance to heat, oxidative, salt, and drought stresses. The role of NBR1 in plant tolerance to these abiotic stresses is dependent on its interaction with ATG8. Unlike ATG5 and ATG7, however, NBR1 is dispensable in age- and darkness-induced senescence and in resistance to a necrotrophic pathogen. A selective role of NBR1 in plant responses to specific abiotic stresses suggest that plant autophagy in diverse biological processes operates through multiple cargo recognition and delivery systems. The compromised heat tolerance of atg5, atg7, and nbr1 mutants was associated with increased accumulation of insoluble, detergent-resistant proteins that were highly ubiquitinated under heat stress. NBR1, which contains an ubiquitin-binding domain, also accumulated to high levels with an increasing enrichment in the insoluble protein fraction in the autophagy-deficient mutants under heat stress. These results suggest that NBR1-mediated autophagy targets ubiquitinated protein aggregates most likely derived from denatured or otherwise damaged nonnative proteins generated under stress conditions.

  14. Molecular and isotope constraints on the formation of the insoluble organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2017-04-01

    The origin of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the carbonaceous meteorites remains an unsolved issue despite major achievements in the knowledge of its chemical structure. The latter led us to propose a model for its molecular structure. Based on the relationship between the aromatic moieties of the macromolecular structure and their aliphatic linkages, it was recently suggested that, its synthesis has taken place in the gas phase of the disk surrounding the Sun in its early T-Tauri phase and that organic radicals have played a central role in this organo-synthesis. To test experimentally this pathway, we submitted short hydrocarbons (methane, pentane, octane) to a microwave plasma discharge so as to produce in situ CHx radicals. The black organic residue deposited contained both soluble and insoluble OM. The comparison at the molecular level between the thus synthesized IOM and that of meteorite led to strong similarities thus supporting the proposed pathway for its organo-synthesis. Moreover, in the meteorite IOM, systematic deuterium enrichment relative to the protosolar value is observed at the bulk sample scale and micrometer-sized grains exhibit dramatic enrichments in deuterium interpreted as a heritage of the interstellar medium or resulting from ion-molecule reactions taking place in the diffuse part of the solar disk. In the aforementioned synthesized IOM, NanoSIMS analyses revealed large variations at a sub-micrometric spatial resolution. They likely reflect the differences in the D/H ratios of the CHx radicals whose polymerization is at the origin of the IOM. These isotopic heterogeneities are commensurable with those observed in meteorite IOM. As a consequence, the appearance of organic radicals in the ionized regions of the T-Tauri solar disk may have triggered the formation of organic compounds. This laboratory synthesis thus shed a new light on the formation conditions and pathways of the IOM of carbonaceous chondrites.

  15. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  16. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  17. Fabrication and electrochemical properties of insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct thin-films as buffer layer by alternate immersion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Jo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct thin-films consisting of C60 and 1,2-diaminoethane were easily fabricated on an electrode by an alternate immersion process. Formation of the C60-diamine adduct films were confirmed using transmission absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. An inverted-type organic solar cells were fabricated by using the C60-diamine adduct film as the electron transport layer. The resultant photoelectric conversation performance of the solar cells suggested that photocurrent is generated via the photoexcitation of polythiophene. The result suggests that the present insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct films worked as buffer layer for organic thin-film solar cells.

  18. Forecasting of the content of the insoluble residue in clay layers of productive beds of the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Bayandina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the exploration drilling at the mines BKPRU-2 and BKPRU-3 of JSC Uralkali, the relationship equations between the content of insoluble residue in the productive sylvinite beds and thick interbedded clay layers at their top referred to as «korjʼs» are worked out. Knowledge of composition and thickness of clay layers is very important for rockfall protection during mining work. The results of analysis of drilling data are often not reliable because of the losses of clay material in the extracted core. The resulting equations are recommended for forecastingof insoluble residue in «korjʼs» of those beds.

  19. Enzymatic Xylose Release from Pretreated Corn Bran Arabinoxylan: Differential Effects of Deacetylation and Deferuloylation on Insoluble and Soluble Substrate Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Viksø-Nielsen, Ander; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work enzymatic hydrolysis of arabinoxylan from pretreated corn bran (190 °C, 10 min) was evaluated by measuring the release of xylose and arabinose after treatment with a designed minimal mixture of monocomponent enzymes consisting of α-l-arabinofuranosidases, an endoxylanase......, and a β-xylosidase. The pretreatment divided the corn bran material 50:50 into soluble and insoluble fractions having A:X ratios of 0.66 and 0.40, respectively. Addition of acetyl xylan esterase to the monocomponent enzyme mixture almost doubled the xylose release from the insoluble substrate fraction...

  20. The Chemical Speciation and Behavior of Mercury and Selenium in the Insoluble Fraction of Striped Dolphin Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Rong HU; Hui LI; Yong Xiang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Most of the mercury and selenium exist in the insoluble fraction of dolphin liver. After the insoluble fraction was digested by alkaline protease in the presence of 1%SDS, approximately 50% of Hg and Se consisted in the supernatant and the others in the residue. Gel filtration chromatography of the hydrolysate showed that 96% of Hg and 87% of Se were combined with the high molecular weight proteins stably, which cannot be substituted by the complex reagents. Mercury and selenium in the residue were confirmed as HgSe crystal.

  1. Crossing point temperature of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xuyao; Deming Wang; James A. Milke; Xiaoxing Zhong

    2011-01-01

    A further understanding of the self-heating of coal was obtained by investigating the crossing point temperature (CPT) of different ranks of coal. The tests were carried out using a self-designed experimental system for coal self-heating. 50 g (±0.01 g) of coal particles ranging from 0.18 mm to 0.38 mm in size were put into a pure copper reaction vessel attached to the center of a temperature programmed enclosure. The temperature program increased the temperature at a rate of 0.8 ℃/min. Dry air was permitted to flow into the coal reaction vessel at different rates. The surrounding temperature and the coal temperature were monitored by a temperature logger. The results indicate that CPT is affected by coal rank, moisture, sulfur,and the experimental conditions. Higher ranked coals show higher CPT values. A high moisture content causes a delay phenomenon during the self-heating of the coal. Drying at 40 ℃ decreases the effects of moisture. The reactivity of sulfur components in the coal is low under dry and low-temperature conditions.These components form a film that covers the coal surface and slightly inhibits the self-heating of the coal.The flow rate of dry air, and the heating rate of the surroundings, also affect the self-heating of the coal. The most appropriate experimental conditions for coal samples of a given weight and particle size were determined through contrastive analysis. Based on this analysis we propose that CPTs be determined under the same, or nearly the same conditions, for evaluation of the spontaneous combustion of coal.

  2. Spatial sound rendering of a playing xylophone for the telepresence application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2013-01-01

    xylophone sound rendering is proposed. The recorded signal is processed in order to define multiple virtual sources which are spatially distributed for the auditory width representation of the virtual xylophone. The results of the analyzed recording and rendering techniques are compared in terms...... played at the student's location is required at the teacher’s site. This paper presents a comparison of different recording techniques for a spatial xylophone sound rendering, focusing on the horizontal width of the xylophone auditory image. The directivity pattern of the xylophone was measured...

  3. TractRender: a new generalized 3D medical image visualization and output platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Darryl H.; Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Law, Meng; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion MRI allows us not only voxelized diffusion characteristics but also the potential to delineate neuronal fiber path through tractography. There is a dearth of flexible open source tractography software programs for visualizing these complicated 3D structures. Moreover, rendering these structures using various shading, lighting, and representations will result in vastly different graphical feel. In addition, the ability to output these objects in various formats increases the utility of this platform. We have created TractRender that leverages openGL features through Matlab, allowing for maximum ease of use but still maintain the flexibility of custom scene rendering.

  4. Methods for Quantifying and Characterizing Errors in Pixel-Based 3D Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, John G; Terrill, Judith E; Peskin, Adele P; Filliben, James J

    2008-01-01

    We present methods for measuring errors in the rendering of three-dimensional points, line segments, and polygons in pixel-based computer graphics systems. We present error metrics for each of these three cases. These methods are applied to rendering with OpenGL on two common hardware platforms under several rendering conditions. Results are presented and differences in measured errors are analyzed and characterized. We discuss possible extensions of this error analysis approach to other aspects of the process of generating visual representations of synthetic scenes.

  5. The 1997 Americas coal conference. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Papers are presented which cover the following topics: Colombian exports of coal; Colombian coal organizations; mining prospects; markets; Venezuela`s mining policy and private coal industry; security situation in Colombia and its effect on the energy industry; transportation; steam coal markets, including USA, Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, and for high sulfur coal; and innovations in the coal market. 18 papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  6. Latent methane in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.V. Ulyanova; G.P. Starikov; N.N. Kovriga [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2004-07-01

    It is established experimentally using 1H NMR wide line spectroscopy that methane can exist in coals not only in open or closed porosity and fracture systems but also in solid solutions in coal substance, in particular, under methane pressure 2 MPa or higher. Methane dissolved in coal minerals reversibly modifies their lattice parameters as determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. Co-existence of these methane forms in fossil coals causes multi-step desorption kinetics. It is shown experimentally that the long-term latent methane desorption is effected mainly by closed porosity, which in turn is determined by coal rank. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Coal facies studies in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosdale, Peter J. [Coalseam Gas Research Institute, School of Earth Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4814 (Australia)

    2004-04-23

    Despite the economic importance of coal to the Australian economy, detailed studies of controls on variation in coal type are remarkably few. However, important contributions have been made in the understanding of coal facies development. Tertiary lignite deposits of the Gippsland Basin provide key insights into the development of lithotype cyclicity and its relationship to relative sea-level changes, with individual paling-up cycles being correlated to parasequences. Studies of Permian hard coals have identified relationships between coal type and surrounding sediments. Unfortunately, these relationships have been widely over-interpreted in a manner that has diminished their real value.

  8. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  9. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  10. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  11. Automation in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thring, M.W.

    1983-08-01

    A study of the 21st century energy situation shows that coal must be the principal fuel, gradually followed by the renewable fuels which require fossil fuel to make and build the equipment. As oil runs out a substitute liquid fuel will have to be made from coal and from biomass because oil is uniquely suitable for road, sea and air transport and for agriculture. Coal can be mined without men going underground by directed drilling and by Telechirics - hands at a distance. In Telechiric mining, the coal would be won by conventional mining machinery but the human miners would erect, operate, maintain and repair this machinery by sitting in a control room on the surface and controlling telechirs which could move about the mine and would have mechanical hands which would respond exactly to every movement of the human master's hands. He would have touch and force feedback and three dimensional vision so good that he could use his trained craft skill of hands and eyes as though he were down the mine.

  12. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  13. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  14. Keeping Warm Without Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Heat-pump technology offers a clean heating alternative to coal With no air conditioning or indoor heating, families in southeast Beijing’s Fangzhuang neighbor-hood still enjoy refreshing warm air all year round. The secret is in the pump technology. Heat pumps cool the homes in summer and warm them in winter just like a central air-conditioning system.

  15. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  16. Multi-Grained Level of Detail for Rendering Complex Meshes Using a Hierarchical Seamless Texture Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niski, K; Purnomo, B; Cohen, J

    2006-11-06

    Previous algorithms for view-dependent level of detail provide local mesh refinements either at the finest granularity or at a fixed, coarse granularity. The former provides triangle-level adaptation, often at the expense of heavy CPU usage and low triangle rendering throughput; the latter improves CPU usage and rendering throughput by operating on groups of triangles. We present a new multiresolution hierarchy and associated algorithms that provide adaptive granularity. This multi-grained hierarchy allows independent control of the number of hierarchy nodes processed on the CPU and the number of triangles to be rendered on the GPU. We employ a seamless texture atlas style of geometry image as a GPU-friendly data organization, enabling efficient rendering and GPU-based stitching of patch borders. We demonstrate our approach on both large triangle meshes and terrains with up to billions of vertices.

  17. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  18. Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering for the dignosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Bing; LI Tie-lin; ZHANG Jian-min; DUAN Chuan-zhi; WANG Qiu-jing; ZAO Qing-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the importance of 3D-CTA with volume rendering for the diagnosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Axial source images were obtained by helical CT scanning and reconstruction of 3D-CTA images was done by volume rendering technique in conjunction with multiplanar reformation. Results: In the past one year,there were 10 patients diagnosed as having multiple intracranial aneurysms by 3D-CTA and altogether 24 aneurysms were visualized,including 10 small aneurysms(≤5mm.Three dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering demonstrated aneurysms very well and provided useful information concerning the site,shape,size and spatial relationship with the surrounding vessels and bone anatomy. Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering is a quick,reliable,and relatively noninvasive method for diagnosing multiple intracranial aneurysms.It delineates detailed aneurysmal morphology,and provides useful information for planning microsurgical approaches.

  19. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TerraMetrics proposes an SBIR Phase I R/R&D effort to develop a key 3D terrain-rendering technology that provides the basis for successful commercial deployment...

  20. Hybrid Rendering Architecture for Realtime and Photorealistic Simulation of Robot-Assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastijan; Bihlmaier, Andreas; Irgenfried, Stephan; Wörn, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for combining realtime and non-realtime (photorealistic) rendering with open source software. Realtime rendering provides sufficient realism and is a good choice for most simulation and regression testing purposes in robot-assisted surgery. However, for proper end-to-end testing of the system, some computer vision algorithms require high fidelity images that capture more minute details of the real scene. One of the central practical obstacles to combining both worlds in a uniform way is creating models that are suitable for both kinds of rendering paradigms. We build a modeling pipeline using open source tools that builds on established, open standards for data exchange. The result is demonstrated through a unified model of the medical OpenHELP phantom used in the Gazebo robotics simulator, which can at the same time be rendered with more visual fidelity in the Cycles raytracer.

  1. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TerraBlocksTM 3D terrain data format and terrain-block-rendering methodology provides an enabling basis for successful commercial deployment of...

  2. Processing-in-Memory Enabled Graphics Processors for 3D Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Chenhao; Song, Shuaiwen; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Weigong; Fu, Xin

    2017-02-06

    The performance of 3D rendering of Graphics Processing Unit that convents 3D vector stream into 2D frame with 3D image effects significantly impact users’ gaming experience on modern computer systems. Due to the high texture throughput in 3D rendering, main memory bandwidth becomes a critical obstacle for improving the overall rendering performance. 3D stacked memory systems such as Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC) provide opportunities to significantly overcome the memory wall by directly connecting logic controllers to DRAM dies. Based on the observation that texel fetches significantly impact off-chip memory traffic, we propose two architectural designs to enable Processing-In-Memory based GPU for efficient 3D rendering.

  3. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  4. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  5. Coal - carriage by sea; 2nd ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.; Strange, J.; Studd, B. [SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The book provides a guide to all aspects of the carriage of coal by sea. Part I gives an overview of coal consumption, production and trade, discussing major coal producers, major consumers, and importers and exporters. Part II has chapters on the ships employed to carry coal; problems concerned with the carriage of coal; the loading carrying and discharging of coal; and chartering. Part III covers the origins, properties and utilisation of coal; the petrographic classification of coal; the industrial utilisation of coal; and the principles and techniques of manual and mechanical sampling and analysis of coal. Part IV discusses problems and dangers coal transportation and storage (spontaneous combustion, prevention of freezing), and the role of the cargo superintendent in coal transportation. The text is well supported by tables of statistical data relating to coal production, trade and use. 11 figs., 94 tabs., 4 apps.

  6. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  7. The diagnostic contribution of CT volumetric rendering techniques in routine practice

    OpenAIRE

    Perandini Simone; Faccioli N; Zaccarella A; Re T; Mucelli R

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) volumetric rendering techniques such as maximum intensity projection (MIP), minimum intensity projection (MinIP), shaded surface display (SSD), volume rendering (VR), and virtual endoscopy (VE) provide added diagnostic capabilities. The diagnostic value of such reconstruction techniques is well documented in literature. These techniques permit the exploration of fine anatomical detail that would be difficult to evaluate using axial reconstructions alone. Although thes...

  8. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  9. Deposit remediation in coal-fired gas turbines through the use of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiro, C.L.; Chen, C.C.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Schields, P.W. (GE Corporate Research and Development Lab., Schenectady, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Deposit formation represents a key impediment to the eventual commercialization of a direct coal-fired gas turbine engine. Deposits result from the thermal decomposition of coal-borne mineral matter followed by impact and adhesion along the hot gas pathway. One strategy for deposit abatement is hot gas cleanup to remove particulate before entering the turbine. An alternative strategy, described in this Paper, is to modify the mineral matter/ash chemistry to render it non-adherent through the use of additives. In this way, the complexity and expense of hot gas cleanup is obviated. To date, alumina, boehmite, and a variety of kaolin clay additives have been tested in a coal-water mixture fired gas turbine simulator. A washed kaolin clay has proved to be most effective in reducing airfoil deposition. A mechanism involving in-situ slag decomposition, exsolution, and spontaneous spalling is proposed.

  10. National coal utilization assessment: modeling long-term coal production with the Argonne coal market model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dux, C.D.; Kroh, G.C.; VanKuiken, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    The Argonne Coal Market Model was developed as part of the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a comprehensive study of coal-related environmental, health, and safety impacts. The model was used to generate long-term coal market scenarios that became the basis for comparing the impacts of coal-development options. The model has a relatively high degree of regional detail concerning both supply and demand. Coal demands are forecast by a combination of trend and econometric analysis and then input exogenously into the model. Coal supply in each region is characterized by a linearly increasing function relating increments of new mine capacity to the marginal cost of extraction. Rail-transportation costs are econometrically estimated for each supply-demand link. A quadratic programming algorithm is used to calculate flow patterns that minimize consumer costs for the system.

  11. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  12. Development of a factory/refinery method to measure total, soluble, and insoluble starch in sugar products

    Science.gov (United States)

    An easy, rapid, and inexpensive method was developed to measure total, soluble, and insoluble starch in products at the factory and refinery, using microwave-assisted neutralization chemistry. The method was optimized using the previously developed USDA Starch Research method as a reference. Optimal...

  13. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  14. Hydroxyl radical production by a heterogeneous Fenton reaction supported in insoluble tannin from bark of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Romina; Contreras, David; Segura, Cristina; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kaim, Wolfgang

    2016-09-02

    Fenton reactions driven by dihydroxybenzenes (DHBs) have been used for pollutant removal via advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), but such systems have the disadvantage of DHB release into the aqueous phase. In this work, insoluble tannins from bark can be used to drive Fenton reactions and as a heterogeneous support. This avoids the release of DHBs into the aqueous phase and can be used for AOPs. The production of ·OH was investigated using a spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance technique (5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide/·OH) in the first minute of the reaction and a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence technique (coumarin/7-hydroxycoumarin) for 20 min. The ·OH yield achieved using insoluble tannins from Pinus radiata bark was higher than that achieved using catechin to drive the Fenton reaction. The Fenton-like system driven by insoluble tannins achieved 92.6 ± 0.3 % degradation of atrazine in 30 min. The degradation kinetics of atrazine was linearly correlated with ·OH production. The increased reactivity in ·OH production and insolubility of the ligand are promising for the development of a new technique for degradation of pollutants in wastewater using heterogeneous Fenton systems.

  15. A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiexin; Zhang Zhibing; Le Yuan; Chen Jianfeng [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao Hong, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-07-29

    A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions-dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions-that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future.

  16. Custom fabrication of biomass containment devices using 3-D printing enables bacterial growth analyses with complex insoluble substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cassandra E; Beri, Nina R; Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-11-01

    Physiological studies of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation are challenging for several reasons, one of which is the difficulty in obtaining a reproducibly accurate real-time measurement of bacterial growth using insoluble substrates. Current methods suffer from several problems including (i) high background noise due to the insoluble material interspersed with cells, (ii) high consumable and reagent cost and (iii) significant time delay between sampling and data acquisition. A customizable substrate and cell separation device would provide an option to study bacterial growth using optical density measurements. To test this hypothesis we used 3-D printing to create biomass containment devices that allow interaction between insoluble substrates and microbial cells but do not interfere with spectrophotometer measurements. Evaluation of materials available for 3-D printing indicated that UV-cured acrylic plastic was the best material, being superior to nylon or stainless steel when examined for heat tolerance, reactivity, and ability to be sterilized. Cost analysis of the 3-D printed devices indicated they are a competitive way to quantitate bacterial growth compared to viable cell counting or protein measurements, and experimental conditions were scalable over a 100-fold range. The presence of the devices did not alter growth phenotypes when using either soluble substrates or insoluble substrates. We applied biomass containment to characterize growth of Cellvibrio japonicus on authentic lignocellulose (non-pretreated corn stover), and found physiological evidence that xylan is a significant nutritional source despite an abundance of cellulose present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A learning-based approach for automated quality assessment of computer-rendered images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Agam, Gady

    2012-01-01

    Computer generated images are common in numerous computer graphics applications such as games, modeling, and simulation. There is normally a tradeoff between the time allocated to the generation of each image frame and and the quality of the image, where better quality images require more processing time. Specifically, in the rendering of 3D objects, the surfaces of objects may be manipulated by subdividing them into smaller triangular patches and/or smoothing them so as to produce better looking renderings. Since unnecessary subdivision results in increased rendering time and unnecessary smoothing results in reduced details, there is a need to automatically determine the amount of necessary processing for producing good quality rendered images. In this paper we propose a novel supervised learning based methodology for automatically predicting the quality of rendered images of 3D objects. To perform the prediction we train on a data set which is labeled by human observers for quality. We are then able to predict the quality of renderings (not used in the training) with an average prediction error of roughly 20%. The proposed approach is compared to known techniques and is shown to produce better results.

  18. On-the-fly generation and rendering of infinite cities on the GPU

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for shape-grammar-based generation and rendering of huge cities in real-time on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Traditional approaches rely on evaluating a shape grammar and storing the geometry produced as a preprocessing step. During rendering, the pregenerated data is then streamed to the GPU. By interweaving generation and rendering, we overcome the problems and limitations of streaming pregenerated data. Using our methods of visibility pruning and adaptive level of detail, we are able to dynamically generate only the geometry needed to render the current view in real-time directly on the GPU. We also present a robust and efficient way to dynamically update a scene\\'s derivation tree and geometry, enabling us to exploit frame-to-frame coherence. Our combined generation and rendering is significantly faster than all previous work. For detailed scenes, we are capable of generating geometry more rapidly than even just copying pregenerated data from main memory, enabling us to render cities with thousands of buildings at up to 100 frames per second, even with the camera moving at supersonic speed. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Proceedings of the 1978 coal chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radding, S. B.; Peters, H. M. [eds.

    1978-11-01

    Ten papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. They deal with the structural chemical analysis of coal and the chemistry of coal gasification and coal liquefaction. DOE's Fossil Energy Program is discussed in detail and recommendations for further research in coal gasification and coal liquefaction are made. (LTN)

  20. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  1. The existence of an insoluble Z disc scaffold in chicken skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, B L; Lazarides, E

    1978-12-01

    Extraction of glycerinated chicken skeletal muscle with 0.6 M potassium iodide leaves a framework of insoluble components within each muscle fiber. This framework is composed primarily of planes of in-register Z discs that have been thickened by the accumulation of material on both sides of each disc during extraction. Membrane vesicles, presumably remnants of the T system, remain surrounding the Z discs. When the framework is sheared in a blender, it is preferentially cleaved between Z planes, resulting in the formation of large sheets of interconnected, closely packed Z discs in a honeycomb-like array. Cleavage occurs in regions formerly occupied by the A bands, which have been weakened by the removal of myosin. The existence and stability of these planar Z disc arrays demonstrate the presence and strength of connections between adjacent myofibrils. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that this framework consists primarily of actin and desmin, with lesser amounts of a few proteins including alpha-actinin, myosin and tropomyosin. Z disc sheets and KI-extracted myofibrils provide a distinct face-on view and side view, respectively, of the Z disc. In indirect immunofluorescence, these two views have revealed that desmin is present at the periphery of each Z disc, forming a network of proteinaceous collars within the Z plane. alpha-Actinin is localized within each disc, giving a face-on fluorescence pattern that is complementary to that of desmin. Actin is present throughout the thickened Z plane, while myosin and tropomyosin exist only in the insoluble residue that coalesces on both faces of each disc. We conclude that desmin, perhaps in conjunction with actin, is responsible for interlinking Z discs of adjacent myofibrils, and may thus serve as a mechanical and structural integrator of muscle fibers. Its hydrophobic nature and coincident distribution with the T system suggest that it may also be responsible for mediating filament-membrane interactions

  2. Role of coal water mixture in utility coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, N.; Butcher, T.

    1984-05-01

    To indicate the role of coal water mixtures (CWM) in utility coal conversions, the pertinent technical, economic, environmental, and regulatory factors involved in CWM conversion are reviewed. CWM technology provides an attractive option for utility companies to convert to coal. There appear to be no major technical problems in CWM production and use that cannot be overcome. Environmental considerations, however, play an important role in utilities' decisions to convert to coal. In general, coal conversions would be seriously impeded if the installation of flue gas desulfurization units cannot be avoided, as it now can because of the DOE program, and they are also inhibited by present uncertainties regarding impending acid rain regulations. Preliminary estimates of the economics of conversion seem attractive; however, site-specific evaluation is needed to justify conversion in a given situation. Although conversion to pulverized coal appears competitive with that to CWM, some non-economic factors tend to favor CWM over PC.

  3. Computerized estimation of coal reserves of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solymosi, F.; Kiss, J.

    1988-01-01

    No standardized methodology for long term planning exists in Hungary in the coal industry. A computerized method of coal reserve estimation based on normatives is described. The method has been applied in the Maza-South-Varalja-South region (Transdanubia, South Hungary). The applicability of the method is outlined and the error limit that was missing in coal reserve estimations is suggested to be introduced.

  4. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  7. [ABILITY OF MICROORGANISMS FROM DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES TO HYDROLYZE THE INSOLUBLE PROTEINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matseliukh, O V; Nidialkova, N A; Varbanets, L D; Andreeva, N O; Shepelevych, V V; Zelena, P P; Yumyna, J M

    2015-01-01

    Screening of protease producers with specificity to insoluble and hard soluble protein substrates of animal origin (collagen, fibrin, elastin and keratin) was carried out. It was studied the bacterial cultures (24 strains) isolated from water and periphyton of enclosures with dolphins, and also from exhalations, oral cavity and skin of dolphins. Some bacterial strains isolated from water and periphyton of enclosures hydrolyzed collagen (5-23 U/ml) and elastin (20-32 U/ml). Thus all tested cultures did not possess the property of extracellular keratinases synthesis. The streptomycetes (48 strains) were isolated from the soil of Black Sea coastal strip near Odessa and Saky, from parkland and the shores of freshwater lake in Saky and from the soil of Atlantic Ocean coastal strip near Albufena (Portugal). Several streptomycetes have been found to appeare the perspective producers of extracellular keratinase and collagenase. The strains isolated from the soil of the coastal strip area both sea and freshwater lake in Saky possessed the highest activity (up to 5 U/mg).

  8. The synthesis and application involving regulation of the insoluble drug release from mesoporous silica nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Changshan; Gao, Yikun; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2015-03-01

    Mesoporous silica nanotubes (SNT) were synthesized using hard template carbon nanotubes (CNT) with the aid of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in a method, which was simple and inexpensive. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific surface area analysis were employed to characterize the morphology and structure of SNT, and the formation mechanism of SNT was also examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. There are few published reports of the mesoporous SNT with large specific surface area applied in the drug delivery systems to improve the amount of drug loading. In addition, the structure of SNT allows investigators to control the drug particle size in the pore channels and significantly increase the drug dissolution rate. The insoluble drug, cilostazol, was chosen as a model drug to be loaded into SNT and we developed a simple and efficient method for regulating the drug release by using a gelatin coating with different thicknesses around the SNT. The release rate was adjusted by the amount of gelatin surrounding the SNT, with an increased barrier leading to a reduction in the release rate. A model developed on the basis of the Weibull modulus was established to fit the release results.

  9. Dielectric properties tangential to the interface in model insoluble monolayers: theoretical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushkov, Philip G; Tzvetanov, Stanislav A; Ivanova, Anela N; Tadjer, Alia V

    2008-05-06

    Studies of insoluble monolayers built of phospholipids and various long-chained fatty acids or their glycerin esters are the major source for what is currently known about the relationship between monolayer composition and physicochemical properties. The surface pressure, dipole moment, dielectric permittivity, polarizability, refractivity, and other electrical and optical features are governed by the surfactant structural specificity and solvent organization at the microscopic level. To provide insight into the atomistic details of the interfacial structure, model monolayers at the air/water interface of two distinctly different in composition and isotherm profile surfactants are investigated by means of molecular dynamics all-atom simulations. Analysis of the computational results allows the estimation of empirically unattainable quantities such as tangential (di)electric properties, their decomposition to surfactant and water contributions, and their relationship with the changes in interfacial molecular organization at different surface concentrations. The employed theoretical approach provides a comprehensive description of interfacial phenomena at the molecular level where the traditional phenomenological investigations are ineffective.

  10. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Elmerdahl, Jens; Praestgaard, Eigil; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme complex, processive hydrolysis, and dissociation, respectively. These kinetic parameters elucidate limiting factors in the cellulolytic process. We concluded, for example, that Cel7A cleaves about four glycosidic bonds/s during processive hydrolysis. However, the results suggest that stalling the processive movement and low off-rates result in a specific activity at pseudo-steady state that is 10–25-fold lower. It follows that the dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex (half-time of ∼30 s) is rate-limiting for the investigated system. We suggest that this approach can be useful in attempts to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems. PMID:22493488

  11. Origin of initial burst in activity for Trichoderma reesei endo-glucanases hydrolyzing insoluble cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Leigh; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Baumann, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis have longbeen described by an initial fast hydrolysis rate, tapering rapidly off, leading to a process that takes days rather than hours to complete. This behavior has been mainly attributed to the action of cellobiohydrolases and often linked to the processive...... mechanism of this exo-acting group of enzymes. The initial kinetics of endo-glucanases (EGs) is far less investigated, partly due to a limited availability of quantitative assay technologies.Wehave used isothermal calorimetry to monitor the early time course of the hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose...... by the three main EGs from Trichoderma reesei (Tr): TrCel7B (formerly EG I), TrCel5A (EG II), and TrCel12A (EG III). These endo-glucanases show a distinctive initial burst with a maximal rate that is about 5-fold higher than the rate after 5 min of hydrolysis. The burst is particularly conspicuous for TrCel7B...

  12. [Mechanisms of electron transfer to insoluble terminal acceptors in chemoorganotrophic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarukha, I A

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of electron transfer of association of chemoorganotrophic bacteria to the anode in microbial fuel cells are summarized in the survey. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and are divided into the mechanisms of mediator electron transfer, mechanisms of electron transfer with intermediate products of bacterial metabolism and mechanism of direct transfer of electrons from the cell surface. Thus, electron transfer mediators are artificial or synthesized by bacteria riboflavins and phenazine derivatives, which also determine the ability of bacteria to antagonism. The microorganisms with hydrolytic and exoelectrogenic activity are involved in electron transfer mechanisms that are mediated by intermediate metabolic products, which are low molecular carboxylic acids, alcohols, hydrogen etc. The direct transfer of electrons to insoluble anode is possible due to membrane structures (cytochromes, pili, etc.). Association of microorganisms, and thus the biochemical mechanisms of electron transfer depend on the origin of the inoculum, substrate composition, mass transfer, conditions of aeration, potentials and location of electrodes and others, that are defined by technological and design parameters.

  13. Hitchhiking vesicular transport routes to the vacuole: amyloid recruitment to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Neuser, Nicole; Tyedmers, Jens

    2017-03-09

    Sequestration of aggregates into specialized deposition sites occurs in many species across all kingdoms of life ranging from bacteria to mammals and is commonly believed to have a cytoprotective function. Yeast cells possess at least three different spatially separated deposition sites, one of which is termed "Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD)" and harbors amyloid aggregates. We have recently discovered that recruitment of amyloid aggregates to the IPOD employs an actin cable based recruitment machinery that also involves vesicular transport (1) . Here we discuss how different proteins known to be involved in vesicular transport processes to the vacuole might act to guide amyloid aggregates to the IPOD. These factors include the Myosin V motor protein Myo2 involved in transporting vacuolar vesicles along actin cables, the transmembrane protein Atg9 involved in the recruitment of large precursor hydrolase complexes to the vacuole, the phosphatidylinositol/ phosphatidylcholine (PI/PC) transfer protein Sec 14 and the SNARE chaperone Sec 18. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that the yeast dynamin homolog Vps1 is also crucial for faithful delivery of the amyloid model protein PrD-GFP to the IPOD. This is in agreement with a previously identified role for Vps1 in recruitment of heat-denatured aggregates to a perivacuolar deposition site (2) .

  14. Genotoxic potential evaluation of a cosmetic insoluble substance by the micronuclei assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, N; Shah, V; Minko, T

    2011-01-01

    An optical brightener (OB) powder (INCI: sodium silicoaluminate (and) glycidoxypropyl trimethyloxysilane/PEI-250 cross fluorescent brightener 230 salt (and) polyvinylalcohol crosspolymer) that is used in cosmetic facial products was tested for its genotoxic potential using the micronuclei test (MNT). It is a solid dry powder with an average size of 5 microns that is insoluble but dispersible in water. This study describes the exposure of cell culture to positive controls with and without enzymatic activation and to the test compound in different concentrations. We evaluated three end points: microscopic observation and quantification of micronuclei formation, and cell viability and proliferation. Both positive controls induced significant changes that were observed under the microscope and quantified. Based on its chemical nature, it was not anticipated that the test substance will degrade under the conditions of the experiments. However, the test is required to make sure that when solublized, impurities that may be present, even at trace levels, will not induce a genotoxic effect. The test compound did not promote micronuclei formation or change the viability or proliferation rate of cells. During this study we faced challenges such as solubilization and correlating viability data to genotoxicity data. These are described in the body of the paper. We believe that with the emergence of the 7(th) European amendment that bans animal testing, sharing these data and the study protocol serves as a key in building the understanding of the utilization of in vitro studies in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  15. Insoluble aerosol behavior inside the PCCS condenser tube under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, A.; Nemoto, K.; Akinaga, M. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan); Oikawa, H. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which has been incorporated into the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design, has the capability of post accident decay heat removal by means of natural force driven condensation heat transfer. Since some uncertainties remain in the PCCS performance during a severe accident especially in the amount of aerosol deposition which causes the heat transfer degradation, the experiment had been performed previously simulating single condenser tube, postulated steam and noncondensable gas flow rate using prototypical soluble aerosol (CsI). The observed aerosol deposition rate onto the condenser tube surface was quite small under steam rich condition. However, during the severe accident, insoluble aerosols such as structural material might also be released and flow into the PCCS as well as soluble aerosol, and the deposition behavior has not been clarified. Thus, the experiment using a polystyrene LATEX was conducted under the same conditions in which the soluble aerosol test was performed. The experimental results showed similar trend as that of the soluble aerosol case, and especially in case of steam rich condition, the amount of deposition was below detection limit. The deposition rate in other cases are consistent with the prediction by existing theoretical correlation. Analytical sensitivity study varying inlet flow condition indicated no significant increase of aerosol deposition. These results suggest promising performance of PCCS under severe accident condition.

  16. Improving the controlled release of water-insoluble emodin from amino-functionalized mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunqiang; Wang Chunfeng [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Zhou Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Wu Yue; Chen Jing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China)

    2012-06-15

    Several types of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica, including F5-SBA-15, F10-SBA-15, and F15-SBA-15 were prepared through co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) in varying molar ratios (5 mol%, 10 mol%, and 15 mol%) via a hydrothermal process. The materials obtained were characterized by means of small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing APTES molar ratios decreased the degree of orderliness of the functionalized mesoporous silica. Pure and amino-functionalized SBA-15 samples were employed as supports for the controlled release of water-insoluble drug emodin. Loading experiments showed that drug loading capacities mainly depended on the surface areas and pore diameters of the carriers. Controlled release profiles of emodin-loaded samples were studied in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), and results indicated that the emodin release rate could be controlled by surface amino-functionalized carriers. Emodin loaded on functionalized mesoporous supports exhibited a lower release rate than that of loaded on pure SBA-15, emodin loaded on F10-SBA-15 showed the smallest release amount (71.74 wt%) after stirring in PBS for 60 h. Findings suggest that functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier for achieving prolonged release time periods.

  17. Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAP, including all particles that absorb light in the 650–700 nm wavelength interval. The ILAP, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model to explore the sources of ILAP in the snow. The PMF analysis for ILAP sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured light absorption of snow: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and / or biofuel burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the ILAP, accounting for ~53% of ILAP on average.

  18. Inhibition of cold insolubility of an IgA cryoglobulin by decanedicarboxylic acid and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalezari, P; Kumar, M; Kumar, K M; Lawrence, C

    1983-11-01

    Cold insolubility of a serum IgA cryoimmunoglobulin was found to be inhibited by the addition of 1.5 mM sodium decanedicarboxylate in vitro. The patient with the cryoglobulin had advanced multiple myeloma complicated by severe hyperviscosity that caused lethargy and episodic loss of consciousness. Decanedicarboxylic acid administered orally resulted in transient relief of symptoms and the loss of cryoprecipitability of the paraprotein. Further in vitro studies revealed that sodium salts of long-chain monocarboxylic acids with a minimum of eight carbons, and dicarboxylic acids with a minimum of 12 carbons inhibited cryoprecipitation. Salts of short-chain carboxylic acids, by contrast, enhanced cryoprecipitation. Sodium phenolate and sodium salts of benzoic acid, 2,4-DNP, phenylpropionic acid, and salicylic acid were also inhibitory. These latter compounds, which have a ring structure, did not cause precipitation at any concentration. It was demonstrated that the presence of a free carboxylic group was required for these activities; conversion of carboxylic acid to amide resulted in the loss of both the inhibitory and cryoprecipitation-enhancing effects. Normal plasma, or plasma from five other patients who had IgG, IgM, or mixed-type cryoglobulinemia, were not affected by any of these compounds. It is suggested that in selected cases of hyperviscosity syndrome associated with cryoglobulinemia, some of these compounds, especially monocarboxylic acids with appropriate chain lengths, or those with a ring structure, may have therapeutic applications.

  19. Structure of insoluble immune complexes as studied by spectroturbidimetry and dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Burygin, Gennadii L.; Matora, Larisa Y.; Shchyogolev, Sergei Y.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2004-07-01

    We describe two variants of a method for determining the average composition of insoluble immune complex particles (IICP). The first variant is based on measuring the specific turbidity (the turbidity per unit mass concentration of the dispersed substance) and the average size of IICP determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS). In the second variant, the wavelength exponent (i.e., the slope of the logarithmic turbidity spectrum) is used in combination with specific turbidity measurements. Both variants allow the average biopolymer volume fraction to be determined in terms of the average refractive index of IICP. The method is exemplified by two experimental antigen+antibody systems: (i) lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPPC) of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245+rabbit anti-LPPC; and (ii) human IgG (hIgG)+sheep anti-hIgG. Our measurements by the two methods for both types of systems gave, on the average, the same result: the volume fraction of the IICP biopolymers is about 30%; accordingly, the volume fraction of buffer solvent is 70%.

  20. Mid-infrared study of the molecular structure variability of insoluble organic matter from primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Dartois, E.; Pino, T.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-03-01

    Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) found in primitive meteorites was formed in the Early Solar System and subsequently processed on the parent asteroids. The location, temporal sequence and processes of formation of this IOM are still a matter of debate. In particular, there is no consensus on the actual effect of post-accretional aqueous alteration processes on the chemical composition and structure of IOM. In the most primitive chondrites (types 1 and 2), these alterations have so far been either neglected or generically assigned to oxidation processes induced by fluid circulation. A series of IOM samples extracted from 14 chondrites with extensively documented post-accretional histories have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Aqueous alteration shows no detectable effect on the chemical composition and structure of IOM within or across chondrite classes. Indeed, the most effective post-accretional process appears to be a high-temperature short-duration heating event and concerns essentially type 2 chondrites. In any case, post-accretional processes cannot account for all the chemical and structural variations of IOM. Chondrites from the CI, CR and CM classes accreted IOM precursors with moderately variable compositions, suggesting a chemical heterogeneity of the protosolar disk. The 3.4 μm band, and possibly its overtones and combinations in the near-infrared range, appear to be tracer(s) of the chemical class and possibly of surface heating processes triggered by impacts.