WorldWideScience

Sample records for render conventional extensometry

  1. High-Temperature Extensometry and PdCr Temperature-Compensated Wire Resistance Strain Gages Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A detailed experimental evaluation is underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center to compare and contrast the performance of the PdCr/Pt dual-element temperature-compensated wire resistance strain gage with that of conventional high-temperature extensometry. The advanced PdCr gage, developed by researchers at Lewis, exhibits desirable properties and a relatively small and repeatable apparent strain to 800 C. This gage represents a significant advance in technology because existing commercial resistance strain gages are not reliable for quasi-static strain measurements above approx. 400 C. Various thermal and mechanical loading spectra are being applied by a high-temperature thermomechanical uniaxial testing system to evaluate the two strain-measurement systems. This is being done not only to compare and contrast the two strain sensors, but also to investigate the applicability of the PdCr strain gage to the coupon-level specimen testing environment typically employed when the high-temperature mechanical behavior of structural materials is characterized. Strain measurement capabilities to 800 C are being investigated with a nickel-base superalloy, Inconel 100 (IN 100), substrate material and application to TMC's is being examined with the model system, SCS-6/Ti-15-3. Furthermore, two gage application techniques are being investigated in the comparison study: namely, flame-sprayed and spot welding. The apparent strain responses of both the weldable and flame-sprayed PdCr wire strain gages were found to be cyclically repeatable on both IN 100 and SCS-6/Ti-15-3 [0]_8. In general, each gage exhibited some uniqueness with respect to apparent strain behavior. Gages mounted on the IN 100 specimens tended to show a repeatable apparent strain within the first few cycles, because the thermal response of IN 100 was stable. This was not the case, however, for the TMC specimens, which typically required several thermal cycles to stabilize the thermal strain response. Thus

  2. Application of the video-extensometry for the comparison of the plastic deformation welded sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihalikova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from the experimental study conducted in relation with the research focused to the plastic deformation development and its localisation during the static tensile test and test of the notch toughness on the welded steel sheets. The aim of experiments was to determine the possibilities of obtaining the data for the estimation of the welds toughness applying the video-extensometry scanning of the deformation distribution, to estimate deformations within the individual sections of the weld and to compare them with the notch toughness. Based of the results obtained it can qunatitied the relation between the strain and toughness of thich sheets.

  3. Quantum rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Gomez, Richard B.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2003-08-01

    In recent years, computer graphics has emerged as a critical component of the scientific and engineering process, and it is recognized as an important computer science research area. Computer graphics are extensively used for a variety of aerospace and defense training systems and by Hollywood's special effects companies. All these applications require the computer graphics systems to produce high quality renderings of extremely large data sets in short periods of time. Much research has been done in "classical computing" toward the development of efficient methods and techniques to reduce the rendering time required for large datasets. Quantum Computing's unique algorithmic features offer the possibility of speeding up some of the known rendering algorithms currently used in computer graphics. In this paper we discuss possible implementations of quantum rendering algorithms. In particular, we concentrate on the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm for Z-buffering, ray-tracing, radiosity, and scene management techniques. We also compare the theoretical performance between the classical and quantum versions of the algorithms.

  4. Practical Parallel Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the growing demands for speed and quality in rendering computer graphics images requires new techniques. Practical parallel rendering provides one of the most practical solutions. This book addresses the basic issues of rendering within a parallel or distributed computing environment, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of multiprocessor machines and networked render farms for graphics rendering. Case studies of working applications demonstrate, in detail, practical ways of dealing with complex issues involved in parallel processing.

  5. High pressure multiaxial extensometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The development of a multiple degree-of-freedom extensometer to measure axial, torsional, and diametrical strains on a tubular laboratory fatigue specimen is described. It is found that the overall accuracy of the extensometer is limited by cross talk due to torsional displacements in an ambient environment. If only axial and diametrical deformation occur, error induced by cross talk is less than + or - 0.5 percent.

  6. 3D virtual reconstruction of the choir of the Convent of Santa Clara in Toro (Zamora: recovering a medieval space of female devotion through photogrammetric recording and rendering techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gutiérrez Baños

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Convent of Santa Clara in Toro (Zamora was founded in the mid-13th century. After destruction during the Castilian civil struggles of the last years of this century, its fabric was rebuilt and it was inhabited again by the Clarissan nuns, who still occupy it.  Its architecture corresponds for the most part to its early-14th century rebuilding, even though it is concealed by works carried out from the 16th to the 18th centuries, so that it is apparently a Baroque complex.  In the 1950s, in the choir of this Medieval hidden structure, a set of wall paintings of the mid-14thcentury was brought to light (one of the most important set of wall paintings of the early Gothic period ever found in Castile, but they were immediately detached from the walls and sold. It was only after a combination of circumstances that they came back to Toro to be installed in another building, the church of San Sebastián de los Caballeros, transformed into a museum. As a consequence of all these operations, the arrangement and sense of these wall paintings was lost. The virtual three-dimensional (3D reconstruction, based on a deep analysis and criticism of historical sources and on a close inspection and photogrammetric recording of the original room once occupied by the wall paintings, enables us to place them back in their original context through the use of rendering techniques, so recovering one of the most exciting spaces of female devotion of the Castilian 14thcentury.

  7. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  8. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  9. High Fidelity Haptic Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Otaduy, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance t

  10. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  11. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  12. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  13. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  14. Sea modeling and rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  15. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  16. Exposure render: an interactive photo-realistic volume rendering framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kroes

    Full Text Available The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR by integrating a number of visually plausible but often effect-specific rendering techniques, for instance modeling of light occlusion and depth of field. Besides yielding more attractive renderings, especially the more realistic lighting has a positive effect on perceptual tasks. Although these new rendering techniques yield impressive results, they exhibit limitations in terms of their exibility and their performance. Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT, coupled with physically based light transport, is the de-facto standard for synthesizing highly realistic images in the graphics domain, although usually not from volumetric data. Due to the stochastic sampling of MCRT algorithms, numerous effects can be achieved in a relatively straight-forward fashion. For this reason, we have developed a practical framework that applies MCRT techniques also to direct volume rendering (DVR. With this work, we demonstrate that a host of realistic effects, including physically based lighting, can be simulated in a generic and flexible fashion, leading to interactive DVR with improved realism. In the hope that this improved approach to DVR will see more use in practice, we have made available our framework under a permissive open source license.

  17. Visualization of Medpor implants using surface rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng; GUI Lai; LIU Xiao-jing

    2011-01-01

    Background The Medpor surgical implant is one of the easiest implants in clinical practice, especially in craniomaxillofacial surgery. It is often used as a bone substitute material for the repair of skull defects and facial deformities. The Medpor implant has several advantages but its use is limited because it is radiolucent in both direct radiography and conventional computed tomography, causing serious problems with visualization.Methods In this study, a new technique for visualizing Medpor implants was evaluated in 10 patients who had undergone facial reconstruction using the material. Continuous volume scans were made using a 16-channel tomographic scanner and 3D reconstruction software was used to create surface renderings. The threshold values for surface renderings of the implant ranged from -70 HU to -20 HU, with bone as the default.Results The shape of the implants and the spatial relationship between bone and implant could both be displayed.Conclusion Surface rendering can allow successful visualization of Medpor implants in the body.

  18. RenderMan design principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Tony; Porter, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The two worlds of interactive graphics and realistic graphics have remained separate. Fast graphics hardware runs simple algorithms and generates simple looking images. Photorealistic image synthesis software runs slowly on large expensive computers. The time has come for these two branches of computer graphics to merge. The speed and expense of graphics hardware is no longer the barrier to the wide acceptance of photorealism. There is every reason to believe that high quality image synthesis will become a standard capability of every graphics machine, from superworkstation to personal computer. The significant barrier has been the lack of a common language, an agreed-upon set of terms and conditions, for 3-D modeling systems to talk to 3-D rendering systems for computing an accurate rendition of that scene. Pixar has introduced RenderMan to serve as that common language. RenderMan, specifically the extensibility it offers in shading calculations, is discussed.

  19. Exposure Render: An Interactive Photo-Realistic Volume Rendering Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, T.; Post, F.H.; Botha, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) by i

  20. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2 x 10(6) voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine.

  1. Adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm for point-based rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping P.

    2015-03-01

    Surgical simulation is a major application in computer graphics and virtual reality, and most of the existing work indicates that interactive real-time cutting simulation of soft tissue is a fundamental but challenging research problem in virtual surgery simulation systems. More specifically, it is difficult to achieve a fast enough graphic update rate (at least 30 Hz) on commodity PC hardware by utilizing traditional triangle-based rendering algorithms. In recent years, point-based rendering (PBR) has been shown to offer the potential to outperform the traditional triangle-based rendering in speed when it is applied to highly complex soft tissue cutting models. Nevertheless, the PBR algorithms are still limited in visual quality due to inherent contrast distortion. We propose an adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm as a postprocessing module for PBR, providing high visual rendering quality as well as acceptable rendering efficiency. Our approach is based on a perceptible image quality technique with automatic parameter selection, resulting in a visual quality comparable to existing conventional PBR algorithms. Experimental results show that our adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm produces encouraging results both visually and numerically compared to representative algorithms, and experiments conducted on the latest hardware demonstrate that the proposed PBR framework with the postprocessing module is superior to the conventional PBR algorithm and that the proposed contrast enhancement algorithm can be utilized in (or compatible with) various variants of the conventional PBR algorithm.

  2. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  3. Real-time graphics rendering engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Hujun

    2011-01-01

    ""Real-Time Graphics Rendering Engine"" reveals the software architecture of the modern real-time 3D graphics rendering engine and the relevant technologies based on the authors' experience developing this high-performance, real-time system. The relevant knowledge about real-time graphics rendering such as the rendering pipeline, the visual appearance and shading and lighting models are also introduced. This book is intended to offer well-founded guidance for researchers and developers who are interested in building their own rendering engines. Hujun Bao is a professor at the State Key Lab of

  4. Hardware Accelerated Point Rendering of Isosurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    an approximate technique for point scaling using distance attenuation which makes it possible to render points stored in display lists or vertex arrays. This enables us to render points quickly using OpenGL. Our comparisons show that point generation is significantly faster than triangle generation...... and that the advantage of rendering points as opposed to triangles increases with the size and complexity of the volumes. To gauge the visual quality of future hardware accelerated point rendering schemes, we have implemented a software based point rendering method and compare the quality to both MC and our OpenGL based...

  5. Cluster parallel rendering based on encoded mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ai-hong; XIONG Hua; PENG Hao-yu; LIU Zhen; SHI Jiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    Use of compressed mesh in parallel rendering architecture is still an unexplored area, the main challenge of which is to partition and sort the encoded mesh in compression-domain. This paper presents a mesh compression scheme PRMC (Parallel Rendering based Mesh Compression) supplying encoded meshes that can be partitioned and sorted in parallel rendering system even in encoded-domain. First, we segment the mesh into submeshes and clip the submeshes' boundary into Runs, and then piecewise compress the submeshes and Runs respectively. With the help of several auxiliary index tables, compressed submeshes and Runs can serve as rendering primitives in parallel rendering system. Based on PRMC, we design and implement a parallel rendering architecture. Compared with uncompressed representation, experimental results showed that PRMC meshes applied in cluster parallel rendering system can dramatically reduce the communication requirement.

  6. Rendering Caustics on Non-Lambertian Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Wann

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for rendering caustics on non-Lambertian surfaces. The method is based on an extension of the photon map which removes previous restrictions limiting the usage to Lambertian surfaces. We add information about the incoming direction to the photons and this allow...... reduces the rendering time. We have used the method to render caustics on surfaces with reflectance functions varying from Lambertian to glossy specular....

  7. Building Interstellar's black hole: the gravitational renderer

    OpenAIRE

    James, Oliver; Dieckmann, Sylvan; Pabst, Simon; Roberts, Paul-George H.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar is the first feature film to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. A close collaboration between the production's Scientific Advisor and the Visual Effects team led to the development of a new renderer, DNGR (Double Negative Gravitational Renderer) which uses novel techniques for rendering in curved space-time. Following the completion of the movie, the code was adapted for scientific research, leading to new insights into gravitational l...

  8. Image Based Rendering under Varying Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengfeng (王城峰); Hu Zhanyi

    2003-01-01

    A new approach for photorealistic rendering of a class of objects at arbitrary illumination is presented. The approach of the authors relies entirely on image based rendering techniques. A scheme is utilized for re-illumination of objects based on linear combination of low dimensional image representations. The minimum rendering condition of technique of the authors is three sample images under varying illumination of a reference object and a single input image of an interested object. Important properties of this approach are its simplicity, robustness and speediness. Experimental results validate the proposed rendering approach.

  9. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2014-02-07

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3.

  10. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  11. Physically based rendering: from theory to implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pharr, Matt; Humphreys, Greg, Ph. D

    2010-01-01

    ... rendering algorithm variations. This book is not only a textbook for students, but also a useful reference book for practitioners in the field. The second edition has been extended with sections on Metropolis light transport, subsurface scattering, precomputed light transport, and more. Per Christensen Senior Software Developer, RenderMan Products,...

  12. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  13. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...... through the render and into the brick. The test specimen is placed between the source and the detector. The test specimens are all scanned before they are exposed to water. In that way the loss of counts from the dry scan to the wet scan qualitatively shows the presence of water. The results show nearly...... no penetration of water through the render and into the brick, and the results are independent of the start condition of the test specimens. Also drying experiments are performed. The results show a small difference in the rate of drying, in favour of the bricks without render....

  14. Physically based rendering from theory to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pharr, Matt

    2010-01-01

    "Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition" describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This book features new sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. It includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.

  15. Optimization-Based Wearable Tactile Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alvaro G; Lobo, Daniel; Chinello, Francesco; Cirio, Gabriel; Malvezzi, Monica; San Martin, Jose; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2016-10-20

    Novel wearable tactile interfaces offer the possibility to simulate tactile interactions with virtual environments directly on our skin. But, unlike kinesthetic interfaces, for which haptic rendering is a well explored problem, they pose new questions about the formulation of the rendering problem. In this work, we propose a formulation of tactile rendering as an optimization problem, which is general for a large family of tactile interfaces. Based on an accurate simulation of contact between a finger model and the virtual environment, we pose tactile rendering as the optimization of the device configuration, such that the contact surface between the device and the actual finger matches as close as possible the contact surface in the virtual environment. We describe the optimization formulation in general terms, and we also demonstrate its implementation on a thimble-like wearable device. We validate the tactile rendering formulation by analyzing its force error, and we show that it outperforms other approaches.

  16. Conventional Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marie A.

    1993-01-01

    Cryptography is the science that renders data unintelligible to prevent its unauthorized disclosure or modification. Presents an application of matrices used in linear transformations to illustrate a cryptographic system. An example is provided. (17 references) (MDH)

  17. 3D Rendering - Techniques and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Walia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer generated images and animations are getting more and more common. They are used in many different contexts such as movies,mobiles, medical visualization, architectural visualization and CAD. Advanced ways of describing surface and light source properties are important to ensure that artists are able to create realistic and stylish looking images. Even when using advanced rendering algorithms such as ray tracing, time required for shading may contribute towards a large part of the image creation time. Therefore both performance and flexibility is important in a rendering system. This paper gives a comparative study of various 3D Rendering techniques and their challenges in a complete and systematic manner.

  18. Finite element modeling of corneal strip extensometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available numerically modelled in several studies, this study focusses on accurately modelling the strip extensiometry test. Two methods were considered to simulate the experimental conditions namely, a single phase and a two phase method. A finite element model...

  19. FAST CROWD RENDERING IN COMPUTER GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya OĞUZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games, with the speed advancements of graphical processors, are coming closer to the quality of cinema industry. Contrary to offline rendering of the scenes in a motion picture, computer games should be able to render at 30 frames per second. Therefore, CPU and memory performance are sought by using various techniques. This paper is about using instancing feature of contemporary graphical processors along with level of detail techniques which has been in use for a very long time. Using instancing, 15,000 instances were successfully rendered at 30 frames per second using a very low %10 CPU usage. The application can render 40,000 instances at 13 frames per second.

  20. Visibility-Aware Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai-Ho Mak; Yingcai Wu; Ming-Yuen Chan; Huamin Qu

    2011-01-01

    Direct volume rendering (DVR) is a powerful visualization technique which allows users to effectively explore and study volumetric datasets. Different transparency settings can be flexibly assigned to different structures such that some valuable information can be revealed in direct volume rendered images (DVRIs). However, end-users often feel that some risks are always associated with DVR because they do not know whether any important information is missing from the transparent regions of DVRIs. In this paper, we investigate how to semi-automatically generate a set of DVRIs and also an animation which can reveal information missed in the original DVRIs and meanwhile satisfy some image quality criteria such as coherence. A complete framework is developed to tackle various problems related to the generation and quality evaluation of visibility-aware DVRIs and animations. Our technique can reduce the risk of using direct volume rendering and thus boost the confidence of users in volume rendering systems.

  1. ARC Code TI: SLAB Spatial Audio Renderer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLAB is a software-based, real-time virtual acoustic environment rendering system being developed as a tool for the study of spatial hearing. SLAB is designed to...

  2. Layered Textures for Image-Based Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    en-Cheng Wang; ui-Yu Li; in Zheng; n-Hua Wu

    2004-01-01

    An extension to texture mapping is given in this paper for improving the efficiency of image-based rendering. For a depth image with an orthogonal displacement at each pixel, it is decomposed by the displacement into a series of layered textures (LTs) with each one having the same displacement for all its texels. Meanwhile,some texels of the layered textures are interpolated for obtaining a continuous 3D approximation of the model represented in the depth image. Thus, the plane-to-plane texture mapping can be used to map these layered textures to produce novel views and the advantages can be obtained as follows: accelerating the rendering speed,supporting the 3D surface details and view motion parallax, and avoiding the expensive task of hole-filling in the rendering stage. Experimental results show the new method can produce high-quality images and run faster than many famous image-based rendering techniques.

  3. Composed Scattering Model for Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 石教英

    1996-01-01

    Based on the equation of transfer in transport theory of optical physics,a new volume rendering model,called composed scattering model(CSM),is presented.In calculating the scattering term of the equation,it is decomposed into volume scattering intensity and surface scattering intensity,and they are composed with the boundary detection operator as the weight function.This proposed model differs from the most current volume rendering models in the aspect that in CSM segmentation and illumination intensity calculation are taken as two coherent parts while in existing models they are regarded as two separate ones.This model has been applied to the direct volume rendering of 3D data sets obtained by CT and MRI.The resultant images show not only rich details but also clear boundary surfaces.CSM is demonstrated to be an accurate volume rendering model suitable for CT and MRI data sets.

  4. Real-time rendering of optical effects using spatial convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1998-03-01

    Simulation of special effects such as: defocus effect, depth-of-field effect, raindrops or water film falling on the windshield, may be very useful in visual simulators and in all computer graphics applications that need realistic images of outdoor scenery. Those effects are especially important in rendering poor visibility conditions in flight and driving simulators, but can also be applied, for example, in composing computer graphics and video sequences- -i.e. in Augmented Reality systems. This paper proposes a new approach to the rendering of those optical effects by iterative adaptive filtering using spatial convolution. The advantage of this solution is that the adaptive convolution can be done in real-time by existing hardware. Optical effects mentioned above can be introduced into the image computed using conventional camera model by applying to the intensity of each pixel the convolution filter having an appropriate point spread function. The algorithms described in this paper can be easily implemented int the visualization pipeline--the final effect may be obtained by iterative filtering using a single hardware convolution filter or with the pipeline composed of identical 3 X 3 filters placed as the stages of this pipeline. Another advantage of the proposed solution is that the extension based on proposed algorithm can be added to the existing rendering systems as a final stage of the visualization pipeline.

  5. Rendering and Compositing Infrastructure Improvements to VisIt for Insitu Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ruebel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Compared to posthoc rendering, insitu rendering often generates larger numbers of images, as a result rendering performance and scalability are critical in the insitu setting. In this work we present improvements to VisIt's rendering and compositing infrastructure that deliver increased performance and scalability in both posthoc and insitu settings. We added the capability for alpha blend compositing and use it with ordered compositing when datasets have disjoint block domain decomposition to optimize the rendering of transparent geometry. We also made improvements that increase overall efficiency by reducing communication and data movement and have addressed a number of performance issues. We structured our code to take advantage of SIMD parallelization and use threads to overlap communication and compositing. We tested our improvements on a 20 core workstation using 8 cores to render geometry generated from a $256^3$ cosmology dataset and on a Cray XC31 using 512 cores to render geometry generated from a $2000^2 \\times 800$ plasma dataset. Our results show that ordered compositing provides a speed up of up to $4 \\times$ over the current sort first strategy. The other improvements resulted in modest speed up with one notable exception where we achieve up to $40 \\times$ speed up of rendering and compositing of opaque geometry when both opaque and transparent geometry are rendered together. We also investigated the use of depth peeling, but found that the implementation provided by VTK is substantially slower,both with and without GPU acceleration, than a local camera order sort.

  6. Brain Image Representation and Rendering: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Raza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain image representation and rendering processes are basically used for evaluation, development and investigation consent experimental examination and formation of brain images of a variety of modalities that includes the major brain types like MEG, EEG, PET, MRI, CT or microscopy. So, there is a need to conduct a study to review the existing work in this area. This paper provides a review of different existing techniques and methods regarding the brain image representation and rendering. Image Rendering is the method of generating an image by means of a model, through computer programs. The basic purpose of brain image representation and rendering processes is to analyze the brain images precisely in order to effectively diagnose and examine the diseases and problems. The basic objective of this study is to evaluate and discuss different techniques and approaches proposed in order to handle different brain imaging types. The paper provides a short overview of different methods, in the form of advantages and limitations, presented in the prospect of brain image representation and rendering along with their sub categories proposed by different authors.

  7. Equalizer: a scalable parallel rendering framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilemann, Stefan; Makhinya, Maxim; Pajarola, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Continuing improvements in CPU and GPU performances as well as increasing multi-core processor and cluster-based parallelism demand for flexible and scalable parallel rendering solutions that can exploit multipipe hardware accelerated graphics. In fact, to achieve interactive visualization, scalable rendering systems are essential to cope with the rapid growth of data sets. However, parallel rendering systems are non-trivial to develop and often only application specific implementations have been proposed. The task of developing a scalable parallel rendering framework is even more difficult if it should be generic to support various types of data and visualization applications, and at the same time work efficiently on a cluster with distributed graphics cards. In this paper we introduce a novel system called Equalizer, a toolkit for scalable parallel rendering based on OpenGL which provides an application programming interface (API) to develop scalable graphics applications for a wide range of systems ranging from large distributed visualization clusters and multi-processor multipipe graphics systems to single-processor single-pipe desktop machines. We describe the system architecture, the basic API, discuss its advantages over previous approaches, present example configurations and usage scenarios as well as scalability results.

  8. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  9. Adaptive Rendering Based on Visual Acuity Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method of adaptable rendering for interaction in Virtual Environment(VE) through different visual acuity equations is proposed. An acuity factor equation of luminance vision is first given. Secondly, five equations which calculate the visual acuity through visual acuity factors are presented, and adaptive rendering strategy based on different visual acuity equations is given. The VE system may select one of them on the basis of the host's load, hereby select LOD for each model which would be rendered. A coarser LOD is selected where the visual acuity is lower, and a better LOD is used where it is higher. This method is tested through experiments and the experimental results show that it is effective.

  10. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balsa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount of detail to be represented. Moreover, the interactions between the objects (grass, leaves and external forces such as wind are complex to model. In this paper we concentrate in the rendering of falling leaves at low cost. We present a technique that exploits graphics hardware in order to render thousands of leaves with different falling paths in real time and low memory requirements.

  11. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  12. Volume Rendering for Curvilinear and Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Williams, P; Silva, C; Cook, R

    2003-03-05

    We discuss two volume rendering methods developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first, cell projection, renders the polygons in the projection of each cell. It requires a global visibility sort in order to composite the cells in back to front order, and we discuss several different algorithms for this sort. The second method uses regularly spaced slice planes perpendicular to the X, Y, or Z axes, which slice the cells into polygons. Both methods are supplemented with anti-aliasing techniques to deal with small cells that might fall between pixel samples or slice planes, and both have been parallelized.

  13. GPU Pro 5 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In GPU Pro5: Advanced Rendering Techniques, section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Marius Bjorge have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book covers rendering, lighting, effects in image space, mobile devices, 3D engine design, and compute. It explores rasterization of liquids, ray tracing of art assets that would otherwise be used in a rasterized engine, physically based area lights, volumetric light

  14. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  15. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  16. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  17. Haptic rendering for dental training system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DangXiao; ZHANG YuRu; WANG Yong; L(U) PeiJun; ZHOU RenGe; ZHOU WanLin

    2009-01-01

    Immersion and Interaction are two key features of virtual reality systems,which are especially important for medical applications.Based on the requirement of motor skill training in dental surgery,haptic rendering method based on triangle model is investigated in this paper.Multi-rate haptic rendering architecture is proposed to solve the contradiction between fidelity and efficiency requirements.Realtime collision detection algorithm based on spatial partition and time coherence is utilized to enable fast contact determination.Proxy-based collision response algorithm is proposed to compute surface contact point.Cutting force model based on piecewise contact transition model is proposed for dental drilling simulation during tooth preparation.Velocity-driven levels of detail hapUc rendering algorithm is proposed to maintain high update rate for complex scenes with a large number of triangles.Hapticvisual collocated dental training prototype is established using half-mirror solution.Typical dental operations have been realized Including dental caries exploration,detection of boundary within dental crose-section plane,and dental drilling during tooth preparation.The haptic rendering method is a fundamental technology to improve Immersion and interaction of virtual reality training systems,which is useful not only in dental training,but also in other surgical training systems.

  18. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Joseph R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an artist might create by hand using pen and ink. A combination of Hermite and spherical linear interpolation is used to draw smooth, gradually rotating three-dimensional tubes and ribbons with a repeating pattern of texture coordinates, which allows the application of texture mapping, real-time halftoning, and smooth edge lines. This free platform-independent open-source program is written primarily in Java, but also makes extensive use of the OpenGL Shading Language to modify the graphics pipeline. Conclusion By programming to the graphics processor unit, ProteinShader is able to produce high quality images and illustrative rendering effects in real-time. The main feature that distinguishes ProteinShader from other free molecular visualization tools is its use of texture mapping techniques that allow two-dimensional images to be mapped onto the curved three-dimensional surfaces of ribbons and tubes with minimum distortion of the images.

  19. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  20. Processing-in-Memory Enabled Graphics Processors for 3D Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Chenhao; Song, Shuaiwen; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Weigong; Fu, Xin

    2017-02-06

    The performance of 3D rendering of Graphics Processing Unit that convents 3D vector stream into 2D frame with 3D image effects significantly impact users’ gaming experience on modern computer systems. Due to the high texture throughput in 3D rendering, main memory bandwidth becomes a critical obstacle for improving the overall rendering performance. 3D stacked memory systems such as Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC) provide opportunities to significantly overcome the memory wall by directly connecting logic controllers to DRAM dies. Based on the observation that texel fetches significantly impact off-chip memory traffic, we propose two architectural designs to enable Processing-In-Memory based GPU for efficient 3D rendering.

  1. RAY TRACING RENDER MENGGUNAKAN FRAGMENT ANTI ALIASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriliyan Samopa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Rendering is generating surface and three-dimensional effects on an object displayed on a monitor screen. Ray tracing as a rendering method that traces ray for each image pixel has a drawback, that is, aliasing (jaggies effect. There are some methods for executing anti aliasing. One of those methods is OGSS (Ordered Grid Super Sampling. OGSS is able to perform aliasing well. However, this method requires more computation time since sampling of all pixels in the image will be increased. Fragment Anti Aliasing (FAA is a new alternative method that can cope with the drawback. FAA will check the image when performing rendering to a scene. Jaggies effect is only happened at curve and gradient object. Therefore, only this part of object that will experience sampling magnification. After this sampling magnification and the pixel values are computed, then downsample is performed to retrieve the original pixel values. Experimental results show that the software can implement ray tracing well in order to form images, and it can implement FAA and OGSS technique to perform anti aliasing. In general, rendering using FAA is faster than using OGSS

  2. Automatic Image-Based Pencil Sketch Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 鲍虎军; 周伟华; 彭群生; 徐迎庆

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic image-based approach for converting greyscale images to pencil sketches, in which strokes follow the image features. The algorithm first extracts a dense direction field automatically using Logical/Linear operators which embody the drawing mechanism. Next, a reconstruction approach based on a sampling-and-interpolation scheme is introduced to generate stroke paths from the direction field. Finally, pencil strokes are rendered along the specified paths with consideration of image tone and artificial illumination.As an important application, the technique is applied to render portraits from images with little user interaction. The experimental results demonstrate that the approach can automatically achieve compelling pencil sketches from reference images.

  3. Anti-Aliased Rendering of Water Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Qin; Eihachiro Nakamae; Wei Hua; Yasuo Nagai; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    Water surface is one of the most important components of landscape scenes. When rendering spacious far from the viewpoint. This is because water surface consists of stochastic water waves which are usually modeled by periodic bump mapping. The incident rays on the water surface are actually scattered by the bumped waves,pattern, we estimate this solid angle of reflected rays and trace these rays. An image-based accelerating method is adopted so that the contribution of each reflected ray can be quickly obtained without elaborate intersection calculation. We also demonstrate anti-aliased shadows of sunlight and skylight on the water surface. Both the rendered images and animations show excellent effects on the water surface of a reservoir.

  4. Optimization techniques for computationally expensive rendering algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Gil, Fernando; Gutiérrez Pérez, Diego; Serón Arbeloa, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Realistic rendering in computer graphics simulates the interactions of light and surfaces. While many accurate models for surface reflection and lighting, including solid surfaces and participating media have been described; most of them rely on intensive computation. Common practices such as adding constraints and assumptions can increase performance. However, they may compromise the quality of the resulting images or the variety of phenomena that can be accurately represented. In this thesi...

  5. GPU Pro 4 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    GPU Pro4: Advanced Rendering Techniques presents ready-to-use ideas and procedures that can help solve many of your day-to-day graphics programming challenges. Focusing on interactive media and games, the book covers up-to-date methods producing real-time graphics. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book begins with discussions on the abi

  6. Haptic rendering foundations, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scienti

  7. GPU PRO 3 Advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    GPU Pro3, the third volume in the GPU Pro book series, offers practical tips and techniques for creating real-time graphics that are useful to beginners and seasoned game and graphics programmers alike. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again brought together a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced GPU programming. With contributions by more than 50 experts, GPU Pro3: Advanced Rendering Techniques covers battle-tested tips and tricks for creating interesting geometry, realistic sha

  8. Defects of organization in rendering medical aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavkat Islamov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The defects of organization at the medical institution mean disturbance of rules, norms and order of rendering of medical aid. The number of organization defects in Uzbekistan increased from 20.42%, in 1999 to 25.46% in 2001 with gradual decrease to 19.9% in 2003 and 16.66%, in 2006 and gradual increase to 21.95% and 28.28% (P<0.05 in 2005 and 2008. Among the groups of essential defects of organization there were following: disturbance of transportation rules, lack of dispensary care, shortcomings in keeping medical documentation.

  9. Acoustic Holographic Rendering with Two-dimensional Metamaterial-based Passive Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangbo; Shen, Chen; Wang, Wenqi; Li, Junfei; Suo, Dingjie; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Jing, Yun; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic holographic rendering in complete analogy with optical holography are useful for various applications, ranging from multi-focal lensing, multiplexed sensing and synthesizing three-dimensional complex sound fields. Conventional approaches rely on a large number of active transducers and phase shifting circuits. In this paper we show that by using passive metamaterials as subwavelength pixels, holographic rendering can be achieved without cumbersome circuitry and with only a single transducer, thus significantly reducing system complexity. Such metamaterial-based holograms can serve as versatile platforms for various advanced acoustic wave manipulation and signal modulation, leading to new possibilities in acoustic sensing, energy deposition and medical diagnostic imaging. PMID:27739472

  10. A Multiresolution Image Cache for Volume Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMar, E; Pascucci, V

    2003-02-27

    The authors discuss the techniques and implementation details of the shared-memory image caching system for volume visualization and iso-surface rendering. One of the goals of the system is to decouple image generation from image display. This is done by maintaining a set of impostors for interactive display while the production of the impostor imagery is performed by a set of parallel, background processes. The system introduces a caching basis that is free of the gap/overlap artifacts of earlier caching techniques. instead of placing impostors at fixed, pre-defined positions in world space, the technique is to adaptively place impostors relative to the camera viewpoint. The positions translate with the camera but stay aligned to the data; i.e., the positions translate, but do not rotate, with the camera. The viewing transformation is factored into a translation transformation and a rotation transformation. The impostor imagery is generated using just the translation transformation and visible impostors are displayed using just the rotation transformation. Displayed image quality is improved by increasing the number of impostors and the frequency that impostors are re-rendering is improved by decreasing the number of impostors.

  11. Rendering of 3D Dynamic Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the rendering of dynamic 3D virtual environments which can be integrated in the development of videogames. It includes methods to manage sounds and particle effects, paged static geometries, the support of a physics engine and various input systems. It has been designed with a modular structure to allow future expansions. We exploited some open-source state-of-the-art components such as OGRE, PhysX, ParticleUniverse, etc.; all of them have been properly integrated to obtain peculiar physical and environmental effects. The stand-alone version of the application is fully compatible with Direct3D and OpenGL APIs and adopts OpenAL APIs to manage audio cards. Concluding, we devised a showcase demo which reproduces a dynamic 3D environment, including some particular effects: the alternation of day and night infuencing the lighting of the scene, the rendering of terrain, water and vegetation, the reproduction of sounds and atmospheric agents.

  12. Informatics in radiology: Hesse rendering for computer-aided visualization and analysis of anomalies at chest CT and breast MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemker, Rafael; Dharaiya, Ekta D; Bülow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A volume-rendering (VR) technique known as Hesse rendering applies image-enhancement filters to three-dimensional imaging volumes and depicts the filter responses in a color-coded fashion. Unlike direct VR, which makes use of intensities, Hesse rendering operates on the basis of shape properties, such that nodular structures in the resulting renderings have different colors than do tubular structures and thus are easily visualized. The renderings are mouse-click sensitive and can be used to navigate to locations of possible anomalies in the original images. Hesse rendering is meant to complement rather than replace conventional section-by-section viewing or VR. Although it is a pure visualization technique that involves no internal segmentation or explicit object detection, Hesse rendering, like computer-aided detection, may be effective for quickly calling attention to points of interest in large stacks of images and for helping radiologists to avoid oversights.

  13. Photon Differential Splatting for Rendering Caustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Schjøth, Lars; Erleben, Kenny;

    2014-01-01

    We present a photon splatting technique which reduces noise and blur in the rendering of caustics. Blurring of illumination edges is an inherent problem in photon splatting, as each photon is unaware of its neighbours when being splatted. This means that the splat size is usually based...... on heuristics rather than knowledge of the local flux density. We use photon differentials to determine the size and shape of the splats such that we achieve adaptive anisotropic flux density estimation in photon splatting. As compared to previous work that uses photon differentials, we present the first method...... where no photons or beams or differentials need to be stored in a map. We also present improvements in the theory of photon differentials, which give more accurate results and a faster implementation. Our technique has good potential for GPU acceleration, and we limit the number of parameters requiring...

  14. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  15. Constructing And Rendering Vectorised Photographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Willis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of representing captured images in the continuous mathematical space more usually associated with certain forms of drawn ('vector' images. Such an image is resolution-independent so can be used as a master for varying resolution-specific formats. We briefly describe the main features of a vectorising codec for photographic images, whose significance is that drawing programs can access images and image components as first-class vector objects. This paper focuses on the problem of rendering from the isochromic contour form of a vectorised image and demonstrates a new fill algorithm which could also be used in drawing generally. The fill method is described in terms of level set diffusion equations for clarity. Finally we show that image warping is both simplified and enhanced in the vector form and that we can demonstrate real histogram equalisation with genuinely rectangular histograms straightforwardly.

  16. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metscher Brian D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Results Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.. We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. Conclusions We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with

  17. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Stephan; Schwaha, Thomas; Metscher, Brian D

    2010-04-21

    In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.). We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with 3D rendering of whole tissue samples. We demonstrate the

  18. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  19. Efficient and Effective Volume Visualization with Enhanced Isosurface Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fei; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Compared with full volume rendering, isosurface rendering has several well recognized advantages in efficiency and accuracy. However, standard isosurface rendering has some limitations in effectiveness. First, it uses a monotone colored approach and can only visualize the geometry features of an isosurface. The lack of the capability to illustrate the material property and the internal structures behind an isosurface has been a big limitation of this method in applications. Another limitation of isosurface rendering is the difficulty to reveal physically meaningful structures, which are hidden in one or multiple isosurfaces. As such, the application requirements of extract and recombine structures of interest can not be implemented effectively with isosurface rendering. In this work, we develop an enhanced isosurface rendering technique to improve the effectiveness while maintaining the performance efficiency of the standard isosurface rendering. First, an isosurface color enhancement method is proposed to il...

  20. Direct volume rendering methods for cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Martišek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The study of the complicated architecture of cell space structures is an important problem in biology and medical research. Optical cuts of cells produced by confocal microscopes enable two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of observed cells. This paper discuses new possibilities for direct volume rendering of these data. We often encounter 16 or more bit images in confocal microscopy of cells. Most of the information contained in these images is unsubstantial for the human vision. Therefore, it is necessary to use mathematical algorithms for visualization of such images. Present software tools as OpenGL or DirectX run quickly in graphic station with special graphic cards, run very unsatisfactory on PC without these cards and outputs are usually poor for real data. These tools are black boxes for a common user and make it impossible to correct and improve them. With the method proposed, more parameters of the environment can be set, making it possible to apply 3D filters to set the output image sharpness in relation to the noise. The quality of the output is incomparable to the earlier described methods and is worth increasing the computing time. We would like to offer mathematical methods of 3D scalar data visualization describing new algorithms that run on standard PCs very well.

  1. HDlive rendering images of the fetal stomach: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubashiri, Eisuke; Abe, Kiyotaka; Watanabe, Yukio; Akutagawa, Noriyuki; Kuroki, Katumaru; Sugawara, Masaki; Maeda, Nobuhiko; Minami, Kunihiro; Nomura, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show reconstruction of the fetal stomach using the HDlive rendering mode in ultrasound. Seventeen healthy singleton fetuses at 18-34 weeks' gestational age were observed using the HDlive rendering mode of ultrasound in utero. In all of the fetuses, we identified specific spatial structures, including macroscopic anatomical features (e.g., the pyrous, cardia, fundus, and great curvature) of the fetal stomach, using the HDlive rendering mode. In particular, HDlive rendering images showed remarkably fine details that appeared as if they were being viewed under an endoscope, with visible rugal folds after 27 weeks' gestational age. Our study suggests that the HDlive rendering mode can be used as an additional method for evaluating the fetal stomach. The HDlive rendering mode shows detailed 3D structural images and anatomically realistic images of the fetal stomach. This technique may be effective in prenatal diagnosis for examining detailed information of fetal organs.

  2. WikiPrints: rendering enterprise Wiki content for printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkner, Kathrin

    2010-02-01

    Wikis have become a tool of choice for collaborative, informative communication. In contrast to the immense Wikipedia, that serves as a reference web site and typically covers only one topic per web page, enterprise wikis are often used as project management tools and contain several closely related pages authored by members of one project. In that scenario it is useful to print closely related content for review or teaching purposes. In this paper we propose a novel technique for rendering enterprise wiki content for printing called WikiPrints, that creates a linearized version of wiki content formatted as a mixture between web layout and conventional document layout suitable for printing. Compared to existing print options for wiki content, Wikiprints automatically selects content from different wiki pages given user preferences and usage scenarios. Meta data such as content authors or time of content editing are considered. A preview of the linearized content is shown to the user and an interface for making manual formatting changes provided.

  3. Fast combinative volume rendering by indexed data structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文武; 王文成; 吴恩华

    2001-01-01

    It is beneficial to study the interesting contents in a data set by combining and rendering variouscontents of the data. In this regard, an indexed data structure is proposed to facilitate the reorganization of data so that the contents of the data can be combined conveniently and only the selected contents in the data are processed for rendering. Based on the structure, the cells of different contents can be queued up easily so that the volume rendering can be conducted more accurately and quickly. Experimental results show that the indexed data structure is very efficient in improving combinative volume rendering.

  4. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  5. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  6. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  7. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  8. 7 CFR 54.15 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54.15... Service § 54.15 Advance information concerning service rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  9. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  10. Research of global illumination algorithms rendering in glossy scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Shuangxue; ZHANG Qiang; ZHOU Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    In computer graphic (CG), illumination rendering generated realistic effect at virtual scene is amazing. Not only plausible lighting effect is to show the relative position between of the objects, but also to reflect the material of visual appearance of the vir- tual objects. The diffuse-scene rendering reflectance credibility has gradually matured. Global illumination rendering method for the glossy material is still a challenge for the CG research. Because of the shiny materials is highly energy reflection between the com- plex light paths. Whether we trace glossy reflection paths, or use of one-reflection or multi-reflection approximate above complex il- lumination transmission is a difficult working. This paper we gather some commonly used global illumination algorithms recently year and its extension glossy scene improvements. And we introduce the limitation of classical algorithms rendering glossy scene and some extended solution. Finally, we will summarize the illumination rendering for specular scene, there are still some open prob- lems.

  11. Perception-based transparency optimization for direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Yuen; Wu, Yingcai; Mak, Wai-Ho; Chen, Wei; Qu, Huamin

    2009-01-01

    The semi-transparent nature of direct volume rendered images is useful to depict layered structures in a volume. However, obtaining a semi-transparent result with the layers clearly revealed is difficult and may involve tedious adjustment on opacity and other rendering parameters. Furthermore, the visual quality of layers also depends on various perceptual factors. In this paper, we propose an auto-correction method for enhancing the perceived quality of the semi-transparent layers in direct volume rendered images. We introduce a suite of new measures based on psychological principles to evaluate the perceptual quality of transparent structures in the rendered images. By optimizing rendering parameters within an adaptive and intuitive user interaction process, the quality of the images is enhanced such that specific user requirements can be met. Experimental results on various datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  12. A Volume Rendering Algorithm for Sequential 2D Medical Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering of 3D data sets composed of sequential 2D medical images has become an important branch in image processing and computer graphics.To help physicians fully understand deep-seated human organs and focuses(e.g.a tumour)as 3D structures.in this paper,we present a modified volume rendering algorithm to render volumetric data,Using this method.the projection images of structures of interest from different viewing directions can be obtained satisfactorily.By rotating the light source and the observer eyepoint,this method avoids rotates the whole volumetric data in main memory and thus reduces computational complexity and rendering time.Experiments on CT images suggest that the proposed method is useful and efficient for rendering 3D data sets.

  13. CT portography by multidetector helical CT. Comparison of three rendering models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Kadota, Masataka; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of multidetector CT portography in visualizing varices and portosystemic collaterals in comparison with conventional portography, and to compare the visualizations obtained by three rendering models (volume rendering, VR; minimum intensity projection, MIP; and shaded surface display, SSD). A total of 46 patients with portal hypertension were examined by CT and conventional portography for evaluation of portosystemic collaterals. CT portography was performed by multidetector CT (MD-CT) scanner with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm and table feed of 7.5 mm. Three types of CT portographic models were generated and compared with transarterial portography. Among 46 patients, 48 collaterals were identified on CT transverse images, while 38 collaterals were detected on transarterial portography. Forty-four of 48 collaterals identified on CT transverse images were visualized with the MIP model, while 34 and 29 collaterals were visualized by the VR and SSD methods, respectively. The average CT value for the portal vein and varices was 198 HU with data acquisition of 50 sec after contrast material injection. CT portography by multidetector CT provides excellent images in the visualization of portosystemic collaterals. The images of collaterals produced by MD-CT are superior to those of transarterial portography. Among the three rendering techniques, MIP provides the best visualization of portosystemic collaterals. (author)

  14. The general solution to HDR rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John

    2012-03-01

    Our High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) world is the result of nonuniform illumination. We like to believe that 21st century technology makes it possible to accurately reproduce any scene. On further study, we find that scene rendition remains a best compromise. Despite all the remarkable accomplishments in digital imaging, we cannot capture and reproduce the light in the world exactly. With still further study, we find that accurate reproduction is not necessary. We need an interdisciplinary study of image making - painting, photography and image processing - to find the general solution. HDR imaging would be very confusing, without two observations that resolve many paradoxes. First, optical veiling glare, that depends on the scene content, severely limits the range of light on cameras' sensors, and on retinas. Second, the neural spatial image processing in human vision counteracts glare with variable scene dependent responses. The counter actions of these optical and neural processes shape the goals of HDR imaging. Successful HDR increases the apparent contrast of details lost in the shadows and highlights of conventional images. They change the spatial relationships by altering the local contrast of edges and gradients. The goal of HDR imaging is displaying calculated appearance, rather than accurate light reproduction. By using this strategy we can develop universal algorithms that process all images, LDR and HDR, achromatic and color, by mimicking human vision. The study of the general solution for HDR imaging incorporates painting photography, vision research, color constancy and digital image processing.

  15. Detection of Prion Proteins and TSE Infectivity in the Rendering and Biodiesel Manufacture Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.; Keller, B.; Oleschuk, R. [Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This paper addresses emerging issues related to monitoring prion proteins and TSE infectivity in the products and waste streams of rendering and biodiesel manufacture processes. Monitoring is critical to addressing the knowledge gaps identified in 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction' (IEA's AMF Annex XXX, 2006) that prevent comprehensive risk assessment of TSE infectivity in products and waste. The most important challenge for monitoring TSE risk is the wide variety of sample types, which are generated at different points in the rendering/biodiesel production continuum. Conventional transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) assays were developed for specified risk material (SRM) and other biological tissues. These, however, are insufficient to address the diverse sample matrices produced in rendering and biodiesel manufacture. This paper examines the sample types expected in rendering and biodiesel manufacture and the implications of applying TSE assay methods to them. The authors then discuss a sample preparation filtration, which has not yet been applied to these sample types, but which has the potential to provide or significantly improve TSE monitoring. The main improvement will come from transfer of the prion proteins from the sample matrix to a matrix compatible with conventional and emerging bioassays. A second improvement will come from preconcentrating the prion proteins, which means transferring proteins from a larger sample volume into a smaller volume for analysis to provide greater detection sensitivity. This filtration method may also be useful for monitoring other samples, including wash waters and other waste streams, which may contain SRM, including those from abattoirs and on-farm operations. Finally, there is a discussion of emerging mass spectrometric methods, which Prusiner and others have shown to be suitable for detection and characterisation of prion proteins (Stahl

  16. Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  17. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  18. Foggy Scene Rendering Based on Transmission Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering of foggy scene is important in game development and virtual reality. Traditional methods have many parameters to control or require a long time to compute, and they are usually limited to depicting a homogeneous fog without considering the foggy scene with heterogeneous fog. In this paper, a new rendering method based on transmission map estimation is proposed. We first generate perlin noise image as the density distribution texture of heterogeneous fog. Then we estimate the transmission map using the Markov random field (MRF model and the bilateral filter. Finally, virtual foggy scene is realistically rendered with the generated perlin noise image and the transmission map according to the atmospheric scattering model. Experimental results show that the rendered results of our approach are quite satisfactory.

  19. Comparison of Morphological Pyramids for Multiresolution MIP Volume Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    We recently proposed a multiresolution representation for maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering based on morphological adjunction pyramids which allow progressive refinement and have the property of perfect reconstruction. In this algorithm the pyramidal analysis and synthesis

  20. Experiencing "Macbeth": From Text Rendering to Multicultural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Gail

    1993-01-01

    Shows how one teacher used innovative methods in teaching William Shakespeare's "Macbeth." Outlines student assignments including text renderings, rewriting a scene from the play, and creating a multicultural scrapbook for the play. (HB)

  1. View compensated compression of volume rendered images for remote visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalgudi, Hariharan G; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2009-07-01

    Remote visualization of volumetric images has gained importance over the past few years in medical and industrial applications. Volume visualization is a computationally intensive process, often requiring hardware acceleration to achieve a real time viewing experience. One remote visualization model that can accomplish this would transmit rendered images from a server, based on viewpoint requests from a client. For constrained server-client bandwidth, an efficient compression scheme is vital for transmitting high quality rendered images. In this paper, we present a new view compensation scheme that utilizes the geometric relationship between viewpoints to exploit the correlation between successive rendered images. The proposed method obviates motion estimation between rendered images, enabling significant reduction to the complexity of a compressor. Additionally, the view compensation scheme, in conjunction with JPEG2000 performs better than AVC, the state of the art video compression standard.

  2. High-quality multi-resolution volume rendering in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai; YANG Jie; LI Xiao-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform a high-quality interactive rendering of large medical data sets on a single off-theshelf PC, a LOD selection algorithm for multi-resolution volume rendering using 3D texture mapping is presented, which uses an adaptive scheme that renders the volume in a region-of-interest at a high resolution and the volume away from this region at lower resolutions. The algorithm is based on several important criteria, and rendering is done adaptively by selecting high-resolution cells close to a center of attention and low-resolution cells away from this area. In addition, our hierarchical level-of-detail representation guarantees consistent interpolation between different resolution levels. Experiments have been applied to a number of large medical data and have produced high quality images at interactive frame rates using standard PC hardware.

  3. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre ... the objective of achieving sustainable livelihoods for the poor and commonages. ... marketing and management to adequately service the land reform programs.

  4. does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering care?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Physicians and AIDS care: does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering ... experience, age and being a consultant or a senior resident influenced attitude, while male ..... having or not having children, prior instructions on ...

  5. Accelerating Monte Carlo Renderers by Ray Histogram Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Delbracio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the recently introduced Ray Histogram Fusion (RHF filter for accelerating Monte Carlo renderers [M. Delbracio et al., Boosting Monte Carlo Rendering by Ray Histogram Fusion, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 33 (2014]. In this filter, each pixel in the image is characterized by the colors of the rays that reach its surface. Pixels are compared using a statistical distance on the associated ray color distributions. Based on this distance, it decides whether two pixels can share their rays or not. The RHF filter is consistent: as the number of samples increases, more evidence is required to average two pixels. The algorithm provides a significant gain in PSNR, or equivalently accelerates the rendering process by using many fewer Monte Carlo samples without observable bias. Since the RHF filter depends only on the Monte Carlo samples color values, it can be naturally combined with all rendering effects.

  6. A parallel architecture for interactively rendering scattering and refraction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabei, Daniele; Hakke-Patil, Ajit; Banterle, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Marco; Ganovelli, Fabio; Pattanaik, Sumanta; Scopigno, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A new method for interactive rendering of complex lighting effects combines two algorithms. The first performs accurate ray tracing in heterogeneous refractive media to compute high-frequency phenomena. The second applies lattice-Boltzmann lighting to account for low-frequency multiple-scattering effects. The two algorithms execute in parallel on modern graphics hardware. This article includes a video animation of the authors' real-time algorithm rendering a variety of scenes.

  7. Wavelet subdivision methods gems for rendering curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW Curve representation and drawing Free-form parametric curves From subdivision to basis functions Wavelet subdivision and editing Surface subdivision BASIS FUNCTIONS FOR CURVE REPRESENTATION Refinability and scaling functions Generation of smooth basis functions Cardinal B-splines Stable bases for integer-shift spaces Splines and polynomial reproduction CURVE SUBDIVISION SCHEMES Subdivision matrices and stencils B-spline subdivision schemes Closed curve rendering Open curve rendering BASIS FUNCTIONS GENERATED BY SUBDIVISION MATRICES Subdivision operators The up-sampling convolution ope

  8. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  9. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  10. A Fast Ambient Occlusion Method for Real-Time Plant Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Teng; Marc Jaeger; Bao-Gang HU

    2007-01-01

    Global illumination effects are crucial for virtual plant rendering. Whereas real-time global illumination rendering of plants is impractical, ambient occlusion is an efficient alternative approximation. A tree model with millions of triangles is common, and the triangles can be considered as randomly distributed. The existing ambient occlusion methods fail to apply on such a type of object. In this paper, we present a new ambient occlusion method dedicated to real time plant rendering with limited user interaction. This method is a three-step ambient occlusion calculation framework which is suitable for a huge number of geometry objects distributed randomly in space. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is O(n), compared to the conventional methods with complexities of O(n2). Furthermore, parameters in this method can be easily adjusted to achieve flexible ambient occlusion effects. With this ambient occlusion calculation method, we can manipulate plant models with millions of organs, as well as geometry objects with large number of randomly distributed components with affordable time, and with perceptual quality comparable to the previous ambient occlusion methods.

  11. Fast Time-Varying Volume Rendering Using Time-Space Partition (TSP) Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Chiang, Ling-Jen; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1999-01-01

    We present a new, algorithm for rapid rendering of time-varying volumes. A new hierarchical data structure that is capable of capturing both the temporal and the spatial coherence is proposed. Conventional hierarchical data structures such as octrees are effective in characterizing the homogeneity of the field values existing in the spatial domain. However, when treating time merely as another dimension for a time-varying field, difficulties frequently arise due to the discrepancy between the field's spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition, treating spatial and temporal dimensions equally often prevents the possibility of detecting the coherence that is unique in the temporal domain. Using the proposed data structure, our algorithm can meet the following goals. First, both spatial and temporal coherence are identified and exploited for accelerating the rendering process. Second, our algorithm allows the user to supply the desired error tolerances at run time for the purpose of image-quality/rendering-speed trade-off. Third, the amount of data that are required to be loaded into main memory is reduced, and thus the I/O overhead is minimized. This low I/O overhead makes our algorithm suitable for out-of-core applications.

  12. Clustered deep shadow maps for integrated polyhedral and volume rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Bornik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-accelerated approach for shadow computation in scenes containing both complex volumetric objects and polyhedral models. Our system is the first hardware accelerated complete implementation of deep shadow maps, which unifies the computation of volumetric and geometric shadows. Up to now such unified computation was limited to software-only rendering . Previous hardware accelerated techniques can handle only geometric or only volumetric scenes - both resulting in the loss of important properties of the original concept. Our approach supports interactive rendering of polyhedrally bounded volumetric objects on the GPU based on ray casting. The ray casting can be conveniently used for both the shadow map computation and the rendering. We show how anti-aliased high-quality shadows are feasible in scenes composed of multiple overlapping translucent objects, and how sparse scenes can be handled efficiently using clustered deep shadow maps. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Real-Time Rendering of Teeth with No Preprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Thode; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Jensen, Peter Dahl Ejby

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for real-time rendering of teeth with no need for computational or artistic preprocessing. Teeth constitute a translucent material consisting of several layers; a highly scattering material (dentine) beneath a semitransparent layer (enamel) with a transparent coating (saliva......). In this study we examine how light interacts with this multilayered structure. In the past, rendering of teeth has mostly been done using image-based texturing or volumetric scans. We work with surface scans and have therefore developed a simple way of estimating layer thicknesses. We use scattering properties...... based on measurements reported in the optics literature, and we compare rendered results qualitatively to images of ceramic teeth created by denturists....

  14. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  15. Universal Rendering Mechanism Supporting Dual-Mode Presentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏; 杨文军; 王克宏

    2003-01-01

    XML is a standard for the exchange of business data that is completely platform and vendor neutral. Because XML data comes in many forms, one of the most important technologies needed for XML applications is the ability to convert the data into visible renderings. This paper focuses on the rendering of XML/XSL documents into a readable and printable format by means of a platform-independent process that enables high-quality printing of the product. This paper introduces the core components in the data rendering engine, the X2P server and different levels of object abstraction. The design pattern and the complete formatting and representation of the XSL stylesheet into different types of output formats in the X2P server are also given. The results show that the X2P sever simultaneously constructs the formatting object tree and the area tree in a very efficient design that saves execution time and memory.

  16. Virtual try-on through image-based rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswiesner, Stefan; Straka, Matthias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Virtual try-on applications have become popular because they allow users to watch themselves wearing different clothes without the effort of changing them physically. This helps users to make quick buying decisions and, thus, improves the sales efficiency of retailers. Previous solutions usually involve motion capture, 3D reconstruction or modeling, which are time consuming and not robust for all body poses. Our method avoids these steps by combining image-based renderings of the user and previously recorded garments. It transfers the appearance of a garment recorded from one user to another by matching input and recorded frames, image-based visual hull rendering, and online registration methods. Using images of real garments allows for a realistic rendering quality with high performance. It is suitable for a wide range of clothes and complex appearances, allows arbitrary viewing angles, and requires only little manual input. Our system is particularly useful for virtual try-on applications as well as interactive games.

  17. Efficient rendering of breaking waves using MPS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; ZHENG Yao; CHEN Chun; FUJIMOTO Tadahiro; CHIBA Norishige

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for rendering breaking waves out of large-scale ofparticle-based simulation. Moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) is used to solve the governing equation, and 2D simulation is expanded to 3D representation by giving motion variation using fractional Brownian motion (fBm). The waterbody surface is reconstructed from the outlines of 2D simulation. The splashing effect is computed according to the properties of the particles. Realistic features of the wave are rendered on GPU, including the reflective and refractive effect and the effect of splash. Experiments showed that the proposed method can simulate large scale breaking waves efficiently.

  18. Beaming teaching application: recording techniques for spatial xylophone sound rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophone...... played at student's location is required at teacher's site. This paper presents a comparison of different recording techniques for a spatial xylophone sound rendering. Directivity pattern of the xylophone was measured and spatial properties of the sound field created by a xylophone as a distributed sound...

  19. Chromium Renderserver: Scalable and Open Source Remote RenderingInfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook,Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2007-12-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure thatprovides the ability for one or more users to run and view image outputfrom unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote,parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardwareaccelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocolsand clientviewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to theproblem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote deliveryof parallel hardware-accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis ofseveral different optimizations that are generally applicable to avariety of rendering architectures. CRRSis fully operational, Open Sourcesoftware.

  20. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Morphological study of transpterional-insula approach using volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Linpei; Su, Lue; Sun, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yao, Jihang; Li, Youqiong; Luo, Qi

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the measurements of inferior circular insular sulcus (ICIS) and the shortest distance from ICIS to the temporal horn and determines the position of the incision, which does less harm to the temporal stem in the transpterional-insula approach using volume-rendering technique. Results of the research showed that one-third point over the anterior side of ICIS may be the ideal penetration point during operation. And there is no difference between 2 hemispheres (P ICIS from other Chinese researches demonstrated that volume rendering is a reliable method in insular research that enables mass measurements.

  2. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  3. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Kraus, Martin; Klein, Jákup

    2017-01-01

    of the information of the different images is redundant, we use pixel reprojection from the corner cameras to compute the remaining images in the light field. We compare the reprojected images with directly rendered images in a user test. In most cases, the users were unable to distinguish the images. In extreme...

  4. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  5. Interacting with Stroke-Based Rendering on a Wall Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubert, Jens; Hanckock, Mark; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tse, Edward; Isenberg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    We introduce two new interaction techniques for creating and interacting with non-photorealistic images using stroke-based rendering. We provide bimanual control of a large interactive canvas through both remote pointing and direct touch. Remote pointing allows people to sit and interact at a distan

  6. Selection of plasters and renders for salt laden masonry substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Wijffels, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The choice of a repair plaster or render by architects often appears to be the result of fortuitous circumstances, such as prior experience with a plaster or a recommendation by a producer. Seldom is the choice based on a sound assessment of the state of the building and the wall that is to be repai

  7. Depth-Dependent Halos : Illustrative Rendering of Dense Line Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for the illustrative rendering of 3D line data at interactive frame rates. We create depth-dependent halos around lines to emphasize tight line bundles while less structured lines are de-emphasized. Moreover, the depth-dependent halos combined with depth cueing via line width

  8. Virtual Environment of Real Sport Hall and Analyzing Rendering Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Here is presented virtual environment of a real sport hall created in Quest3D VR Edition. All analyzes of the rendering quality, techniques of interaction and performance of the system in real time are presented. We made critical analysis on all of these techniques on different machines and have excellent results.

  9. Interacting with Stroke-Based Rendering on a Wall Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubert, Jens; Hanckock, Mark; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tse, Edward; Isenberg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    We introduce two new interaction techniques for creating and interacting with non-photorealistic images using stroke-based rendering. We provide bimanual control of a large interactive canvas through both remote pointing and direct touch. Remote pointing allows people to sit and interact at a

  10. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1016 Advance information concerning service... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 7 CFR 53.17 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 53.17... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.17 Advance information... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  12. Fast Rendering of Realistic Virtual Character in Game Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengzhao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is made up of multiple translucent layers and rendering of skin appearance usually acquire complex modeling and massive calculation. In some practical applications such as 3D game development, we not only approximate the realistic looking skin but also develop efficient method to implement easily for meeting needs of real-time rendering. In this study, we solve the problem of wrap lighting and introduce a surface details approximation method to give realistic rendering of virtual character. Our method considers that different thicknesses of geometry on the skin surface can result in different scattering degree of incident light and so pre-calculate the diffuse falloff into a look-up texture. Also, we notice that scattering is strongly color dependent and small bumps are common on the skin surface and so pre-soften the finer details on the skin surface according to the R/G/B channel. At last, we linearly interpolate the diffuse lighting with different scattering degree from the look-up texture sampled with the curvature and NdotL. Experiment results show that the proposed approach yields realistic virtual character and obtains high frames per second in real-time rendering.

  13. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; rendering into lard or tallow. 315.1 Section 315.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow... subchapter or rendered into tallow, provided such rendering is done in the following manner: (a) When...

  15. Realistic Haptic Rendering of Interacting Deformable Objects in Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Duriez, Christian; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Andriot, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A new computer haptics algorithm to be used in general interactive manipulations of deformable virtual objects is presented. In multimodal interactive simulations, haptic feedback computation often comes from contact forces. Subsequently, the fidelity of haptic rendering depends significantly on contact space modeling. Contact and friction laws between deformable models are often simplified in up to date methods. They do not allow a "realistic" rendering of the subtleties of contact space physical phenomena (such as slip and stick effects due to friction or mechanical coupling between contacts). In this paper, we use Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's friction law as a computer haptics basis. Real-time performance is made possible thanks to a linearization of the behavior in the contact space, formulated as the so-called Delassus operator, and iteratively solved by a Gauss-Seidel type algorithm. Dynamic deformation uses corotational global formulation to obtain the Delassus operator in which the mass and s...

  16. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  17. Chromium Renderserver: scalable and open remote rendering infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook, Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure that provides the ability for one or more users to run and view image output from unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote, parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardware accelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocols and client viewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to the problem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote delivery of parallel hardware accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis of several different optimizations that are generally applicable to a variety of rendering architectures. CRRS is fully operational, Open Source software. imagery and sending it to a remote viewer.

  18. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  19. Tactile display for virtual 3D shape rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Mansutti, Alessandro; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel system for the simultaneous visual and tactile rendering of product shapes which allows designers to simultaneously touch and see new product shapes during the conceptual phase of product development. This system offers important advantages, including potential cost and time savings, compared with the standard product design process in which digital 3D models and physical prototypes are often repeatedly modified until an optimal design is achieved. The system consists of a tactile display that is able to represent, within a real environment, the shape of a product. Designers can explore the rendered surface by touching curves lying on the product shape, selecting those curves that can be considered style features and evaluating their aesthetic quality. In order to physically represent these selected curves, a flexible surface is modeled by means of servo-actuated modules controlling a physical deforming strip. The tactile display is designed so as to be portable, low cost, modular,...

  20. Binaural technology for e.g. rendering auditory virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    , helped mediate the understanding that if the transfer functions could be mastered, then important dimensions of the auditory percept could also be controlled. He early understood the potential of using the HRTFs and numerical sound transmission analysis programs for rendering auditory virtual...... environments. Jens Blauert participated in many European cooperation projects exploring  this field (and others), among other the SCATIS project addressing the auditory-tactile dimensions in the absence of visual information....

  1. Haptic Rendering Techniques for Non-Physical, Command Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    tactile and haptic rendering techniques. BACKGROUND Usually visualizing battlefield implies maps, computer screens filled with information and perhaps 3...Traditional 2-D Screens 3-D stereo glasses HMD CAVE Audio Haptics Level 1, 2 3 …..Fusion - Estimates INTEL SATELLITE RAW DATA Transforms...sensory modes of data presentation Haptics Tactile 8-14 Virtual Lexicon Haptic feedback The sensation of weight or resistance in a virtual world. (from

  2. Rendering Optical Effects Based on Spectra Representation in Complex Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    http://www.springerlink.com/; Rendering the structural color of natural objects or modern industrial products in the 3D environment is not possible with RGB-based graphics platforms and software and very time consuming, even with the most efficient spectra representation based methods previously proposed. Our framework allows computing full spectra light object interactions only when it is needed, i.e. for the part of the scene that requires simulating special spectra sensitive phenomena. Ach...

  3. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to improving volume rendering by using synthesized textures in combination with a custom transfer function. First, we use existing knowledge to synthesize anisotropic solid textures to fit our volumetric data. As input to the synthesis method, we acquire high quality....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  4. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  5. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Sharawi, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fourier volume rendering (FVR) is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its (N (2)log⁡N) time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are (N (3)) computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU) became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU) on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  6. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier volume rendering (FVR is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its O(N2log⁡N time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are O(N3 computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  7. High dynamic range (HDR) virtual bronchoscopy rendering for video tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Teo; Choi, Jae

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a new rendering method based on high dynamic range (HDR) lighting and exposure control. This rendering method is applied to create video images for a 3D virtual bronchoscopy system. One of the main optical parameters of a bronchoscope's camera is the sensor exposure. The exposure adjustment is needed since the dynamic range of most digital video cameras is narrower than the high dynamic range of real scenes. The dynamic range of a camera is defined as the ratio of the brightest point of an image to the darkest point of the same image where details are present. In a video camera exposure is controlled by shutter speed and the lens aperture. To create the virtual bronchoscopic images, we first rendered a raw image in absolute units (luminance); then, we simulated exposure by mapping the computed values to the values appropriate for video-acquired images using a tone mapping operator. We generated several images with HDR and others with low dynamic range (LDR), and then compared their quality by applying them to a 2D/3D video-based tracking system. We conclude that images with HDR are closer to real bronchoscopy images than those with LDR, and thus, that HDR lighting can improve the accuracy of image-based tracking.

  8. Partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of renders with organic binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal M; Bollmann, Ulla E; Bester, Kai

    2016-01-01

    , the partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render with organic binder was investigated. The partition constants of carbendazim, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, cybutryn (irgarol), octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn, and tebuconazole towards minerals typically used in renders, e.g. barite...... with render-water distribution constants of two artificially made renders showed that the distribution constants can be estimated based on partition constants of compounds for individual components of the render....

  9. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  10. A survey on hair modeling: styling, simulation, and rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly; Bertails, Florence; Kim, Tae-Yong; Marschner, Stephen R; Cani, Marie-Paule; Lin, Ming C

    2007-01-01

    Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it appropriate for particular applications. We discuss each of these major topics in turn, presenting the unique challenges facing each area and describing solutions that have been presented over the years to handle these complex issues. Finally, we outline some of the remaining computational challenges in hair modeling.

  11. Interactive View-Dependent Rendering of Large Isosurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorski, B; Duchaineau, M; Lindstrom, P; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2002-11-19

    We present an algorithm for interactively extracting and rendering isosurfaces of large volume datasets in a view-dependent fashion. A recursive tetrahedral mesh refinement scheme, based on longest edge bisection, is used to hierarchically decompose the data into a multiresolution structure. This data structure allows fast extraction of arbitrary isosurfaces to within user specified view-dependent error bounds. A data layout scheme based on hierarchical space filling curves provides access to the data in a cache coherent manner that follows the data access pattern indicated by the mesh refinement.

  12. Software System for Vocal Rendering of Printed Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a software system architecture developed to render the printed documents in a vocal form. On the other hand, in the paper are described the software solutions that exist as software components and are necessary for documents processing as well as for multimedia device controlling used by the system. The usefulness of this system is for people with visual disabilities that can access the contents of documents without that they be printed in Braille system or to exist in an audio form.

  13. An example of quantum imaging: rendering an object undetectable

    CERN Document Server

    Ataman, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose and analyse a Gedankenexperiment involving three non-linear crystals and two objects inserted in the idler beams. We show that, besides the behaviour that can be extrapolated from previous experiments involving two crystals and one object, we are able to predict a new effect: under certain circumstances, one of the objects can be rendered undetectable to any single detection rate on the signal photons with discarded idler photons. This effect could find applications in future developments of quantum imaging techniques.

  14. An example of quantum imaging: rendering an object undetectable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose and analyse a Gedankenexperiment involving three non-linear crystals and two objects inserted in the idler beams. We show that, besides the behaviour that can be extrapolated from previous experiments involving two crystals and one object, we are able to predict a new effect: under certain circumstances, one of the objects can be rendered undetectable to any single detection rate on the signal photons with discarded idler photons. This effect could find applications in future developments of quantum imaging techniques.

  15. Horse-shoe lung-rediscovered via volume rendered images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa Bharati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe lung, usually associated with pulmonary venolobar syndrome, is a rare congenital anomaly involving the fusion of the postero-basal segments of the right and left lungs across the midline. The fused segment or the isthmus lies posterior to the pericardium and anterior to the aorta.The associated pulmonary venolobar syndrome involves anomalous systemic arterial supply and anomlaous systemic venous drainage of the right lung. With the advent of MDCT imaging, we can diagnose this rare condition as well all its associated anomalies non-invasively. Volume-rendered techniques greatly simplify the complex anatomy and provide easy understanding of the same.

  16. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in recent years. These biocides are, e.g., applied to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching...... compared. The partitioning constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.1 (isoproturon) and 1.1 (iodocarb) and 84.6 (dichlorooctylisothiazolinone), respectively. The results for barite, kaolinite and mica were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partitioning constants for one mineral...

  17. Practical rendering and computation with Direct3D 11

    CERN Document Server

    Zink, Jason; Hoxley, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Practical Rendering and Computation with Direct3D 11 packs in documentation and in-depth coverage of basic and high-level concepts related to using Direct 3D 11 and is a top pick for any serious programming collection. … perfect for a wide range of users. Any interested in computation and multicore models will find this packed with examples and technical applications.-Midwest Book Review, October 2011The authors have generously provided us with an optimal blend of concepts and philosophy, illustrative figures to clarify the more difficult points, and source code fragments to make the ideas con

  18. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  19. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  20. Fast polyhedral cell sorting for interactive rendering of unstructured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combra, J; Klosowski, J T; Max, N; Silva, C T; Williams, P L

    1998-10-30

    Direct volume rendering based on projective methods works by projecting, in visibility order, the polyhedral cells of a mesh onto the image plane, and incrementally compositing the cell's color and opacity into the final image. Crucial to this method is the computation of a visibility ordering of the cells. If the mesh is ''well-behaved'' (acyclic and convex), then the MPVO method of Williams provides a very fast sorting algorithm; however, this method only computes an approximate ordering in general datasets, resulting in visual artifacts when rendered. A recent method of Silva et al. removed the assumption that the mesh is convex, by means of a sweep algorithm used in conjunction with the MPVO method; their algorithm is substantially faster than previous exact methods for general meshes. In this paper we propose a new technique, which we call BSP-XMPVO, which is based on a fast and simple way of using binary space partitions on the boundary elements of the mesh to augment the ordering produced by MPVO. Our results are shown to be orders of magnitude better than previous exact methods of sorting cells.

  1. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  2. Protein and mineral characterisation of rendered meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, M; Penkman, K E H; Wess, T J; Reaney, S; Collins, M J

    2012-10-01

    We report the characterisation of meat and bone meal (MBM) standards (Set B-EFPRA) derived from cattle, sheep, pig and chicken, each rendered at four different temperatures (133, 137, 141 and 145 °C). The standards, prepared for an EU programme STRATFEED (to develop new methodologies for the detection and quantification of illegal addition of mammalian tissues in feeding stuffs), have been widely circulated and used to assess a range of methods for identification of the species composition of MBM. The overall state of mineral alteration and protein preservation as a function of temperature was monitored using small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS), amino acid composition and racemization analyses. Progressive increases in protein damage and mineral alteration in chicken and cattle standards was observed. In the case of sheep and pig, there was greater damage to the proteins and alteration of the minerals at the lowest treatment temperature (133 °C), suggesting that the thermal treatments must have been compromised in some way. This problem has probably impacted upon the numerous studies which tested methods against these heat treatments. We use protein mass spectrometric methods to explore if thermostable proteins could be used to identify rendered MBM. In more thermally altered samples, so-called 'thermostable' proteins such as osteocalcin which has been proposed as a ideal target to speciate MBM were no longer detectable, but the structural protein type I collagen could be used to differentiate all four species, even in the most thermally altered samples.

  3. Excellent color rendering indexes of multi-package white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Su Ji; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Y R

    2012-08-27

    This study introduces multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) system with the ability to realize high luminous efficacy and an excellent color rendering index (CRI, R a) using the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B (R B,M A B,M G B,M denoted as a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF)-capped, monochromatic red, amber and green phosphor converted-LED (pc-LED) pumped by a blue LED chip, and C B denoted as a cyan and blue mixed pc-LED pumped by a blue LED) system. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LED systems are compared while changing the concentration of the cyan phosphor used in the paste of a cyan-blue LED package and the driving current of individual LEDs in multi-package white LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 6,500 K (cold white) to 2,700 K (warm white) using a set of eight CCTs as specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard number C78.377-2008. A R B,M A B,M G B,M C B white LED system provides high luminous efficacy (≥ 96 lm/W) and a color rendering index (≥ 91) encompassing the complete CCT range. We also compare the optical properties of the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B system with those of the R B,M A B,M G B,M B and RAGB (red, amber, green, and blue semiconductor-type narrow-spectrum-band LEDs) systems. It can be expected that the cyan color added to a blue LED in multi-package white LEDs based on LPDF-capped, phosphor-converted monochromatic LEDs will meet the needs of the high-quality, highly efficient, full-color white LED lighting market in the near future.

  4. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  5. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  6. Efficient Unbiased Rendering using Enlightened Local Path Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Wang

    . The downside to using these algorithms is that they can be slow to converge. Due to the nature of Monte Carlo methods, the results are random variables subject to variance. This manifests itself as noise in the images, which can only be reduced by generating more samples. The reason these methods are slow...... is because of a lack of eeffective methods of importance sampling. Most global illumination algorithms are based on local path sampling, which is essentially a recipe for constructing random walks. Using this procedure paths are built based on information given explicitly as part of scene description......, such as the location of the light sources or cameras, or the re flection models at each point. In this work we explore new methods of importance sampling paths. Our idea is to analyze the scene before rendering and compute various statistics that we use to improve importance sampling. The first of these are adjoint...

  7. Real-time Flame Rendering with GPU and CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of flame simulation based on Lagrange process and chemical composition, which was non-grid and the problems associated with there grids were overcome. The turbulence movement of flame was described by Lagrange process and chemical composition was added into flame simulation which increased the authenticity of flame. For real-time applications, this paper simplified the EMST model. GPU-based particle system combined with OpenGL VBO and PBO unique technology was used to accelerate finally, the speed of vertex and pixel data interaction between CPU and GPU increased two orders of magnitude, frame rate of rendering increased by 30%, which achieved fast dynamic flame real-time simulation. For further real-time applications, this paper presented a strategy to implement flame simulation with CUDA on GPU, which achieved a speed up to 2.5 times the previous implementation.

  8. Latency in Distributed Acquisition and Rendering for Telepresence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Stephan; Willert, Malte; Staadt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Telepresence systems use 3D techniques to create a more natural human-centered communication over long distances. This work concentrates on the analysis of latency in telepresence systems where acquisition and rendering are distributed. Keeping latency low is important to immerse users in the virtual environment. To better understand latency problems and to identify the source of such latency, we focus on the decomposition of system latency into sub-latencies. We contribute a model of latency and show how it can be used to estimate latencies in a complex telepresence dataflow network. To compare the estimates with real latencies in our prototype, we modify two common latency measurement methods. This presented methodology enables the developer to optimize the design, find implementation issues and gain deeper knowledge about specific sources of latency.

  9. A transparent look at the measurement and application of colour rendering in the use of LED light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, F. W.; Van Der Westhuyzen, J. G. J.

    2014-06-01

    The technology for the measurement of colour rendering and colour quality is not new, but many parameters related to this issue are currently changing. A number of standard methods were developed and are used by different specialty areas of the lighting industry. CIE 13.3 has been the accepted standard implemented by many users and used for many years. Light-emitting Diode (LED) technology moves at a rapid pace and, as this lighting source finds wider acceptance, it appears that traditional colour-rendering measurement methods produce inconsistent results. Practical application of various types of LEDs yielded results that challenged conventional thinking regarding colour measurement of light sources. Recent studies have shown that the anatomy and physiology of the human eye is more complex than formerly accepted. Therefore, the development of updated measurement methodology also forces a fresh look at functioning and colour perception of the human eye, especially with regard to LEDs. This paper includes a short description of the history and need for the measurement of colour rendering. Some of the traditional measurement methods are presented and inadequacies are discussed. The latest discoveries regarding the functioning of the human eye and the perception of colour, especially when LEDs are used as light sources, are discussed. The unique properties of LEDs when used in practical applications such as luminaires are highlighted.

  10. Distributed Dimensonality-Based Rendering of LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédif, M.; Vallet, B.; Ferrand, B.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are now commonly acquiring lidar scans of urban environments for an increasing number of applications such as 3D reconstruction and mapping, urban planning, urban furniture monitoring, practicability assessment for persons with reduced mobility (PRM)... MMS acquisitions are usually huge enough to incur a usability bottleneck for the increasing number of non-expert user that are not trained to process and visualize these huge datasets through specific softwares. A vast majority of their current need is for a simple 2D visualization that is both legible on screen and printable on a static 2D medium, while still conveying the understanding of the 3D scene and minimizing the disturbance of the lidar acquisition geometry (such as lidar shadows). The users that motivated this research are, by law, bound to precisely georeference underground networks for which they currently have schematics with no or poor absolute georeferencing. A solution that may fit their needs is thus a 2D visualization of the MMS dataset that they could easily interpret and on which they could accurately match features with their user datasets they would like to georeference. Our main contribution is two-fold. First, we propose a 3D point cloud stylization for 2D static visualization that leverages a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-like local geometry analysis. By skipping the usual and error-prone estimation of a ground elevation, this rendering is thus robust to non-flat areas and has no hard-to-tune parameters such as height thresholds. Second, we implemented the corresponding rendering pipeline so that it can scale up to arbitrary large datasets by leveraging the Spark framework and its Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD) and Dataframe abstractions.

  11. On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

    2009-04-02

    We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

  12. Technologies Render Views of Earth for Virtual Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On a December night in 1995, 159 passengers and crewmembers died when American Airlines Flight 965 flew into the side of a mountain while in route to Cali, Colombia. A key factor in the tragedy: The pilots had lost situational awareness in the dark, unfamiliar terrain. They had no idea the plane was approaching a mountain until the ground proximity warning system sounded an alarm only seconds before impact. The accident was of the kind most common at the time CFIT, or controlled flight into terrain says Trey Arthur, research aerospace engineer in the Crew Systems and Aviation Operations Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center. In situations such as bad weather, fog, or nighttime flights, pilots would rely on airspeed, altitude, and other readings to get an accurate sense of location. Miscalculations and rapidly changing conditions could contribute to a fully functioning, in-control airplane flying into the ground. To improve aviation safety by enhancing pilots situational awareness even in poor visibility, NASA began exploring the possibilities of synthetic vision creating a graphical display of the outside terrain on a screen inside the cockpit. How do you display a mountain in the cockpit? You have to have a graphics-powered computer, a terrain database you can render, and an accurate navigation solution, says Arthur. In the mid-1990s, developing GPS technology offered a means for determining an aircraft s position in space with high accuracy, Arthur explains. As the necessary technologies to enable synthetic vision emerged, NASA turned to an industry partner to develop the terrain graphical engine and database for creating the virtual rendering of the outside environment.

  13. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  14. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  15. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  16. VITRAIL: Acquisition, Modeling, and Rendering of Stained Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikachalam, Niranjan; Baboulaz, Loic; Prandoni, Paolo; Trumpler, Stefan; Wolf, Sophie; Vetterli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Stained glass windows are designed to reveal their powerful artistry under diverse and time-varying lighting conditions; virtual relighting of stained glass, therefore, represents an exceptional tool for the appreciation of this age old art form. However, as opposed to most other artifacts, stained glass windows are extremely difficult if not impossible to analyze using controlled illumination because of their size and position. In this paper, we present novel methods built upon image based priors to perform virtual relighting of stained glass artwork by acquiring the actual light transport properties of a given artifact. In a preprocessing step, we build a material-dependent dictionary for light transport by studying the scattering properties of glass samples in a laboratory setup. We can now use the dictionary to recover a light transport matrix in two ways: under controlled illuminations the dictionary constitutes a sparsifying basis for a compressive sensing acquisition, while in the case of uncontrolled illuminations the dictionary is used to perform sparse regularization. The proposed basis preserves volume impurities and we show that the retrieved light transport matrix is heterogeneous, as in the case of real world objects. We present the rendering results of several stained glass artifacts, including the Rose Window of the Cathedral of Lausanne, digitized using the presented methods.

  17. Moisture Transfer through Facades Covered with Organic Binder Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen DICO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Year after year we witness the negative effect of water over buildings, caused by direct or indirect actions. This situation is obvious in case of old, historical building, subjected to this aggression for a long period of time, but new buildings are also affected. Moisture in building materials causes not only structural damage, but also reduces the thermal insulation capacity of building components.Materials like plasters or paints have been used historically for a long period of time, fulfilling two basics functions: Decoration and Protection. The most acute demands are made on exterior plasters, as they, besides being an important decorative element for the facade, must perform two different functions simultaneously: protect the substrate against weathering and moisture without sealing, providing it a certain ability to “breathe” (Heilen, 2005. In order to accomplish this aim, the first step is to understand the hygrothermal behavior of coating and substrate and define the fundamental principles of moisture transfer; According to Künzel’s Facade Protection Theory, two material properties play the most important role: Water absorption and Vapor permeability.In the context of recently adoption (2009 of the “harmonized” European standard EN 15824 – „Specifications for external renders and internal plasters based on organic binders”, this paper deals extensively with the interaction of the two mentioned above properties for the coating materials, covered by EN 15824.

  18. Light field rendering with omni-directional camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Hiroshi; Saito, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents an approach to capture visual appearance of a real environment such as an interior of a room. We propose the method for generating arbitrary viewpoint images by building light field with the omni-directional camera, which can capture the wide circumferences. Omni-directional camera used in this technique is a special camera with the hyperbolic mirror in the upper part of a camera, so that we can capture luminosity in the environment in the range of 360 degree of circumferences in one image. We apply the light field method, which is one technique of Image-Based-Rendering(IBR), for generating the arbitrary viewpoint images. The light field is a kind of the database that records the luminosity information in the object space. We employ the omni-directional camera for constructing the light field, so that we can collect many view direction images in the light field. Thus our method allows the user to explore the wide scene, that can acheive realistic representation of virtual enviroment. For demonstating the proposed method, we capture image sequence in our lab's interior environment with an omni-directional camera, and succesfully generate arbitray viewpoint images for virual tour of the environment.

  19. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  20. Differentiation renders susceptibility to excitotoxicity in HT22 neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minchao He; Jun Liu; Shaowu Cheng; Yigang Xing; William Z Suo

    2013-01-01

    HT22 is an immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line that does not express cholinergic and glutamate receptors like mature hippocampal neurons in vivo. This in part prevents its use as a model for mature hippocampal neurons in memory-related studies. We now report that HT22 cells were appropriately induced to differentiate and possess properties similar to those of mature hippocampal neurons in vivo, such as becoming more glutamate-receptive and excitatory. Results showed that sensitivity of HT22 cells to glutamate-induced toxicity changed dramatically when comparing undifferentiated with differentiated cells, with the half-effective concentration for differentiated cells reducing approximately two orders of magnitude. Moreover, glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated cells, but not undifferentiated cells, was inhibited by the N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor antagonists MK-801 and memantine. Evidently, differentiated HT22 cells expressed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while undifferentiated cells did not. Our experimental findings indicated that differentiation is important for immortalized cell lines to render post-mitotic neuronal properties, and that differentiated HT22 neurons represent a better model of hippocampal neurons than undifferentiated cells.

  1. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  2. Bleed-through correction for rendering and correlation analysis in multi-colour localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dahan; Curthoys, Nikki M; Parent, Matthew T; Hess, Samuel T

    2013-09-01

    Multi-colour localization microscopy has enabled sub-diffraction studies of colocalization between multiple biological species and quantification of their correlation at length scales previously inaccessible with conventional fluorescence microscopy. However, bleed-through, or misidentification of probe species, creates false colocalization and artificially increases certain types of correlation between two imaged species, affecting the reliability of information provided by colocalization and quantified correlation. Despite the potential risk of these artefacts of bleed-through, neither the effect of bleed-through on correlation nor methods of its correction in correlation analyses has been systematically studied at typical rates of bleed-through reported to affect multi-colour imaging. Here, we present a reliable method of bleed-through correction applicable to image rendering and correlation analysis of multi-colour localization microscopy. Application of our bleed-through correction shows our method accurately corrects the artificial increase in both types of correlations studied (Pearson coefficient and pair correlation), at all rates of bleed-through tested, in all types of correlations examined. In particular, anti-correlation could not be quantified without our bleed-through correction, even at rates of bleed-through as low as 2%. Demonstrated with dichroic-based multi-colour FPALM here, our presented method of bleed-through correction can be applied to all types of localization microscopy (PALM, STORM, dSTORM, GSDIM, etc.), including both simultaneous and sequential multi-colour modalities, provided the rate of bleed-through can be reliably determined.

  3. Real-Time Ray Casting Rendering of Volume Clipping in Medical Visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei (陈为); HUA Wei (华炜); BAO HuJun (鲍虎军); PENG QunSheng (彭群生)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time ray casting rendering algorithm for “volume clip ping plane” as an extension of the conventional ray casting technique. For each viewing direction a (moderate) pre-processing step is performed: the ray traverses the entire volume data (no early ray termination). Its intensity and opacity contributions are divided into several segments which are then sorted and stored by depth. At each sampling position along a segment, accumulated trans parency and color are stored at a moderate memory overhead. For visualizing real-time volume clipping, only relevant segment contributions (maximum two) at the location of the clipping plane are considered, thus reducing the calculation to meet real-time requirements. Compared with the previous work that involves time-consuming re-clipping, re-traversing and re-shading, the proposed method achieves quality identical to ray casting at real-time speed. The performance is indepen dent of the volume resolution and/or the number of clipping planes along a given viewing direction. Therefore it is suitable for real-time “internal volume inspections”, involving one or several cutting planes, typically applied e.g., in medical visualization and material testing applications.

  4. Design and Implementation of an Application. Programming Interface for Volume Rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Selldin, Håkan

    2002-01-01

    To efficiently examine volumetric data sets from CT or MRI scans good volume rendering applications are needed. This thesis describes the design and implementation of an application programming interface (API) to be used when developing volume-rendering applications. A complete application programming interface has been designed. The interface is designed so that it makes writing application programs containing volume rendering fast and easy. The interface also makes created application progr...

  5. Influence of rendering methods on yield and quality of chicken fat recovered from broiler skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Kun Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to utilize fat from broiler byproducts efficiently, it is necessary to develop an appropriate rendering procedure and establish quality information for the rendered fat. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the influence of rendering methods on the amounts and general properties of the fat recovered from broiler skin. Methods The yield and quality of the broiler skin fat rendered through high and lower energy microwave rendering (3.6 W/g for 10 min and 2.4 W/g for 10 min for high power microwave rendering (HPMR and high power microwave rendering (LPMR, respectively, oven baking (OB, at 180°C for 40 min, and water cooking (WC, boiling for 40 min were compared. Results Microwave-rendered skin exhibited the highest yields and fat recovery rates, followed by OB, and WC fats (p<0.05. HPMR fat had the highest L*, a*, and b* values, whereas WC fat had the highest moisture content, acid values, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA values (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the acid value, peroxide value, and TBA values between HPMR and LPMR fats. Conclusion Microwave rendering at a power level of 3.6 W/g for 10 min is suggested base on the yield and quality of chicken fat.

  6. Performance Assessment of Three Rendering Engines in 3D Computer Graphics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žan Vidmar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the determination of testing conditions and visual and numerical evaluation of renderings made with three different rendering engines in Maya software, which is widely used for educational and computer art purposes. In the theoretical part the overview of light phenomena and their simulation in virtual space is presented. This is followed by a detailed presentation of the main rendering methods and the results and limitations of their applications to 3D objects. At the end of the theoretical part the importance of a proper testing scene and especially the role of Cornell box are explained. In the experimental part the terms and conditions as well as hardware and software used for the research are presented. This is followed by a description of the procedures, where we focused on the rendering quality and time, which enabled the comparison of settings of different render engines and determination of conditions for further rendering of testing scenes. The experimental part continued with rendering a variety of simple virtual scenes including Cornell box and virtual object with different materials and colours. Apart from visual evaluation, which was the starting point for comparison of renderings, a procedure for numerical estimation and colour deviations of renderings using the selected regions of interest in the final images is presented.

  7. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  8. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  9. Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, Michel A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a wavelet-based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in

  10. Evaluation of voxel-based rendering of high resolution surface descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    responses by having more “distinct” representations of the individual reflections. When rendered audible, such descriptions will lead to a sound quality that can best be described as “canned”. For the rendering of real rooms, as e.g. in "teletransporting", this problem may be addressed by using high...

  11. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  12. Method and system for rendering and interacting with an adaptable computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil [Albuquerque, NM; Bouchard, Ann Marie [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-12

    An adaptable computing environment is implemented with software entities termed "s-machines", which self-assemble into hierarchical data structures capable of rendering and interacting with the computing environment. A hierarchical data structure includes a first hierarchical s-machine bound to a second hierarchical s-machine. The first hierarchical s-machine is associated with a first layer of a rendering region on a display screen and the second hierarchical s-machine is associated with a second layer of the rendering region overlaying at least a portion of the first layer. A screen element s-machine is linked to the first hierarchical s-machine. The screen element s-machine manages data associated with a screen element rendered to the display screen within the rendering region at the first layer.

  13. Accelerating Time-Varying Hardware Volume Rendering Using TSP Trees and Color-Based Error Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, David; Chiang, Ling-Jen; Shen, Han-Wei; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new hardware volume rendering algorithm for time-varying data. The algorithm uses the Time-Space Partitioning (TSP) tree data structure to identify regions within the data that have spatial or temporal coherence. By using this coherence, the rendering algorithm can improve performance when the volume data is larger than the texture memory capacity by decreasing the amount of textures required. This coherence can also allow improved speed by appropriately rendering flat-shaded polygons instead of textured polygons, and by not rendering transparent regions. To reduce the polygonization overhead caused by the use of the hierarchical data structure, we introduce an optimization method using polygon templates. The paper also introduces new color-based error metrics, which more accurately identify coherent regions compared to the earlier scalar-based metrics. By showing experimental results from runs using different data sets and error metrics, we demonstrate that the new methods give substantial improvements in volume rendering performance.

  14. DNA rendering of polyhedral meshes at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Erik; Mohammed, Abdulmelik; Gardell, Johan; Masich, Sergej; Czeizler, Eugen; Orponen, Pekka; Högberg, Björn

    2015-07-01

    It was suggested more than thirty years ago that Watson-Crick base pairing might be used for the rational design of nanometre-scale structures from nucleic acids. Since then, and especially since the introduction of the origami technique, DNA nanotechnology has enabled increasingly more complex structures. But although general approaches for creating DNA origami polygonal meshes and design software are available, there are still important constraints arising from DNA geometry and sense/antisense pairing, necessitating some manual adjustment during the design process. Here we present a general method of folding arbitrary polygonal digital meshes in DNA that readily produces structures that would be very difficult to realize using previous approaches. The design process is highly automated, using a routeing algorithm based on graph theory and a relaxation simulation that traces scaffold strands through the target structures. Moreover, unlike conventional origami designs built from close-packed helices, our structures have a more open conformation with one helix per edge and are therefore stable under the ionic conditions usually used in biological assays.

  15. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  16. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  17. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  18. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  19. Spatial sound rendering of a playing xylophone for the telepresence application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2013-01-01

    xylophone sound rendering is proposed. The recorded signal is processed in order to define multiple virtual sources which are spatially distributed for the auditory width representation of the virtual xylophone. The results of the analyzed recording and rendering techniques are compared in terms...... played at the student's location is required at the teacher’s site. This paper presents a comparison of different recording techniques for a spatial xylophone sound rendering, focusing on the horizontal width of the xylophone auditory image. The directivity pattern of the xylophone was measured...

  20. TractRender: a new generalized 3D medical image visualization and output platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Darryl H.; Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Law, Meng; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion MRI allows us not only voxelized diffusion characteristics but also the potential to delineate neuronal fiber path through tractography. There is a dearth of flexible open source tractography software programs for visualizing these complicated 3D structures. Moreover, rendering these structures using various shading, lighting, and representations will result in vastly different graphical feel. In addition, the ability to output these objects in various formats increases the utility of this platform. We have created TractRender that leverages openGL features through Matlab, allowing for maximum ease of use but still maintain the flexibility of custom scene rendering.

  1. Methods for Quantifying and Characterizing Errors in Pixel-Based 3D Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, John G; Terrill, Judith E; Peskin, Adele P; Filliben, James J

    2008-01-01

    We present methods for measuring errors in the rendering of three-dimensional points, line segments, and polygons in pixel-based computer graphics systems. We present error metrics for each of these three cases. These methods are applied to rendering with OpenGL on two common hardware platforms under several rendering conditions. Results are presented and differences in measured errors are analyzed and characterized. We discuss possible extensions of this error analysis approach to other aspects of the process of generating visual representations of synthetic scenes.

  2. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  3. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  4. Multi-Grained Level of Detail for Rendering Complex Meshes Using a Hierarchical Seamless Texture Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niski, K; Purnomo, B; Cohen, J

    2006-11-06

    Previous algorithms for view-dependent level of detail provide local mesh refinements either at the finest granularity or at a fixed, coarse granularity. The former provides triangle-level adaptation, often at the expense of heavy CPU usage and low triangle rendering throughput; the latter improves CPU usage and rendering throughput by operating on groups of triangles. We present a new multiresolution hierarchy and associated algorithms that provide adaptive granularity. This multi-grained hierarchy allows independent control of the number of hierarchy nodes processed on the CPU and the number of triangles to be rendered on the GPU. We employ a seamless texture atlas style of geometry image as a GPU-friendly data organization, enabling efficient rendering and GPU-based stitching of patch borders. We demonstrate our approach on both large triangle meshes and terrains with up to billions of vertices.

  5. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  6. Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering for the dignosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Bing; LI Tie-lin; ZHANG Jian-min; DUAN Chuan-zhi; WANG Qiu-jing; ZAO Qing-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the importance of 3D-CTA with volume rendering for the diagnosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Axial source images were obtained by helical CT scanning and reconstruction of 3D-CTA images was done by volume rendering technique in conjunction with multiplanar reformation. Results: In the past one year,there were 10 patients diagnosed as having multiple intracranial aneurysms by 3D-CTA and altogether 24 aneurysms were visualized,including 10 small aneurysms(≤5mm.Three dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering demonstrated aneurysms very well and provided useful information concerning the site,shape,size and spatial relationship with the surrounding vessels and bone anatomy. Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering is a quick,reliable,and relatively noninvasive method for diagnosing multiple intracranial aneurysms.It delineates detailed aneurysmal morphology,and provides useful information for planning microsurgical approaches.

  7. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TerraMetrics proposes an SBIR Phase I R/R&D effort to develop a key 3D terrain-rendering technology that provides the basis for successful commercial deployment...

  8. Hybrid Rendering Architecture for Realtime and Photorealistic Simulation of Robot-Assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastijan; Bihlmaier, Andreas; Irgenfried, Stephan; Wörn, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for combining realtime and non-realtime (photorealistic) rendering with open source software. Realtime rendering provides sufficient realism and is a good choice for most simulation and regression testing purposes in robot-assisted surgery. However, for proper end-to-end testing of the system, some computer vision algorithms require high fidelity images that capture more minute details of the real scene. One of the central practical obstacles to combining both worlds in a uniform way is creating models that are suitable for both kinds of rendering paradigms. We build a modeling pipeline using open source tools that builds on established, open standards for data exchange. The result is demonstrated through a unified model of the medical OpenHELP phantom used in the Gazebo robotics simulator, which can at the same time be rendered with more visual fidelity in the Cycles raytracer.

  9. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TerraBlocksTM 3D terrain data format and terrain-block-rendering methodology provides an enabling basis for successful commercial deployment of...

  10. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  11. The diagnostic contribution of CT volumetric rendering techniques in routine practice

    OpenAIRE

    Perandini Simone; Faccioli N; Zaccarella A; Re T; Mucelli R

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) volumetric rendering techniques such as maximum intensity projection (MIP), minimum intensity projection (MinIP), shaded surface display (SSD), volume rendering (VR), and virtual endoscopy (VE) provide added diagnostic capabilities. The diagnostic value of such reconstruction techniques is well documented in literature. These techniques permit the exploration of fine anatomical detail that would be difficult to evaluate using axial reconstructions alone. Although thes...

  12. A learning-based approach for automated quality assessment of computer-rendered images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Agam, Gady

    2012-01-01

    Computer generated images are common in numerous computer graphics applications such as games, modeling, and simulation. There is normally a tradeoff between the time allocated to the generation of each image frame and and the quality of the image, where better quality images require more processing time. Specifically, in the rendering of 3D objects, the surfaces of objects may be manipulated by subdividing them into smaller triangular patches and/or smoothing them so as to produce better looking renderings. Since unnecessary subdivision results in increased rendering time and unnecessary smoothing results in reduced details, there is a need to automatically determine the amount of necessary processing for producing good quality rendered images. In this paper we propose a novel supervised learning based methodology for automatically predicting the quality of rendered images of 3D objects. To perform the prediction we train on a data set which is labeled by human observers for quality. We are then able to predict the quality of renderings (not used in the training) with an average prediction error of roughly 20%. The proposed approach is compared to known techniques and is shown to produce better results.

  13. On-the-fly generation and rendering of infinite cities on the GPU

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for shape-grammar-based generation and rendering of huge cities in real-time on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Traditional approaches rely on evaluating a shape grammar and storing the geometry produced as a preprocessing step. During rendering, the pregenerated data is then streamed to the GPU. By interweaving generation and rendering, we overcome the problems and limitations of streaming pregenerated data. Using our methods of visibility pruning and adaptive level of detail, we are able to dynamically generate only the geometry needed to render the current view in real-time directly on the GPU. We also present a robust and efficient way to dynamically update a scene\\'s derivation tree and geometry, enabling us to exploit frame-to-frame coherence. Our combined generation and rendering is significantly faster than all previous work. For detailed scenes, we are capable of generating geometry more rapidly than even just copying pregenerated data from main memory, enabling us to render cities with thousands of buildings at up to 100 frames per second, even with the camera moving at supersonic speed. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  15. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  16. Real-time synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8Kx4K three-dimensional display with spliced four liquid crystal panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huilong; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Ning, Jiwei; Yan, Binbin; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A high speed synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8K×4K multi-LCD-spliced three-dimensional (3D) display system based on CUDA is demonstrated. Because the conventional image processing calculation method is no longer applicable to this 3D display system, the CUDA technology is used for 3D image processing to address the problem of low efficiency.The 8K×4K screen is composed of four LCD screens, and accurate segmentation of the scene is carried out to ensure the correct display of 3D contents and a set of controlling and the host software are optimally implemented to make all of the connected processors render 3D videos simultaneously. The system which is based on the master-slave synchronization communication mode and DIBR-CUDA accelerated algorithm is used to realize the high resolution, high frame rate, large size, and wide view angle video rendering for the real-time 3D display. Experimental result shows a stable frame-rate at 30 frame-per-second and the friendly interactive interface can be achieved.

  17. Image-based haptic roughness estimation and rendering for haptic palpation from in vivo skin image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangtaek

    2017-08-08

    Despite the advancement of measuring technologies, there was a need for palpation by hands to be able to better diagnose skin diseases and to learn about the tactile properties of in vivo skin surface. However, directly touching in vivo skin surface can cause secondary infections or damages. Therefore, a technology providing infection- and damage-free skin palpations and precise haptic skin roughness rendering is needed. A multidimensional (2D and 3D) rendering system was developed for multimodal (visual and haptic) rendering that can run with any given in vivo input skin images. For haptic rendering, a commercial haptic device with 3 degrees of freedom (3DOF), Geomagic Touch X, was used. To improve haptic roughness rendering, a force shading algorithm that reduces force discontinuity on rough surface patches but preserves the original roughness values was implemented and applied. In addition, a new image-based roughness estimation method was introduced and the results were compared with haptic roughness results to verify roughness rendering in the system. The developed haptic roughness rendering system will help to diagnose abnormalities on in vivo skin surfaces by virtual haptic palpation with no concern about secondary infections or damages (caused by touch interactions) especially in case of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or aging, which results in significant changes of skin roughness. Besides, the system can also be a good tool to examine skin condition changes before and after the use of skin care products (cosmetics). In addition, the proposed 2D skin roughness estimation method can be applied for mobile applications to provide an online roughness estimation tool with a simple phone camera.

  18. 3-D volume rendering visualization for calculated distributions of diesel spray; Diesel funmu kyodo suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen volume rendering hyoji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizaki, T.; Imanishi, H.; Nishida, K.; Yamashita, H.; Hiroyasu, H.; Kaneda, K. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Three dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate calculated results of diesel combustion simulation into realistically spray and flame images. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Feature-Adaptive Rendering of Loop Subdivision Surfaces on Modern GPUs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄韵岑; 冯结青; 崔元敏; 杨宝光

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for real-time rendering Loop subdivision surfaces on modern graphics hardware. Our algorithm evaluates both positions and normals accurately, thus providing the true Loop subdivision surface. The core idea is to recursively refine irregular patches using a GPU compute kernel. All generated regular patches are then directly evaluated and rendered using the hardware tessellation unit. Our approach handles triangular control meshes of arbitrary topologies and incorporates common subdivision surface features such as semi-sharp creases and hierarchical edits. While surface rendering is accurate up to machine precision, we also enforce a consistent bitwise evaluation of positions and normals at patch boundaries. This is particularly useful in the context of displacement mapping which strictly requires matching surface normals. Furthermore, we incorporate efficient level-of-detail rendering where subdivision depth and tessellation density can be adjusted on-the-fly. Overall, our algorithm provides high-quality results at real-time frame rates, thus being ideally suited to interactive rendering applications such as video games or authoring tools.

  20. Direct Visuo-Haptic 4D Volume Rendering Using Respiratory Motion Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmeier, Dirk; Wilms, Matthias; Mastmeyer, Andre; Handels, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for direct visuo-haptic 4D volume rendering of virtual patient models under respiratory motion. Breathing models are computed based on patient-specific 4D CT image data sequences. Virtual patient models are visualized in real-time by ray casting based rendering of a reference CT image warped by a time-variant displacement field, which is computed using the motion models at run-time. Furthermore, haptic interaction with the animated virtual patient models is provided by using the displacements computed at high rendering rates to translate the position of the haptic device into the space of the reference CT image. This concept is applied to virtual palpation and the haptic simulation of insertion of a virtual bendable needle. To this aim, different motion models that are applicable in real-time are presented and the methods are integrated into a needle puncture training simulation framework, which can be used for simulated biopsy or vessel puncture in the liver. To confirm real-time applicability, a performance analysis of the resulting framework is given. It is shown that the presented methods achieve mean update rates around 2,000 Hz for haptic simulation and interactive frame rates for volume rendering and thus are well suited for visuo-haptic rendering of virtual patients under respiratory motion.

  1. On-line Free-viewpoint Video: From Single to Multiple View Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Nozick; Hideo Saito

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many image-based rendering techniques have advanced from static to dynamic scenes and thus become video-based rendering (VBR) methods. But actually, only a few of them can render new views on-line. We present a new VBR system that creates new views of a live dynamic scene. This system provides high quality images and does not require any background subtraction. Our method follows a plane-sweep approach and reaches real-time rendering using consumer graphic hardware, graphics processing unit (GPU). Only one computer is used for both acquisition and rendering. The video stream acquisition is performed by at least 3 webcams. We propose an additional video stream management that extends the number of webcams to 10 or more. These considerations make our system low-cost and hence accessible for everyone. We also present an adaptation of our plane-sweep method to create simultaneously multiple views of the scene in real-time. Our system is especially designed for stereovision using autostereoscopic displays. The new views are computed from 4 webcams connected to a computer and are compressed in order to be transfered to a mobile phone. Using CPU programming, our method provides up to 16 images of the scene in real-time. The use of both GPU and CPU makes this method work on only one consumer grade computer.

  2. Rendering-oriented multiview video coding based on chrominance information reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2010-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) video systems are expected to be a next-generation visual application. Since multiview video for 3-D video systems is composed of color and associated depth information, its huge requirement for data storage and transmission is an important problem. We propose a rendering-oriented multiview video coding (MVC) method based on chrominance information reconstruction that incorporates the rendering technique into the MVC process. The proposed method discards certain chrominance information to reduce bitrates, and performs reasonable bitrate allocation between color and depth videos. At the decoder, a chrominance reconstruction algorithm is presented to achieve accurate reconstruction by warping the neighboring views and colorizing the luminance-only pixels. Experimental results show that the proposed method can save nearly 20% on bitrates against the results without discarding the chrominance information. Moreover, under a fixed bitrate budget, the proposed method can greatly improve the rendering quality.

  3. Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, M A; Roerdink, J M

    2000-01-01

    We describe a wavelet based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in the frequency domain. The wavelet X-ray transform is derived, and the corresponding Fourier-wavelet volume rendering algorithm (FWVR) is introduced, FWVR uses Haar or B-spline wavelets and linear or cubic spline interpolation. Various combinations are tested and compared with wavelet splatting (WS). We use medical MR and CT scan data, as well as a 3-D analytical phantom to assess the accuracy, time complexity, and memory cost of both FWVR and WS. The differences between both methods are enumerated.

  4. Evaluation and Improvement of the CIE Metameric and Colour Rendering Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Slavuj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All artificial light sources are intended to simulate daylight and its properties of color rendering or ability of colour discrimination. Two indices, defined by the CIE, are used to quantify quality of the artificial light sources. First is Color Rendering Index which quantifies ability of light sources to render colours and other is the Metemerism Index which describes metamerism potential of given light source. Calculation of both indices are defined by CIE and has been a subject of discussion and change in past. In this work particularly, the problem of sample number and type used in calculation is addressed here and evaluated. It is noticed that both indices depends on the choice and sample number and that they should be determined based on application.

  5. 3-D wavelet compression and progressive inverse wavelet synthesis rendering of concentric mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Wu, Yunnan; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ya-Qin

    2002-01-01

    Using an array of photo shots, the concentric mosaic offers a quick way to capture and model a realistic three-dimensional (3-D) environment. We compress the concentric mosaic image array with a 3-D wavelet transform and coding scheme. Our compression algorithm and bitstream syntax are designed to ensure that a local view rendering of the environment requires only a partial bitstream, thereby eliminating the need to decompress the entire compressed bitstream before rendering. By exploiting the ladder-like structure of the wavelet lifting scheme, the progressive inverse wavelet synthesis (PIWS) algorithm is proposed to maximally reduce the computational cost of selective data accesses on such wavelet compressed datasets. Experimental results show that the 3-D wavelet coder achieves high-compression performance. With the PIWS algorithm, a 3-D environment can be rendered in real time from a compressed dataset.

  6. Spatial sound rendering of a playing xylophone for the telepresence application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2013-01-01

    and spatial properties of the sound field created by a xylophone as a distributed sound source were analyzed. Xylophone recordings were performed using different microphone configurations: one and two-channel recording setups are implemented. One-channel recording technique with binaural synthesis for spatial...... played at the student's location is required at the teacher’s site. This paper presents a comparison of different recording techniques for a spatial xylophone sound rendering, focusing on the horizontal width of the xylophone auditory image. The directivity pattern of the xylophone was measured...... xylophone sound rendering is proposed. The recorded signal is processed in order to define multiple virtual sources which are spatially distributed for the auditory width representation of the virtual xylophone. The results of the analyzed recording and rendering techniques are compared in terms...

  7. Physics Based Modeling and Rendering of Vegetation in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Ballard, J. R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We outline a procedure for rendering physically-based thermal infrared images of simple vegetation scenes. Our approach incorporates the biophysical processes that affect the temperature distribution of the elements within a scene. Computer graphics plays a key role in two respects. First, in computing the distribution of scene shaded and sunlit facets and, second, in the final image rendering once the temperatures of all the elements in the scene have been computed. We illustrate our approach for a simple corn scene where the three-dimensional geometry is constructed based on measured morphological attributes of the row crop. Statistical methods are used to construct a representation of the scene in agreement with the measured characteristics. Our results are quite good. The rendered images exhibit realistic behavior in directional properties as a function of view and sun angle. The root-mean-square error in measured versus predicted brightness temperatures for the scene was 2.1 deg C.

  8. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model; Analisi tecnica degli algoritmi di volume rendering: applicazione alle strutture a basso contrsto usando come modello la vascolarizzazione epatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luccichenti, Giacomo [Fondazione Biomedica Europea ONLUS, Roma (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). UO di prevenzione e riabilitazione vascolare, Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi ONLUS; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare l'influenza delle curve di opacit� (CO) preimpostate del volume-rendering sulla qualit� delle immagini, ed identificare quali parametri assoluti (attenzione dell'aorta, del parenchima epatico e della vena porta) influenzano la

  9. ACCELERATION RENDERING METHOD ON RAY TRACING WITH ANGLE COMPARISON AND DISTANCE COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana liliana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In computer graphics applications, to produce realistic images, a method that is often used is ray tracing. Ray tracing does not only model local illumination but also global illumination. Local illumination count ambient, diffuse and specular effects only, but global illumination also count mirroring and transparency. Local illumination count effects from the lamp(s but global illumination count effects from other object(s too. Objects that are usually modeled are primitive objects and mesh objects. The advantage of mesh modeling is various, interesting and real-like shape. Mesh contains many primitive objects like triangle or square (rare. A problem in mesh object modeling is long rendering time. It is because every ray must be checked with a lot of triangle of the mesh. Added by ray from other objects checking, the number of ray that traced will increase. It causes the increasing of rendering time. To solve this problem, in this research, new methods are developed to make the rendering process of mesh object faster. The new methods are angle comparison and distance comparison. These methods are used to reduce the number of ray checking. The rays predicted will not intersect with the mesh, are not checked weather the ray intersects the mesh. With angle comparison, if using small angle to compare, the rendering process will be fast. This method has disadvantage, if the shape of each triangle is big, some triangles will be corrupted. If the angle to compare is bigger, mesh corruption can be avoided but the rendering time will be longer than without comparison. With distance comparison, the rendering time is less than without comparison, and no triangle will be corrupted.

  10. Construction and Evaluation of an Ultra Low Latency Frameless Renderer for VR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Sebastian; Steed, Anthony; Tilbury, Simon; Gaydadjiev, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    Latency - the delay between a user's action and the response to this action - is known to be detrimental to virtual reality. Latency is typically considered to be a discrete value characterising a delay, constant in time and space - but this characterisation is incomplete. Latency changes across the display during scan-out, and how it does so is dependent on the rendering approach used. In this study, we present an ultra-low latency real-time ray-casting renderer for virtual reality, implemented on an FPGA. Our renderer has a latency of ~1 ms from 'tracker to pixel'. Its frameless nature means that the region of the display with the lowest latency immediately follows the scan-beam. This is in contrast to frame-based systems such as those using typical GPUs, for which the latency increases as scan-out proceeds. Using a series of high and low speed videos of our system in use, we confirm its latency of ~1 ms. We examine how the renderer performs when driving a traditional sequential scan-out display on a readily available HMO, the Oculus Rift OK2. We contrast this with an equivalent apparatus built using a GPU. Using captured human head motion and a set of image quality measures, we assess the ability of these systems to faithfully recreate the stimuli of an ideal virtual reality system - one with a zero latency tracker, renderer and display running at 1 kHz. Finally, we examine the results of these quality measures, and how each rendering approach is affected by velocity of movement and display persistence. We find that our system, with a lower average latency, can more faithfully draw what the ideal virtual reality system would. Further, we find that with low display persistence, the sensitivity to velocity of both systems is lowered, but that it is much lower for ours.

  11. Mastering Mental Ray Rendering Techniques for 3D and CAD Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Proven techniques for using mental ray effectively. If you're a busy artist seeking high-end results for your 3D, design, or architecture renders using mental ray, this is the perfect book for you. It distills the highly technical nature of rendering into easy-to-follow steps and tutorials that you can apply immediately to your own projects. The book uses 3ds Max and 3ds Max Design to show the integration with mental ray, but users of any 3D or CAD software can learn valuable techniques for incorporating mental ray into their pipelines.: Takes you under the hood of mental ray, a stand-alone or

  12. User evaluation of eight led light sources with different special colour rendering indices R9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Iversen, Anne; Logadottir, Asta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the influence of the special colour rendering index R9 on subjective red colour perception and Caucasian skin appearance among untrained test subjects. The light sources tested are commercially available LED based light sources with similar correlated colour temperature...... and general colour rendering index, but with varying R9. It was found that the test subjects in general are more positive towards light sources with higher R9. The shift from a majority of negative responses to a majority of positive responses is found to occur at R9 values of ~20....

  13. USER EVALUATION OF EIGHT LED LIGHT SOURCES WITH DIFFERENTSPECIAL COLOUR RENDERING INDICES R9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Iversen, Anne; Logadóttir, Ásta;

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the influence of the special colour rendering index R9 on subjective red colour perception and Caucasian skin appearance among untrained test subjects. The light sources tested are commercially available LED based light sources with similar correlated colour temperature...... and general colour rendering index, but with varying R9. It was found that the test subjects in general are more positive towards light sources with higher R9. The shift from a majority of negative responses to a majority of positive responses is found to occur at R9 values of ~20....

  14. Towards the Availability of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System: Automatic Modeling and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kemin; Jiang, Zhengtao; Wang, Yongbin;

    2012-01-01

    , whenever the number of node-n and related parameters vary, we can create the PRISM model file rapidly and then we can use PRISM model checker to verify ralated system properties. At the end of this study, we analyzed and verified the availability distributions of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System......In this study, we proposed a Continuous Time Markov Chain Model towards the availability of n-node clusters of Distributed Rendering System. It's an infinite one, we formalized it, based on the model, we implemented a software, which can automatically model with PRISM language. With the tool...

  15. Color Temperature Tunable White-Light LED Cluster with Extrahigh Color Rendering Index

    OpenAIRE

    Minhao Zhang; Yu Chen; Guoxing He

    2014-01-01

    The correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering property has been found by simulation and fabricated, which consists of three WW LEDs (CCT = 3183 K), one red LED (634.1 nm), one green LED (513.9 nm), and one blue LED (456.2 nm). The experimental results show that this cluster can realize the CCT tunable white-lights with a color rendering index (CRI) above 93, special CRI R9 for strong red above 90, average value of the special CRIs of R9...

  16. Direct volumetric rendering based on point primitives in OpenGL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, André Luiz Miranda; de Almeida Souza, Ilana; Yuuji Hira, Adilson; Zuffo, Marcelo Knörich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this project is to present a renderization by software algorithm of acquired volumetric data. The algorithm was implemented in Java language and the LWJGL graphical library was used, allowing the volume renderization by software and thus preventing the necessity to acquire specific graphical boards for the 3D reconstruction. The considered algorithm creates a model in OpenGL, through point primitives, where each voxel becomes a point with the color values related to this pixel position in the corresponding images.

  17. DIRECT VOXEL-PROJECTION FOR VOLUMETRIC DATA RENDERING IN MEDICAL IMAGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠; 郭玉红

    2002-01-01

    The volumetric rendering of 3-D medical image data is very effective method for communication about radiological studies to clinicians. Algorithms that produce images with artifacts and inaccuracies are not clinically useful. This paper proposed a direct voxel-projection algorithm to implement volumetric data rendering. Using this algorithm, arbitrary volume rotation, transparent and cutaway views are generated satisfactorily. Compared with the existing raytracing methods, it improves the projection image quality greatly. Some experimental results about real medical CT image data demonstrate the advantages and fidelity of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  19. A graphics pipeline for directtly rendering 3D scenes on web browsers

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Edgar Marchiel

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation we propose a graphics pipeline, in the form of aWeb3D graphics library, for directly rendering 3D scenes on web browsers. This open sourceWeb3D graphics library is called Glypher3D. It is entirely written in JavaScript (together with the HTML5 canvas element) and aims at enabling the creation, manipulation and rendering of 3D contents within a browser, without the need of installing any type of web browser plug-ins or add-ons (i.e. it does not take advantag...

  20. Dynamic Resolution in GPU-Accelerated Volume Rendering to Autostereoscopic Multiview Lenticular Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruijters

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of multiview stereoscopic images of large volume rendered data demands an enormous amount of calculations. We propose a method for hardware accelerated volume rendering of medical data sets to multiview lenticular displays, offering interactive manipulation throughout. The method is based on buffering GPU-accelerated direct volume rendered visualizations of the individual views from their respective focal spot positions, and composing the output signal for the multiview lenticular screen in a second pass. This compositing phase is facilitated by the fact that the view assignment per subpixel is static, and therefore can be precomputed. We decoupled the resolution of the individual views from the resolution of the composited signal, and adjust the resolution on-the-fly, depending on the available processing resources, in order to maintain interactive refresh rates. The optimal resolution for the volume rendered views is determined by means of an analysis of the lattice of the output signal for the lenticular screen in the Fourier domain.

  1. 31 CFR 545.514 - Payments for services rendered by the Taliban to aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments for services rendered by the Taliban to aircraft. 545.514 Section 545.514 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and..., or supply, directly or indirectly, of goods, software, technology, and services to ensure the safety...

  2. ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATION IN RENDERING CIVIL SERVICE IN THE SYSTEM OF LEGAL ENACTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria V. Lich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the place of administrative regulation in rendering civil service in the hierarchy of the Russian laws and regulations. The problem whether to consider administrative regulation in civil service as a departmental law, issued by federal authorities, or as a clarification to federal laws and an instruction on its execution, is discussed in the article.

  3. 27 CFR 19.983 - Spirits rendered unfit for beverage use in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beverage use in the production process. 19.983 Section 19.983 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... the production process. Where spirits are rendered unfit for beverage use before removal from the production system, the proprietor shall enter into the production records, in addition to the quantity...

  4. Moisture transport properties of brick – comparison of exposed, impregnated and rendered brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    In regards to internal insulation of preservation worthy brick façades, external moisture sources, such as wind-driven rain exposure, inevitably has an impact on moisture conditions within the masonry construction. Surface treatments, such as hydrophobation or render, may remedy the impacts...

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 9: Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  6. 3D colour visualization of label images using volume rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, R; Kottenhoff, R; Grebe, R

    1995-01-01

    Volume rendering methods for the visualization of 3D image data sets have been developed and collected in a C library. The core algorithm consists of a perspective ray casting technique for a natural and realistic view of the 3D scene. New edge operator shading methods are employed for a fast and information preserving representation of surfaces. Control parameters of the algorithm can be tuned to have either smoothed surfaces or a very detailed rendering of the geometrical structure. Different objects can be distinguished by different colours. Shadow ray tracing has been implemented to improve the realistic impression of the 3D image. For a simultaneous representation of objects in different depths, hiding each other, two types of transparency mode are used (wireframe and glass transparency). Single objects or groups of objects can be excluded from the rendering (peeling). Three orthogonal cutting planes or one arbitrarily placed cutting plane can be applied to the rendered objects in order to get additional information about inner structures, contours, and relative positions.

  7. Using Opaque Image Blur for Real-Time Depth-of-Field Rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    the opacity of all pixels to avoid artifacts at the cost of physically less accurate but still plausible rendering results. The proposed filter is named “opaque image blur” and is based on a glow filter that is applied to the alpha channel. We present a highly efficient GPU-based pyramid algorithm...

  8. 3D-TV Rendering on a Multiprocessor System on a Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijndhoven, J.T.J.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the issue of mapping 3D-TV rendering applications to a multiprocessor platform. The target platform aims to address tomorrow's multi-media consumer market. The prototype chip, called Wasabi, contains a set of TriMedia processors that communicate viaa shared memory, fast messag

  9. Smooth, Interactive Rendering Techniques on Large-Scale, Geospatial Data in Flood Visualizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehl, C.; Tutenel, T.; Eisemann, E.

    2013-01-01

    Visualising large-scale geospatial data is a demanding challenge that finds applications in many fields, including climatology and hydrology. Due to the enormous data size, it is currently not possible to render full datasets interactively without significantly compromising quality (especially not w

  10. Real-time Terrain Rendering using Smooth Hardware Optimized Level of Detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    - also known as ’popping’, when reducing the geometry by exploiting the low-level hardware programmability in order to maintain interactive framerates. Terrain models are repolygonized in order to minimizing the visible error. Furthermore, the method minimizes CPU usage during rendering and requires...

  11. Compression, Modeling, and Real-Time Rendering of Realistic Materials and Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Menzel, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The realism of a scene basically depends on the quality of the geometry, the illumination and the materials that are used. Whereas many sources for the creation of three-dimensional geometry exist and numerous algorithms for the approximation of global illumination were presented, the acquisition and rendering of realistic materials remains a challenging problem. Realistic materials are very important in computer graphics, because...

  12. Advanced Audiovisual Rendering, Gesture-Based Interaction and Distributed Delivery for Immersive and Interactive Media Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Kochale, A.; Ruiz Hidalgo, J.; Macq, J-F.; Kienast, G.

    2011-01-01

    The media industry is currently being pulled in the often-opposing directions of increased realism (high resolution, stereoscopic, large screen) and personalisation (selection and control of content, availability on many devices). A capture, production, delivery and rendering system capable of

  13. Psychophysical evaluations of various color rendering from LED-based architectural lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Maria; O'Reilly, Una-May; Levin, Robert

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports a study on visual evaluation of colors under LED lighting operated by an energy-saving control strategy. Digitally controlled LED systems can produce various qualities of light, adjustable to users' requirements. In this context, a novel control concept inspired this research: strategic control of Red, Yellow, Green & Blue LEDs forming white light can further increase energy efficiency. The resulting (more efficient) light, however, would have decreased "color rendering" (ability of accurately reproduce colors). The notable point is that while reducing color rendering, color temperature and light levels can stay constant and hence the appearance of the modified light could stay the same, and only the colors of illuminated objects would change. But how spaces would be perceived under such light with changing color rendering is a key question. This research investigated the hypothesis that a significant range of color distortions would be unnoticeable under such dynamically controlled illumination, especially outside of users' main field of view. If successful, such control technique could be implemented for unoccupied spaces that would not tolerated dimming, and minimize peak hours energy waste, potentially enabling significant power reductions. Three incremental series of experiments were performed based on subjective assessment of colors under changing color rendering. Tests were carried out for central and peripheral vision, using laboratory booths (phase 1) and full scale architectural mockups (phase 2). Results confirmed the fundamental hypothesis, showing that the majority of subjects did not detect the color changes in their periphery while the same color changes were noticeable with direct observation.

  14. Photometric and Colorimeric Comparison of HDR and Spctrally Resolved Rendering Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude; Thorseth, Anders

    2016-01-01

    used a scene similar to the cornel box (CUPCG, 1998) but with a spectrally controllable LED light source, neutral grey walls and a colour checker board for colorimetric assessments. The luminance value and colour information of the HDR camera and rendering images are used for the comparison...

  15. An improved scheduling algorithm for 3D cluster rendering with platform LSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenli; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Liping

    2013-10-01

    High-quality photorealistic rendering of 3D modeling needs powerful computing systems. On this demand highly efficient management of cluster resources develops fast to exert advantages. This paper is absorbed in the aim of how to improve the efficiency of 3D rendering tasks in cluster. It focuses research on a dynamic feedback load balance (DFLB) algorithm, the work principle of load sharing facility (LSF) and optimization of external scheduler plug-in. The algorithm can be applied into match and allocation phase of a scheduling cycle. Candidate hosts is prepared in sequence in match phase. And the scheduler makes allocation decisions for each job in allocation phase. With the dynamic mechanism, new weight is assigned to each candidate host for rearrangement. The most suitable one will be dispatched for rendering. A new plugin module of this algorithm has been designed and integrated into the internal scheduler. Simulation experiments demonstrate the ability of improved plugin module is superior to the default one for rendering tasks. It can help avoid load imbalance among servers, increase system throughput and improve system utilization.

  16. Validation of Thermal Lethality against Salmonella enterica in Poultry Offal during Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Ibarra, Amie-Marie; Acuff, Gary R; Alvarado, Christine Z; Taylor, T Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of human disease following contact with companion animal foods cross-contaminated with enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica, have resulted in increased concern regarding the microbiological safety of animal foods. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act and its implementing rules have stipulated the implementation of current good manufacturing practices and food safety preventive controls for livestock and companion animal foods. Animal foods and feeds are sometimes formulated to include thermally rendered animal by-product meals. The objective of this research was to determine the thermal inactivation of S. enterica in poultry offal during rendering at differing temperatures. Raw poultry offal was obtained from a commercial renderer and inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella serovars Senftenberg, Enteritidis, and Gallinarum (an avian pathogen) prior to being subjected to heating at 150, 155, or 160°F (65.5, 68.3, or 71.1°C) for up to 15 min. Following heat application, surviving Salmonella bacteria were enumerated. Mean D-values for the Salmonella cocktail at 150, 155, and 160°F were 0.254 ± 0.045, 0.172 ± 0.012, and 0.086 ± 0.004 min, respectively, indicative of increasing susceptibility to increased application of heat during processing. The mean thermal process constant (z-value) was 21.948 ± 3.87°F. Results indicate that a 7.0-log-cycle inactivation of Salmonella may be obtained from the cumulative lethality encountered during the heating come-up period and subsequent rendering of raw poultry offal at temperatures not less than 150°F. Current poultry rendering procedures are anticipated to be effective for achieving necessary pathogen control when completed under sanitary conditions.

  17. Using wesBench to Study the Rendering Performance of Graphics Processing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, Edward W

    2010-01-08

    Graphics operations consist of two broad operations. The first, which we refer to here as vertex operations, consists of transformation, lighting, primitive assembly, and so forth. The second, which we refer to as pixel or fragment operations, consist of rasterization, texturing, scissoring, blending, and fill. Overall GPU rendering performance is a function of throughput of both these interdependent stages: if one stage is slower than the other, the faster stage will be forced to run more slowly and overall rendering performance will be adversely affected. This relationship is commutative: if the later stage has a greater workload than the earlier stage, the earlier stage will be forced to 'slow down.' For example, a large triangle that covers many screen pixels will incur a very small amount of work in the vertex stage while at the same time incurring a relatively large amount of work in the fragment stage. Rendering performance of a scene consisting of many large-area triangles will be limited by throughput of the fragment stage, which will have relatively more work than the vertex stage. There are two main objectives for this document. First, we introduce a new graphics benchmark, wesBench, which is useful for measuring performance of both stages of the rendering pipeline under varying conditions. Second, we present its methodology for measuring performance and show results of several performance measurement studies aimed at producing better understanding of GPU rendering performance characteristics and limits under varying configurations. First, in Section 2, we explore the 'crossover' point between geometry and rasterization. Second, in Section 3, we explore additional performance characteristics, some of which are ill- or un-documented. Lastly, several appendices provide additional material concerning problems with the gfxbench benchmark, and details about the new wesBench graphics benchmark.

  18. Congenital inner ear malformation: three dimensional volume rendering image using MR CISS sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Woon; Lee, In Sook; Kim, Hak Jin; Goh, Eui Kyung; Kim, Lee Suk [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate three-dimensional volume-rendering of congenital inner-ear malformations using the MR CISS(Constructive Interference in Steady State) sequence. MR CISS images of 30 inner ears of 15 patients (M:F=10.5; mean age, 6.5years) in whom inner-ear malformation was suspected were obtained using a superconducting Magnetom Vision System (Simens, Erlangen, Germany), with TR/TE/FA parameters of 12.25 ms/5.9 ms/70.deg.. The images obtained were processed by means of the volume rendering technique at an advanced workstation (Voxtol 3.0.0; GE Systems, advanced workstation, volume analysis). The cochlea and three semicircular canals were morphologically evaluated. Volume-rendered images of 25 inner ears of 13 patients demonstrated cochlear anomalies in the form of incomplete partition (n=18), hypoplasia (n=2), and severe hypoplasia (n=5). For the superior semicircular canal, findings were normal in 15 ears, though common crus aplasia (n=6), hypoplasia (n=4), aplasia (n=3), and a short and broad shape (n=2) were also observed. The posterior semicircular canal of 13 ears was normal, but common crus aplasia (n=6), a short and broad shape (n=5), aplasia (n=4), hypoplasia (n=3) were also identified. Twelve lateral semicircular canals, were normal, but other images depicted a short and broad shape (n=7), a dilated crus (n=5), a broad shape (n=4), and aplasia (n=2). In 14 patients the anomalies were bilateral, and in seven, the same anomalies affected both ears. Three-dimensional volume rendering images of the inner ear depicted various morphological abnormalities of the cochlea and semicircular canals. At that locations, anomalies were more complicated and varied than in the cochlea. Three-dimensional volume rendering imaging using the MR CISS technique provides anatomical information regarding the membranous labyrinth, and we consider this useful in the evaluation of congenital inner ear malformations.

  19. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference...

  20. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  1. An Architecture For Shared Multi-User Client Rendering Of Massive Geodatasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naser, A.; Brooke, J.; Rasheed, M.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a novel data-centric visualization architecture to allow interactive exploration of geophysical data. Our method allows multiple users to collaborate in a lightweight, loosely-coupled and highly scalable environment. We choose 3D seismic data for our case study. Existing visualization solutions for data exploratory tasks are mainly application-centric rather than data-centric. They typically store large datasets on users' local machines for fast access. Additionally, data objects that are the focus of study, e.g. seismic surveys and interpreted geological features, are managed as objects that are independent of the primary data. Thus multi-user collaborations where different users visually share their geological interpretations are handled inefficiently since objects from each interpretation are stored as independent discrete objects. These objects may be stored separately from the primary data, e.g. on local disks, ensuring a coherent multi-user view is difficult. Our visual analytic method places a central data structure built on a Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) relational database at the heart of the visualization architecture. This structure allows us to develop the following efficient methods for data retrieval and display: -global hashing for spatial reference on all datasets -interpretation tagging which accumulate user interpretation into the database -multi-user concurrent access allowing parallel multi-threading queries In our data structure, data elements are indexed on their geolocations by a hashing algorithm. The hashing algorithm determines the location of the required row through hashing functions without a construction or any storage complexity. This is unlike other conventional indexing algorithms such as bitmapping or tree-based methods where construction and storage (of the index table) complexity varies between O(n) and O(n log n) where n is the size of the dataset. Also, we replace the geometric objects formed as a

  2. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Juliette Albert; Seshasayanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to p...

  3. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  4. Color Temperature Tunable White-Light LED Cluster with Extrahigh Color Rendering Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlated color temperature (CCT tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering property has been found by simulation and fabricated, which consists of three WW LEDs (CCT = 3183 K, one red LED (634.1 nm, one green LED (513.9 nm, and one blue LED (456.2 nm. The experimental results show that this cluster can realize the CCT tunable white-lights with a color rendering index (CRI above 93, special CRI R9 for strong red above 90, average value of the special CRIs of R9 to R12 for the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green, and blue above 83, and luminous efficacies above 70 lm/W at CCTs of 2719 K to 6497 K.

  5. An innovative calibration based integral photography rendering algorithm for medical application and its evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guowen; Zhang, Xinran; Fan, Zhencheng; Liao, Hongen

    2015-01-01

    Autostereoscopic has long been proposed to fulfill medical display in image-guided surgery and clinical education to provide more intuitive position information of clinical interest zone thus improving surgery safety and accuracy. As one category of flexible autostereoscopic 3D display, computer generated integral photography (CGIP) has been studied in medical application by many researches for its convenience and cost-efficiency. However, IP still suffers from inaccurate light field reconstruction, which limits its practicality in surgery. In this paper, we propose and apply a flexible fish-eye model based micro lens array (MLA) distortion calibration method and pre-distorted retracing rendering algorithm to render elemental image array (EIA) of CGIP. Furthermore, we also evaluate light field of the proposed algorithm in depth cue, and signal noise ratio of IP images by phantom experiment.

  6. 3D virtual rendering in thoracoscopic treatment of congenital malformation of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destro F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the lung (CML are rare but potentially dangerous congenital malformations. Their identification is important in order to define the most appropriate management. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 37 patients affected by CML treated in our Pediatric Surgery Unit in the last four years with minimally invasive surgery (MIS. Results: Prenatal diagnosis was possible in 26/37 patients. Surgery was performed in the first month of life in 3 symptomatic patients and between 6 and 12 months in the others. All patients underwent radiological evaluation prior to thoracoscopic surgery. Images collected were reconstructed using the VR render software. Discussion and conclusions: Volume rendering gives high anatomical resolution and it can be useful to guide the surgical procedure. Thoracoscopy should be the technique of choice because it is safe, effective and feasible. Furthermore it has the benefit of a minimal access technique and it can be easily performed in children.

  7. Visions of architecture. Perspective and photographic manipulation from photomontage to rendering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magagnini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The submitted article investigates the existence of a philological and semantic continuity between contemporary perspectives made with photorealistic three-dimensional CG techniques and the analogical ones that use photography for the design process. The research, which moves from historical milestones, tracks the purposes of photomontage in architecture, form the first use in art and the in architecture, to the contemporary CG rendering. The goal is not to search for ways to construct architectural objects, but rather to use potential capability of digital design to realize the assertiveness of the image. Another issue is about the role of perspective (and the mastery of descriptive geometry nowadays. In support of the theoretical speculations, some unedited comments by the same authors to the photomontages of Superstudio and to the renderings of Giacomo Costa.

  8. A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Greg [Anywhere Software, Albany, CA (United States); Kurt, Murat [International Computer Institute, Ege University (Turkey); Bonneel, Nicolas [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-drivenBSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy.We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations.We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

  9. Introduction to the special section on 3D representation, compression, and rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Anthony; Frossard, Pascal; Lee, Sanghoon; Mueller, Karsten; Ohm, Jens-Rainer; Sullivan, Gary

    2013-09-01

    A new set of three-dimensional (3D) data formats and associated compression technologies are emerging with the aim to achieve more flexible representation and higher compression of 3D and multiview video content. These new tools will facilitate the generation of multiview output (e.g., as needed for multiview auto-stereoscopic displays), provide richer immersive multimedia experiences, and allow new interactive applications. This special section includes a timely set of papers covering the most recent technical developments in this area with papers covering topics in the different aspects of 3D systems, from representation and compression algorithms to rendering techniques and quality assessment. This special section includes a good balance on topics that are of interest to academic, industrial, and standardization communities. We believe that this collection of papers represent the most recent advances in representation, compression, rendering, and quality assessment of 3D scenes.

  10. Color temperature tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhao; Chen, Yu; He, Guoxing

    2014-01-01

    The correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering property has been found by simulation and fabricated, which consists of three WW LEDs (CCT = 3183 K), one red LED (634.1 nm), one green LED (513.9 nm), and one blue LED (456.2 nm). The experimental results show that this cluster can realize the CCT tunable white-lights with a color rendering index (CRI) above 93, special CRI R9 for strong red above 90, average value of the special CRIs of R9 to R12 for the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) above 83, and luminous efficacies above 70 lm/W at CCTs of 2719 K to 6497 K.

  11. 3D chromosome rendering from Hi-C data using virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yixin; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Weber, Philip; Fang, Jennifer; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Ren, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Most genome browsers display DNA linearly, using single-dimensional depictions that are useful to examine certain epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. However, these representations are insufficient to visualize intrachromosomal interactions and relationships between distal genome features. Relationships between DNA regions may be difficult to decipher or missed entirely if those regions are distant in one dimension but could be spatially proximal when mapped to three-dimensional space. For example, the visualization of enhancers folding over genes is only fully expressed in three-dimensional space. Thus, to accurately understand DNA behavior during gene expression, a means to model chromosomes is essential. Using coordinates generated from Hi-C interaction frequency data, we have created interactive 3D models of whole chromosome structures and its respective domains. We have also rendered information on genomic features such as genes, CTCF binding sites, and enhancers. The goal of this article is to present the procedure, findings, and conclusions of our models and renderings.

  12. Rendering LGBTQ+ Visible in Nursing: Embodying the Philosophy of Caring Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lisa; Rosenburg, Neal; Watson, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Although health care institutions continue to address the importance of diversity initiatives, the standard(s) for treatment remain historically and institutionally grounded in a sociocultural privileging of heterosexuality. As a result, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) communities in health care remain largely invisible. This marked invisibility serves as a call to action, a renaissance of thinking within redefined boundaries and limitations. We must therefore refocus our habits of attention on the wholeness of persons and the diversity of their storied experiences as embodied through contemporary society. By rethinking current understandings of LGBTQ+ identities through innovative representation(s) of the media, music industry, and pop culture within a caring science philosophy, nurses have a transformative opportunity to render LGBTQ+ visible and in turn render a transformative opportunity for themselves.

  13. Morpes: A Model for Personalized Rendering of Web Content on Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kuppusamy, K S; 10.5121/ijfcst.2012.2204

    2012-01-01

    With the tremendous growth in the information communication sector, the mobile phones have become the prime information communication devices. The convergence of traditional telephony with the modern web enabled communication in the mobile devices has made the communication much effective and simpler. As mobile phones are becoming the crucial source of accessing the contents of the World Wide Web which was originally designed for personal computers, has opened up a new challenge of accommodating the web contents in to the smaller mobile devices. This paper proposes an approach towards building a model for rendering the web pages in mobile devices. The proposed model is based on a multi-dimensional web page segment evaluation model. The incorporation of personalization in the proposed model makes the rendering user-centric. The proposed model is validated with a prototype implementation.

  14. Mineralogical characterization of rendering mortars from decorative details of a baroque building in Kozuchow (SW Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartz, W., E-mail: wojciech.bartz@ing.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Wroclaw, ul. Cybulskiego 30, 50-205 Wroclaw (Poland); Filar, T. [Fil-Art, ul.Technologow 13/8, 65-424 Zielona Gora (Poland)

    2010-01-15

    Optical microscopic observations, scanning electron microscopy and microprobe with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis allowed detailed characterization of rendering mortars from decorative details (figures of Saints) of a baroque building in Kozuchow (Lubuskie Voivodship, Western Poland). Two separate coats of rendering mortars have been distinguished, differing in composition of their filler. The under coat mortar has filler composed of coarse-grained siliceous sand, whereas the finishing one has much finer grained filler, dominated by a mixture of charcoal and Fe-smelting slag, with minor amounts of quartz grains. Both mortars have air-hardening binder composed of gypsum and micritic calcite, exhibiting microcrystalline structure.

  15. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  16. A Semi-automated Approach to Improve the Efficiency of Medical Imaging Segmentation for Haptic Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pat; Hu, Mengqi; Kannan, Rahul; Krishnaswamy, Srinivasan

    2017-08-01

    The Sensimmer platform represents our ongoing research on simultaneous haptics and graphics rendering of 3D models. For simulation of medical and surgical procedures using Sensimmer, 3D models must be obtained from medical imaging data, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Image segmentation techniques are used to determine the anatomies of interest from the images. 3D models are obtained from segmentation and their triangle reduction is required for graphics and haptics rendering. This paper focuses on creating 3D models by automating the segmentation of CT images based on the pixel contrast for integrating the interface between Sensimmer and medical imaging devices, using the volumetric approach, Hough transform method, and manual centering method. Hence, automating the process has reduced the segmentation time by 56.35% while maintaining the same accuracy of the output at ±2 voxels.

  17. Ozone inactivation of infectious prions in rendering plant and municipal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Neumann, Norman F; Price, Luke M; Braithwaite, Shannon L; Balachandran, Aru; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    Disposal of tissues and organs associated with prion accumulation and infectivity in infected animals (designated as Specified Risk Materials [SRM]) is strictly regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA); however, the contamination of wastewater from slaughterhouses that handle SRM still poses public concern. In this study, we examined for the first time the partitioning of infectious prions in rendering plant wastewater and found that a large proportion of infectious prions were partitioned into the scum layer formed at the top after gravity separation, while quite a few infectious prions still remained in the wastewater. Subsequently, we assessed the ozone inactivation of infectious prions in the raw, natural gravity-separated and dissolved air flotation (DAF)-treated (i.e., primary-treated) rendering plant wastewater, and in a municipal final effluent (i.e., secondary-treated municipal wastewater). At applied ozone doses of 43.4-44.6 mg/L, ozone was instantaneously depleted in the raw rendering plant wastewater, while a greater than 4-log10 inactivation was achieved at a 5 min exposure in the DAF-treated rendering plant wastewater. Prion inactivation in the municipal final effluent was conducted with two levels of applied ozone doses of 13.4 and 22.5mg/L, and a greater than 4-log10 inactivation was achieved at a 5 min exposure with the higher ozone dose. Efficiency factor Hom (EFH) models were used to model (i.e., fit) the experimental data. The CT (disinfectant concentration multiplied by contact time) values were determined for 2- and 3-log10 inactivation in the municipal final effluent treated with an ozone dose of 13.4 mg/L. Our results indicate that ozone could serve as a final barrier for prion inactivation in primary- and/or secondary-treated wastewaters.

  18. Considerations about the use of lime-cement mortars for render conservation purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Faria, Joana; Shasavandi, Arman; Jalali, Said

    2011-01-01

    Some investigations about conservation renders points out that Portland cement based mortars should be avoided and should be replaced by lime-pozzolan mortars. However, this type of mortar is still under investigation and the majority of Portuguese construction enterprises operating in the field of building conservation do not possess enough know-how about them. Besides the absolute rejection of the use of Portland cement based mortars even with just a minimum amount appears to be a dogmat...

  19. Joint Projection Filling method for occlusion handling in Depth-Image-Based Rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Jantet, Vincent; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the disocclusion problem which may occur when using Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR) techniques in 3DTV and Free-Viewpoint TV applications. A new DIBR technique is proposed, which combines three methods: a Joint Projection Filling (JPF) method to handle disocclusions in synthesized depth maps; a backward projection to synthesize virtual views; and a full-Z depth-aided inpainting to fill in disoccluded areas in textures. The JPF method performs th...

  20. Dynamic real-time 4D cardiac MDCT image display using GPU-accelerated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2009-09-01

    Intraoperative cardiac monitoring, accurate preoperative diagnosis, and surgical planning are important components of minimally-invasive cardiac therapy. Retrospective, electrocardiographically (ECG) gated, multidetector computed tomographical (MDCT), four-dimensional (3D + time), real-time, cardiac image visualization is an important tool for the surgeon in such procedure, particularly if the dynamic volumetric image can be registered to, and fused with the actual patient anatomy. The addition of stereoscopic imaging provides a more intuitive environment by adding binocular vision and depth cues to structures within the beating heart. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a comprehensive stereoscopic 4D cardiac image visualization and manipulation platform, based on the opacity density radiation model, which exploits the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) in the rendering pipeline. In addition, we present a new algorithm to synchronize the phases of the dynamic heart to clinical ECG signals, and to calculate and compensate for latencies in the visualization pipeline. A dynamic multiresolution display is implemented to enable the interactive selection and emphasis of volume of interest (VOI) within the entire contextual cardiac volume and to enhance performance, and a novel color and opacity adjustment algorithm is designed to increase the uniformity of the rendered multiresolution image of heart. Our system provides a visualization environment superior to noninteractive software-based implementations, but with a rendering speed that is comparable to traditional, but inferior quality, volume rendering approaches based on texture mapping. This retrospective ECG-gated dynamic cardiac display system can provide real-time feedback regarding the suspected pathology, function, and structural defects, as well as anatomical information such as chamber volume and morphology.

  1. Hardware Implementation of an Automatic Rendering Tone Mapping Algorithm for a Wide Dynamic Range Display

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tone mapping algorithms are used to adapt captured wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes to the limited dynamic range of available display devices. Although there are several tone mapping algorithms available, most of them require manual tuning of their rendering parameters. In addition, the high complexities of some of these algorithms make it difficult to implement efficient real-time hardware systems. In this work, a real-time hardware implementation of an exponent-based tone mapping algorithm i...

  2. Durability to marine environment of innovative products for consolidation and chromatic reintegration of historical renders

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Margarida; Borsoi, Giovanni; Veiga,Rosário; Faria, Paulina; Santos-Silva, António

    2014-01-01

    9th International Masonry Conference 2014, 7-9 July, Universidade do Minho, Guimarães A common degradation phenomenon in historical renders is the cohesion loss of the binder:aggregate system, which is often linked to the presence of soluble salts. Cohesion is recovered through the application of consolidant products, being inorganics preferred due to their compatibility and durability. The aesthetic function can be restored by chromatic reintegration. The aim of this paper is the as...

  3. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  4. FluoRender: joint freehand segmentation and visualization for many-channel fluorescence data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Holman, Holly A; Bagley, Brig; Ito, Masayoshi; Lewis, A Kelsey; Colasanto, Mary; Kardon, Gabrielle; Ito, Kei; Hansen, Charles

    2017-05-26

    Image segmentation and registration techniques have enabled biologists to place large amounts of volume data from fluorescence microscopy, morphed three-dimensionally, onto a common spatial frame. Existing tools built on volume visualization pipelines for single channel or red-green-blue (RGB) channels have become inadequate for the new challenges of fluorescence microscopy. For a three-dimensional atlas of the insect nervous system, hundreds of volume channels are rendered simultaneously, whereas fluorescence intensity values from each channel need to be preserved for versatile adjustment and analysis. Although several existing tools have incorporated support of multichannel data using various strategies, the lack of a flexible design has made true many-channel visualization and analysis unavailable. The most common practice for many-channel volume data presentation is still converting and rendering pseudosurfaces, which are inaccurate for both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Here, we present an alternative design strategy that accommodates the visualization and analysis of about 100 volume channels, each of which can be interactively adjusted, selected, and segmented using freehand tools. Our multichannel visualization includes a multilevel streaming pipeline plus a triple-buffer compositing technique. Our method also preserves original fluorescence intensity values on graphics hardware, a crucial feature that allows graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based processing for interactive data analysis, such as freehand segmentation. We have implemented the design strategies as a thorough restructuring of our original tool, FluoRender. The redesign of FluoRender not only maintains the existing multichannel capabilities for a greatly extended number of volume channels, but also enables new analysis functions for many-channel data from emerging biomedical-imaging techniques.

  5. ROOT OO model to render multi-level 3-D geometrical objects via an OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rene; Fine, Valeri; Rademakers, Fons

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a set of C++ low-level classes to render 3D objects within ROOT-based frameworks. This allows developing a set of viewers with different properties the user can choose from to render one and the same 3D objects.

  6. Greenhouse gas life cycle assessment of products arising from the rendering of mammalian animal byproducts in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Angel D; Humphries, Andrea C; Woodgate, Stephen L; Wilkinson, Robert G

    2012-01-03

    Animal byproducts (ABP) are unavoidable byproduct of meat production that are categorized under EU legislation into category 1, 2, and 3 materials, which are normally treated by rendering. Rendering is a thermal process that produces rendered fat and protein. Heat is provided from the combustion of natural gas and self-produced rendered fat. The main objectives of the study were (i) to assess energy intensity in the UK rendering industry, and (ii) to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of mammalian rendered products using life cycle assessment. Thermal energy requirements were 2646 and 1357 kJ/kg, whereas electricity requirements were 260 and 375 kJ/kg for category 1 and 3 ABP respectively. Fossil CO(2) emissions were -0.77 and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg category 1 and 3 mammalian rendered fat respectively and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg processed animal protein. These were low relative to vegetable products such as palm oil and soya bean meal because (i) ABP were considered wastes that do not incur the environmental burden of their production, and (ii) the rendering process produces biofuels that can be used to generate energy that can be used to offset the use of fossil fuels in other systems.

  7. Hesse Rendering for Computer Aided Visualization and Analysis (CAVA) of Anomalies in Chest CT and Breast MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemker, R.; Dharaiya, E.D.; Buelow, T.

    2011-01-01

    As a complement to maximum intensity projection (MIP) and direct volume rendering of the Hounsfield densities, a Hesse rendering can show the local curvature of structures rather than the densities. Color coding of the local curvatures, or simply of the eigenvalues of the local second derivatives,

  8. Efficient rendering of digitally reconstructed radiographs on heterogeneous computing architectures using central slice theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Abdallah, Mohamed; Alzanati, Mohamed; Eldeib, Ayman

    2016-08-01

    Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) play a significant role in modern clinical radiation therapy. They are used to verify patient alignments during image guided therapies with 2D-3D image registration. The generation of DRRs can be implemented intuitively in O(N3) relying on direct volume rendering (DVR) methods, such as ray marching. This complexity imposes certain limitations on the rendering performance if high quality DRR images are needed. Those DRRs can be alternatively generated in the k-space using the central slice theorem in O(N2logN). Several rendering pipelines have been designed to create the DRRs in the k-space, but they were either limited to specific vendor or entail particular software requirements. We present a high performance implementation of a k-space-based DRR generation pipeline that is executable on various heterogeneous computing architectures using OpenCL. Our implementation generates a DRR for a 5123 CT volume in 6, 2.7 and 0.68 milli-seconds on a commodity CPU, mid-range and high-end GPUs respectively.

  9. Viewpoint Selection Using Hybrid Simplex Search and Particle Swarm Optimization for Volume Rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang You-sai,,,

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a novel method of viewpoint selection using the hybrid Nelder-Mead (NM simplex search and particle swarm optimization (PSO to improve the efficiency and the intelligent level of volume rendering. This method constructed the viewpoint quality evaluation function in the form of entropy by utilizing the luminance and structure features of the two-dimensional projective image of volume data. During the process of volume rendering, the hybrid NM-PSO algorithm intended to locate the globally optimal viewpoint or a set of the optimized viewpoints automatically and intelligently. Experimental results have shown that this method avoids redundant interactions and evidently improves the efficiency of volume rendering. The optimized viewpoints can focus on the important structural features or the region of interest in volume data and exhibit definite correlation with the perception character of human visual system. Compared with the methods based on PSO or NM simplex search, our method has the better performance of convergence rate, convergence accuracy and robustness.

  10. Simulation and training of lumbar punctures using haptic volume rendering and a 6DOF haptic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Matthias; Heller, Julika; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a needle into the spinal chord of the patient to inject medicaments or to extract liquor. The training of this procedure is usually done on the patient guided by experienced supervisors. A virtual reality lumbar puncture simulator has been developed in order to minimize the training costs and the patient's risk. We use a haptic device with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) to feedback forces that resist needle insertion and rotation. An improved haptic volume rendering approach is used to calculate the forces. This approach makes use of label data of relevant structures like skin, bone, muscles or fat and original CT data that contributes information about image structures that can not be segmented. A real-time 3D visualization with optional stereo view shows the punctured region. 2D visualizations of orthogonal slices enable a detailed impression of the anatomical context. The input data consisting of CT and label data and surface models of relevant structures is defined in an XML file together with haptic rendering and visualization parameters. In a first evaluation the visible human male data has been used to generate a virtual training body. Several users with different medical experience tested the lumbar puncture trainer. The simulator gives a good haptic and visual impression of the needle insertion and the haptic volume rendering technique enables the feeling of unsegmented structures. Especially, the restriction of transversal needle movement together with rotation constraints enabled by the 6DOF device facilitate a realistic puncture simulation.

  11. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  12. Potential, Implications and Solutions Regarding the Use of Rendered Animal Fats in Aquafeeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse T. Trushenski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the past, aquafeeds were comprised largely of fish meal and fish oil derived from marine reduction fisheries. In addition to being highly palatable and readily digested by cultured fishes, these feedstuffs were historically inexpensive sources of protein, energy and essential nutrients. However, increasing cost and concerns over safety and sustainability have greatly incentivized the transition from fish meal and oil to alternative sources of protein and lipid for aquafeed formulation. Fish oil replacement is proving more difficult than originally anticipated, particularly for marine carnivorous species. Approach: If complete fish oil replacement is not a viable goal for fish nutritionists and aquafeed manufacturers, at a minimum, we must strive for judicious use of limited marine-derived resources. In the present review, we explore the opportunities of using rendered fats as alternatives to marine-derived fish oils in aquaculture feeds, beginning with a discussion of the products themselves before reviewing the most recent literature and concluding with a discussion of the future of these products in aquafeed formulations. Results: Rendered fats have not been as intensively evaluated in aquaculture nutrition as grain and oilseed-derived lipids, although a number of recent publications on the subject suggest increasing interest in the use of rendered products in aquafeeds. Conclusion: Poultry fat, beef tallow, pork lard and to a lesser extent, yellow/restaurant grease and catfish oil, have been investigated individually or in combination with other lipids in feeds for a broad range of cultured taxa with generally acceptable results.

  13. One-Dimensional Haptic Rendering Using Audio Speaker with Displacement Determined by Inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avin Khera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report overall design considerations and preliminary results for a new haptic rendering device based on an audio loudspeaker. Our application models tissue properties during microsurgery. For example, the device could respond to the tip of a tool by simulating a particular tissue, displaying a desired compressibility and viscosity, giving way as the tissue is disrupted, or exhibiting independent motion, such as that caused by pulsations in blood pressure. Although limited to one degree of freedom and with a relatively small range of displacement compared to other available haptic rendering devices, our design exhibits high bandwidth, low friction, low hysteresis, and low mass. These features are consistent with modeling interactions with delicate tissues during microsurgery. In addition, our haptic rendering device is designed to be simple and inexpensive to manufacture, in part through an innovative method of measuring displacement by existing variations in the speaker’s inductance as the voice coil moves over the permanent magnet. Low latency and jitter are achieved by running the real-time simulation models on a dedicated microprocessor, while maintaining bidirectional communication with a standard laptop computer for user controls and data logging.

  14. 6-DoF Haptic Rendering Using Continuous Collision Detection between Points and Signed Distance Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyi Xu; Barbic, Jernej

    2017-01-01

    We present an algorithm for fast continuous collision detection between points and signed distance fields, and demonstrate how to robustly use it for 6-DoF haptic rendering of contact between objects with complex geometry. Continuous collision detection is often needed in computer animation, haptics, and virtual reality applications, but has so far only been investigated for polygon (triangular) geometry representations. We demonstrate how to robustly and continuously detect intersections between points and level sets of the signed distance field. We suggest using an octree subdivision of the distance field for fast traversal of distance field cells. We also give a method to resolve continuous collisions between point clouds organized into a tree hierarchy and a signed distance field, enabling rendering of contact between rigid objects with complex geometry. We investigate and compare two 6-DoF haptic rendering methods now applicable to point-versus-distance field contact for the first time: continuous integration of penalty forces, and a constraint-based method. An experimental comparison to discrete collision detection demonstrates that the continuous method is more robust and can correctly resolve collisions even under high velocities and during complex contact.

  15. A predictive bone drilling force model for haptic rendering with experimental validation using fresh cadaveric bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanping; Chen, Huajiang; Yu, Dedong; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Bone drilling simulators with virtual and haptic feedback provide a safe, cost-effective and repeatable alternative to traditional surgical training methods. To develop such a simulator, accurate haptic rendering based on a force model is required to feedback bone drilling forces based on user input. Current predictive bone drilling force models based on bovine bones with various drilling conditions and parameters are not representative of the bone drilling process in bone surgery. The objective of this study was to provide a bone drilling force model for haptic rendering based on calibration and validation experiments in fresh cadaveric bones with different bone densities. Using a commonly used drill bit geometry (2 mm diameter), feed rates (20-60 mm/min) and spindle speeds (4000-6000 rpm) in orthognathic surgeries, the bone drilling forces of specimens from two groups were measured and the calibration coefficients of the specific normal and frictional pressures were determined. The comparison of the predicted forces and the measured forces from validation experiments with a large range of feed rates and spindle speeds demonstrates that the proposed bone drilling forces can predict the trends and average forces well. The presented bone drilling force model can be used for haptic rendering in surgical simulators.

  16. Color rendering of art paintings under CIE illuminants for normal and color deficient observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel Linhares, João Manuel; Araújo Pinto, Paulo Daniel; Cardoso Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Color rendering indices are used to access the quality of lighting but, in addition to other well-known limitations, are not defined for color deficient observers. We evaluated the quality of lighting for normal and color deficient observers in the context of art paintings by estimating the number of colors they perceive when looking at the paintings. Hyperspectral data from 11 oil paintings were analyzed to compute the number of discernible colors when the paintings were assumed rendered under 55 CIE illuminants. Models of color perception for normal and color deficient observers were applied in the estimates. It was found that the number of discernible colors for normal and color deficient observers had low correlation with traditional color rendering indices and that some three-band illuminants, like HP4, were found to be good for most cases, except for tritanopes. These results suggest that it may be possible to obtain good lighting conditions for normal and color deficient observers with an appropriate choice of the light source.

  17. Procedural generation and real-time rendering of a marine ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong LI; Xin DING; Jun-hao YU; Tian-yi GAO; Wen-ting ZHENG; Rui WANG; Hu-jun BAO

    2014-01-01

    Underwater scene is one of the most marvelous environments in the world. In this study, we present an efficient procedural modeling and rendering system to generate marine ecosystems for swim-through graphic applications. To produce realistic and natural underwater scenes, several techniques and algorithms have been presented and introduced. First, to distribute sealife naturally on a seabed, we employ an ecosystem simulation that considers the infl uence of the underwater environment. Second, we propose a two-level procedural modeling system to generate sealife with unique biological features. At the base level, a series of grammars are designed to roughly represent underwater sealife on a central processing unit (CPU). Then at the fi ne level, additional details of the sealife are created and rendered using graphic processing units (GPUs). Such a hybrid CPU-GPU framework best adopts sequential and parallel computation in modeling a marine ecosystem, and achieves a high level of performance. Third, the proposed system integrates dynamic simulations in the proposed procedural modeling process to support dynamic interactions between sealife and the underwater environment, where interactions and physical factors of the environment are formulated into parameters and control the geometric generation at the fi ne level. Results demonstrate that this system is capable of generating and rendering scenes with massive corals and sealife in real time.

  18. A proxy method for real-time 3-DOF haptic rendering of streaming point cloud data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Fredrik; Chizeck, Howard Jay

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new haptic rendering method for streaming point cloud data. It provides haptic rendering of moving physical objects using data obtained from RGB-D cameras. Thus, real-time haptic interaction with moving objects can be achieved using noncontact sensors. This method extends "virtual coupling"-based proxy methods in a way that does not require preprocessing of points and allows for spatial point cloud discontinuities. The key ideas of the algorithm are iterative motion of the proxy with respect to the points, and the use of a variable proxy step size that results in better accuracy for short proxy movements and faster convergence for longer movements. This method provides highly accurate haptic interaction for geometries in which the proxy can physically fit. Another advantage is a significant reduction in the risk of "pop through" during haptic interaction with dynamic point clouds, even in the presence of noise. This haptic rendering method is computationally efficient; it can run in real time on available personal computers without the need for downsampling of point clouds from commercially available depth cameras.

  19. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Victor Fogelson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF. In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  20. The Role of Rendering in the Competence Project in Measurement Science for Optical Reflection and Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, Harold B; Meyer, Gary W; Hunt, Fern Y

    2002-01-01

    Computer rendering is used to simulate the appearance of lighted objects for applications in architectural design, for animation and simulation in the entertainment industry, and for display and design in the automobile industry. Rapid advances in computer graphics technology suggest that in the near future it will be possible to produce photorealistic images of coated surfaces from scattering data. This could enable the identification of important parameters in the coatings manufacturing process that lead to desirable appearance, and to the design of virtual surfaces by visualizing prospective coating formulations once their optical properties are known. Here we report the results of our work to produce visually and radiometrically accurate renderings of selected appearance attributes of sample coated surfaces. It required changes in the rendering programs, which in general are not designed to accept high quality optical and material measurements, and changes in the optical measurement protocols. An outcome of this research is that some current ASTM standards can be replaced or enhanced by computer based standards of appearance.

  1. Approach for optimization of the color rendering index of light mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ku Chin

    2010-07-01

    The general CIE color rendering index (CRI) of light is an important index to evaluate the quality of illumination. However, because of the complexity in measurement of the rendering ability under designated constraints, an approach for general mathematical formulation and global optimization of the rendering ability of light emitting diode (LED) light mixtures is difficult to develop. This study is mainly devoted to developing mathematical formulation and a numerical method for the CRI optimization. The method is developed based on the so-called complex method [Computer J.8, 42 (1965); G. V. Reklaitis et al., Engineering Optimization-Methods and Applications (Wiley, 1983)] with modifications. It is first applicable to 3-color light mixtures and then extended to a hierarchical and iterative structure for higher-order light mixtures. The optimization is studied under the constraints of bounded relative intensities of the light mixture, designated correlated color temperature (CCT), and the required approximate white of the light mixture. The problems of inconsistent constraints and solutions are addressed. The CRI is a complicated function of the relative intensities of the compound illuminators of the mixture. The proposed method requires taking no derivatives of the function and is very adequate for the optimization. This is demonstrated by simulation for RGBW LED light mixtures. The results show that global and unique convergence to the optimal within required tolerances for CRI and spatial dispersivity is always achieved.

  2. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    microscopy revealed selfassembly formation of the enhanced composites indicating that the reinforcement was influenced by the CNC nanoscale structure on the matrix. These structures were found to be distributed in different directions along the extrusion line, suggesting that an angled CNC orientation favored a higher toughness as observed in natural cellulose fibers. PLA was also modified by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA), which provided a stiffer and more hydrophilic surface for the addition of unmodified CNCs. In this case, the toughness of the PLA copolymer decreased with CNC concentration, while the tensile modulus increased. This effect was attributed to an increase of polymer crystallinity upon addition of CNCs, probably due to an enhanced compatibility provided by the PAA chains. For the purpose of obtaining a more efficient separation of proteins and fats from RMs, liquid and supercritical CO2 (LCO2 and SCCO2) were explored as solvents for the extraction, demonstrating the ability to extract up to 97% of the fat in the RMs. Higher fat solubilities in LCO2 were obtained compared to SCCO2, a result attributed to a retrograde phenomenon. These results are advantageous for the separation of rendered fats at relatively low temperatures and pressures, obtaining higher yields than screw pressing currently used in the industry. However, this extraction requires high amounts of CO2 due to low fat solubilities. This issue was addressed using CO2-assisted mechanical extraction, resulting in yields up to 81%, representing a 98% increase compared to conventional extraction, and significantly reducing the amount of CO2 for the extraction.

  3. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Juliette Albert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  4. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  5. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...... of such to evolutionary game theoretical frameworks inspired by the models of (Maynard Smith & Price 1973), (Taylor & Jonker 1978) and (Maynard Smith 1982). By providing an account of equilibrium selection these are thought to work as well-defined metaphors of learning processes upon which a revised theory of convention...

  6. Three-dimensional volume rendering of the ankle based on magnetic resonance images enables the generation of images comparable to real anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bruschetta, Daniele; Trimarchi, Fabio; Ielitro, Giuseppe; Cammaroto, Simona; Duca, Antonio; Bramanti, Placido; Favaloro, Angelo; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio

    2009-01-01

    We have applied high-quality medical imaging techniques to study the structure of the human ankle. Direct volume rendering, using specific algorithms, transforms conventional two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance image (MRI) series into 3D volume datasets. This tool allows high-definition visualization of single or multiple structures for diagnostic, research, and teaching purposes. No other image reformatting technique so accurately highlights each anatomic relationship and preserves soft tissue definition. Here, we used this method to study the structure of the human ankle to analyze tendon–bone–muscle relationships. We compared ankle MRI and computerized tomography (CT) images from 17 healthy volunteers, aged 18–30 years (mean 23 years). An additional subject had a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon. The MRI images demonstrated superiority in overall quality of detail compared to the CT images. The MRI series accurately rendered soft tissue and bone in simultaneous image acquisition, whereas CT required several window-reformatting algorithms, with loss of image data quality. We obtained high-quality digital images of the human ankle that were sufficiently accurate for surgical and clinical intervention planning, as well as for teaching human anatomy. Our approach demonstrates that complex anatomical structures such as the ankle, which is rich in articular facets and ligaments, can be easily studied non-invasively using MRI data. PMID:19678857

  7. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...

  8. Derivation of temperature dependent mechanical properties of polymer foam core materials using optical extensometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruehmann R.K.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determining the temperature dependence of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of polymer foams core materials is presented. The design of the test specimen is described in detail, covering the parasitic effects resulting from departures from the uniform strain condition. The measurement approach is based on a non-contact technique so that the behaviour of the complaint foam is not modified by the attachment of strain gauges or extensometers. Firstly experiments are conducted at room temperature and then at elevated temperatures in a thermal chamber. Readings are taken through an optical window using a standard digital camera. Digital image correlation is used to obtain the strains.

  9. The lime renderings from plaza de la Corredera, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, T.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The causes of the pathologies found on the lime renderings from Plaza de la Corredera façades are analysed in this study. For this purpose, the mineralogical and chemical analyses of the building materials -brickwork and rendering mortar- has been carried out, as well as their physical, hydric and mechanical properties have been determined. The obtained results from both unaltered and altered materials, and the analysis of the rendering's raw materials, have allowed us to establish that rendering deterioration is connected to the presence of saline compounds (gypsum, halite, which existing in the brickwork substratum, have been removed due to the water saturation of such brickwork. The main cause responsible of the alteration forms - efflorescence, crusts, grain-disintegration, bulging, flaking found on the renderings, has been the salts precipitation (halite, hexahydrite, epsomite in their way towards the external surface.

    En este estudio se analizan las causas de las patologías de los revocos de cal de las fachadas de la Plaza de la Corredera. Para ello se ha realizado el análisis mineralógico y químico de los materiales de construcción - fábrica de ladrillo y mortero de revestimiento- y se han determinado sus propiedades físicas, hídricas y mecánicas. Mediante la comparación de los resultados obtenidos en los materiales inalterados y en los alterados, así como una vez analizadas las materias primas utilizadas en la realización del revoco, se ha podido establecer que la alteración de este último está relacionada con la existencia de compuestos salinos (yeso, halita que, presentes en el substrato de fábrica de ladrillo, se han exudado por saturación de agua de la misma. La precipitación de las sales (halita, hexahidrita, epsomita en su migración hacia el exterior ha sido la principal responsable de las formas de alteración -eflorescencias, costras, arenización, abombamientos, descamaciones- que aparecen sobre los

  10. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-09

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid.

  11. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  12. Inventory non-conventional gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Ter Heege, J.H.; Van Bergen, F.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Van Gessel, S.F.; De Jong, M.L.; Nelskamp, S.; Van Thienen-Visser, K.; Guasti, E.; Van den Belt; Marges, V.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the results of the inventory for each non-conventional gas resource expected to be present in the Netherlands, which are: Tight Gas, Shallow gas, Coal bed Methane (CBM), Shale gas, Basin Centered Gas, Aquifer Gas and Stratigraphic traps.

  13. Simultaneous visualization of anatomical and functional 3D data by combining volume rendering and flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafhitzel, Tobias; Rößler, Friedemann; Weiskopf, Daniel; Ertl, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Modern medical imaging provides a variety of techniques for the acquisition of multi-modality data. A typical example is the combination of functional and anatomical data from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and anatomical MRI measurements. Usually, the data resulting from each of these two methods is transformed to 3D scalar-field representations to facilitate visualization. A common method for the visualization of anatomical/functional multi-modalities combines semi-transparent isosurfaces (SSD, surface shaded display) with other scalar visualization techniques like direct volume rendering (DVR). However, partial occlusion and visual clutter that typically result from the overlay of these traditional 3D scalar-field visualization techniques make it difficult for the user to perceive and recognize visual structures. This paper addresses these perceptual issues by a new visualization approach for anatomical/functional multi-modalities. The idea is to reduce the occlusion effects of an isosurface by replacing its surface representation by a sparser line representation. Those lines are chosen along the principal curvature directions of the isosurface and rendered by a flow visualization method called line integral convolution (LIC). Applying the LIC algorithm results in fine line structures that improve the perception of the isosurface's shape in a way that it is possible to render it with small opacity values. An interactive visualization is achieved by executing the algorithm completely on the graphics processing unit (GPU) of modern graphics hardware. Furthermore, several illumination techniques and image compositing strategies are discussed for emphasizing the isosurface structure. We demonstrate our method for the example of fMRI/MRI measurements, visualizing the spatial relationship between brain activation and brain tissue.

  14. Wet scrubber analysis of volatile organic compound removal in the rendering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Das, K C

    2002-04-01

    The promulgation of odor control rules, increasing public concerns, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air regulations in nonattainment zones necessitates the remediation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by the rendering industry. Currently, wet scrubbers with oxidizing chemicals are used to treat VOCs; however, little information is available on scrubber efficiency for many of the VOCs generated within the rendering process. Portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) units were used to rapidly identify key VOCs on-site in process streams at two poultry byproduct rendering plants. On-site analysis was found to be important, given the significant reduction in peak areas if samples were held for 24 hr before analysis. Major compounds consistently identified in the emissions from the plant included dimethyl disulfide, methanethiol, octane, hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. The two branched aldehydes, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, were by far the most consistent, appearing in every sample and typically the largest fraction of the VOC mixture. A chlorinated hydrocarbon, methanesulfonyl chloride, was identified in the outlet of a high-intensity wet scrubber, and several VOCs and chlorinated compounds were identified in the scrubbing solution, but not on a consistent basis. Total VOC concentrations in noncondensable gas streams ranged from 4 to 91 ppmv. At the two plants, the odor-causing compound methanethiol ranged from 25 to 33% and 9.6% of the total VOCs (v/v). In one plant, wet scrubber analysis using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the oxidizing agent indicated that close to 100% of the methanethiol was removed from the gas phase, but removal efficiencies ranged from 20 to 80% for the aldehydes and hydrocarbons and from 23 to 64% for total VOCs. In the second plant, conversion efficiencies were much lower in a packed-bed wet scrubber, with a measurable removal of only dimethyl sulfide (20-100%).

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slapa Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

  16. Use of Poultry Collagen Coating and Antioxidants as Flavor Protection for Cat Foods Made with Rendered Poultry Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Donna Mechelle

    2003-01-01

    Poultry skins and rendered poultry fat are by-products produced in excess at rendering plants. The use of low value by-products such as poultry collagen, from poultry skins, and fat to improve flavor and quality in dry pet food could be economically attractive. This study examined a poultry collagen coating as a protective barrier against oxidation in dry cat food made with rendered poultry fat. Collagen was extracted from chicken skins, dissolved in an acidic solution, applied to dry cat foo...

  17. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around...... knowledge to assumptions characterising agents as conditioned for playing certain strategies upon the population of which evolutionary processes operate. By providing accounts of equilibrium selection and stability properties of behaviours, the resulting frameworks have been brought to work as well...

  18. Finite Element Analysis of External Thermal Insulation Composite System: Thin Rendered Expanded Polystyrene Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Hai-tao; LI Hui-qiang; YIN Xiu-qin

    2009-01-01

    The finite element model of an external thermal composite insulation system, thin rendered expanded polystyrene (EPS) board, was built with ANSYS 1.0, which had two forms: one with window and one without window. The finite element analysis results show that the EPS board had very good insulation capacity at both high or low temperature, stress concentration was produced in the center of wall and around window, and the maximum deformation was observed at the edge of board and the minimum deformation was in the center.

  19. prM-antibody renders immature West Nile virus infectious in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Moesker, Bastiaan; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Smit, Jolanda M

    2011-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae and is a neurotropic pathogen responsible for severe human disease. Flavivirus-infected cells release virus particles that contain variable numbers of precursor membrane (prM) protein molecules at the viral surface. Consequently, antibodies are produced against the prM protein. These antibodies have been shown to activate the infectious potential of fully immature flavivirus particles in vitro. Here, we provide in vivo proof that prM antibodies render immature WNV infectious. Infection with antibody-opsonized immature WNV particles caused disease and death of mice, and infectious WNV was found in the brains and sera.

  20. PH-spline approximation for Bézier curve and rendering offset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志浩; 汪国昭

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,a G1, C1, C2 PH-spline is employed as an approximation for a given Bézier curve within error bound and further renders offset which can be regarded as an approximate offset to the Bézier curve. The errors between PH-spline and the Bézier curve, the offset to PH-spline and the offset to the given Bézier curve are also estimated. A new algorithm for constructing offset to the Bézier curve is proposed.

  1. Use of multidetector row CT with volume renderings in right lobe living liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishifuro, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Kushima, Toshio [Department of Radiology, Hiroshima University Medical Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi-cho, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Horiguchi, Jun; Nakashige, Aya; Tamura, Akihisa; Marukawa, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ono, Chiaki; Ito, Katsuhide [Department of Radiology, Division of Medical Intelligence and Informatics, Programs for Applied Biomedicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi-cho, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Multidetector row CT is a feasible diagnostic tool in pre- and postoperative liver partial transplantation. We can assess vascular anatomy and liver parenchyma as well as volumetry, which provide useful information for both donor selection and surgical planning. Disorders of the vascular and biliary systems are carefully observed in recipients. In addition, we evaluate liver regeneration of both the donor and the recipient by serial volumetry. We present how multidetector row CT with state-of-the-art three-dimensional volume renderings may be used in right lobe liver transplantation. (orig.)

  2. Some improvements of the marching cubes algorithm for the rendering of an orebody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-min; LI Zhong-xue; WANG Yun-hai; HAO Xiu-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Orebody-rendering techniques are developed using the marching cubes (MC) algorithm. The shape of an orebody is vi- vidly displayed in real time and can be used to guide mining design as well. The MC algorithm has been improved in two aspects. By analyzing the principles of the MC algorithm, as well as the features of the specific application, improvements were developed to: eliminate ambiguities by using a unified isosurface constructing method in the voxels, and improve the operating efficiency of the MC algorithm by incorporating an octree structure. The analytical results of the examples demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal.

  3. Emerging technologies for 3D video creation, coding, transmission and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Dufaux, Frederic; Cagnazzo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    With the expectation of greatly enhanced user experience, 3D video is widely perceived as the next major advancement in video technology. In order to fulfil the expectation of enhanced user experience, 3D video calls for new technologies addressing efficient content creation, representation/coding, transmission and display. Emerging Technologies for 3D Video will deal with all aspects involved in 3D video systems and services, including content acquisition and creation, data representation and coding, transmission, view synthesis, rendering, display technologies, human percepti

  4. High-power graphic computers for visual simulation: a real-time--rendering revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. K.

    1996-01-01

    Advances in high-end graphics computers in the past decade have made it possible to render visual scenes of incredible complexity and realism in real time. These new capabilities make it possible to manipulate and investigate the interactions of observers with their visual world in ways once only dreamed of. This paper reviews how these developments have affected two preexisting domains of behavioral research (flight simulation and motion perception) and have created a new domain (virtual environment research) which provides tools and challenges for the perceptual psychologist. Finally, the current limitations of these technologies are considered, with an eye toward how perceptual psychologist might shape future developments.

  5. Efficient rendering and compression for full-parallax computer-generated holographic stereograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartch, Daniel Aaron

    2000-10-01

    In the past decade, we have witnessed a quantum leap in rendering technology and a simultaneous increase in usage of computer generated images. Despite the advances made thus far, we are faced with an ever increasing desire for technology which can provide a more realistic, more immersive experience. One fledgling technology which shows great promise is the electronic holographic display. Holograms are capable of producing a fully three-dimensional image, exhibiting all the depth cues of a real scene, including motion parallax, binocular disparity, and focal effects. Furthermore, they can be viewed simultaneously by any number of users, without the aid of special headgear or position trackers. However, to date, they have been limited in use because of their computational intractability. This thesis deals with the complex task of computing a hologram for use with such a device. Specifically, we will focus on one particular type of hologram: the holographic stereogram. A holographic stereogram is created by generating a large set of two-dimensional images of a scene as seen from multiple camera points, and then converting them to a holographic interference pattern. It is closely related to the light fields or lumigraphs used in image-based rendering. Most previous algorithms have treated the problem of rendering these images as independent computations, ignoring a great deal of coherency which could be used to our advantage. We present a new computationally efficient algorithm which operates on the image set as a whole, rather than on its individual elements. Scene polygons are mapped by perspective projection into a four-dimensional space, where they are scan-converted into 4D color and depth buffers. We use a set of very simple data structures and basic operations to form an algorithm which will lend itself well to future hardware implementation, so as to drive a real-time holographic display. We also examined issues related to the compression of stereograms

  6. Conventional treatments for ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M.(Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India); Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S; Brandt, J

    2002-01-01

    Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first ...

  7. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia ANDRITOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference is important for the global awareness: “Human beings have the basic right for freedom, equality and conditions of a satisfying life, in an environment with a quality that allows him to live with dignity and well being. He has the solemn duty to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generations (…”. This article proclaims a right for the environment. A new law seems to have arisen with the apparition of this convention: the right of a healthy human being and of a healthy environment. This law is bipolar because it associates the human beings to nature. Human beings have the right to live in a healthy environment and this is why he has to protect nature. This does not represent a right of the human beings from a strict point of view. This is a right that has a universal value. The right to a healthy environment can not be put in the same category as the right to live or the right to be healthy, because this right contains the latter.

  8. Switchable Pickering emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a conventional cationic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Jiang, Jianzhong; Liu, Kaihong; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-03-24

    A stable oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by negatively charged silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a trace amount of a conventional cationic surfactant can be rendered unstable on addition of an equimolar amount of an anionic surfactant. The emulsion can be subsequently restabilized by adding a similar trace amount of cationic surfactant along with rehomogenization. This destabilization-stabilization behavior can be cycled many times, demonstrating that the Pickering emulsion is switchable. The trigger is the stronger electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged ionic surfactants compared with that between the cationic surfactant and the (initially) negatively charged particle surfaces. The cationic surfactant prefers to form ion pairs with the added anionic surfactant and thus desorbs from particle surfaces rendering them surface-inactive. This access to switchable Pickering emulsions is easier than those employing switchable surfactants, polymers, or surface-active particles, avoiding both the complicated synthesis and the stringent switching conditions.

  9. Misrepresentation of surface rendering of pediatric brain malformations performed following spatial normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, L I; Widjaja, E; Wignall, E L; Wilkinson, I D; Griffiths, P D

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of spatial normalization on volume rendering in cases of pediatric brain malformation. Three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted volume datasets were acquired in three children, one with pachygyria, one with a Dandy-Walker malformation associated with polymicrogyria, and one with dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. On the non-normalized datasets, the skull margins were cropped and the remainder stripped with the brain extraction technique (BET). The data were also normalized into standard anatomic reference space using pediatric templates prior to the BET script. The surface constructions obtained by both techniques were then compared for geometric distortions. Normalization of 3D datasets resulted in significant distortions in the shape of the brain, with increased anterior-posterior dimensions and narrower transverse diameter in all three cases. In two cases, there were alterations in the appearance of the gyri and sulci, leading to a potential misinterpretation of the volume-rendered surface when the gyri and sulci were in fact normal. In pediatric brain, particularly those with congenital brain anomalies, normalization as a post-processing step should be avoided as this may lead to misrepresentation of brain morphometry.

  10. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric

    2016-07-04

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Adaptive sampling for real-time rendering of large terrain based on B-spline wavelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Sid Ali; Kourgli, Assia

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes a central processing unit (CPU)-based technique for terrain geometry rendering that could relieve graphics processing unit (GPU) from processing the appropriate level of detail (LOD) of the geometric surface. The proposed approach alleviates the computational load on the CPU and approaches GPU-based efficiency. As the datasets of realistic terrains are usually huge for real-time rendering, we suggest using a training stage to handle large tiled QuadTree terrain representation. The training stage is based on multiresolution wavelet decomposition and is used to limit the region of error control inside the tile. Maximum approximation errors are then calculated for each tile at different resolutions. Maximum world-space errors of the tile at different resolutions permit selection of the appropriate resolution of downsampling that will represent the tile at the run time. Tests and experiments demonstrate that B-spline 0 and B-spline 1 wavelets, well known for their properties of localization and their compact support, are suitable for fast and accurate localization of the maximum approximation error. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach drastically reduces computation time in the CPU. Such a technique should also be used on low/medium end PCs, and embedded systems that are not equipped with the latest models of graphic hardware.

  12. Signal Processing Implementation and Comparison of Automotive Spatial Sound Rendering Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai MingsianR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and implementation strategies of spatial sound rendering are investigated in this paper for automotive scenarios. Six design methods are implemented for various rendering modes with different number of passengers. Specifically, the downmixing algorithms aimed at balancing the front and back reproductions are developed for the 5.1-channel input. Other five algorithms based on inverse filtering are implemented in two approaches. The first approach utilizes binaural (Head-Related Transfer Functions HRTFs measured in the car interior, whereas the second approach named the point-receiver model targets a point receiver positioned at the center of the passenger's head. The proposed processing algorithms were compared via objective and subjective experiments under various listening conditions. Test data were processed by the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA method and the least significant difference (Fisher's LSD method as a post hoc test to justify the statistical significance of the experimental data. The results indicate that inverse filtering algorithms are preferred for the single passenger mode. For the multipassenger mode, however, downmixing algorithms generally outperformed the other processing techniques.

  13. High resolution renderings and interactive visualization of the 2006 Huntington Beach experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, T.; Nayak, A.; Keen, C.; Samilo, D.; Matthews, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Visualization Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography investigates innovative ways to represent graphically interactive 3D virtual landscapes and to produce high resolution, high quality renderings of Earth sciences data and the sensors and instruments used to collect the data . Among the Visualization Center's most recent work is the visualization of the Huntington Beach experiment, a study launched in July 2006 by the Southern California Ocean Observing System (http://www.sccoos.org/) to record and synthesize data of the Huntington Beach coastal region. Researchers and students at the Visualization Center created visual presentations that combine bathymetric data provided by SCCOOS with USGS aerial photography and with 3D polygonal models of sensors created in Maya into an interactive 3D scene using the Fledermaus suite of visualization tools (http://www.ivs3d.com). In addition, the Visualization Center has produced high definition (HD) animations of SCCOOS sensor instruments (e.g. REMUS, drifters, spray glider, nearshore mooring, OCSD/USGS mooring and CDIP mooring) using the Maya modeling and animation software and rendered over multiple nodes of the OptIPuter Visualization Cluster at Scripps. These visualizations are aimed at providing researchers with a broader context of sensor locations relative to geologic characteristics, to promote their use as an educational resource for informal education settings and increasing public awareness, and also as an aid for researchers' proposals and presentations. These visualizations are available for download on the Visualization Center website at http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu/sccoos/hb2006.php.

  14. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Hal E; Goldstein, Daniel G; Sharpe, William F; Fox, Jesse; Yeykelis, Leo; Carstensen, Laura L; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2011-11-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

  15. Fast computer-generated hologram computation using rendered depth map image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazempourradi, Seyedmahdi; Ulusoy, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for computing realistic computer-generated holograms (CGHs) of three-dimensional (3D) objects, where we benefit from well-established graphical processing units (GPUs) and computer graphics techniques to handle occlusion, shading and parallax effects. The graphics render provides a 2D perspective image including occlusion and shading effects. We also extract the depth map data of the scene. The intensity values and 3D positions of object points are extracted by combining the rendered intensity image and the depth map (Z-buffer) image. We divide the depth range into several planes and quantize the depth value of 3D image points to the nearest plane. In the CGH computation part, we perform proper Fresnel transformations of these planar objects and sum them up to create the hologram corresponding to the particular viewpoint. We then repeat the entire procedure for all possible viewpoints and cover the hologram area. The experimental results show that the technique is capable of performing high quality reconstructions in a fast manner.

  16. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%.

  17. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering Architectures, Techniques and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lu; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Riding on the success of 3D cinema blockbusters and advances in stereoscopic display technology, 3D video applications have gathered momentum in recent years. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering: Architectures, Techniques and Challenges surveys depth-image-based 3D-TV systems, which are expected to be put into applications in the near future. Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) significantly enhances the 3D visual experience compared to stereoscopic systems currently in use. DIBR techniques make it possible to generate additional viewpoints using 3D warping techniques to adjust the perceived depth of stereoscopic videos and provide for auto-stereoscopic displays that do not require glasses for viewing the 3D image.   The material includes a technical review and literature survey of components and complete systems, solutions for technical issues, and implementation of prototypes. The book is organized into four sections: System Overview, Content Generation, Data Compression and Transmission, and 3D V...

  18. Toward the light field display: autostereoscopic rendering via a cluster of projectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruigang; Huang, Xinyu; Li, Sifang; Jaynes, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Ultimately, a display device should be capable of reproducing the visual effects observed in reality. In this paper we introduce an autostereoscopic display that uses a scalable array of digital light projectors and a projection screen augmented with microlenses to simulate a light field for a given three-dimensional scene. Physical objects emit or reflect light in all directions to create a light field that can be approximated by the light field display. The display can simultaneously provide many viewers from different viewpoints a stereoscopic effect without head tracking or special viewing glasses. This work focuses on two important technical problems related to the light field display; calibration and rendering. We present a solution to automatically calibrate the light field display using a camera and introduce two efficient algorithms to render the special multi-view images by exploiting their spatial coherence. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated with a four-projector prototype that can display dynamic imagery with full parallax.

  19. Three-dimensional rendering of computer-generated holograms acquired from point-clouds on light field displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ceulemans, Beerend; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Holograms, either optically acquired or simulated numerically from 3D datasets, such as point clouds, have special rendering requirements for display. Evaluating the quality of hologram generation techniques is not straightforward, since high-quality holographic display technologies are still immature, In this paper we present a framework for three-dimensional rendering of colour computer-generated holograms (CGHs) acquired from point-clouds, on high-end light field displays. This allows for the rendering of holographic content with horizontal parallax and wide viewing angle. We deploy prior work, namely a fast CGH method that inherently handles occlusion problems to acquire high quality colour holograms from point clouds. Our experiments showed that rendering holograms with the proposed framework provides 3D effect with depth disparity and horizontal-only with wide viewing angle. Therefore, it allows for the evaluation of CGH techniques regarding functional properties such as depth cues and efficient occlusion handling.

  20. Prelingual deafness: Benefits from cochlear implants versus conventional hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Torre, Ana Adelina Giantomassi Della; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The majority of patients with hearing loss, including those with severe hearing loss, benefits from the use of hearing aids. The cochlear implant is believed to achieve better results in a child with hearing loss in cases where the severity of disability renders hearing aids incapable of providing adequate sound information, as they require sufficient cochlear reserve so that acoustic detention occurs. Objective: To assess if cochlear implants provide more benefit than conventional hearing aids in prelingually deaf patients. Summary of the findings: The study was a systematic review of scientific papers selected by a search of the SciELO, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and LILACS-BIREME databases. Among the 2169 articles found, 12 studies proved relevant to the issue and presented an evidence strength rating of B. No publications rated evidence strength A. Seven of the studies analyzed were prospective cohorts and 5 were cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: Based on several studies, cochlear implants were demonstrated to be the best current alternative for bilateral severe or profound hearing loss, achieving better results in speech perception and development in prelingual children when compared to conventional hearing aids. PMID:25991962

  1. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  2. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  3. A Fast Ray-Tracing Using Bounding Spheres and Frustum Rays for Dynamic Scene Rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Kaeriyama, Yoshiyuki; Komatsu, Kazuhiko; Egawa, Ryusuke; Ohba, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    Ray tracing is one of the most popular techniques for generating photo-realistic images. Extensive research and development work has made interactive static scene rendering realistic. This paper deals with interactive dynamic scene rendering in which not only the eye point but also the objects in the scene change their 3D locations every frame. In order to realize interactive dynamic scene rendering, RTRPS (Ray Tracing based on Ray Plane and Bounding Sphere), which utilizes the coherency in rays, objects, and grouped-rays, is introduced. RTRPS uses bounding spheres as the spatial data structure which utilizes the coherency in objects. By using bounding spheres, RTRPS can ignore the rotation of moving objects within a sphere, and shorten the update time between frames. RTRPS utilizes the coherency in rays by merging rays into a ray-plane, assuming that the secondary rays and shadow rays are shot through an aligned grid. Since a pair of ray-planes shares an original ray, the intersection for the ray can be completed using the coherency in the ray-planes. Because of the three kinds of coherency, RTRPS can significantly reduce the number of intersection tests for ray tracing. Further acceleration techniques for ray-plane-sphere and ray-triangle intersection are also presented. A parallel projection technique converts a 3D vector inner product operation into a 2D operation and reduces the number of floating point operations. Techniques based on frustum culling and binary-tree structured ray-planes optimize the order of intersection tests between ray-planes and a sphere, resulting in 50% to 90% reduction of intersection tests. Two ray-triangle intersection techniques are also introduced, which are effective when a large number of rays are packed into a ray-plane. Our performance evaluations indicate that RTRPS gives 13 to 392 times speed up in comparison with a ray tracing algorithm without organized rays and spheres. We found out that RTRPS also provides competitive

  4. The medical care rendering to the infective patients in Afghanistan (1979 – 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the author’s own experience of medical care rendered to the infective patients of the limited contingent of the Soviet troops in Afghanistan is generalized (1979 – 1989. According to factual evidence it is clear that during different periods of time, the percentage of the infective patients averages till 45,2 up to 67, 8% from the general number of the sanitary detachments. The most actual illnesses were typhoid fever, amebiasis, viral hepatitis, malaria and mixt-infections. In the article also covered the main steps of the formation and organization of the hospital base for the infective patients. Special attention is paid to the emergency aid implementation during so-called pre-admission period, realization of the medical grading and prevention of the intensive therapy in the hospitals.  

  5. GPU-Based Volume Rendering of Noisy Multi-Spectral Astronomical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Amr H; Barnes, David G

    2010-01-01

    Traditional analysis techniques may not be sufficient for astronomers to make the best use of the data sets that current and future instruments, such as the Square Kilometre Array and its Pathfinders, will produce. By utilizing the incredible pattern-recognition ability of the human mind, scientific visualization provides an excellent opportunity for astronomers to gain valuable new insight and understanding of their data, particularly when used interactively in 3D. The goal of our work is to establish the feasibility of a real-time 3D monitoring system for data going into the Australian SKA Pathfinder archive. Based on CUDA, an increasingly popular development tool, our work utilizes the massively parallel architecture of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) to provide astronomers with an interactive 3D volume rendering for multi-spectral data sets. Unlike other approaches, we are targeting real time interactive visualization of datasets larger than GPU memory while giving special attention to data with l...

  6. Rendering justice in witch trials: the case of the val de Lièpvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    The borderland of the val de Lièpvre, with lands in Alsace and in the Duchy of Lorraine, and divided by religion and language, offers a rich collection of sources for the history of witchcraft persecution. The territory sharply reveals what was undoubtedly characteristic of witchcraft trials more widely. The crime of witchcraft was considered abominable before the Christian community and God, and its prosecution justified abandoning many of the safeguards and constraints in legal procedure, whether restrictions on the use of torture, the reliance on dubious testimony or even denial of advocacy to the witches. The action of the judges was nonetheless, as they understood it, the rendering of true justice, by punishing the culprits with a harshness that would expiate their crimes before the community and preserve them from damnation in the face of God's judgment.

  7. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...... the clock frequency as well as the parallelismof the system. This paper focuses on the back-end graphics pipeline,which is responsible for rasterizing triangles.%with a practically linear increase in performance. A pure software implementation of the proposed architecture iscurrently able to process 300...

  8. Optimized Watermarking for Light Field Rendering based Free-View TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, Evlampios; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Manifavas, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    In Free-View Television the viewers select freely the viewing position and angle of the transmitted multiview video. It is apparent that copyright and copy protection problems exist, since a video of this arbitrarily selected view can be recorded and then misused. In this context, the watermark...... and the efficiency of the watermarks and their corresponding Mathematical Distributions, in terms of “robustness” and “successful detection” from new constructed views of FTV, using Light Field Rendering (LFR) techniques. We studied the values which characterize the watermark’s performance and the parameters...... introduced by the watermark’s insertion-extraction scheme. Therefore, we ended up to the best five Mathematical Distributions, and we concluded that the watermark’s robustness in FTV case does not depend only on the FTV image’s characteristics, but it also relies on the characteristics of the Mathematical...

  9. Rendering graphene supports hydrophilic with non-covalent aromatic functionalization for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, Radosav S.; Fu, Wangyang; Schoenenberger, Christian; Stahlberg, Henning

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous carbon films have been routinely used to enhance the preparation of frozen-hydrated samples for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), either in retaining protein concentration, providing mechanical stability or dissipating sample charge. However, strong background signal from the amorphous carbon support obstructs that of the sample, and the insulating properties of thin amorphous carbon films preclude any efficiency in dispersing charge. Graphene addresses the limitations of amorphous carbon. Graphene is a crystalline material with virtually no phase or amplitude contrast and unparalleled, high electrical carrier mobility. However, the hydrophobic properties of graphene have prevented its routine application in Cryo-TEM. This Letter reports a method for rendering graphene TEM supports hydrophilic—a convenient approach maintaining graphene's structural and electrical properties based on non-covalent, aromatic functionalization.

  10. Vibrotactile Rendering of Human Emotions on the Manifold of Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq ur Réhman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions play an important role in every day social interaction. To enhance the daily life experience for the visually impaired, we present the Facial Expression Appearance vibroTactile System (FEATS, which uses a vibrotactile chair as the social interface for the visually impaired. An array of vibrating motors are mounted spatially on the back of an office chair. The Locally Linear Embedding (LLE algorithm is extended to compute the manifold of facial expressions, which is used to control vibration of motors to render emotions. Thus, the chair could provide the visually impaired with on-line dynamic emotion information about the person he/she is communicating with. Usability evaluation of the system is carried out. The results are encouraging and demonstrate usability for the visually impaired. The user studies show that perfect recognition accuracy of emotion type is achieved by the FEATS.

  11. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi- and Many-core Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2011-01-01

    With the computing industry trending towards multi- and many-core processors, we study how a standard visualization algorithm, ray-casting volume rendering, can benefit from a hybrid parallelism approach. Hybrid parallelism provides the best of both worlds: using distributed-memory parallelism across a large numbers of nodes increases available FLOPs and memory, while exploiting shared-memory parallelism among the cores within each node ensures that each node performs its portion of the larger calculation as efficiently as possible. We demonstrate results from weak and strong scaling studies, at levels of concurrency ranging up to 216,000, and with datasets as large as 12.2 trillion cells. The greatest benefit from hybrid parallelism lies in the communication portion of the algorithm, the dominant cost at higher levels of concurrency. We show that reducing the number of participants with a hybrid approach significantly improves performance.

  12. Rendering Intelligence at Physical Layer for Smart Addressing and Multiple Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, Rajarshi; Prasad, Ramjee; Cianca, Ernestina

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to propose a technique of wireless communication, where we render intelligence to the physical layer. We aim to realize a physical layer that can take part in some processes which is otherwise confined to higher layer signalling activities, like for example...... addressing of a node. For a typical closed user group type of network, we propose a multiple access mechanism and network topology which will not only eliminate the need of intelligent core network equipments in the network area , but to use this intelligent physical layer to directly reach any node over...... the air interface in the coverage area. This system is presence agnostic, hence the network is not aware of the exact location of the mobile node in the network area. So the mobility management process is not to be seen here. Also the network does not follow any cellular topology. This paper addresses...

  13. MaterialVis: material visualization tool using direct volume and surface rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyan, Erhan; Güdükbay, Uğur; Bulutay, Ceyhun; Heinig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Visualization of the materials is an indispensable part of their structural analysis. We developed a visualization tool for amorphous as well as crystalline structures, called MaterialVis. Unlike the existing tools, MaterialVis represents material structures as a volume and a surface manifold, in addition to plain atomic coordinates. Both amorphous and crystalline structures exhibit topological features as well as various defects. MaterialVis provides a wide range of functionality to visualize such topological structures and crystal defects interactively. Direct volume rendering techniques are used to visualize the volumetric features of materials, such as crystal defects, which are responsible for the distinct fingerprints of a specific sample. In addition, the tool provides surface visualization to extract hidden topological features within the material. Together with the rich set of parameters and options to control the visualization, MaterialVis allows users to visualize various aspects of materials very efficiently as generated by modern analytical techniques such as the Atom Probe Tomography.

  14. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  15. Memory-hazard-aware k-buffer algorithm for order-independent transparency rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    2014-02-01

    The (k)-buffer algorithm is an efficient GPU-based fragment level sorting algorithm for rendering transparent surfaces. Because of the inherent massive parallelism of GPU stream processors, this algorithm suffers serious read-after-write memory hazards now. In this paper, we introduce an improved (k)-buffer algorithm with error correction coding to combat memory hazards. Our algorithm results in significantly reduced artifacts. While preserving all the merits of the original algorithm, it requires merely OpenGL 3.x support from the GPU, instead of the atomic operations appearing only in the latest OpenGL 4.2 standard. Our algorithm is simple to implement and efficient in performance. Future GPU support for improving this algorithm is also proposed.

  16. MPI-hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-03-20

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid'" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  17. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howison, M.; Bethel, E. W.; Childs, H.

    2011-10-01

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of "hybrid" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering - a staple visualization algorithm - on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today, as well as processors capable of running hundreds of concurrent threads (GPUs), we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  18. Water transfer properties and shrinkage in lime-based rendering mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, A.; Cultrone, G.

    2012-04-01

    Rendering is the practice of covering a wall or a building façade with one or more layers of mortar, with the main aim to protect the masonry structure against weathering. The render applied must show high flexibility, good adhesion and compatibility with the support (i.e. stone, brick) and, overall, it should be characterised by low water absorption and high water vapour permeability. Water (in the solid, liquid and vapour state) is one of the main factors that drive construction materials to deterioration. Therefore, to evaluate the quality and durability of a rendering mortar, thus ensuring its protective function in the masonry structure, it is fundamental to assess the behaviour of this mortar towards water. Mortars were elaborated with a calcitic dry hydrated lime, a calcareous aggregate, a pozzolan, a lightweight aggregate, a water-retaining agent and a plasticiser. Four types of lime mortars were prepared, in which the binder-to-aggregate ratios were 1:3, 1:4, 1:6 and 1:9 by weight, whilst the pozzolan was kept at 10% of the lime (by mass) and the total admixtures proportion was less than 2% of the total mass. The influence of the characteristics of mortars pore system on the amount of water absorbed and the kinetics of absorption was investigated by means of: free water absorption and drying; capillary uptake; water permeability; water vapour permeability. Interesting deductions can be made from the values of water and water vapour permeability found for mortars: the former increases exponentially with the sand volume of the mortar, whilst the latter increases almost exponentially with the initial water content added to the mortar mixes during their elaboration. However, the relationship obtained between porosity of mortars and permeability values is not really clear. This finding suggests that the permeability of a material cannot be estimated on the basis of its porosity as it can be made for the capillary uptake and free water absorption. Another

  19. Rendering graphene supports hydrophilic with non-covalent aromatic functionalization for transmission electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelic, Radosav S; Schoenenberger, Christian; Stahlberg, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon films have been routinely used to enhance the preparation of frozen-hydrated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples, either in retaining protein concentration, providing mechanical stability or dissipating sample charge. However, strong background signal from the amorphous carbon support obstructs that of the sample, and the insulating properties of amorphous carbon films preclude any efficiency in dispersing charge. Graphene addresses the limitations of amorphous carbon. Graphene is a crystalline material with virtually no phase or amplitude contrast and unparalleled, high electrical carrier mobility. However, the hydrophobic properties of graphene have prevented its routine application in Cryo-TEM. This letter reports a method for rendering graphene TEM supports hydrophilic - a convenient approach maintaining graphene's structural and electrical properties based on non-covalent, aromatic functionalization.

  20. Topological Galleries: A High Level User Interface for Topology Controlled Volume Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCarthy, Brian; Carr, Hamish; Weber, Gunther H.

    2011-06-30

    Existing topological interfaces to volume rendering are limited by their reliance on sophisticated knowledge of topology by the user. We extend previous work by describing topological galleries, an interface for novice users that is based on the design galleries approach. We report three contributions: an interface based on hierarchical thumbnail galleries to display the containment relationships between topologically identifiable features, the use of the pruning hierarchy instead of branch decomposition for contour tree simplification, and drag-and-drop transfer function assignment for individual components. Initial results suggest that this approach suffers from limitations due to rapid drop-off of feature size in the pruning hierarchy. We explore these limitations by providing statistics of feature size as function of depth in the pruning hierarchy of the contour tree.

  1. Rendering mortars in Medina Azahara, Part I: Material characterization and alteration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Rendering mortars, which are still exposed to the open air on some of the walls of Medina Azahara, are studied and characterized in this work. Some repairing mortars used in different previous restorations are also characterized. Those rendering mortars are of different make considering the composition of their binder: lime, gypsum and mixed lime/ gypsum. Repairing mortars used in previous interventions are made of lime, excepting for a portland cement used by Félix Hernández in the restoration of one of the rooms back in the 50's. Biological colonization is the main cause of decay in lime mortars, while in mortars made of gypsum, decay is a result of the solubilizating action of rain water.

    En este trabajo se analizan y caracterizan los revocos que, todavía hoy, permanecen sobre algunos paramentos de los muros de la ciudad de Medina Azahara, expuestos a la intemperie. También se caracterizan algunos de los molleros de reparación aplicados en las distintas restauraciones de los revocos. Los revocos están formados por tres clase de morteros, atendiendo a la composición de su ligante: de cal, de yeso y bastardos de cal y yeso. Los morteros de reparación que se han utilizado son de cal, a excepción del utilizado en la restauración de Félix Hernández (década de 1950, en una de las salas, que es de cemento portland. La colonización biológica es la principal causa de deterioro de los morteros de cal, en tanto que la solubilización por las aguas de lluvia lo es en los morteros que contienen yeso.

  2. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.T.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  3. Digital forensic osteology: morphological sexing of skeletal remains using volume-rendered cranial CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Kettner, Mattias; Gehl, Axel; Verhoff, M A

    2010-02-25

    Because of the increasing lack of recent bone collections, ethical issues concerning maceration procedures, and progress in radiological imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) scans offer an alternative to traditional anthropological bone collection. The present study examined volume-rendered cranial CT (CCT) scans from 50 crania to morphologically evaluate sex characteristics. CCT scans were performed and scored by two teams (Teams A and B) of two examiners each (2x50=100 examinations) to evaluate the occurrence and/or absence of morphological traits. Altogether, 60 of 100 crania (31 Team A+29 Team B) crania were determined to be male, and 40 (19 Team A+21 Team B) were determined to be female when using the scoring system adapted from Knussmann. These results imply a sex determination accuracy rate of 96%. Only in one case was recalculation of weighting factors necessary to determine one additional correct classification. As a single parameter, arcus superciliaris evaluation permitted the most accurate sex determination (female, 84.2%; male, 85.5%). No significant difference in accuracy rates was observed between the two sexes (p<0.65, chi(2)=0.39, Fisher's exact test). Interobserver bias rates for both teams were very low (kappa=0.83). The present study shows that volume-rendered CCT images are suitable for the collection of data concerning morphologic sex determination of skulls. Thus, this method may be helpful in both actual forensic casework and the systematic reevaluation and improvement of classical anthropological methods and their adaptation to changing populations.

  4. Hand-tool-tissue interaction forces in neurosurgery for haptic rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggravi, Marco; De Momi, Elena; DiMeco, Francesco; Cardinale, Francesco; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Riva, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Haptics provides sensory stimuli that represent the interaction with a virtual or tele-manipulated object, and it is considered a valuable navigation and manipulation tool during tele-operated surgical procedures. Haptic feedback can be provided to the user via cutaneous information and kinesthetic feedback. Sensory subtraction removes the kinesthetic component of the haptic feedback, having only the cutaneous component provided to the user. Such a technique guarantees a stable haptic feedback loop, while it keeps the transparency of the tele-operation system high, which means that the system faithfully replicates and render back the user's directives. This work focuses on checking whether the interaction forces during a bench model neurosurgery operation can lie in the solely cutaneous perception of the human finger pads. If this assumption is found true, it would be possible to exploit sensory subtraction techniques for providing surgeons with feedback from neurosurgery. We measured the forces exerted to surgical tools by three neurosurgeons performing typical actions on a brain phantom, using contact force sensors, while the forces exerted by the tools to the phantom tissue were recorded using a load cell placed under the brain phantom box. The measured surgeon-tool contact forces were 0.01-3.49 N for the thumb and 0.01-6.6 N for index and middle finger, whereas the measured tool-tissue interaction forces were from six to 11 times smaller than the contact forces, i.e., 0.01-0.59 N. The measurements for the contact forces fit the range of the cutaneous sensitivity for the human finger pad; thus, we can say that, in a tele-operated robotic neurosurgery scenario, it would possible to render forces at the fingertip level by conveying haptic cues solely through the cutaneous channel of the surgeon's finger pads. This approach would allow high transparency and high stability of the haptic feedback loop in a tele-operation system.

  5. 3D Reconstruction from X-ray Fluoroscopy for Clinical Veterinary Medicine using Differential Volume Rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongsomboon, Khamphong; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo

    3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the thechnique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians.

  6. Positioning actuators in efficient locations for rendering the desired sound field using inverse approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wan-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Toi, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    For rendering a desired characteristics of a sound field, a proper conditioning of acoustic actuators in an array are required, but the source condition depends strongly on its position. Actuators located at inefficient positions for control would consume the input power too much or become too much sensitive to disturbing noise. These actuators can be considered redundant, which should be sorted out as far as such elimination does not damage the whole control performance significantly. It is known that the inverse approach based on the acoustical holography concept, employing the transfer matrix between sources and field points as core element, is useful for rendering the desired sound field. By investigating the information indwelling in the transfer matrix between actuators and field points, the linear independency of an actuator from the others in the array can be evaluated. To this end, the square of the right singular vector, which means the radiation contribution from the source, can be used as an indicator. Inefficient position for fulfilling the desired sound field can be determined as one having smallest indicator value among all possible actuator positions. The elimination process continues one by one, or group by group, until the remaining number of actuators meets the preset number. Control examples of exterior and interior spaces are taken for the validation. The results reveal that the present method for choosing least dependent actuators, for a given number of actuators and field condition, is quite effective in realizing the desired sound field with a noisy input condition, and in minimizing the required input power.

  7. 3D-shaded surface rendering of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, S.; Kikinis, R.; Dumanli, H. [Surgical Planning Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Geva, T.; Powell, A.J. [Department of Cardiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chung, T. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography is a useful imaging technique for patients with congenital heart disease. Objective. This study sought to determine the added value of creating 3D shaded surface displays compared to standard maximal intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reformatting (MPR) techniques when analyzing 3D MR angiography data. Materials and methods. Seventeen patients (range, 3 months to 51 years old) with a variety of congenital cardiovascular defects underwent gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the thorax. Color-coded 3D shaded surface models were rendered from the image data using manual segmentation and computer-based algorithms. Models could be rotated, translocated, or zoomed interactively by the viewer. Information available from the 3D models was compared to analysis based on viewing standard MIP/MPR displays. Results. Median postprocessing time for the 3D models was 6 h (range, 3-25 h) compared to approximately 20 min for MIP/MPR viewing. No additional diagnostic information was gained from 3D model analysis. All major findings with MIP/MPR postprocessing were also apparent on the 3D models. Qualitatively, the 3D models were more easily interpreted and enabled adjacent vessels to be distinguished more readily. Conclusion. Routine use of 3D shaded surface reconstructions for visualization of contrast enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease cannot be recommended. 3D surface rendering may be more useful for presenting complex anatomy to an audience unfamiliar with congenital heart disease and as an educational tool. (orig.)

  8. Accurate representation of interference colours (Michel-Lévy chart): from rendering to image colour correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge Johnsen, S A; Bollmann, J; Lee, H W; Zhou, Y

    2017-09-21

    Here a work flow towards an accurate representation of interference colours (Michel-Lévy chart) digitally captured on a polarised light microscope using dry and oil immersion objectives is presented. The work flow includes accurate rendering of interference colours considering the colour temperature of the light source of the microscope and chromatic adaptation to white points of RGB colour spaces as well as the colour correction of the camera using readily available colour targets. The quality of different colour correction profiles was tested independently on an IT8.7/1 target. The best performing profile was using the XYZ cLUT algorithm and it revealed a ΔE00 of 1.9 (6.4 no profile) at 5× and 1.1 (8.4 no profile) at 100× magnification, respectively. The overall performance of the workflow was tested by comparing rendered interference colours with colour-corrected images of a quartz wedge captured over a retardation range from 80-2500 nm at 5× magnification. Uncorrected images of the quartz wedge in sRGB colour space revealed a mean ΔE00 of 12.3, which could be reduced to a mean of 4.9 by applying a camera correction profile based on an IT8.7/1 target and the Matrix only algorithm (ΔE00 < 1.0 signifies colour differences imperceptible by the human eye). ΔE00 varied significantly over the retardation range of 80-2500 nm of the quartz wedge, but the reasons for this variation is not well understood and the quality of colour correction might be further improved in future by using custom made colour targets specifically designed for the analysis of high-order interference colours. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. SVGenes: a library for rendering genomic features in scalable vector graphic format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Graham J; MacLean, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Drawing genomic features in attractive and informative ways is a key task in visualization of genomics data. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format is a modern and flexible open standard that provides advanced features including modular graphic design, advanced web interactivity and animation within a suitable client. SVGs do not suffer from loss of image quality on re-scaling and provide the ability to edit individual elements of a graphic on the whole object level independent of the whole image. These features make SVG a potentially useful format for the preparation of publication quality figures including genomic objects such as genes or sequencing coverage and for web applications that require rich user-interaction with the graphical elements. SVGenes is a Ruby-language library that uses SVG primitives to render typical genomic glyphs through a simple and flexible Ruby interface. The library implements a simple Page object that spaces and contains horizontal Track objects that in turn style, colour and positions features within them. Tracks are the level at which visual information is supplied providing the full styling capability of the SVG standard. Genomic entities like genes, transcripts and histograms are modelled in Glyph objects that are attached to a track and take advantage of SVG primitives to render the genomic features in a track as any of a selection of defined glyphs. The feature model within SVGenes is simple but flexible and not dependent on particular existing gene feature formats meaning graphics for any existing datasets can easily be created without need for conversion. The library is provided as a Ruby Gem from https://rubygems.org/gems/bio-svgenes under the MIT license, and open source code is available at https://github.com/danmaclean/bioruby-svgenes also under the MIT License. dan.maclean@tsl.ac.uk.

  10. Conventionalism and integrable Weyl geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Since the appearance of Einstein's general relativity, gravitation has been associated to the space-time curvature. This theory introduced a geometrodynamic language which became a convenient tool to predict matter behaviour. However, the properties of space-time itself cannot be measurable by experiments. Taking Poincaré idea that the geometry of space-time is merely a convention, we show that the general theory of relativity can be completely reformulated in a more general setting, a generalization of Riemannian geometry, namely, the Weyl integrable geometry. The choice of this new mathematical language implies, among other things, that the path of particles and light rays should now correspond to Weylian geodesies. Such modification in the dynamic of bodies brings a new perception of physical phenomena that we will explore.

  11. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  12. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes.

  13. MEDICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES OF THE DECISIONS RENDERED BY THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhvadze, B; Chakhvadze, G

    2017-01-01

    The European Convention on Human rights is a document that protects human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, and the European Court of Human Rights and its case-law makes a convention a powerful instrument to meet the new challenges of modernity and protect the principles of rule of law and democracy. This is important, particularly for young democracies, including Georgia. The more that Georgia is a party to this convention. Article 3 of the convention deals with torture, inhuman and degrading treatment, while article 8 deals with private life, home and correspondence. At the same time, the international practice of the European court of human rights shows that these articles are often used with regard to medical rights. The paper highlights the most recent and interesting cases from the case-law of the ECHR, in which the courts conclusions are based solely on the European Convention on Human Rights. In most instances, the European Court of Human Rights uses the principle of democracy with regard to medical rights. The European court of human rights considers medical rights as moral underpinning rights. Particularly in every occasion, the European Court of Human Rights acknowledges an ethical dimension of these rights. In most instances, it does not matter whether a plaintiff is a free person or prisoner, the European court of human rights make decisions based on fundamental human rights and freedoms of individuals.

  14. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  15. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  16. Conventional therapy for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carsten Büning; Herbert Lochs

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder of unknown cause. Outstanding progress regarding the pathophysiology of CD has led to the development of innovative therapeutic concepts. Numerous controlled trials have been performed in CD over the last years. However, many drugs have not been approved by regulatory authorities due to lack of efficacy or severe side effects. Therefore, well-known drugs, including 5-ASA, systemic or topical corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, are still the mainstay of CD therapy. Importantly, biologicals such as infliximab have shown to be efficacious in problematic settings such as fistulizing or steroid-dependent CD. This review is intended to give practical guidelines to clinicians for the conventional treatment of CD. We concentrated on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses, when available, that provide the highest degree of evidence. We provide evidence-based treatment algorithms whenever possible. However, many clinical situations have not been answered by controlled clinical trials and it is important to fill these gaps through expert opinions. We hope that this review offers a useful tool for clinicians in the challenging treatment of CD.

  17. Mapping high-fidelity volume rendering for medical imaging to CPU, GPU and many-core architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Holmes, David; Chhugani, Jatin; Larson, Alan; Carmean, Douglas M; Hanson, Dennis; Dubey, Pradeep; Augustine, Kurt; Kim, Daehyun; Kyker, Alan; Lee, Victor W; Nguyen, Anthony D; Seiler, Larry; Robb, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Medical volumetric imaging requires high fidelity, high performance rendering algorithms. We motivate and analyze new volumetric rendering algorithms that are suited to modern parallel processing architectures. First, we describe the three major categories of volume rendering algorithms and confirm through an imaging scientist-guided evaluation that ray-casting is the most acceptable. We describe a thread- and data-parallel implementation of ray-casting that makes it amenable to key architectural trends of three modern commodity parallel architectures: multi-core, GPU, and an upcoming many-core Intel architecture code-named Larrabee. We achieve more than an order of magnitude performance improvement on a number of large 3D medical datasets. We further describe a data compression scheme that significantly reduces data-transfer overhead. This allows our approach to scale well to large numbers of Larrabee cores.

  18. [GaN-based white-light-emitting diodes with low color temperature and high color rendering index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Huai-Bing; Liu, Jian-Ping; Fan, Ya-Ming; Zhu, Yun-Zhi; Jin, Zheng

    2011-06-01

    The luminescence properties of high color rendering white LED depending on the proportions of mixed phosphor powders were investigated by adopting green and red phosphors stimulated by a 440 nm InGaN/GaN based blue LED. The results show that when the proportion of A/B type silica gels and green/red phosphor powders is 0.5 : 0.5 : 0.2 : 0.03, two luminance bands are stimulated and their wavelength peaks are 535 and 643 nm, respectively. The minimum color temperature can reach 3 251 K, while the color rendering is as high as 88. 8. Compared with the traditional white LED fabricated by yellow YAG-phosphors-coated high efficiency 460 nm blue LED, the color temperature is lower and the color rendering index can be increased by almost 26%.

  19. Using Opaque Image Blur for Real-Time Depth-of-Field Rendering and Image-Based Motion Blur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While depth of field is an important cinematographic means, its use in real-time computer graphics is still limited by the computational costs that are necessary to achieve a sufficient image quality. Specifically, color bleeding artifacts between objects at different depths are most effectively...... avoided by a decomposition into sub-images and the independent blurring of each sub-image. This decomposition, however, can result in rendering artifacts at silhouettes of objects. We propose a new blur filter that increases the opacity of all pixels to avoid these artifacts at the cost of physically less...... accurate but still plausible rendering results. The proposed filter is named "opaque image blur" and is based on a glowfilter that is applied to the alpha channel. We present a highly efficient GPU-based pyramid algorithm that implements this filter for depth-of-field rendering. Moreover, we demonstrate...

  20. Dynamic miniature lighting system with low correlated colour temperature and high colour rendering index for museum lighting of fragile artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-01-01

    Illumination of fragile and irreplaceable historical objects exhibited to the public presents challenges with regards to: good colour rendering, low photochemical degradation of sensitive materials and general energy consumption. We present a dynamic tri-colour LED lighting system for illumination...... of historical artefacts in display cases at museums and other exhibitions, which can replace 3-5 Watt incandescent light bulbs with a correlated colour temperature (CCT) from 2000 K to 2400 K. The solution decreases the energy consumption by up to 80 %, while maintaining colour rendering indices (Ra) above 90...... and important special colour rendering indices R9 between 50 and 90, while decreasing the level of harmful short wavelength radiation by between 20 - 30 %....

  1. Roughness preserving filter design to remove spatial noise from stereoscopic skin images for stable haptic rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kim, M; Lee, O; Kim, K

    2017-08-01

    A problem in skin rendering with haptic feedback is the reconstruction of accurate 3D skin surfaces from stereo skin images to be used for touch interactions. This problem also encompasses the issue of how to accurately remove haptic spatial noise caused by the construction of disparity maps from stereo skin images, while minimizing the loss of the original skin roughness for cloning real tough textures without errors. Since the haptic device is very sensitive to high frequencies, even small amounts of noise can cause serious system errors including mechanical oscillations and unexpected exerting forces. Therefore, there is a need to develop a noise removal algorithm that preserves haptic roughness. A new algorithm for a roughness preserving filter (RPF) that adaptively removes spatial noise, is proposed. The algorithm uses the disparity control parameter (λ) and noise control parameter (k), obtained from singular value decomposition of a disparity map. The parameter k determines the amount of noise to be removed, and the optimum value of k is automatically chosen based on a threshold of gradient angles of roughness (Ra ). The RPF algorithm was implemented and verified with three real skin images. Evaluation criteria include preserved roughness quality and removed noise. Mean squared error (MSE), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and objective roughness measures Ra and Rq were used for evaluation, and the results were compared against a median filter. The results show that the proposed RPF algorithm is a promising technology for removing noise and retaining maximized roughness, which guarantees stable haptic rendering for skin roughness. The proposed RPF is a promising technology because it allows for any stereo image to be filtered without the risk of losing the original roughness. In addition, the algorithm runs automatically for any given stereo skin image with relation to the disparity parameter λ, and the roughness parameters Ra or Rq are given priority

  2. On image rendering methods for improved image consistency in PACS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhimin; Zhang, Jane; Lu, Huihai; Wandtke, John; Foos, David

    2010-03-01

    The average workload per full-time equivalent (FTE) radiologist increased by 70% from1991-1992 to 2006- 2007. The increase is mainly due to the increase (34%) in the number of procedures, particularly in 3D imaging procedures. New technologies such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and embodied viewing capability were accredited for an improved workflow environment leading to the increased productivity. However, the need for further workflow improvement is still in demand as the number of procedures continues growing. Advanced and streamlined viewing capability in PACS environment could potentially reduce the reading time, thus further increasing the productivity. With the increasing number of 3D image procedures, radiographic procedures (excluding mammography) have remained their critical roles in screening and diagnosis of various diseases. Although radiographic procedures decreased in shares from 70% to 49.5%, the total number has remained the same from 1991-1992 to 2006- 2007. Inconsistency in image quality for radiographic images has been identified as an area of concern. It affects the ability of clinicians to interpret images effectively and efficiently in areas where diagnosis, for example, in screening mammography and portable chest radiography, requires a comparison of current images with priors. These priors can potentially have different image quality. Variations in image acquisition techniques (x-ray exposure), patient and apparatus positioning, and image processing are the factors attributed to the inconsistency in image quality. The inconsistency in image quality, for example, in contrast may require manual image manipulation (i.e., windowing and leveling) of images to accomplish an optimal comparison to detect the subtle changes. We developed a tone-scale image rendering technique which improves the image consistency of chest images across time and modality. The rendering controls both the global and local contrast for a

  3. An empirical analysis of the impacts of taxes and royalties on the supply of conventional crude oil in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoah, B.

    1998-12-31

    The economic impact of taxes, royalties and government fiscal policy tools on conventional crude oil supply in Alberta was examined. A dynamic economic model of Alberta`s conventional petroleum industry was developed and used to evaluate the quantitative impacts of government fiscal policies on exploration and extraction of conventional crude oil in the province. It was determined that taxes and royalties can shorten the life of the industry, reduce activity level, reduce ultimate recovery of conventional crude oil, render more of the established reserves sub-economic and create social welfare loss. It was also revealed that compared to provincial corporate income tax and crown royalties, federal corporate income tax has a larger adverse effect on the performance of the industry in terms of creating higher dead-weight loss and shortening the life of the industry.

  4. Low dose four-dimensional computerized tomography with volume rendering reconstruction for primary hyperparathyroidism: How I do it?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy; A; Platz; Moshim; Kukar; Rania; Elmarzouky; William; Cance; Ahmed; Abdelhalim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Modification of 4-dimensional computed tomography(4D-CT)technique with volume rendering reconstruc-tions and significant dose reduction is a safe and ac-curate method of pre-operative localization for primary hyperparathyroidism.Modified low dose 4D-CT with volume rendering reconstructions provides precise preoperative localization and is associated with a sig-nificant reduction in radiation exposure compared to classic preoperative localizing techniques.It should be considered the preoperative localization study of choice for primary hyperparathyroidism.

  5. Cloud-based Monte Carlo modelling of BSSRDF for the rendering of human skin appearance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Rushmeier, Holly E.; Meglinski, Igor; Bykov, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo based approach for the modelling of Bidirectional Scattering-Surface Reflectance Distribution Function (BSSRDF) for accurate rendering of human skin appearance. The variations of both skin tissues structure and the major chromophores are taken into account correspondingly to the different ethnic and age groups. The computational solution utilizes HTML5, accelerated by the graphics processing units (GPUs), and therefore is convenient for the practical use at the most of modern computer-based devices and operating systems. The results of imitation of human skin reflectance spectra, corresponding skin colours and examples of 3D faces rendering are presented and compared with the results of phantom studies.

  6. [Multiple hepatic cysts in rat rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and treated by islets of Langerhans grafts: the role of streptozotocin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatettes, B; Barrat, E; Lassmann, V; Guidon, J; Altomare, E; Simon, C; Vague, P

    1978-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation by light and electron microscopy of hepatic biopsies from 14 rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and treated by portal embolization of islets of Langerhans. Macroscopically, voluminous projecting cysts were observed, sometimes occupying a whole lobe. By light microscopy, the cysts were lined with canalicular-type epithelium. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the canalicular nature of these cells and cilia were frequently observed. The presence of identical cysts in rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin but not treated by embolization proves that this product is the agent responsible for the induction of this adenomatosis.

  7. Very-High Color Rendering Index Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Double Emitting Nanolayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baiquan Liu; Miao Xu; Lei Wang; Hong Tao; Yueju Su; Dongyu Gao; Linfeng Lan; Jianhua Zou; Junbiao Peng

    2014-01-01

    A very-high color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) based on a simple structure was successfully fabricated. The optimized device exhibits a maximum total efficiency of 13.1 and 5.4 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2. A peak color rendering index of 90 and a relatively stable color during a wide range of luminance were obtained. In addition, it was demonstrated that the 4,40,40-tri(9-carbazoyl) triphenylamine host influenced strongly the performance of this WOLED. These results may be beneficial to the design of both material and device architecture for high-performance WOLED.

  8. Dynamic miniature lighting system with low correlated colour temperature and high colour rendering index for museum lighting of fragile artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-01-01

    Illumination of fragile and irreplaceable historical objects exhibited to the public presents challenges with regards to: good colour rendering, low photochemical degradation of sensitive materials and general energy consumption. We present a dynamic tri-colour LED lighting system for illumination...... of historical artefacts in display cases at museums and other exhibitions, which can replace 3-5 Watt incandescent light bulbs with a correlated colour temperature (CCT) from 2000 K to 2400 K. The solution decreases the energy consumption by up to 80 %, while maintaining colour rendering indices (Ra) above 90...

  9. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova.

  10. Biographer: web-based editing and rendering of SBGN compliant biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Falko; Schulz, Marvin; Ripkens, Ben; Flöttmann, Max; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda; Handorf, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The rapid accumulation of knowledge in the field of Systems Biology during the past years requires advanced, but simple-to-use, methods for the visualization of information in a structured and easily comprehensible manner. We have developed biographer, a web-based renderer and editor for reaction networks, which can be integrated as a library into tools dealing with network-related information. Our software enables visualizations based on the emerging standard Systems Biology Graphical Notation. It is able to import networks encoded in various formats such as SBML, SBGN-ML and jSBGN, a custom lightweight exchange format. The core package is implemented in HTML5, CSS and JavaScript and can be used within any kind of web-based project. It features interactive graph-editing tools and automatic graph layout algorithms. In addition, we provide a standalone graph editor and a web server, which contains enhanced features like web services for the import and export of models and visualizations in different formats. The biographer tool can be used at and downloaded from the web page http://biographer.biologie.hu-berlin.de/. The different software packages, including a server-independent version as well as a web server for Windows and Linux based systems, are available at http://code.google.com/p/biographer/ under the open-source license LGPL

  11. 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL Rendering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennoi Atitayaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An HMI, or Human-Machine Interface, is a software allowing users to communicate with a machine or automation system. It usually serves as a display section in SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system for device monitoring and control. In this papper, a 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL (Web-based Graphics Library rendering performance is presented. The main purpose of this work is to attempt to reduce the limitations of traditional 3D web HMI using the advantage of WebGL. To evaluate the performance, frame rate and frame time metrics were used. The results showed 3D Web-based HMI can maintain the frame rate 60FPS for #cube=0.5K/0.8K, 30FPS for #cube=1.1K/1.6K when it was run on Internet Explorer and Chrome respectively. Moreover, the study found that 3D Web-based HMI using WebGL contains similar frame time in each frame even though the numbers of cubes are up to 5K. This indicated stuttering incurred less in the proposed 3D Web-based HMI compared to the chosen commercial HMI product.

  12. Optimized watermarking for light field rendering based free-view TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolidis, Evlampios; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Manifavas, Charalampos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios A.

    2013-03-01

    In Free-View Television the viewers select freely the viewing position and angle of the transmitted multiview video. It is apparent that copyright and copy protection problems exist, since a video of this arbitrarily selected view can be recorded and then misused. In this context, the watermark in FTV should not only be resistant to common video processing and multi-view video processing operations (as in 2D case), but it should also be extracted from a generated video of an arbitrary view. Based on this remark, this paper focuses on this problem by evaluating the functionality and the efficiency of the watermarks and their corresponding Mathematical Distributions, in terms of "robustness" and "successful detection" from new constructed views of FTV, using Light Field Rendering (LFR) techniques. We studied the values which characterize the watermark's performance and the parameters introduced by the watermark's insertion-extraction scheme. Therefore, we ended up to the best five Mathematical Distributions, and we concluded that the watermark's robustness in FTV case does not depend only on the FTV image's characteristics, but it also relies on the characteristics of the Mathematical Distribution that is used as watermark generator. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs with excellent color rendering and luminous efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guoxing; Tang, Ju

    2014-10-01

    The optimization model of limited luminous efficacy (LLE) for correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes (pc-W LEDs) consisting of blue chips, green and yellow phosphors, and red chips, including downconversion energy loss, has been developed under the constraint of a designated color-rendering index (CRI) and a special CRI of R9 for strong red. The optimal spectra of pc-W LEDs are obtained with a nonlinear program for maximizing LLE under conditions of both CRI and R9 above 90, 95, and 98 at CCTs of 2700-6500 K. The pc-W LEDs with LLE>301  lm/W for both CRI and R9 above 90, LLE>290  lm/W for both CRI and R9 above 95, and LLE>276  lm/W for both CRI and R9 above 98 could be achieved at CCTs of 2700-6500 K. The recommended peak wavelengths and full widths at half-maximum (FWHMs) for the current LEDs and phosphors and their photometric and colorimetric performances are presented.

  14. Volume rendering versus maximum intensity projection in CT angiography: what works best, when, and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Elliot K; Ney, Derek R; Heath, David G; Corl, Frank M; Horton, Karen M; Johnson, Pamela T

    2006-01-01

    The introduction and widespread availability of 16-section multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT) technology and, more recently, 64-section scanners, has greatly advanced the role of CT angiography in clinical practice. CT angiography has become a key component of state-of-the-art imaging, with applications ranging from oncology (eg, staging of pancreatic or renal cancer) to classic vascular imaging (eg, evaluation of aortic aneurysms and renal artery stenoses) as well as newer techniques such as coronary artery imaging and peripheral runoff studies. With an average of 400-1000 images in each volume data set, three-dimensional postprocessing is crucial to volume visualization. Radiologists now have workstations that provide capabilities for evaluation of these data sets by using a range of software programs and processing tools. Although different systems have unique capabilities and functionality, all provide the options of volume rendering and maximum intensity projection for image display and analysis. These two postprocessing techniques have different advantages and disadvantages when used in clinical practice, and it is important that radiologists understand when and how each technique should be used. Copyright RSNA, 2006.

  15. Metals for bone implants. Part 1. Powder metallurgy and implant rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andani, Mohsen Taheri; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael J; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    New metal alloys and metal fabrication strategies are likely to benefit future skeletal implant strategies. These metals and fabrication strategies were looked at from the point of view of standard-of-care implants for the mandible. These implants are used as part of the treatment for segmental resection due to oropharyngeal cancer, injury or correction of deformity due to pathology or congenital defect. The focus of this two-part review is the issues associated with the failure of existing mandibular implants that are due to mismatched material properties. Potential directions for future research are also studied. To mitigate these issues, the use of low-stiffness metallic alloys has been highlighted. To this end, the development, processing and biocompatibility of superelastic NiTi as well as resorbable magnesium-based alloys are discussed. Additionally, engineered porosity is reviewed as it can be an effective way of matching the stiffness of an implant with the surrounding tissue. These porosities and the overall geometry of the implant can be optimized for strain transduction and with a tailored stiffness profile. Rendering patient-specific, site-specific, morphology-specific and function-specific implants can now be achieved using these and other metals with bone-like material properties by additive manufacturing. The biocompatibility of implants prepared from superelastic and resorbable alloys is also reviewed.

  16. Biographer: web-based editing and rendering of SBGN compliant biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Falko; Schulz, Marvin; Ripkens, Ben; Flöttmann, Max; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda; Handorf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The rapid accumulation of knowledge in the field of Systems Biology during the past years requires advanced, but simple-to-use, methods for the visualization of information in a structured and easily comprehensible manner. Results: We have developed biographer, a web-based renderer and editor for reaction networks, which can be integrated as a library into tools dealing with network-related information. Our software enables visualizations based on the emerging standard Systems Biology Graphical Notation. It is able to import networks encoded in various formats such as SBML, SBGN-ML and jSBGN, a custom lightweight exchange format. The core package is implemented in HTML5, CSS and JavaScript and can be used within any kind of web-based project. It features interactive graph-editing tools and automatic graph layout algorithms. In addition, we provide a standalone graph editor and a web server, which contains enhanced features like web services for the import and export of models and visualizations in different formats. Availability: The biographer tool can be used at and downloaded from the web page http://biographer.biologie.hu-berlin.de/. The different software packages, including a server-indepenent version as well as a web server for Windows and Linux based systems, are available at http://code.google.com/p/biographer/ under the open-source license LGPL. Contact: edda.klipp@biologie.hu-berlin.de or handorf@physik.hu-berlin.de PMID:23574737

  17. Hardware Implementation of an Automatic Rendering Tone Mapping Algorithm for a Wide Dynamic Range Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tone mapping algorithms are used to adapt captured wide dynamic range (WDR scenes to the limited dynamic range of available display devices. Although there are several tone mapping algorithms available, most of them require manual tuning of their rendering parameters. In addition, the high complexities of some of these algorithms make it difficult to implement efficient real-time hardware systems. In this work, a real-time hardware implementation of an exponent-based tone mapping algorithm is presented. The algorithm performs a mixture of both global and local compression on colored WDR images. An automatic parameter selector has been proposed for the tone mapping algorithm in order to achieve good tone-mapped images without manual reconfiguration of the algorithm for each WDR image. Both algorithms are described in Verilog and synthesized for a field programmable gate array (FPGA. The hardware architecture employs a combination of parallelism and system pipelining, so as to achieve a high performance in power consumption, hardware resources usage and processing speed. Results show that the hardware architecture produces images of good visual quality that can be compared to software-based tone mapping algorithms. High peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity (SSIM scores were obtained when the results were compared with output images obtained from software simulations using MATLAB.

  18. Three-dimensional MRA study of the normal canine thorax: MIP sections and volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, S; Vázquez, J M; Morales, M; Rivero, M A; Gil, F; Latorre, R; Arencibia, A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (3D-CE-MRA) for the non-invasive anatomical evaluation of the thoracic vasculature in five normal Beagles. After intravenous gadolinium administration and a cardio-respiratory gating protocol, fast 3D gradient echo pulse sequence MRA was performed employing a 1.5 Tesla magnet and a human thorax coil. Three-dimensional vascular software was applied. Sagittal, transverse and dorsal maximum intensity projection (MIP) sections and volume rendering (VR) images were obtained and labelled. Anatomical literature, dissections and gross sections were employed to assist the identification of the vascular structures. With improvements in scanner technology, MIP sections and VR images are a promising, non-invasive and accurate method of evaluating the canine thoracic vasculature. Images provide a reference material for clinical studies of the canine thorax for radiologist-surgeon teamwork assessment and also encourage the development of this technique in veterinary medicine.

  19. In-Situ Three-Dimensional Shape Rendering from Strain Values Obtained Through Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for rendering the shape of a multi-core optical fiber or multi-fiber bundle in three-dimensional space in real time based on measured fiber strain data. Three optical fiber cores arc arranged in parallel at 120.degree. intervals about a central axis. A series of longitudinally co-located strain sensor triplets, typically fiber Bragg gratings, are positioned along the length of each fiber at known intervals. A tunable laser interrogates the sensors to detect strain on the fiber cores. Software determines the strain magnitude (.DELTA.L/L) for each fiber at a given triplet, but then applies beam theory to calculate curvature, beading angle and torsion of the fiber bundle, and from there it determines the shape of the fiber in s Cartesian coordinate system by solving a series of ordinary differential equations expanded from the Frenet-Serrat equations. This approach eliminates the need for computationally time-intensive curve-tilting and allows the three-dimensional shape of the optical fiber assembly to be displayed in real-time.

  20. A Study of Layout, Rendering, and Interaction Methods for Immersive Graph Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hyun; Muelder, Chris; Lee, Kyungwon; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2016-07-01

    Information visualization has traditionally limited itself to 2D representations, primarily due to the prevalence of 2D displays and report formats. However, there has been a recent surge in popularity of consumer grade 3D displays and immersive head-mounted displays (HMDs). The ubiquity of such displays enables the possibility of immersive, stereoscopic visualization environments. While techniques that utilize such immersive environments have been explored extensively for spatial and scientific visualizations, contrastingly very little has been explored for information visualization. In this paper, we present our considerations of layout, rendering, and interaction methods for visualizing graphs in an immersive environment. We conducted a user study to evaluate our techniques compared to traditional 2D graph visualization. The results show that participants answered significantly faster with a fewer number of interactions using our techniques, especially for more difficult tasks. While the overall correctness rates are not significantly different, we found that participants gave significantly more correct answers using our techniques for larger graphs.

  1. Rendering poly(amidoamine) or poly(propylenimine) dendrimers temperature sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yasuhiro; Harada, Atsushi; Takagishi, Toru; Kono, Kenji

    2004-10-13

    The poly(amidoamine) dendrimers having terminal isobutyramide (IBAM) groups were prepared by the reaction of isobutyric acid and the amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers with generations (G) of 2 to 5 by using a condensing agent, 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. 1H and 13C NMR revealed that an IBAM group was attached to essentially every chain end of the dendrimers. While the IBAM-terminated G2 dendrimer was soluble in water, the IBAM-terminated G3, G4, and G5 dendrimers exhibited the lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) at 75, 61, and 43 degrees C, respectively. Because the density of the terminal IBAM groups in the periphery of the dendrimer progressively increases with increasing dendrimer generation, the interaction of the IBAM groups might take place more efficiently, resulting in a remarkable decrease in the LCST. In addition, attachment of IBAM groups to poly(propylenimine) dendrimers could give the temperature-sensitive property, indicating that this is an efficient method to render dendrimers temperature sensitive.

  2. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella in Animal Meals Collected from Rendering Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuping

    2016-06-01

    As part of the Salmonella Education Reduction Program, the Animal Protein Producers Industry initiated a yearlong microbiological survey of animal meals from 1 January to 31 December 2010. The types of animal meals included poultry meal, pork and beef crax, meat meal, meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal from a variety of rendering operations (n = 65). Salmonella was positive in 731 (8.3%) of 8,783 analyzed samples, with contamination rates as 1.0, 33.2, and 21.3% from samples collected right after press, being loaded out, or unidentified, respectively. The randomly selected positive Salmonella samples (n = 100) representing 1.1% of the total samples tested were enumerated by the most-probable-number (MPN) method. The Salmonella contamination level ranged from meals declined compared with previous surveys, and none of the Salmonella serotypes concerning target animal health were isolated. In addition, most Salmonella isolates remained susceptible to the majority of the 15 most commonly used antibiotics.

  3. Assisted Sonication vs Conventional Transesterification Numerical Simulation and Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janajreh, Isam; Noorul Hussain, Mohammed; El Samad, Tala

    2015-10-01

    Transeterification is known as slow reaction that can take over several hours to complete as the two immiscible liquid reactants combine to form biodiesel and the less favorable glycerol. The quest of finding the perfect catalyst, optimal operational conditions, and reactor configuration to accelerate the reaction in mere few minutes that ensures high quality biodiesel, in economically viable way is coming along with sonication. This drastic reduction is a key enabler for the development of a continuous processing that otherwise is fairly costly and low throughput using conventional method. The reaction kinetics of sonication assisted as inferred by several authors is several time faster and this work implements these rates in a high fidelity numerical simulation model. This flow model is based on Navier-Stokes equations coupled with energy equation for non-isothermal flow and the transport equations of the multiple reactive species. The model is initially validated against experimental data from previous work of the authors using an annular reactor configuration. Following the validation, comparison of the reaction rate is shown to gain more insight to the distribution of the reaction and its attained rates. The two models (conventional and sonication) then compared on the basis of their sensitivity to the methane to oil molar ratio as the most pronounced process parameter. Both the exit reactor yield and the distribution of the species are evaluated with favorable yield under sonication process. These results pave the way to build a more robust process intensified reactor having an integrated selective heterogeneous catalyst to steer the reaction. This can avoid the downstream cleaning processes, cutting reaction time, and render economic benefit to the process.

  4. Can Phosphate Salts Recovered from Manure Replace Conventional Phosphate Fertilizer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ehmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farming produces more manure than can reasonably be spread onto surrounding fields, particularly in regions with high livestock densities and limited land availability. Nutrient recycling offers an attractive solution for dealing with manure excesses and is one main objective of the European commission-funded project “BioEcoSIM”. Phosphate salts (“P-Salt” were recovered from the separated liquid manure fraction. The solid fraction was dried and carbonized to biochar. This study compared the fertilizing performance of P-Salt and conventional phosphate fertilizer and determined whether additional biochar application further increased biomass yields. The fertilizers and biochar were tested in pot experiments with spring barley and faba beans using two nutrient-poor soils. The crops were fertilized with P-Salt at three levels and biochar in two concentrations. Biomass yield was determined after six weeks. Plant and soil samples were analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. The P-Salt had similar or even better effects than mineral fertilizer on growth in both crops and soils. Slow release of nutrients can prevent leaching, rendering P-Salt a particularly suitable fertilizer for light sandy soils. Biochar can enhance its fertilizing effect, but the underlying mechanisms need further investigation. These novel products are concluded to be promising candidates for efficient fertilization strategies.

  5. Refocusing images and videos with a conventional compact camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lai; Wu, Lingda; Wei, Yingmei; Song, Hanchen; Yang, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Digital refocusing is an interesting and useful tool for generating dynamic depth-of-field (DOF) effects in many types of photography such as portraits and creative photography. Since most existing digital refocusing methods rely on four-dimensional light field captured by special precisely manufactured devices or a sequence of images captured by a single camera, existing systems are either expensive for wide practical use or incapable of handling dynamic scenes. We present a low-cost approach for refocusing high-resolution (up to 8 mega pixels) images and videos based on a single shot using an easy to build camera-mirror stereo system. Our proposed method consists of four main steps, namely system calibration, image rectification, disparity estimation, and refocusing rendering. The effectiveness of our proposed method has been evaluated extensively using both static and dynamic scenes with various depth ranges. Promising experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to simulate various controllable realistic DOF effects. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first that allows one to refocus high-resolution images and videos of dynamic scenes captured by a conventional compact camera.

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF ORGANIZATION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL AID RENDERING AT SARATOV SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF TRAUMATOLOGY AND ORTHOPEDICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Shulgina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the peculiarities of organization of high technology medical aid rendering at Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. Profiles and volumes of high technology medical aid and its order during 2006-2007 are presented.

  7. [MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR EAR, NOSE AND THROAT RENDERING AND EVALUATION IN RESEARCHES ON RUSSIAN SEGMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, I I; Orlov, O I; Matsnev, E I; Revyakin, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the results of testing some diagnostic video systems enabling digital rendering of TNT teeth and jaws. The authors substantiate the criteria of choosing and integration of imaging systems in future on Russian segment of the International space station kit LOR developed for examination and download of high-quality images of cosmonauts' TNT, parodentium and teeth.

  8. Non-feed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for industrial microorganism fe...

  9. 3D in the Fast Lane: Render as You Go with the Latest OpenGL Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jeff; Murphy, Sam

    1997-01-01

    NT OpenGL hardware allows modelers and animators to work at relatively inexpensive NT workstations in their own offices or homes previous to shared space and workstation time in expensive studios. Rates seven OpenGL boards and two QuickDraw 3D accelerator boards for Mac users on overall value, wireframe and texture rendering, 2D acceleration, and…

  10. 3D skewing and de-skewing scheme for conflict-free access to rays in volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-or, D.; Kaufman, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Ramat Aviv (Israel)

    1995-05-01

    We extend a 2D linear skewed memory organization to 3D and introduce the associated de-skewing scheme designed to provide conflict-free access to projection rays of voxels for use in a volume rendering architecture. This is an application of a 3D linear skewing scheme which supports real-time axonometric projection from 26 primary orientations. 17 refs.

  11. Polyacrylate-water partitioning of biocidal compounds: enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp; Trapp, Stefan; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the application of polymer-based renders and paints for façade coatings of buildings has risen enormously due to the increased mounting of thermal insulation systems. These materials are commonly equipped with biocides - algaecides, fungicides, and bactericides - to protect the materials from biological deterioration. However, the biocides need to be present in the water phase in order to be active and, hence, they are flushed of the material by rain water. In order to increase the knowledge about the partitioning of biocides from render into the water phase, partition constants between the polymer - in this case polyacrylate - and water were studied using glass fibre filters coated with polyacrylate. The polyacrylate-water partition constants (logKAcW) of ten biocides used in construction material varied between 1.66 (isoproturon) and 3.57 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone). The correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating the leaching of biocides from render based on polymer-water partitioning is a useful and practical tool.

  12. Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Chun; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lu, Chih-Yu; Wu, Hung-Sen; Chou, Yung-Fang; Chen, Szu-Huang

    2015-10-01

    Despite the efficiency of gallium nitride (GaN)-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the light extraction arising from the packaging of the phosphor remains an important issue when enhancing the performance of dichromatic white LEDs. In this study, we employed a simple, inexpensive nanoimprinting process to increase both the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white LEDs. We employed the rigorous coupled wave approach (RCWA) to optimize the light extraction efficiency of yellow and blue light. We found that the presence of the light extracting structures could also improve the color rendering of the dichromatic white LEDs, due to the different light extraction efficiencies of the textured structures at different wavelengths. After fabricating inverted pyramid structures on the surface of the encapsulation layer, the intensity of the blue light at 455 nm increased by 20%. When we further considered the color rendering and correlated color temperature (CCT), the enhancement of blue light was 15% and that of yellow light was 4%. Meanwhile, the light extraction of the intensity dip near 490 nm was enhanced significantly (by 25%), resulting in an increased dip-intensity of light at 490 nm relative to the intensities of the blue and yellow light. Accordingly, the color rendering index (CRI) of this dichromatic white LED increased from 69 to 73. Because it improved both the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white LEDs, this simple method should be very helpful for enhancing their applications in solid state illumination.Despite the efficiency of gallium nitride (GaN)-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the light extraction arising from the packaging of the phosphor remains an important issue when enhancing the performance of dichromatic white LEDs. In this study, we employed a simple, inexpensive nanoimprinting process to increase both the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white

  13. Inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity renders cancer cells highly sensitive to mitoxantrone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Alpay

    Full Text Available Although c-Abl has increasingly emerged as a key player in the DNA damage response, its role in this context is far from clear. We studied the effect of inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by imatinib with chemotherapy drugs and found a striking difference in cell survival after combined mitoxantrone (MX and imatinib treatment compared to a panel of other chemotherapy drugs. The combinatory treatment induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and other cancer cell lines but not in primary fibroblasts. The difference in MX and doxorubicin was related to significant augmentation of DNA damage. Transcriptionally active p53 accumulated in cells in which human papillomavirus E6 normally degrades p53. The combination treatment resulted in caspase activation and apoptosis, but this effect did not depend on either p53 or p73 activity. Despite increased p53 activity, the cells arrested in G2 phase became defective in this checkpoint, allowing cell cycle progression. The effect after MX treatment depended partially on c-Abl: Short interfering RNA knockdown of c-Abl rendered HeLa cells less sensitive to MX. The effect of imatinib was decreased by c-Abl siRNA suggesting a role for catalytically inactive c-Abl in the death cascade. These findings indicate that MX has a unique cytotoxic effect when the kinase activity of c-Abl is inhibited. The treatment results in increased DNA damage and c-Abl-dependent apoptosis, which may offer new possibilities for potentiation of cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Random forest classification of large volume structures for visuo-haptic rendering in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastmeyer, Andre; Fortmeier, Dirk; Handels, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    For patient-specific voxel-based visuo-haptic rendering of CT scans of the liver area, the fully automatic segmentation of large volume structures such as skin, soft tissue, lungs and intestine (risk structures) is important. Using a machine learning based approach, several existing segmentations from 10 segmented gold-standard patients are learned by random decision forests individually and collectively. The core of this paper is feature selection and the application of the learned classifiers to a new patient data set. In a leave-some-out cross-validation, the obtained full volume segmentations are compared to the gold-standard segmentations of the untrained patients. The proposed classifiers use a multi-dimensional feature space to estimate the hidden truth, instead of relying on clinical standard threshold and connectivity based methods. The result of our efficient whole-body section classification are multi-label maps with the considered tissues. For visuo-haptic simulation, other small volume structures would have to be segmented additionally. We also take a look into these structures (liver vessels). For an experimental leave-some-out study consisting of 10 patients, the proposed method performs much more efficiently compared to state of the art methods. In two variants of leave-some-out experiments we obtain best mean DICE ratios of 0.79, 0.97, 0.63 and 0.83 for skin, soft tissue, hard bone and risk structures. Liver structures are segmented with DICE 0.93 for the liver, 0.43 for blood vessels and 0.39 for bile vessels.

  15. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-08-28

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  16. Standardized Volume Rendering for Magnetic Resonance Angiography Measurements in the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A.; Brismar, T.B.; Lundstroem, C.; Dahlstroem, N.; Othberg, F.; Smedby, Oe. [Linkoeping Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To compare three methods for standardizing volume rendering technique (VRT) protocols by studying aortic diameter measurements in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) datasets. Material and Methods: Datasets from 20 patients previously examined with gadolinium-enhanced MRA and with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for abdominal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively evaluated by three independent readers. The MRA datasets were viewed using VRT with three different standardized transfer functions: the percentile method (Pc-VRT), the maximum-likelihood method (ML-VRT), and the partial range histogram method (PRH-VRT). The aortic diameters obtained with these three methods were compared with freely chosen VRT parameters (F-VRT) and with maximum intensity projection (MIP) concerning inter-reader variability and agreement with the reference method DSA. Results: F-VRT parameters and PRH-VRT gave significantly higher diameter values than DSA, whereas Pc-VRT gave significantly lower values than DSA. The highest interobserver variability was found for F-VRT parameters and MIP, and the lowest for Pc-VRT and PRH-VRT. All standardized VRT methods were significantly superior to both MIP and F-VRT in this respect. The agreement with DSA was best for PRH-VRT, which was the only method with a mean error below 1 mm and which also had the narrowest limits of agreement (95% of cases between 2.1 mm below and 3.1 mm above DSA). Conclusion: All the standardized VRT methods compare favorably with MIP and VRT with freely selected parameters as regards interobserver variability. The partial range histogram method, although systematically overestimating vessel diameters, gives results closest to those of DSA.

  17. Perception-based 3D tactile rendering from a single image for human skin examinations by dynamic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Lee, S

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosis of skin conditions is dependent on the assessment of skin surface properties that are represented by more tactile properties such as stiffness, roughness, and friction than visual information. Due to this reason, adding tactile feedback to existing vision based diagnosis systems can help dermatologists diagnose skin diseases or disorders more accurately. The goal of our research was therefore to develop a tactile rendering system for skin examinations by dynamic touch. Our development consists of two stages: converting a single image to a 3D haptic surface and rendering the generated haptic surface in real-time. Converting to 3D surfaces from 2D single images was implemented with concerning human perception data collected by a psychophysical experiment that measured human visual and haptic sensibility to 3D skin surface changes. For the second stage, we utilized real skin biomechanical properties found by prior studies. Our tactile rendering system is a standalone system that can be used with any single cameras and haptic feedback devices. We evaluated the performance of our system by conducting an identification experiment with three different skin images with five subjects. The participants had to identify one of the three skin surfaces by using a haptic device (Falcon) only. No visual cue was provided for the experiment. The results indicate that our system provides sufficient performance to render discernable tactile rendering with different skin surfaces. Our system uses only a single skin image and automatically generates a 3D haptic surface based on human haptic perception. Realistic skin interactions can be provided in real-time for the purpose of skin diagnosis, simulations, or training. Our system can also be used for other applications like virtual reality and cosmetic applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F

    2011-07-15

    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest.

  19. Rendering mortars in Medina Azahara, Part II: Material characterization and alteration causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the depicted coat that covers some of the mortars exposed to weathering in the Medina Azahara archaeological site is .studied. That coat is characterized from the compositional and physical viewpoint and the main causes for its decay are determined. The depicted coat is formed by cal cite and iron oxides. It is quite compact and homogeneous. It is approximately 0.1 to 1 mm thick. The depicted coats supposed by lime mortars have CaCO3 deposits over polychromy rests. Depicted coats supported by gypsum mortars or mixed lime and gypsum mortars have gypsum deposits over polychromy rests. The processes of rendering mortars dissolution and the later crystallization of salts on their surface, together with biological growth, are the main causes of the decay of the depicted coats.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la capa de policromía que recubre algunos de los morteros conservados a la intemperie en la ciudad de Medina Azahara. Dicha capa se caracteriza desde el punto de vista composicional y físico, determinándose las principales causas de su deterioro. La capa de policromía está formada por calcita y óxidos de hierro. Dicha capa es bastante homogénea y compacta. Su espesor es de 0,1 a 1 mm aproximadamente. Las capas de pintura sustentadas por morteros de cal tienen un depósito de CaCO sobre los restos de policromía. Las capas de pintura sustentadas por morteros de yeso o bastardos de cal y yeso tienen depósitos de yeso sobre los restos de policromía. Los procesos de disolución de los revocos y la posterior cristalización de las sales en su superficie, junto con la colonización biológica, son las principales causas de deterioro de la capa de policromía de su superficie.

  20. ClipCard: Sharable, Searchable Visual Metadata Summaries on the Cloud to Render Big Data Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, P.; Davis, D.; Cunningham, R.

    2013-12-01

    Research firm IDC estimates that approximately 90 percent of the Enterprise Big Data go un-analyzed, as 'dark data' - an enormous corpus of undiscovered, untagged information residing on data warehouses, servers and Storage Area Networks (SAN). In the geosciences, these data range from unpublished model runs to vast survey data assets to raw sensor data. Many of these are now being collected instantaneously, at a greater volume and in new data formats. Not all of these data can be analyzed, nor processed in real time, and their features may not be well described at the time of collection. These dark data are a serious data management problem for science organizations of all types, especially ones with mandated or required data reporting and compliance requirements. Additionally, data curators and scientists are encouraged to quantify the impact of their data holdings as a way to measure research success. Deriving actionable insights is the foremost goal of Big Data Analytics (BDA), which is especially true with geoscience, given its direct impact on most of the pressing global issues. Clearly, there is a pressing need for innovative approaches to making dark data discoverable, measurable, and actionable. We report on ClipCard, a Cloud-based SaaS analytic platform for instant summarization, quick search, visualization and easy sharing of metadata summaries form the Dark Data at hierarchical levels of detail, thus rendering it 'white', i.e., actionable. We present a use case of the ClipCard platform, a cloud-based application which helps generate (abstracted) visual metadata summaries and meta-analytics for environmental data at hierarchical scales within and across big data containers. These summaries and analyses provide important new tools for managing big data and simplifying collaboration through easy to deploy sharing APIs. The ClipCard application solves a growing data management bottleneck by helping enterprises and large organizations to summarize, search

  1. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  2. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  3. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  4. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  5. Role of volume rendered 3-D computed tomography in conservative management of trauma-related thoracic injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OʼLeary, Donal Peter

    2012-09-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are a tool used commonly in the construction industry and are widely available. Accidental injuries from nail guns are common, and several cases of suicide using a nail gun have been reported. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging, together with echocardiography, has been shown to be the gold standard for investigation of these cases. We present a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the accident and emergency unit of a community hospital following an accidental pneumatic nail gun injury to his thorax. Volume-rendered CT of the thorax allowed an accurate assessment of the thoracic injuries sustained by this patient. As there was no evidence of any acute life-threatening injury, a sternotomy was avoided and the patient was observed closely until discharge. In conclusion, volume-rendered 3-dimensional CT can greatly help in the decision to avoid an unnecessary sternotomy in patients with a thoracic nail gun injury.

  6. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  7. Subjective quality of video sequences rendered on LCD with local backlight dimming at different lighting conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Mørkhøj

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of ambient light on the perceived quality of videos displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) with local backlight dimming. A subjective test assessing the quality of videos with two backlight dimming methods and three lighting conditions, i.e. no light, low...... preference for one method at the low light conditions decreases at the high ambient light, confirming that the ambient light significantly attenuates the perception of the leakage defect (light leaking through dark pixels). Results are also highly dependent on the content of the sequence, which can modulate...... light level (5 lux) and higher light level (60 lux) was organized to collect subjective data. Results show that participants prefer the method exploiting local dimming possibilities to the conventional full backlight but that this preference varies depending on the ambient light level. The clear...

  8. A predictive control approach and interactive GUI to enhance distal environment rendering during robotized tele-echograph

    OpenAIRE

    Vieyres, Pierre; Josserand, Laurence; Chiccoli, Marco; Sandoval, Juan; Morette, Nicolas; Novales, Cyril; Fonte, Aïcha; Avgousti, Soteris; Voskarides, Sotos; Kasparis, Takis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Performing a robotized telemedicine act via specific networks brings forth two issues. One is transparency in order to enable the operator, e.g. the medical ultrasound specialist, to safely and precisely perform bilateral tele-operation tasks despite the long time delays inherent to the chosen communication link. To counter these effects, two strategies are combined to improve at the operator site the rendering of the interactions of the remote robotic systems with its...

  9. Genetic disruption of uncoupling protein 1 in mice renders brown adipose tissue a significant source of FGF21 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Keipert

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Here we show that the genetic ablation of UCP1 increases FGF21 gene expression in adipose tissue. The removal of adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis renders BAT a significant source of endogenous FGF21 under thermal stress. Thus, the thermogenic competence of BAT is not a requirement for FGF21 secretion. Notably, high endogenous FGF21 levels in UCP1-deficient models and subjects may confound pharmacological FGF21 treatments.

  10. Comparison of Volume Rendering CT cholangiography and Minimum intensity projection CT cholangiography in patients with obstructive biliary disease

    OpenAIRE

    牛見, 尚史; 佃, 俊二; 平敷, 淳子

    2002-01-01

     We compared the detectability and conspicuity of minimum intensity projection CT cholangiography (Min-IP CTC)with volume rendering CT cholangiography (VRCTC).The subjects were ten patients (6 men, 4 women, mean age 64.7) who clinically suspected obstructive biliary truct disease. They underwent enhanced helical CT. Volume data of delayed phase that reconstructed by 2 or 1 mm thickness was transferred to work station (Advantage Windows) and data processing by Minimum Intensity Projection (Min...

  11. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.

  12. Domino Tiling: A New Method of Real-Time Conforming Mesh Construction for Rendering Changeable Height Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorde M. Durdevié; Igor I. Tartalja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel GPU-oriented method of creating an inherently continuous triangular mesh for tile-based rendering of regular height fields.The method is based on tiling data-independent semi-regular meshes of non-uniform structure,a technique that is quite different from other mesh tiling approaches.A complete,memory efficient set of mesh patterns is created by an off-line procedure and stored into the graphics adapter's memory at runtime.At rendering time,for each tile,one of the precomputed mesh patterns is selected for rendering.The selected mesh pattern fits the required level of details of the tile and ensures seamless connection with other adjacent mesh patterns,like in a game of dominoes.The scalability potential of the proposed method is demonstrated through quadtree hierarchical grouping of tiles.The efficiency is verified by experimental results on height fields for terrain representation,where the method achieves high frame rates and sustained triangle throughput on high resolution viewports with sub-pixel error tolerance.Frame rate sensitivity to real-time modifications of the height field is measured,and it is shown that the method is very tolerant and consequently well tailored for applications dealing with rapidly changeable phenomena represented by height fields.

  13. Non-photorealistic rendering of virtual implant models for computer-assisted fluoroscopy-based surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan

    2007-03-01

    Surgical navigation systems visualize the positions and orientations of surgical instruments and implants as graphical overlays onto a medical image of the operated anatomy on a computer monitor. The orthopaedic surgical navigation systems could be categorized according to the image modalities that are used for the visualization of surgical action. In the so-called CT-based systems or 'surgeon-defined anatomy' based systems, where a 3D volume or surface representation of the operated anatomy could be constructed from the preoperatively acquired tomographic data or through intraoperatively digitized anatomy landmarks, a photorealistic rendering of the surgical action has been identified to greatly improve usability of these navigation systems. However, this may not hold true when the virtual representation of surgical instruments and implants is superimposed onto 2D projection images in a fluoroscopy-based navigation system due to the so-called image occlusion problem. Image occlusion occurs when the field of view of the fluoroscopic image is occupied by the virtual representation of surgical implants or instruments. In these situations, the surgeon may miss part of the image details, even if transparency and/or wire-frame rendering is used. In this paper, we propose to use non-photorealistic rendering to overcome this difficulty. Laboratory testing results on foamed plastic bones during various computer-assisted fluoroscopybased surgical procedures including total hip arthroplasty and long bone fracture reduction and osteosynthesis are shown.

  14. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  15. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  16. A Volume Rendering Algorithm for Sequential 2D Medical Images%序列二维医学图象的体绘制法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering of 3D data sets composed of sequential 2D medical images has become an important branch in image processing and computer graphics. To help physicians fully understand deep-seated human organs and focuses (e. g. a tumnout) as 3D structures, in this paper, we present a modified volume rendering algorithm to render volumetric data. Using this method, the projection images of structures of interest from different viewing directions can be obtained satisfactorily. By rotating the light source and the observer eyepoint, this method avoids rotates the whole volumetric data in main memory and thus reduces computational complexity and rendering time. Experiments on CT images suggest that the proposed method is useful and efficient for rendering 3D data sets.

  17. One-Step Preparation of Blue-Emitting (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ Phosphors for High-Color Rendering White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Atsuro; Suehiro, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Hirosaki, Naoto

    2011-02-01

    Highly phase-pure (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ blue-emitting phosphors were successfully synthesized via the one-step solid-state reaction from the system La2O3-CaO-CeO2-Si3N4. The synthesized (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ exhibits tunable blue broadband emission with the dominant wavelength of 466-479 nm and the external quantum efficiency up to ˜45% under 380 nm near-UV (NUV) excitation. Spectral simulations of the trichromatic white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ demonstrated markedly higher color rendering index Ra values of 93-95, compared to 76-90 attained by the systems using a conventional BAM:Eu2+ phosphor or InGaN blue LED. The present achievement indicates the promising applicability of (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ as a blue luminescent source for NUV-converting high-color rendering white LEDs.

  18. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  19. Less tachycardia during transnasal versus conventional gastroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenschwander, Anders U; Christensen, Merete; Schulze, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy is well tolerated, but physiological benefits compared with conventional gastroscopy have not been studied in detail. The aims of this randomised study were to evaluate cardiopulmonary features, patient tolerance, and the endoscopist's evaluation of transnasal versus conventi...

  20. numerical assessment of conventional regulation effectiveness for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benkoussas B, Djedjig R, and Vauquelin O

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... International License. Libraries Resource ... Keywords: underground station; conventional regulation; ventilation strategies; smoke ... Intuitively, ventilation is the first practice which is applied to secure the space and users.

  1. Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...

  2. Reflexive convention: civil partnership, marriage and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Brian

    2017-09-14

    Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. High Performance Molecular Visualization: In-Situ and Parallel Rendering with EGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John E.; Messmer, Peter; Sisneros, Robert; Schulten, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics simulations produce terabytes of data that is impractical to transfer to remote facilities. It is therefore necessary to perform visualization tasks in-situ as the data are generated, or by running interactive remote visualization sessions and batch analyses co-located with direct access to high performance storage systems. A significant challenge for deploying visualization software within clouds, clusters, and supercomputers involves the operating system software required to initialize and manage graphics acceleration hardware. Recently, it has become possible for applications to use the Embedded-system Graphics Library (EGL) to eliminate the requirement for windowing system software on compute nodes, thereby eliminating a significant obstacle to broader use of high performance visualization applications. We outline the potential benefits of this approach in the context of visualization applications used in the cloud, on commodity clusters, and supercomputers. We discuss the implementation of EGL support in VMD, a widely used molecular visualization application, and we outline benefits of the approach for molecular visualization tasks on petascale computers, clouds, and remote visualization servers. We then provide a brief evaluation of the use of EGL in VMD, with tests using developmental graphics drivers on conventional workstations and on Amazon EC2 G2 GPU-accelerated cloud instance types. We expect that the techniques described here will be of broad benefit to many other visualization applications. PMID:27747137

  4. 虚拟装配中基于导纳控制的力觉渲染技术%Haptic Rendering Technology Based on Admittance Control in Virtual Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建成; 刘检华; 宁汝新; 侯伟伟

    2012-01-01

    In conventional haptic feedback technologies, impedance control is used as the main control mode, which can hardly meet the requirements in virtual assembly. Admittance control mode is more suitable for haptic rendering. The framework and algorithms of the haptic rendering based on admittance control mode are presented. First, dynamics model used for admittance control is given, and haptic rendering under the states of collision and constraint are discussed. Second, to solve the problem of small clearance assembly, a method of haptic rendering combining physical constraints with geometric constraint is presented. Third, the method of quadratic Lagrangian interpolation is adopted, aiming at solving the problem of asynchrony between haptic feedback loop and physical computing loop to maintain the stability of the haptic device. The algorithms are implemented and the haptic device is connected and utilized in the virtual assembly process planning system (VAPP). The results show that the algorithms can meet the need of haptic interaction in the virtual assembly system.%传统的力触觉渲染多采用阻抗控制,不能很好地满足虚拟装配的应用要求,相比之下导纳控制模式更适用这一领域.为此提出一种基于导纳控制的双线程力觉渲染构架,并给出相应的力觉渲染算法.首先建立用于导纳控制的动力学模型,并讨论了碰撞和约束这2个状态下的力觉渲染;为了使用力觉交互接口进行虚拟装配中的小间隙装配,提出物理约束与几何约束结合的力觉渲染方法;最后针对物理计算和力反馈循环2个线程刷新频率不匹配的问题,利用二次拉格朗日多项式进行数值插值,实现了力觉交互接口的平稳输出.通过力反馈设备与自主开发的虚拟装配原型系统VAPP的连接与应用,验证了所提出的算法满足虚拟装配系统中力觉交互的应用要求.

  5. Modulating dual-wavelength multiple quantum wells in white light emitting diodes to suppress efficiency droop and improve color rendering index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yukun; Wang, Shuai; Zheng, Min; Ding, Wen [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yun, Feng, E-mail: fyun2010@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Shaanxi Supernova Lighting Technology Co. Ltd, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710075 (China); Su, Xilin; Yang, Xiangrong; Liu, Shuo [Shaanxi Supernova Lighting Technology Co. Ltd, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710075 (China); Guo, Maofeng [Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Shaanxi Supernova Lighting Technology Co. Ltd, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710075 (China); Zhang, Ye [Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, gallium nitride (GaN) based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with modulated quantities of blue (In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N) quantum wells (QWs) and cyan QWs (In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N) in multiple QW (MQW) structures have been investigated numerically and experimentally. It is demonstrated that the optical performance of LEDs is sensitive to the quantities of cyan QWs in dual-wavelength MQW structures. Compared to the LEDs with respective 0, 4, and 8 cyan QWs (12 QWs in total), the optical performance of the sample with 6 cyan QWs is the best. The deterioration of the optical performance in the sample with less (4 pairs) cyan QWs or more (8 pairs) cyan QWs than 6 cyan QWs may be ascribed to weakened reservoir effect or more defects induced. Compared to conventional blue LEDs (12 blue QWs), the sample with 6 cyan QWs could effectively suppress the efficiency droop (the experimental droop ratio decreases from 50.3% to 39.5% at 80 A/cm{sup 2}) and significantly improve the color rendering index (CRI, increases from 66.4 to 77.0) simultaneously. We attribute the droop suppression to the strengthened reservoir effect and carrier confinement of deeper QWs (higher indium composition) incorporated in the dual-wavelength MQW structures, which lead to the better hole spreading and enhanced radiative recombination. Meanwhile, the remarkable experimental CRI improvement may result from the wider full-width at half-maximum of electroluminescence spectra and higher cyan intensity in WLED chips with dual-wavelength MQW structures.

  6. North American Rendering: processing high quality protein and fats for feed North American Rendering: processamento de proteínas e gorduras de alta qualidade para alimentos para animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Meeker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One third to one half of each animal produced for meat, milk, eggs, and fiber is not consumed by humans. These raw materials are subjected to rendering processes resulting in many useful products. Meat and bone meal, meat meal, poultry meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, fish meal, and animal fats are the primary products resulting from the rendering process. The most important and valuable use for these animal by-products is as feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and companion animals. There are volumes of scientific references validating the nutritional qualities of these products, and there are no scientific reasons for altering the practice of feeding rendered products to animals. Government agencies regulate the processing of food and feed, and the rendering industry is scrutinized often. In addition, industry programs include good manufacturing practices, HACCP, Codes of Practice, and third-party certification. The rendering industry clearly understands its role in the safe and nutritious production of animal feed ingredients and has done it very effectively for over 100 years. The availability of rendered products for animal feeds in the future depends on regulation and the market. Regulatory agencies will determine whether certain raw materials can be used for animal feed. The National Renderers Association (NRA supports the use of science as the basis for regulation while aesthetics, product specifications, and quality differences should be left to the market place. Without the rendering industry, the accumulation of unprocessed animal by-products would impede the meat industries and pose a serious potential hazard to animal and human health.De um terço a metade da produção animal para carne, leite, ovos e fibra, não são consumidos pelos seres humanos. Estes materiais não consumidos são sujeitos a processamento em graxarias e indústrias de alimentos de origem animal, resultando em uma série de produtos

  7. A Pixel Moving Voxel Surface Rendering Algorithm%像素的移动体素面绘制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽萍; 李光耀; 李寰

    2012-01-01

    移动立方体算法是最具影响力的等值面构造算法.本文以移动立方体算法为基础,提出了像素点移动体素面绘制算法.根据物体表面的显示特性和体素特点,利用像素点组成的边界体素绘制物体的等值面,实现物体表面的三维重建.在实验中,对一组CT图像中的骨骼组织进行三维表面重建和显示,并与用Matlab绘制函数重建的三维结果进行比较.实验分析表明,该算法能对物体进行三维重建,避免了二义性问题,但重建表面不光滑,重建花费的时间较长.%The marching cubes algorithm is the most influential isosurface construction algorithm. In this paper, a moving pixel-voxel surface rendering algorithm is proposed. According to the marching cubes algorithm, the display properties of object surface and voxel characteristics, we render the object isosurface with boundary voxel and reconstruct the 3D surface. In the experiments, reconstruct the bone tissue with the proposed algorithm and the Matlab rendering function. Finally, by comparing two experimental results, we show that this algorithm can reconstruct an object 3D surface and avoid ambiguity. But the reconstructed 3D surface is not smooth and the reconstructed time is long.

  8. Partial nephroureterectomy in duplex renal system: preoperative 3D virtual rendering and retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molinaro F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the aim of this study is to presents the results of our preliminary series of 8 partial nephroureterectomy performed by retroperitoneoscopy using harmonic scalpel with a preoperative 3D virtual reconstruction of bidimensional magnetic resonance images in children affected by duplication of the renal system. Materials and methods: We perform a retrospective study in our Pediatric Surgery Unit from January 2007 to January 2012 of all children affected by duplication of the renal system treated by retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach. Images collected were reconstructed using IRCAD VR render software. Data include: sex, age at surgery, clinical and radiological features, surgical procedure, follow-up and complications. Results: retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephroureterectomy was performed in 8 children (6 males and 2 females. All patients had a non-functioning moiety of a duplex kidney and in addition recurrent urinary tract infections. Two cases were associated with ureterocele; of them in one case we performed a previous endoscopic incision of the obstructing ureterocele. All patients underwent radiological evaluation prior to surgery, by ultrasound, voididng cystourethrography, renal scintigraphy and contrast-enhanced MRI evaluations. Images collected were reconstructed using IRCAD VR render software. Patients were treated by a 3-4 trocars technique and parenchymal section was performed using harmonic scalpel. The mean operative time was 180 minutes; no cases required open conversion. The mean hospital stay was 5 days. The mean follow-up was 38 months. No cases of secondary atrophy of the lower pole were observed. Discussion: Volume rendering gives high anatomical resolution and it can be useful to guide the surgical procedure. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy is a safe and feasible procedure in children for experienced pediatric laparoscopic surgeons.

  9. GenExp: an interactive web-based genomic DAS client with client-side data rendering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Gel Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Distributed Annotation System (DAS offers a standard protocol for sharing and integrating annotations on biological sequences. There are more than 1000 DAS sources available and the number is steadily increasing. Clients are an essential part of the DAS system and integrate data from several independent sources in order to create a useful representation to the user. While web-based DAS clients exist, most of them do not have direct interaction capabilities such as dragging and zooming with the mouse. RESULTS: Here we present GenExp, a web based and fully interactive visual DAS client. GenExp is a genome oriented DAS client capable of creating informative representations of genomic data zooming out from base level to complete chromosomes. It proposes a novel approach to genomic data rendering and uses the latest HTML5 web technologies to create the data representation inside the client browser. Thanks to client-side rendering most position changes do not need a network request to the server and so responses to zooming and panning are almost immediate. In GenExp it is possible to explore the genome intuitively moving it with the mouse just like geographical map applications. Additionally, in GenExp it is possible to have more than one data viewer at the same time and to save the current state of the application to revisit it later on. CONCLUSIONS: GenExp is a new interactive web-based client for DAS and addresses some of the short-comings of the existing clients. It uses client-side data rendering techniques resulting in easier genome browsing and exploration. GenExp is open source under the GPL license and it is freely available at http://gralggen.lsi.upc.edu/recerca/genexp.

  10. 3DScene Global Illumination Rendering Research%3D场景全局光照研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 王天顺

    2014-01-01

    With the high development of network technology, 3D scene is more and more applied in people's lives, the demand of experience increases.A real 3D scene rendering requires the establishment of corresponding physical illumination model, con-sidering the multiple reflection and refraction of light in the process ofLight propagation. According to the characteristic of the ob-ject surface reflection of light, can establish physical model, focuses on the Phong model. The true light rendering algorithm main-ly have two kinds, raytracing and radiosity algorithms, respectively, analyzed two kinds of algorithm principle and implementation details, and use two kinds of algorithms achieve rendering 3D scenes, and the experimental results are analyzed and compared.%随着科技的发展网络的提速,人们对于3D场景的应用越来越多,体验需求不断提高。3D场景的真实感绘制需要建立相应的物理光照模型,考虑光线传播过程中的多次反射折射现象。根据物体表面对光线的反射特性,可以建立物理模型,重点介绍了Phong模型。真实感光照绘制算法主要有两种,光线追踪和辐射度算法,分别分析了两种算法实现原理和实现细节,并分别使用两种算法实现3D场景的绘制,对实验结果进行了分析比较。

  11. Enhancement of Color Rendering Index for White Light LED Lamps by Red Y2O3:EU3+ Phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Quang Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of the red Y2O3:Eu3+ dopant phosphor compound for reaching the color rendering index as high as 86. The Multi-Chip White LED lamps (MCW-LEDs with high Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs including 7000 K and 8500 K are employed in this study. Besides, the impacts of the Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor on the attenuation of light through phosphor layers of the various packages is also demonstrated based on the Beer-Lambert law. Simulation results provide important conclusion for selecting and developing the phosphor materials in MCW-LEDs manufacturing.

  12. Modern technologies for rendering information support to cogeneration steam turbine units in their design and operation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Chubarov, A. A.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2013-08-01

    Application of modern information technologies in different stages of the lifecycle of cogeneration turbines is considered as one of possible ways for improving their competitiveness. Specific features relating to rendering information support for steam turbine units during the periods of their design and operation, which are the main stages of their life cycle, are presented. Three-dimension modeling, adaptive, and parametric design technologies are applied in the equipment design stages. Information support technologies developed by the authors are applied during the operation stage. Information is integrated by using a product lifecycle management (PLM) system.

  13. Polyacrylate–water partitioning of biocidal compounds: Enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of polymer-based renders and paints for façade coatings of buildings has risen enormously due to the increased mounting of thermal insulation systems. These materials are commonly equipped with biocides - algaecides, fungicides, and bactericides - to protect...... between the polymer - in this case polyacrylate - and water were studied using glass fibre filters coated with polyacrylate. The polyacrylate-water partition constants (logKAcW) of ten biocides used in construction material varied between 1.66 (isoproturon) and 3.57 (dichloro...

  14. White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Ozel, Tuncay; Koldemir, Unsal; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Tuncel, Donus; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2008-01-21

    We develop and demonstrate high-quality white light generation that relies on the use of a single-type simple conjugated polymer of polyfluorene functionalized with azide groups (PFA) integrated on a near-UV LED platform. The high-quality white emission from the polyfluorene is achieved by using the azide functionalization to facilitate cross-linking intentionally when cast into solid-state form. Hybridized on n-UV InGaN/GaN LED at 378 nm, the PFA emitters collectively generate a very broad down-converting photoluminescence at longer wavelengths across the entirety of the visible spectrum, yielding high color rendering indices up to 91.

  15. Rendering of surface-geometries at job-generation level for camouflaging the layered nature of Additively Manufactured parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    . An often used method for visualization of complex geometries within CGI is by producing a geometrical primitive after which the primitive is passed through a renderer.[2] Examples can be geometries with hair, leather structure and their like. Should the entire geometry including surface definition sought......] It is proposed to camouflage these layers in order to produce parts with a better visual appeal, and to add functional surface structures. In order to generate such surface structures without adding a challenging computational overhead at job-generation, inspiration from Computer Generated Imaging (CGI) is found...

  16. Non-conventionally obtained polymer nanocomposites with different nano-clay ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aim of work has been concentrated on investigation of nanocomposites, as promising engineering materials, basing on polymers and organo-modified silicates as nano fillers.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional injection molding process additionally equipped with external computer controlled manipulation system for inducing the shear rates.Findings: Evidently reinforced structures at 3 and 5 wt % of nano-clay content inside polymer matrix for different processing settings related to higher shearing time. Research limitations/implications: Application of nano platelet together with developed injection molding technique brought satisfying mechanical results and development of morphology in the shape of gradient composition.Practical implications: Reinforced nanocomposites are promising materials with high strength and stiffness and with low cost of raw materials (97 wt% of polypropylene and 3 wt% of 2:1 phyllosilicate.Originality/value: Wide application of polymer nanocomposites as materials with ameliorates properties render them high potential materials.

  17. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  18. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  19. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  20. The collapse of the conventional career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, P

    The Collapse of the Conventional Career was commissioned by the ENB as 'the first in a number of discussion papers in which important issues were to be explored so that the professional could debate them fully' (Jean Hooper, chairwoman of the ENB, in her foreword). The author Celia Davis' premise was that, conventionally, a career was seen as comprising full-time work carried out without a break in service. Because many female nurses could not fulfil this expectation they were disadvantaged in a number of ways. In order to address the problems faced in practice by those who would not be able, for various reasons, to undertake a conventional career, Professor Davis looked at what changes in thinking and policy would be required.

  1. Investigation of Surfaces after Non Conventional Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micietova, Anna; Neslusan, Miroslav; Cillikova, Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of surface integrity of steel after electro discharge machining (EDM), water jet machining, (WJM) laser beam machining (LBM) and plasma beam machining (PBM). The paper discusses surface integrity expressed in surface roughness, sample precision expressed in perpendicularity deviation as well as stress state. This study also demonstrates influence of the various non-conventional methods on structure transformations and reports about sensitivity of the different non-conventional methods of machining with regard to variable thickness of machined samples.

  2. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  3. 1985 CSEG/CGU National Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, John W.; Millington, Graham

    The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (CSEG) and the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) held their first joint national meeting in Calgary, Canada, May 7-10, 1985. As the CSEG represents primarily the oil exploration side of geophysics and the CGU represents mainly the academic side, both groups felt that a joint convention would broaden their perspectives. Some 1750 delegates and over 100 students registered for the meeting. The Convention Committee was chaired by Ian Baker (Atlantis Resources Ltd.), and CGU was represented by Peter Savage (Pan Canadian Petroleum Ltd.). The Technical Committee was chaired by John Peirce (Petro-Canada Inc.) for CGU and Graham Millington (Canadian Superior Oil Ltd.) for CSEG

  4. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    as 1) the reformulation of the theory of action focusing on the uncertainty of social action; 2) pointing to the importance of collective frames of reference for individual rationality; and 3) the elaboration of a theory of institutions, focusing on the importance of conventions as forming...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...

  5. A real-time photo-realistic rendering algorithm of ocean color based on bio-optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyong; Xu, Shu; Wang, Hongsong; Tian, Fenglin; Chen, Ge

    2016-12-01

    A real-time photo-realistic rendering algorithm of ocean color is introduced in the paper, which considers the impact of ocean bio-optical model. The ocean bio-optical model mainly involves the phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM), inorganic suspended particle, etc., which have different contributions to absorption and scattering of light. We decompose the emergent light of the ocean surface into the reflected light from the sun and the sky, and the subsurface scattering light. We establish an ocean surface transmission model based on ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the Fresnel law, and this model's outputs would be the incident light parameters of subsurface scattering. Using ocean subsurface scattering algorithm combined with bio-optical model, we compute the scattering light emergent radiation in different directions. Then, we blend the reflection of sunlight and sky light to implement the real-time ocean color rendering in graphics processing unit (GPU). Finally, we use two kinds of radiance reflectance calculated by Hydrolight radiative transfer model and our algorithm to validate the physical reality of our method, and the results show that our algorithm can achieve real-time highly realistic ocean color scenes.

  6. A Real-Time Photo-Realistic Rendering Algorithm of Ocean Color Based on Bio-Optical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chunyong; XU Shu; WANG Hongsong; TIAN Fenglin; CHEN Ge

    2016-01-01

    A real-time photo-realistic rendering algorithm of ocean color is introduced in the paper, which considers the impact of ocean bio-optical model. The ocean bio-optical model mainly involves the phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM), inorganic suspended particle,etc., which have different contributions to absorption and scattering of light. We decompose the emergent light of the ocean surface into the reflected light from the sun and the sky, and the subsurface scattering light. We estab-lish an ocean surface transmission model based on ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the Fresnel law, and this model’s outputs would be the incident light parameters of subsurface scattering. Using ocean subsurface scattering algorithm combined with bio-optical model, we compute the scattering light emergent radiation in different directions. Then, we blend the re-flection of sunlight and sky light to implement the real-time ocean color rendering in graphics processing unit (GPU). Finally, we use two kinds of radiance reflectance calculated by Hydrolight radiative transfer model and our algorithm to validate the physical reality of our method, and the results show that our algorithm can achieve real-time highly realistic ocean color scenes.

  7. Fairy Lights in Femtoseconds: Aerial and Volumetric Graphics Rendered by Focused Femtosecond Laser Combined with Computational Holographic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Yoichi; Hoshi, Takayuki; Rekimoto, Jun; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of rendering aerial and volumetric graphics using femtosecond lasers. A high-intensity laser excites a physical matter to emit light at an arbitrary 3D position. Popular applications can then be explored especially since plasma induced by a femtosecond laser is safer than that generated by a nanosecond laser. There are two methods of rendering graphics with a femtosecond laser in air: Producing holograms using spatial light modulation technology, and scanning of a laser beam by a galvano mirror. The holograms and workspace of the system proposed here occupy a volume of up to 1 cm^3; however, this size is scalable depending on the optical devices and their setup. This paper provides details of the principles, system setup, and experimental evaluation, and discussions on scalability, design space, and applications of this system. We tested two laser sources: an adjustable (30-100 fs) laser which projects up to 1,000 pulses per second at energy up to 7 mJ per pulse, and a 269-fs laser which p...

  8. Spectral optimization based simultaneously on color-rendering index and color quality scale for white LED illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. J.; Hu, R.; Yu, X. J.; Xie, B.; Luo, X. B.

    2017-02-01

    Color performance is an important parameter for high-quality light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. Color-rendering index (CRI) and color quality scale (CQS) are two independent parameters to assess the color performance, but high CRI does not correspond to high CQS, and vice versa. Therefore, it's urgent to find a comprehensive and effective metric for assessing the color performance of LEDs that can simultaneously exhibit high color-rendering index (CRI) and high color quality scale (CQS) values. In this study, a genetic algorithm with a penalty function was proposed for realizing spectral optimization by boosting the maximum attainable luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) of spectra while constraining both high CRI and CQS. By simulations, white spectra from LEDs with CRI≥95 and CQS≥95 were achieved at different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) from 2020 K to 7929 K. Further, a real spectra-tunable LED module consisting of four LEDs is fabricated, and high LER (344 lm/W) and color performance (CRI≥90, CQS=90) was realized by tuning driving currents.

  9. A Virtual Reality System for PTCD Simulation Using Direct Visuo-Haptic Rendering of Partially Segmented Image Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmeier, Dirk; Mastmeyer, Andre; Schröder, Julian; Handels, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new visuo-haptic virtual reality (VR) training and planning system for percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-drainage (PTCD) based on partially segmented virtual patient models. We only use partially segmented image data instead of a full segmentation and circumvent the necessity of surface or volume mesh models. Haptic interaction with the virtual patient during virtual palpation, ultrasound probing and needle insertion is provided. Furthermore, the VR simulator includes X-ray and ultrasound simulation for image-guided training. The visualization techniques are GPU-accelerated by implementation in Cuda and include real-time volume deformations computed on the grid of the image data. Computation on the image grid enables straightforward integration of the deformed image data into the visualization components. To provide shorter rendering times, the performance of the volume deformation algorithm is improved by a multigrid approach. To evaluate the VR training system, a user evaluation has been performed and deformation algorithms are analyzed in terms of convergence speed with respect to a fully converged solution. The user evaluation shows positive results with increased user confidence after a training session. It is shown that using partially segmented patient data and direct volume rendering is suitable for the simulation of needle insertion procedures such as PTCD.

  10. Detection of pesticides and dioxins in tissue fats and rendering oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multari, Rosalie A; Cremers, David A; Scott, Thomas; Kendrick, Peter

    2013-03-13

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), a series of powerful laser pulses are directed at a surface to form microplasmas from which light is collected and spectrally analyzed to identify the surface material. In most cases, no sample preparation is needed, and results can be automated and made available within seconds to minutes. Advances in LIBS spectral data analysis using multivariate regression techniques have led to the ability to detect organic chemicals in complex matrices such as foods. Here, the use of LIBS to differentiate samples contaminated with aldrin, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, chlorpyrifos, and dieldrin in the complex matrices of tissue fats and rendering oils is described. The pesticide concentrations in the samples ranged from 0.005 to 0.1 μg/g. All samples were successfully differentiated from each other and from control samples. Sample concentrations could also be differentiated for all of the pesticides and the dioxin included in this study. The results presented here provide first proof-of-principle data for the ability to create LIBS-based instrumentation for the rapid analysis of pesticide and dioxin contamination in tissue fat and rendered oils.

  11. Repercussion of geometric and dynamic constraints on the 3D rendering quality in structurally adaptive multi-view shooting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Bey, Mohamed; Moughamir, Saïd; Manamanni, Noureddine

    2011-12-01

    in this paper a simulator of a multi-view shooting system with parallel optical axes and structurally variable configuration is proposed. The considered system is dedicated to the production of 3D contents for auto-stereoscopic visualization. The global shooting/viewing geometrical process, which is the kernel of this shooting system, is detailed and the different viewing, transformation and capture parameters are then defined. An appropriate perspective projection model is afterward derived to work out a simulator. At first, this latter is used to validate the global geometrical process in the case of a static configuration. Next, the simulator is used to show the limitations of a static configuration of this shooting system type by considering the case of dynamic scenes and then a dynamic scheme is achieved to allow a correct capture of this kind of scenes. After that, the effect of the different geometrical capture parameters on the 3D rendering quality and the necessity or not of their adaptation is studied. Finally, some dynamic effects and their repercussions on the 3D rendering quality of dynamic scenes are analyzed using error images and some image quantization tools. Simulation and experimental results are presented throughout this paper to illustrate the different studied points. Some conclusions and perspectives end the paper. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Comparison of linear and angular measurements in CBCT scans using 2D and 3D rendering software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Aksoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of both linear and angular measurements conducted on two-dimensional (2D lateral cephalometric images and three-dimensional (3D cone-beam computed tomography-generated cephalograms derived from various rendering software. Pre-treatment cephalometric digital radiographs of 15 patients and their corresponding cone beam computed tomographic images were randomly selected. Vista Dent OC as 2D, In vivo 5.1.2, Maxilim and Romexis software were used to generate cephalograms from the CBCT scans (NewTom 3G, QR Verona, Italy. In total, 19 cephalometric landmarks were identified and 18 widely used (11 linear, 7 angular measurements were performed by an independent observer. Mann–Whitney and Kruskall–Wallis H tests were also used to compare the four methods (p 0.05. The ICCs for Vista Dent OC (2D measurements indicated high reproducibility (p < 0.05. The 2D and 3D generated cephalograms from various rendering software were found to be similar; however, measurements on curved surfaces are not easily reproducible for 3D software.

  13. Ammonium hydroxide modulated synthesis of high-quality fluorescent carbon dots for white LEDs with excellent color rendering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengda; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Nan; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Dabin; Jiang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel type of aqueous fluorescent carbon dot (CD) was synthesized using citric acid as the only carbon source via an ammonium hydroxide modulated method, providing a blue color gamut. The amino group is considered to be the key factor in the high fluorescence of CDs and a model is established to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence. In addition, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the prepared CDs and rare earth luminescent materials (SrSi2O2N2:Eu and Sr2Si5N8:Eu) as color conversion layers and UV-LED chips as the excitation light source. The WLEDs produce bright white light with attractive color rendering properties including a color rendering index of up to 95.1, a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.37), and a T c of 5447 K under a 100 mA driven current, indicating that the CDs are promising in the field of optoelectronic devices.

  14. Spectral broadening of Cu–In–Zn–S quantum dot color converters for high color rendering white lighting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Dae-Yeon; Yang, Heesun, E-mail: hyang@hongik.ac.kr

    2015-10-15

    We report the synthesis of quaternay Cu–In–Zn–S (CIZS) core/ZnS shell quantum dots (QDs) that possess the emission wavelengths suitable as color converters for white light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication. For the demonstration of high color rendering white QD-LEDs enabled by a more complete white spectral coverage, the synthetic effort on CIZS QDs exhibiting the photoluminescence (PL) as broad as possible is made. The amount of 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) used in CIZS core synthesis is found to critically affect the spectral shape and consequent bandwidth of QD emission. The QD PL is systematically, progressively broadened with increasing DDT amount, achieving an unprecedented bandwidth up to ~240 nm. The CIZS/ZnS QDs that are synthesized with different DDT amounts are indiviually tested as color converters for the fabrication of white QD-LEDs and thier performance is compared. The resulting devices exhibit color rendering index (CRI) values in the range of 74–95, depending on CIZS/ZnS QDs used. This exceptional CRI of 95 is a record quantitiy obtainable by use of a single QD color converter. - Highlights: • Emission of quaternay CIZS/ZnS QDs was systematically broadened. • CIZS/ZnS QD color converters were utilized for white QD-LED fabrication. • An exceptionally high CRI of 95 was obtainable by use of a single QD color converter.

  15. Usage of data-encoded web maps with client side color rendering for combined data access, visualization, and modeling purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-05-01

    Current approaches to satellite observation data storage and distribution implement separate visualization and data access methodologies which often leads to the need in time consuming data ordering and coding for applications requiring both visual representation as well as data handling and modeling capabilities. We describe an approach we implemented for a data-encoded web map service based on storing numerical data within server map tiles and subsequent client side data manipulation and map color rendering. The approach relies on storing data using the lossless compression Portable Network Graphics (PNG) image data format which is natively supported by web-browsers allowing on-the-fly browser rendering and modification of the map tiles. The method is easy to implement using existing software libraries and has the advantage of easy client side map color modifications, as well as spatial subsetting with physical parameter range filtering. This method is demonstrated for the ASTER-GDEM elevation model and selected MODIS data products and represents an alternative to the currently used storage and data access methods. One additional benefit includes providing multiple levels of averaging due to the need in generating map tiles at varying resolutions for various map magnification levels. We suggest that such merged data and mapping approach may be a viable alternative to existing static storage and data access methods for a wide array of combined simulation, data access and visualization purposes.

  16. The D-FCM partitioned D-BSP tree for massive point cloud data access and rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi

    2016-10-01

    The spatial partitioning of massive point cloud data involves dividing the space into a multi-tree structure step by step, so as to achieve the purpose of fast access and to render the point cloud. The current methods are based on spatial regularity and equal division, which is not consistent with the irregular and non-uniform distribution of most point clouds. This paper presents a directional fuzzy c-means (D-FCM) method for irregular spatial partitioning. The distance metric is weighted by a direction coefficient, which is determined by the eigenvalue of the point cloud. The orientation of each node is adaptively calculated by principal component analysis of the point cloud, and Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform is applied to the points coordinates in node. A binary space partitioning (BSP) tree structure is used to partition the point cloud data node by node, and a directional BSP (D-BSP) tree is formed. The D-BSP tree structure was tested with point clouds of 0.1 million to over 2 billion points (up to 60 GB). The experimental results showed that the D-BSP tree can ensure that the bounding boxes are close to the actual spatial distribution of the point cloud, it can completely expand along the spatial configuration of the point cloud without generating unnecessary partitioning, and it can achieve a higher rendering speed with less memory requirement.

  17. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F.; Casset, F.; Danel, J. S.; Chappaz, C.; Basrour, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm2. Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system.

  18. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2017-08-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  19. The LLNL High Accuracy Volume Renderer for Unstructured Data: Capabilities, Current Limits, and Potential for ASCI/VIEWS Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P L; Max, N L

    2001-06-04

    This report describes a volume rendering system for unstructured data, especially finite element data, that creates images with very high accuracy. The system will currently handle meshes whose cells are either linear or quadratic tetrahedra, or meshes with mixed cell types: tetrahedra, bricks, prisms, and pyramids. The cells may have nonplanar facets. Whenever possible, exact mathematical solutions for the radiance integrals and for interpolation are used. Accurate semitransparent shaded isosurfaces may be embedded in the volume rendering. For very small cells, subpixel accumulation by splatting is used to avoid sampling error. A new exact and efficient visibility ordering algorithm is described. The most accurate images are generated in software, however, more efficient algorithms utilizing graphics hardware may also be selected. The report describes the parallelization of the system for a distributed-shared memory multiprocessor machine, and concludes by discussing the system's limits, desirable future work, and ways to extend the system so as to be compatible with projected ASCI/VIEWS architectures.

  20. Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonney, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

  1. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, T.M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Kessler, T. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Lange, T. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Overbeck, J. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Fiebich, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients` follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 {mu}m. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ``inter-observer analysis`` was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  2. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  3. Children's Impressions of Moral and Conventional Transgressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1985-01-01

    Two studies examined children's inferences of personality for actors engaging in different domains of behavior. In both studies, first, fourth, and seventh graders were given two descriptions of actors engaging in either moral or conventional transgressions. Findings indicated that children's concepts of persons were inferred from information…

  4. SEE-THROUGH IMAGING OF LASER-SCANNED 3D CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS BASED ON STOCHASTIC RENDERING OF LARGE-SCALE POINT CLOUDS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Okamoto, N.; R. Umegaki; Wang, S; M. Uemura(Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University); Okamoto, A; Koyamada, K.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for the precise 3D see-through imaging, or transparent visualization, of the large-scale and complex point clouds acquired via the laser scanning of 3D cultural heritage objects. Our method is based on a stochastic algorithm and directly uses the 3D points, which are acquired using a laser scanner, as the rendering primitives. This method achieves the correct depth feel without requiring depth sorting of the rendering primitives along the line of sight. Eliminatin...

  5. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  6. QUESTIONING CONVENTIONS: ARE PRODUCT CONVENTIONS TRADING OFF THE USABILITY OF PRODUCTS FOR SHORT TERM USER SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gough Young

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping conventions are a key aspect of user centered design as they present users with familiar interactions in unfamiliar products. Conventions evolve over time and are slow to be adopted, requiring a high percentage of acceptance within a society, ensuring that conventions exhibit a sufficient level of usability. However this paper argues that while usability is a necessary condition for good interactions it is not a sufficient one. Therefore user centered design which accents individuals bias towards conventions my in fact be hindering the innovation of product interactions. This paper argues that a cognitive approach should be adopted in order understand and reassess product interactions. An experiment was carried out that demonstrates the influence that simple mappings can have on cognitive load. The results showed that basic mappings of the types that are found throughout product conventions can have a substantial impact on mental load and subsequently product interaction.

  7. Merging conventional and laser wakefield accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, Benno; Schnepp, Matthias; Gehrke, Tim; Gruener, Florian [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (Germany); Grebenyuk, Julia; Mehrling, Timon; Osterhoff, Jens [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Floettmann, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators deliver high quality electron beams in terms of emittance and bunch length. However there are also parameters which cannot compete with conventional machines, namely spectral width and shot to shot stability. One reason for that is that there is no direct access to the injection mechanism. Injecting a well-characterized electron beam produced by a conventional accelerator into a plasma wakefield could help to solve that problem, since such a pump-probe type experiment should allow for a direct reconstruction of the field distribution and a better understanding of the injection process. REGAE at DESY in Hamburg is a suited accelerator for such a type of experiment. We report on the status of the beamline extension at REGAE and the plans towards the external injection project with the goal to directly measure the wakefield and further improve the stability of laser wakefield accelerators.

  8. "Conventional" CT images from spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging systems need to be able to produce "conventional" images, and it's been shown that systems with energy discriminating detectors can achieve higher CNR than conventional systems by optimal weighting. Combining measured data in energy bins (EBs) and also combining basis material images have previously been proposed, but there are no studies systematically comparing the two methods. In this paper, we analytically evaluate the two methods for systems with ideal photon counting detectors using CNR and beam hardening (BH) artifact as metrics. For a 120-kVp polychromatic simulations of a water phantom with low contrast inserts, the difference of the optimal CNR between the two methods for the studied phantom is within 2%. For a polychromatic spectrum, beam-hardening artifacts are noticeable in EB weighted images (BH artifact of 3.8% for 8 EB and 6.9% for 2 EB), while weighted basis material images are free of such artifacts.

  9. Non-conventional mesons at PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Non-conventional mesons, such as glueballs and tetraquarks, will be in the focus of the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. In this lecture we recall the basic properties of QCD and describe some features of unconventional states. We focus on the search of the not-yet discovered glueballs and the use of the extended Linear Sigma Model for this purpose, and on the already discovered but not-yet understood X, Y, Z states.

  10. Non conventional engines; Moteurs non conventionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descombes, G. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Paris-6 Univ. Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, 75 (France). Laboratoire de mecanique physique; Magnet, J.L. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    The extraordinary realizations of the last century in words of piston engines, are always current events at the dawn of 2000. This paper deals with three types of non conventional engines: the reciprocating internal combustion engines (opposed piston engines, oscillating piston engines, variable geometry piston engines...); the internal combustion rotary engines(Wankel engine, blade engines...) and external combustion reciprocating engines (historical aspects, conception, thermodynamics and market). (A.L.B.)

  11. Dying Convention of Sanctuary for the Soul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXIAOPING

    2004-01-01

    MEN of the Yi ethnic group living in the Liangshan Mountains of Sichuan Province have for the past 2,000 years followed the convention of wearing their hair as long as it will grow. According to legend, the custom originates in the epic hero Etilaba who prevailed over an evil celestial being by letting loose his long hair and letting it stream through the air, puzzling and confusing his enemy.

  12. Non-Conventional Treatment Approaches in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çayırlı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is a bullous auto-immune disease which has high mortality and morbidity rates and affects the skin and mucosa. Corticosteroids are still the baseline treatment modality of pemphigus management. However, non-steroidal drugs and methods have been used more frequently in patients with pemphigus who are non-responders to conventional therapy or have severe side effects. In this article we aimed to review unconventional therapy modalities in patients with pemphigus.

  13. Conventional Weapons Effects on Reinforced Soil Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    of the reinforced soil wall. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Reinforced soil, conventional weapons, protective structures, 388 geosynthetics ...high tensile strength materials such as steel strips or geosynthetics . A single face of a reinforced soil berm can be constructed to approximately...yards of geosynthetics representing $3.1 billion have been used in a wide range of civil engineering applications (Koerner, 1990). Between 1991 and 1992

  14. Rendering-based video-CT registration with physical constraints for image-guided endoscopic sinus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Y.; Leonard, S.; Reiter, A.; Rajan, P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Ishii, M.; Taylor, R. H.; Hager, G. D.

    2015-03-01

    We present a system for registering the coordinate frame of an endoscope to pre- or intra- operatively acquired CT data based on optimizing the similarity metric between an endoscopic image and an image predicted via rendering of CT. Our method is robust and semi-automatic because it takes account of physical constraints, specifically, collisions between the endoscope and the anatomy, to initialize and constrain the search. The proposed optimization method is based on a stochastic optimization algorithm that evaluates a large number of similarity metric functions in parallel on a graphics processing unit. Images from a cadaver and a patient were used for evaluation. The registration error was 0.83 mm and 1.97 mm for cadaver and patient images respectively. The average registration time for 60 trials was 4.4 seconds. The patient study demonstrated robustness of the proposed algorithm against a moderate anatomical deformation.

  15. Estimating the influence of social-economic factors on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsiya Sayetovna Gatina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the group of factors influencing on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal services organization. Methods methods of systemic analysis and synthesis economicstatistical analysis. Results using the statistical methods of analysis a group of factors is defined which should be taken into account when developing the strategy of services market in housing and communal sphere. The objective of the strategy is to increase the level of quality services to the population of Russia in the housing and communal industry. Scientific novelty the indicators are revealed of the quality of communal services formed under socialeconomic factors. When analyzing the data of the matrix of interfactoral influence those were extinguished which show the largest influence on the level of services market development in housing and communal sphere. Practical value is the ability to use the assessment results to develop measures to improve the quality of housing and communal services organizations. nbsp

  16. Archaeoastronomical Heritage and the World Heritage Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Michel

    In 2009, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) began a joint thematic study on astronomical heritage. The initial question was, "What are the best ways to support and encourage the inscription of the most outstanding examples of astronomical heritage onto a globally balanced World Heritage List?" That led us first to a large overview across ages and countries, because every civilization had a relationship with the sky. The result is far beyond what was anticipated, showing a richness and diversity of heritage, both for various civilizations around the world and throughout human history, especially for the proto-historical period and indigenous practices of observing the sky. This chapter also reviews the World Heritage Convention, its goals, evaluation tools, and trends. A strategy must be created for a credible dossier in the UNESCO-recommended format, with proper identification of "outstanding universal value" (OUV) as a key point for the World Heritage listing. To assist in reaching such ambitious goals, this chapter examines the layout of the convention related to astronomical and archaeoastronomical heritage, though the main requirements need to be recognized. A methodology is proposed for site analysis by examples and practices of the World Heritage Convention, with a description of its origins, favorite subjects, and recent evolutions. Pure astronomical heritage is rare on the World Heritage List, but astronomy is frequently present as an associated value for complex sites and as a specific attribute that increases a global sense of the heritage.

  17. PUBLIC POLICY VIOLATION UNDER NEW YORK CONVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ayu Chinta Kristy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of the use of arbitration in Asia has highlighted the significant influence of the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards. The New York Convention currently becomes the most widely accepted convention to which the courts would refer when recognizing and enforcing foreign arbitral awards. This article would firstly provide a comparative study of the court’s interpretation towards public policy as mentioned under Article V (2 b of the New York Convention between non-arbitration-friendly-law Indonesia and arbitration-friendly-law China. Subsequently, it will discuss whether uniformity in interpreting and reserving public policy is required or not. Peningkatan jumlah penggunaan lembaga arbitrasi di Asia mendorong peningkatan signifikansi pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Konvensi New York saat ini menjadi konvensi yang diterima secara luas dimana dijadikan referensi oleh pengadilan dalam hal pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Artikel ini akan pertama-tama membahas studi perbandingan atas interpretasi pengadilan mengenai penggunaan kebijakan publik sebagaimana tertera pada Pasal V (2 b Konvensi New York antara Indonesia yang hukumnya tidak mendukung dan China dengan hukum yang mendukung pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Apakah keseragaman antar negara dalam menginterpretasi dan menggunakan kebijakan publik diperlukan atau tidak dibahas pada diskusi selanjutnya.

  18. Einstein Synchronisation and the Conventionality of Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Domazet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a broad-range title the paper settles for the related issue of whether the Special Theory of Relativity (STR necessarily advocates the demise of an ontological difference between past and future events, between past and future in general. In the jargon of H. Stein: are we forced, within the framework of the STR, to choose only between ‘solipsism’ and ‘determinism’ exclusively? A special emphasis is placed on the role that the conventionality of simultaneity plays in the STR with regards to this question. The standard arguments rely on the relativity of simultaneity, the claim that the STR negates the existence of a universal ‘present’ that divides the ‘past’ and the ‘future’, so as to conclude that there is no ontological difference between past and future events, that both are equally determined/real (‘determinism’. This often neglects the fact that to establish the ontological claims related to relativity of simultaneity, one must first resolve the issues of conventionality of simultaneity within the STR. The paper will aim to show that by addressing the issue of conventionality from Dummett’s ‘purely philosophical’ determination of the difference between the past and the future, we develop an understanding of the said difference, within the framework of the STR, beyond the (unwanted strict ontological dichotomy of ‘solipsism/determinism’, given that the criterion that is provided by the STR is understood as epistemic and not ontological.

  19. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discours...... changes too during the career of the metaphor. Whereas the standard scientific article is central in experimentally researching and explaining the metaphor, a mixture of more popular scientific genres dominate in the innovative conceptual development of the metaphor.......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses....... But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from...

  20. Formulating CdSe quantum dots for white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Wan-Nan [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fu, Shao-Yun, E-mail: syfu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xiao, Hong-Mei [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-10-25

    Generation of white light using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) alone presents exciting possibilities for solid state lighting technology. In this work, Cd(Ac){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} are used as precursors to synthesize CdSe-QDs with an average diameter ranging from 2.77 to 4.65 nm at the low temperature from 60 to 180 °C. Smaller CdSe-QDs with an average diameter of 2.29 nm are got by an oxidation etching process using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The structural and optical properties of these QDs are investigated and proper formulation of CdSe QDs with various sizes is carefully designed to achieve white light with a high color rendering index (CRI). It is observed for the first time that the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from single CdSe-QDs show the Commission Inernationale del’Eclairage coordinate (CIE) of (0.30,0.34) very close to that (0.33,0.33) of pure white light and a high CRI of 84. Owing to these advantages, the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from a single compound are promising for lighting applications. - Highlights: • CdSe-quantum dots (QDs) with a continuously changing size from 2.31 to 4.74 nm are prepared. • The obtained CdSe-QDs emit lights with tunable colors in the whole visible range. • The obtained mixture sample generates white light with a high color rendering index of 84. • The sample yields white light with the CIE coordinate (0.30, 0.34) very close to that of pure white light.